General Washington's Regret

Discussion in 'Alternate History Discussion: Before 1900' started by Lyly, Sep 26, 2010.

  1. Lyly Commie Queer

    Sep 16, 2007
    Texas, USA
    General Washington's Regret
    formerly known as
    The State of Nova Scotia

    In 1776, Nova Scotia was a frontier colony, not as developed or established as the "Thirteen Colonies" to its south. It had been a French colony, Acadia, until 1758, less than two decades before the Revolution. It is often reported that George Washington's greatest regret was not supporting Nova Scotia revolutionaries during the American Revolution. This timeline explores what may have been had the Revolutionary War come to Nova Scotia.


    Chapter I: The American Revolution

    Origins of the Revolution, 1763-1776


    The origins of the revolution can be said to have begun as the French-Indian War ended. With the French military threat gone, Britain adopted the view that colonies should pay a substantial part of the costs that kept them a part of the British Empire. As a series of taxes and other laws were imposed, many Colonial Englishmen felt that the taxes violated their rights as Englishmen, because they had no Parliamentary representation.

    A popular response to these taxes was to boycott British goods. In 1773, Boston officials refused to return three shiploads of tea to Britain after Massachusetts colonists had boycotted the goods. In response, a group of colonists boarded the ships and threw the tea into the harbor. Parliament's reaction was the Coercive Acts, a series of actions intended to show the Colony of Massachusetts that British authority would be enforced. To the colonists, however, these became known as the Intolerable Acts.

    Beginning with so-called Committees of Correspondence, many colonies had developed unofficial Provincial Congresses, as a means of relaying and discussing news and ideas. This development would lead to a Continental Congress in 1774. In the First Continental Congress, colonists from each of the thirteen colonies, minus New York, agreed to boycott all British goods. The congress also published a list of complaints against Parliament and petitioned King George III to rectify their grievances. In 1775, imports from Britain had dropped by 97%. However the Intolerable Acts were not repealed, so in September of that year, all exports to Britain were halted.

    In the years prior, revolutionary colonists had already considered British government in the colonies dissolved as colonial congresses were established. Chief among those that held this view was Patrick Henry, who had proposed a legislative body for the Colonies in the First Continental Congress. However, he and his supporters had been ignored in favor of seeking reconciliation with Britain. The members of these respective camps would come to be called Patriots and Loyalists.

    But, in 1775, when the Second Continental Congress convened, many now felt that their attempts at reconciliation had been ignored.
    By this point, fighting had already begun between patriot militias and British forces stationed in the Colonies. The Battles of Lexington and Concord, fought in Massachusetts on April 19th, were the first military engagements of the American War of Independence, also known as the Revolutionary War. The Continental Congress placed itself in control of the war, creating the Continental Army in June, with George Washington as its Commander-in-Chief, and publishing the Declaration of Causes in July. As a final attempt to maintain the British colonies, the Olive Branch Petition was sent to King George III, but was rejected.

    Expressing their frustration with British government, the members of the Congress in 1776 adopted the Declaration of Independence, authored primarily by Thomas Jefferson and signed on July 4th. The declaration explained that the thirteen colonies were now independent states and no longer a part of the British Empire.

    The Revolutionary War, 1776-1783


    After the Battles of Lexington and Concord, in which patriot militiamen mustered to defend against the seizure of military stores in Concord, Massachusetts by British regulars, most of the British Army in New England retreated to Boston, where they were besieged by Patriot forces. George Washington, recently appoint Major General and Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, arrived in June to command the Siege of Boston. British forces withdrew from Boston on March 17, 1776.

    In August, the British and the Continental Armies faced off at the Battle of Long Island. New York City, and nearly Washington's life, were seized by the British who easily defeated the poorly trained and armed Patriot army. Washington and his Continental Army were chased through New Jersey until reaching Pennsylvania in December. Washington then took the offensive, crossing the Delaware river and surprising the British at the Battle of Trenton on Christmas day. Another success at Princeton on January 7th provided new hope for the Patriot cause. The Continental Army at this point had dwindled to a mere 1,400 men, although these victories would convince more men to join the fight.

    A failed British Attempt to take Charleston, South Carolina in June further bolstered the Patriot cause and after the Battle of Saratoga, a decisive victory for the Americans in New York, the war appeared to be turning in favor of the Americans.

    For much of 1777, the British under General William Howe, focused on capturing the seat of the Revolutionary government in Philadelphia. Despite maneuvering by Washington, the Continental Congress abandoned the city ahead of the British Army, who took the city on September 11th. Philadelphia captured, Washington encamped his Army at Valley Forge for the next 6 months.

