What other nations could have become powerful enough to be a rival to the U.S. by 1900, or at least a strong secondary power? First, OTL's- Canada: Ooh boy. They'll need more population and resources. Could the Great North have expanded south more? I know that expansion isn't really a Canadian thing, but... Mexico: It's conceivable. They just need to hold together better. I don't think they would expand, but maybe they could have avoided any wars that would lose their northern territories. Though probably California, Utah, and/or Texas were destined to leave. Well, maybe not Texas. ATL- Texas: I was reading some stuff online about Texan nationalism (which is to say, I briefly skimmed the first few links on a Google search). Interestingly enough, Texan nationalism did exist in the 1800s, and even during the Civil War the Texans were always Texan, never truly "Southern." See this. Mirabeau B. Lamar, second President of the Lone Star Republic, was perhaps the country's greatest advocate for nationalism, envisioning a Texas that stretched to the Pacific, becoming a rival to the U.S. See here. Deseret: Not outside of a Victoria game. So yeah, any ideas? I like the idea of a