    In the spring of 1778, the Continental Army emerged in good condition. Under supervision of Baron von Steuben, the Army had been introduced to modern Prussian tactics and organization and the French had learned of the victory at Saratoga and were prepared to enter the war. The chief target for the French was the British naval station in Newport, Rhode Island and later the French-speaking Quebec, a colony the Americans were eager to convince to join the Revolution. With the involvement of the French, Canada would become the next point of contention in the war.

    While the naval superiority of the British prevented Newport from being taken, French forces were reorganized for the Canadian campaign.
    French forces landed in Nova Scotia on July 14th. Surrounding Halifax by land and blockading her by sea, a siege was prepared against the city. When British reinforcements arrived from New York and Quebec however, these forces were repelled. The mainland of Nova Scotia, unprotected by British forces in Halifax, was under Patriot control by that October. With the French moving into Quebec from the East, and the Americans from the South, the British were caught fighting against two fronts while growing local support for the Revolution made things rough for the British in every aspect.

    In early June, 1779, Quebec City was captured by Patriot forces, effectively ending British rule in Canada. In 1777 and '78, Brigadier General George Rogers Clark had made headway against the British in the Ohio and Illinois Countries and finally would neutralize the British with the capture of General Henry Hamilton in early 1779. What remained of the British Army in the North was concentrated in New York under General Henry Clinton, who had abandoned Philadelphia to defend New York when the French entered the war.

    On December 29th
    , a British expeditionary force captured Savannah, Georgia. An attempt to recapture Savannah failed the next October, and British forces moved on to besiege Charleston, South Carolina, capturing it May 12, 1780. Over the course of the year, the Continental Army in the South collapsed as North Carolina was forfeited and Virginia became a contest.

    By now, the Americans had garnered support from other European powers. Britain was fighting simultaneously America, France, Spain, and the Netherlands. King George III was frustrated at the situation. New England and Pennsylvania seemed unconquerable, and colonial assets in Florida, the Caribbean and India were being contested by European powers. The availability of British forces in America was becoming more and more an issue. On August 2nd, the British naval station in Newport was surrendered. On February 3, 1782, the British position at New York was surrendered to Franco-American forces.

    By June, support for the war in Britain was non-existent and preliminary peace terms were prepared in Paris. The Treaty of Paris, which formally ended all conflict was signed on August 14, 1783. The last British troops left New Jersey in November. According to the terms of the treaty, Britain surrendered claims to the colonies of Pennsylvania, New York, Massachusetts, Virginia, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Nova Scotia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Georgia, ceded territory West of the Appalachian Mountains and Canada to the United States and ceded East and West Florida to Spain.


    Timeline of the Revolutionary War
    April 19 – First armed conflict of the Revolutionary War takes place as colonial militiamen defeat British forces at the Battles of Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts.
    May 10 -American forces led by Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold capture Fort Ticonderoga in New York, securing military supplies and cannons.
    June 17 – The siege of Boston becomes a standoff after the British capture the Charlestown Peninsula at the Battle of Bunker Hill.
    July 3 – Washington arrives outside Boston to command the siege there.
    July 5 – The Continental Congress drafts the Olive Branch Petition, expressing hopes for reconciliation.
    August – King George III refuses reconciliation and issues a Proclamation of Rebellion.
    November 28 – The Continental Congress approves the construction of a navy.
    January 9 – Thomas Paine publishes Common Sense.
    March 17 - British forces flee Boston as heavy cannon is used by the Americans to end the siege. The Continental Army begins it's move to fortify New York.
    June 28 – British forces fail to take the port city of Charleston, South Carolina.
    July 2 – The Continental Congress adopts Jefferson's Declaration of Independence.
    August 27 – General Howe deploys British forces to New York City. The Battle of Long Island, the largest of the war, ensues.
    September 11 – John Adams and Benjamin Franklin meet with General Howe in a failed peace conference.
    September 15 – New York City is taken by British forces under General Howe.
    December 11- Philadelphia is abandoned due to fears of a British attack.
    December 26 – General Washington captures 1,000 Hessians at the Battle of Trenton.
    January 7 – General Washington defeats British forces led by General Lord Cornwallis at the Battle of Princeton. British retreat to New York City.
    June 14 - The flag of the United States is mandated by the Continental Congress.
    July 27 – The Marquis de Lafayette arrives in Philadelphia.
    September 26 – The British, under General Howe, occupy Philadelphia.
    October 7 – The first decisive American victory occurs at the Battle of Saratoga as Generals Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold defeat General Burgoyne.
    November 17 – The Continental Congress adopts the Articles of Confederation as the government of the newly united States of America.
    February 6 – The Treaty of Alliance confirms France's support for America.
    February 28 – Baron von Steuben arrives at Valley Forge to help organize the Continental Army.
    March 16 – The Continental Congress rejects a peace offer sans-independence offered by the British.
    June 18 – Fearing a blockade by French naval forces, General Clinton returns his troops to New York. Philadelphia is reoccupied by American forces.
    July 10 – France declares war on Britain
    August 16 – Franco-American forces are repelled at the Battle of Scott Manor, an eager attempt to undermine British naval superiority in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
    August 21 – French forces take Louisborg, the chief British naval base in Canada.
    September 14 – Benjamin Franklin is appointed to be the ambassador to the French.
    December 29 – British forces begin the South Campaign with the capture of Savannah, Georgia.
    June 16 – Spain declares war on Britain, but does not provide support for America directly.
    June 20 – American forces led by General Benedict Arnold capture Quebec City. The British begin their retreat from Canada.
    September 27 – John Adams is appointed by congress to negotiate peace with Britain.
    May 12 – General Clinton's forces capture Charleston, South Carolina, America's chief port in the South.
    May 25 – An attempted mutiny against General George Washington is put down by Pennsylvania militiamen.
    October 11 – General Cornwallis begins his march into North Carolina. Benedict Arnold replaces Horatio Gates as Commander in the South, and begins his campaign against Cornwallis.
    December 1 – General Arnold's forces are defeated at the Battle of Cowan's Ford.
    January 7 – Several regiments of the Continental Army threaten to mutiny and demand payment from General Washington, in what becomes known as the New Jersey Mutiny. About half of the Army leaves after not receiving pay.
    January 18 – American resistance in the South is eliminated in the Battle of Fayetteville, as General Cornwallis defeats General Arnold, who is captured.
    March 5 – Marquis de Lafayette and Baron von Steuben are placed in charge of the defense of Virginia against General Cornwallis's force.
    May 21 – Washington convinces the French to aid in an assault against New York.
    August 14 – Washington changes plans abruptly and organizes an attack on Yorktown, where Cornwallis has made base.
    September 28 – Washington, Lafayette, Arnold, and von Steuben begin the siege on Yorktown, while the French bombard the city from sea.
    October 24 – A victory at Yorktown for the Americans ends Cornwallis' campaign in the South.
    October 30 – British forces retake Philadelphia with reinforcements originally intended for Cornwallis in Virginia.
    April 12 – General Nathaniel Greene routes British forces from Philadelphia.
    June 11- General Washington arrives in Philadelphia and begins redrawing plans for a siege of New York.
    June 20 – British forces in the South are driven back to Charleston, South Carolina by General Arnold and Baron von Steuben.
    August 27 – A combined land-sea siege of New York begins, led by General Washington.
    December 15 – Washington grants British forces besieged in New York a chance to evacuate, which is not taken.
    February 3 – New York is surrendered by General Clinton.
    March 10 – John Adams appeals to the British to end the war. A reluctant agreement yields Britain ordering an end to hostilities.
    June 1 – British forces evacuate Charleston, South Carolina, and Savannah, Georgia.
    June 3 – The Continental Congress officially declares the end of the war.
    August 14 – The Treaty of Paris is signed, officially ending the Revolutionary War and granting the United States independence.

    Last edited: Sep 26, 2010
  2. Lyly Commie Queer

    Sep 16, 2007
    Texas, USA
    Chapter II: Baby Steps, 1783-1789

    With the Treaty of Paris signed, America was at peace and prospects were high. An economic boom was predicted and many Americans happily indebted themselves in expectation of a strong economy. Instead however, the economy of the young republic collapsed. American goods could find no market, not abroad, nor at home. Britain, Spain and France, representing the largest American export markets, had all adopted policies preventing goods not carried in their own ships from being sold in their nations. Simultaneously, British goods flooded American markets after the blockade ended, driving the cost of domestic goods up and the revenues of domestic producers down.

    To deal with these problems, each state individually enacted policies and each attempted individual negotiations with foreign countries. The Continental Congress was unable to redeem public debts and Continental Credit Notes became worthless, crippling the commercial ability of the nation's citizens. The holes in the Articles of Confederation began to shine through in this new light.

    There was no solid base of government for the nation and economic unrest was quickly leading to political unrest. Crushing taxation and debt in western Massachusetts led to an uprising of farmers in 1786 led by veteran Daniel Shays, who attempted to prevent Massachusetts courts from seizing property in debt payment and demanded lower taxes. The uprising, which nearly tumulted the state government in western Massachusetts was dispelled in 1787, but only after convincing the nation that the central government's inability to meet their needs would only lead to similar events in the future if something was not done about the Articles.

    The Philadelphia Convention, 1787


    A meeting was called for in Philadelphia, 1787, to suggest amendments to the Articles of Confederation. Delegates from every state except Canada attended. From the outset, many of the most prominent delegates in attendance expressed their wishes to form a wholly new government and began fleshing out a new document. The delegation from Virginia, which included George Washington, Edmund Randolph, and the intellectual giants James Madison and Thomas Jefferson, among others, came prepared with a draft for a new government that became the basis of the final constitution.

    The Virginia Plan-
    Primarily the work of James Madison and Thomas Jefferson, when introduced in the convention, the plan was well-received and highly regarded. The plan featured a bicameral legislature, a lower house elected by the people and an upper elected by the lower, both houses proportional to the population of the states and an executive appointed by the people with veto power subject to override and limited to one term. It also called for a judiciary composed of life members, appointed by one or the other legislative house, that would also exercise some veto power over the legislature. The Virginia plan was not without its critics however, and a number of other plans were put forth. In particular, the Virginia plan was disfavored by smaller states, such as Connecticut and Nova Scotia.

    The Small State Plan-
    Drafted by a caucus of small states and introduced by Samuel Adams, the Small State plan retained the Articles of Confederation and its single, equally representative legislature, though with some added powers, particular to tax and enforce its laws. The plan favored powerful state governments and a weak federal executive subject to recall by state governments. The plan was ultimately rejected but did have significant impact on the final document.

    The Union Plan-
    Proposed by Alexander Hamilton, this plan virtually eliminated state sovereignty in favor of a powerful central government that he based on the British parliamentary system. Hamilton's plan was generally disliked. Though it did garner some supporters, most did not appreciate its British influences.

    The Connecticut Plan-
    Formulated and introduced by Roger Sherman in June, the Connecticut Plan combined the legislatures of the Virginia and Small State plans by creating a bicameral legislature with one branch having equal representation between states and the other being proportional to their populations. This compromise was widely accepted as a agreeable solution to the debate between large and small states.

    The Jefferson-Madison Plan-
    Jefferson and Madison proposed a modification to the Connecticut plan that maintained its bicameral legislature, but altered the proportional house. Instead, they advocated for a house whose members were popularly elected as candidates for a random allotment of seats to the house. The plan's complicated allotment system was intended to counteract state loyalties, a feature introduced by the equal representation of the other legislative house and also to prevent partisan influences in the house. The plan was first rejected, but later gained support among both large- and small-state advocates and was ultimately approved.

    The process of drafting the language of the constitution after the mechanics of it had been finally worked out was the responsibility of a Committee of Detail and a final draft of the constitution was submitted to the convention on September 28th. Some refused to sign the document, but most present did, including Samuel Adams, George Mason, James Madison, and Thomas Jefferson who had hoped for the inclusion of a Bill of Rights but were prevented by time constraints and feared that continuing the convention the following year risked undoing many of the compromises that led to a result they were otherwise content with.


    Choosing a Government, 1787-1789

    Pennsylvania became the first state to ratify the Constitution on December 9th, 1787. Following Pennsylvania, Delaware and New Jersey became the only other states to ratify it by the end of the year. Connecticut, Maryland, and New Hampshire followed early the next year. On June 8th, the Declaration of Rights and Responsibilities, written by Thomas Jefferson, was approved as the first amendment to the Constitution by the Continental Congress. With a clear delineation between the roles of federal, state, and popular government and a bill of rights, Rhode Island, New York, Georgia, and Nova Scotia had ratified the Constitution by the end of the month. With the required 10 states ratifying the Constitution, The Continental Congress agreed to a time table to begin operations of government under the new Constitution on May 16th, the following year.

    By May 16th, 1789, Quebec and Virginia remained the only states to have not ratified yet. On this date, polls opened in some states for election of the President and the House of Representatives and State legislatures were to begin choosing their Delegates and Electors. The entire process had a deadline of July 1st, when the Electoral College would meet to chose the President and sortition would choose the members of the House of Representatives.

    On July 1st, George Washington was unanimously selected by the Electoral College as the first President of the United States. On the same day, out of 2,406 names, 319 were selected to sit in the House of Representatives. Finally, each state's appointment to the 26 member House of Delegates was announced. Inauguration for the President was to occur on July 4th, the national holiday, the Houses of Delegates and Representatives were to first meet July 17th.

    Timeline, 1878-1789
    February 3- An armed rebellion, known as Shay's Rebellion, is defeated after attempting to take a federal armory in western Pennsylvania.
    May 25- Philadelphia Convention begins as a means of discussing amendments to the Articles of Confederation.
    June 20- The name United States of America is proposed as the nation's new name, which had been known unofficially as These thirteen united States of America.
    July 8- The Northwest Ordinance settles state land claim disputes between Virginia, Canada, and New York, in what becomes known as the Territory Northwest of the Ohio River, or Northwest Territory.
    September 28- The Constitution of the Government of the United States is adopted by Congress and the document is released to the states.
    October 17- The first of a series of essays known as the Federalist Papers, encouraging ratification of the new Constitution, is published in a New York newspaper.
    December 9- Pennsylvania becomes the first State as it ratifies the Constitution.
    December 10- Delaware ratifies the Constitution, becoming the second State.
    December 20- New Jersey ratifies the Constitution.
    January 8- Connecticut ratifies the Constitution.
    January 10- Maryland ratifies the Constitution.
    March 7- New Hampshire ratifies the Constitution.
    June 8- Congress amends the Constitution by applying the Statements of Rights and Responsibilities, written by Thomas Jefferson.
    June 10- Rhode Island becomes the first state to ratify the Constitution after the amendments.
    June 12- New York and Georgia both ratify the Constitution.
    June 16- Nova Scotia ratifies the Constitution. With 10 states ratifying, the Constitution becomes the law of the land.
    June 20- Canada rejects the Constitution.
    July 20- A timetable for implementing the Constitution on May 16, 1789 is created.
    July 25- South Carolina ratifies the Constitution.
    August 21- Massachusetts ratifies the Constitution.
    October 17- North Carolina ratifies the Constitution.
    January 21- The first American novel, The Power of Sympathy is printed in Boston.
    May 16- The first nationwide elections occur in the United States.
    July 1- The Electoral College unanimously chooses George Washington for President. Allotment chooses the first members of the House of Representatives. State appointments to the House of Delegates are due.
    July 4- George Washington is inaugurated as the first President of the United States.
    July 14- The French Revolution begins with the storming of the Bastille.
    July 17- The Houses of Delegates meets for the first time in Federal Hall in New York City.
    July 21- Virginia ratifies the Constitution.
    June 20- Canada ratifies the Constitution.
    August 19- The House of Representatives meets quorum in New York City, in a newly constructed building especially designed to house the 404 seat legislature.
    September 8- The Department of Foreign Affairs is created, with Rufus King as its first Secretary.
    September 17- The Department of War is created, with Benedict Arnold as its first Secretary.

    Last edited: Sep 26, 2010
  3. SavoyTruffle Going For The One

    Sep 14, 2010
    Moskau Moskau
    Interesting TL - can't wait to see the impacts of OTL Eastern Quebec and Nova Scotia in the USA.
  4. Tim Thomason Monthly Organ Donor

    Oct 18, 2008
  5. Lyly Commie Queer

    Sep 16, 2007
    Texas, USA
    Woops. No, what I did was put the correct image, but forgot to LINK to the bigger image. Thanks for pointing it out.
  6. Lyly Commie Queer

    Sep 16, 2007
    Texas, USA
    Insight: How the Constitution of 1787 Worked


    According to the Constitution of 1787, also known as the Philadelphia Constitution, the United States Government was divided into three branches: the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial.

    Legislative Branch
    The Legislative Branch was divided into two houses, the lower house was the House of Representatives, the upper the House of Delegates.

    The members of the House of Representatives were chosen by a complex process called filtered sortition. In this process, candidates for the House were chosen by popular vote at the state level, then allotted seats randomly by sortition. Bars set on states, to prevent any one from flooding the pool with candidates meant that the highest possible number of candidates at the federal level was 5,500. The state with the lowest bar was Nova Scotia, the highest was Virginia. This process was intended to ensure a random and unbiased selection of Representatives and to allow the states to be represented according to their population. It is important to note that while candidates were chosen from respective states, they did not represent that state. The House of Representatives was intended to represent the people of the United States as a whole and to avoid state loyalties.

    The House of Delegates, in comparison, was elegantly simply. State legislatures simply met to elect their delegates. Each state had two delegates, so that each state was equally represented. The House of Delegates was given veto power over state legislatures.

    The Executive Branch
    The Executive Branch consisted of the President, who acted as the representative of the nation, both domestically and internationally and to execute the laws passed by Congress. The President was also Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and the head of a small cabinet that would assist in his executive functions. The President was elected by an Electoral College that would choose from a pool of candidates provided by popular state level elections, a manner similar to the House of Representatives. Electors were chosen by state legislatures proportionate to their populations.

    The Judicial Branch
    The Judicial Branch consisted of the Supreme Tribunal and State Courts. The Supreme Tribunal was made up of nine Tribunes chosen by the House of Delegates and seated for life. The Supreme Tribunal served as the court of final appeal and reviewed actions by the Legislative and Executive branches to ensure constitutionality. If it deemed a law or action to be unconstitutional, it had veto power.

    The Declaration of Rights and Responsibilities
    The Declaration was written by Thomas Jefferson and was passed as the first amendment to the constitution. It outlines the rights of the people and the rights and responsibilities of the federal government.

    ~ Freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly, and to petition (self-explanatory)
    ~ Right to bear arms, protection from quartering of troops, private property may not be taken for public use (protection from oppressive government)
    ~ Protection from unreasonable search and seizure (self-explanatory)
    ~ Right of due process, trial by jury, speedy and public trial, right to counsel (self-explanatory)
    ~ Prohibition of excessive bail, protection from cruel and unusual punishment, double jeopardy (protection of incarcerated persons)
    ~ Prohibition of fines without trial (self-explanatory)
    ~ Equality before taxation (everyone pays the same taxation and no one is exempt)
    ~ Powers not delegated to the United States are to be exercised by the states or people (self-explanatory)

    ~ Responsibility of the government the ensure the rights of citizens (self-explanatory)
    ~ Responsibility of the government to provide military protection (self-explanatory)
    ~ Responsibility of the government to manage public finances wisely (self-explanatory)
    ~ Duty of state courts and judges to acknowledge decisions of Supreme Tribunal (supreme judicial power is vested in the Supreme Tribunal)
    ~ Duty of state legislatures to acknowledge decisions of the House of Delegates and House of Representatives (states must take into account federal laws, although it does'nt necessarily say they must be obeyed)
    ~ Duty of state legislatures to acknowledge vetoes by the House of Delegates (grants HoD veto power over state legislatures)
    ~ Responsibility of the House of Delegates and House of Representatives to meet yearly and with a quorum (self-explanatory)
    ~ Prohibition of appointment of legal officers unsuitable for the post (legal officers (judges) must have legal-training)
    ~ Separation of the duties of Legislative, Judicial, and Executive branches (overviews the separation of powers)
    Last edited: Sep 26, 2010
  7. Lyly Commie Queer

    Sep 16, 2007
    Texas, USA
    Insight: Who, Where, When, Why, and How?

    John Adams

    A Delegate to the first and second Continental Congresses, Adams was a great influence on Congress. His thoughts on government were admired from early on, encouraging him to write the pamphlet Thoughts on Government, which influenced the drafting of many state constitutions as well as the thoughts of James Madison. In 1776, Adams was part of the committee that drafted the Declaration of Independence. Adams was selected to negotiate a peace treaty with Great Britain in 1779, however, at the insistence of the French government, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, and the Comte de Vergennes were sent to France to aid in the negotiations. Adams and Jay decided against consulting with France in negotiating with Britain, later angering the French, especially on the inclusion of Canada as part of the American nation. In 1785, Adams was appointed the first Minister to the Court of St. James, where he served until 1789. As a result of his foreign appointment, Adams was not present at the Philadelphia Convention. In 1789, Adams was appointed part of the Massachusetts delegation in the House of Delegates.

    Who? Benedict Arnold

    Arnold was a captain in the Connecticut Guards, then a colonel in the Massachusetts militia before he rose to prominent status after the Capture of Fort Ticonderoga in 1775, which he co-commanded with Ethan Allen, however he was shortcut soon afterward when the Continental Congress relieved him of command. After the creation of the Continental Army, Arnold became part of the campaign to secure Nova Scotia, serving under General Richard Montgomery, who recognized Arnold as a valuable strategist. After a failed expedition into insular Nova Scotia and the death of Montgomery, Arnold led the force and secured the mainland. In 1776, he was promoted to General and placed in command of the defense of Rhode Island, where he eventually drove the British out of the city of Providence. He later traveled to Philadelphia, later assuming control of the forces there. In 1777, he moved his force into New York to assist Washington, where he deflected British forces from the siege of Fort Stanwix and routed British forces under command of Lt. General Burgoyne. However, Arnold received no credit due to vilification by General Horatio Gates. This, combined with a British invasion of Philadelphia, encouraged Congress to remove Arnold from major command. However, Washington encouraged Arnold to winter with his troops at Valley Forge, who, in 1778, placed him in command of the defense of Virginia against British forces in the south. He held off the British there until the end of the war. After the war, Arnold moved back in with his family in Connecticut. Embittered from his experiences with Congress during the war, Arnold stayed out of politics, but was appointed Commanding General of the Army in 1786. In 1789, at the advice of President Washington, Arnold was appointed the first Secretary of War.

    Who? Alexander Hamilton

    Hamilton served in the Revolution as an artillery Captain and later as a Lieutenant Colonel in Washington's staff, becoming his Chief of Staff. Later, serving in Congress, 1782-1783, Hamilton became a critic of the decentralized nature of the Articles of Confederation. He became acquainted with Robert Morris and James Madison, who had aims at resolving the nation's troubling financial situation. In 1783, after resigning from Congress, Hamilton drafted a resolution calling for the revision of the Articles and the creation of a strong central government. In 1787, Hamilton was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, where, despite being a primary leader in it's occurance, he was held in low regard. In 1789, he became a New York Delegate to the House of Delegates, alongside John Jay, who was elected Speaker.

    Who? John Jay

    Jay served as President of the Continental Congress only three days after joining the body. He served from 1778 to1779, then resigned his post to become the Minister to Spain. Later, he was dispatched to France to aid in peace negotiations with Britain. Jay became the Secretary of Foreign Affairs in 1784 and continued at the post until 1789, when he became a Delegate from New York and Speaker of the House of Delegates.

    Who? Thomas Jefferson

    The Author of Two Declarations and one of the Fathers of the Constitution, Jefferson was the primary author of both the Declaration of Independence and the Declaration of Rights and Responsibilities and, with James Madison, was one of the primary influences on the Constitution of 1787. He served as a delegate to the Continental Convention 1775-1776, and served in the Virginia House of Delegates from 1776-1778. Jefferson's political reputation was somewhat tarnished after his term as Governor of Virginia, 1779-1781, where his attempts to reform education were countered by public disapproval as well as three separate British invasions during his tenure. Later, Jefferson served briefly as Minister to France, 1785-1786. He attended the Philadelphia Convention in 1787, where he and Madison introduced the Virginia Plan. Jefferson also supported adding a list of citizen's rights to the Constitution. In 1788, his Declaration of Rights and Responsibilities became the Constitution's first amendment. In 1789, Jefferson was elected a candidate to the House of Representatives, but was not allotted a seat.

    Who? James Madison

    With Jefferson, Madison is hailed as one of the Fathers of the Constitution. Madison first came to prominence as a delegate to the Continental Congress, 1780-1783, where he was known as a legislative workhorse. In addition, he was a leading figure in successfully creating the Northwest Territory by convincing Virginia to relieve it's claim over the area. Madison was an early critic of the fragility of the Articles of Confederation and, in 1787, drafted the Virginia Plan of government with Thomas Jefferson, which became the primary basis for the Constitution of 1787, although he was not entirely satisfied with the final document. Nevertheless, he co-authored, with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, the Federalist Papers, pushing for ratification of the new Constitution, although his home state of Virginia was on of the last to ratify. Madison became the Speaker of the House of Representatives in 1789.

    Who? George Washington

    Washington is today known as the Father of His Country, and was the chief military and political figure of early American history. First a surveyor and plantation owner, Washington served in the French-Indian War as a senior Colonel. Because of his military experience and high standing in Virginian politics, he was chosen to command the Continental Army in 1775. During the revolutionary war, his most famous victories included driving the British from Boston and the Battles of Saratoga and Yorktown. He later presided over the Philadelphia Convention and was finally elected president under the new constitution in 1789.

    Who were the members of the first House of Delegates and House of Representatives?

    House of Delegates
    Speaker: John Jay
    Canada- John Mabane, Clément Gosselin
    Connecticut- Jonathan Trumbull, Oliver Ellsworth
    Delaware- John Dickinson, Henry Latimer
    Georgia- William Few, James Jackson
    Maryland- William Paca, George Dent
    Massachusetts- John Adams, Elbridge Gerry
    New Hampshire- John Langdon, Jeremiah Smith
    New Jersey- Jonathan Dayton, John Witherspoon
    New York- John Jay, Alexander Hamilton
    North Carolina- Samuel Johnston, Timothy Bloodworth
    Nova Scotia- Frédéric Hamelin, Marc Tremblay
    Pennsylvania- Thomas Fitzsimons, Frederick A. C. Muhlenberg
    Rhode Island- Joseph Stanton, William Bradford
    South Carolina- John Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pickney
    Virginia- Richard Henry Lee, George Mason

    The House of Representatives contained 319 members, too numerous to list fully, but there were a number of prominent figures who were allotted seats in the first House.
    Speaker: James Madison
    Selected Members:
    John Blair, of Virginia
    Pierce Butler, of South Carolina
    Samuel Chase, of Maryland
    Stephen Hopkins, of Rhode Island
    Henry Lee III, of Virginia
    Thomas McKean, of Delaware
    Thomas Mifflin, of Pennsylvania
    Gouverneur Morris, of Pennsylvania
    Roger Sherman, of Connecticut

    did Canada first reject the constitution and why did it take the state so long to finally ratify it?

    At the time of the Revolution, Canada was a British colony, but unlike the other colonies of North America, its inhabitants were not primarily British. Canada was first settled by the French and was only won by the British after the French-Indian War in 1763. In 1774, the British Parliament passed the Quebec Act, which returned many of the customs the French Canadians were used to. It restored French civil law (but maintained English common law for criminal prosecution) and the feudal seigneurial system of distributing land. In addition, where the British had prevented Catholics from taking place in public administration, the Quebec Act reversed that policy and returned many rights to Catholics in Canada.

    Canada, despite being a part of the United States after the Treaty of Paris, did not send representatives to the Philadelphia Convention or any other gathering of states representatives and when their legislature received a copy of the Constitution, they rejected it. The Canadians feared that if they joined the United States, the other states would institute laws similar to those before the Quebec Act. Only after being convinced that they would be allowed to choose their own state government without interference from the federal government did they finally approve the constitution.

    How was George Washington elected President if his home state had not ratified the Constitution?

    By the time of the elections on July 1st, Virginia had not ratified the Constitution, which would seemingly mean that no Virginians could hold federal office. However, George Washington was so popular that he received popular nominations in almost every state, so even though there were no nominations from his home state, the Electoral College was able to use the nominations from other states to choose his as the nation's first President.
  8. Van555 Social Reformist

    Jun 30, 2010
    Santa Clara Region, Republic of California
    Hooray! now time to look south!

    soon the Continent shall be ours alone!

    Last edited: Sep 26, 2010
  9. Lord Grattan consigned to OTL

    Dec 20, 2007
    Michigan USA
    A great beginning! :)
  10. FDW Banned

    Jun 27, 2009
    San Francisco
    Interesting, consider me subscribed.
  11. imperialaquila Aspiring Thru-Hiker

    Feb 28, 2010
    Happy Valley
    A very interesting Constitution there. I look forward to seeing how it works out in the future.

    Did the Continental Congress pass something like OTL's Northwest Ordinance before the Constitution took effect?

    TTL's Civil war will probably come sooner, since the North is going to be stronger relative to the South earlier.
  12. Shadow Knight Grand Master of the BAM Order

    Aug 2, 2005
    On a BAM called Earth
    Interesting. Although I am sad that there is no Senate (House of Delegates?).
  13. Lyly Commie Queer

    Sep 16, 2007
    Texas, USA
    The Northwest Ordinance was passed on July 8th, 1787, according to the timeline. That may change later as I patch some stuff up, but the Northwest Ordinance, or analogue will be passed pretty early on regardless.

    The Civil War could come sooner, yes, but what kind of a Civil War? And which states are the "North" to which states' "South"? ;):p

    House of Delegates = Senate.
  14. Dan1988 Thinks he's going off his nut

    Feb 23, 2007
    ATL Royaume du Canada
    So, when are we going to get more of this?
  15. Tenhigh Whiskey Rebel

    Aug 12, 2010
    W. Podunk
    This is good, I'm looking forward to reading more. I find it great that you gave Benedict Arnold more of a fair shake in this time line, I always thought that he was pretty well shafted by Continental Army politics.

    What happens to the British Loyalists? In OTL most of them moved into Nova Scotia and Canada, but that's not an option here. Do they move out west further into British N.A? Do they go to the British Isles?

    Great work, it should be interesting to see this moving forward.
  16. Whanztastic BohemianAmerican Defenestrater

    Apr 13, 2009
    Ft. Dearborn
    There may be a quicker expansion of Canada west due to there being more (being kicked outta the coast too) and having less places to go. Does that mean an entirely British Oregon Country? We will see. Good stuff.
  17. DuQuense Commisioned Officer CSN

    Jan 1, 2004
    Florida ,CSA
    When the other states gave up their western Claims, ?did NS and Mass, give up their ""Maine/New Brunswick"" Allowing this territory to come under the 85 & 87 Territory Acts?
  18. Lyly Commie Queer

    Sep 16, 2007
    Texas, USA
    When I have time to take off from school for researching and writing. Not long, I promise.

    He really was, and I tried to somewhat imitate that with TTL, while also making Benedict Arnold into one of the biggest heroes of the Revolution rather than a villain. I'm still working out where he'll end up later, but for now he's definitely in a better position.

    As IOTL, those who can afford it will likely go back to Britain. However, those who can't afford to do that don't have many options now. Some may settle on some of the British Caribbean possessions, but most will have to stay in the US. You can expect trouble out of them later on ;)

    I've honestly not thought that far ahead yet, but good points nonetheless.

    I've not touched the topic yet, so no, they've not worked it out just yet.
  19. Dan1988 Thinks he's going off his nut

    Feb 23, 2007
    ATL Royaume du Canada
    Let's hope - I'm watching it very carefully for some possible ideas. ;)
  20. Andrew Hudson Well-Known Member

    Apr 30, 2007
    East London
    Maybe its as well as Nova Scotia provided a haven for the Loyalists who were a considerable proportion of the population in fact there were some transfers of populations between Halifax patriots and Boston Loyalists. Compared to the French revolution the American Revolutionary War was relatively civilised. All right there was a cleansing of loyalists but not the execsses of revolutionary France without the bolt hole things might have been a lot nastier.

    Well not quite civilised as the various nations of the Iriquois confederation lost out whichever size the fought on although the majority of the nations sided with Britain making the term American War of Independence questionable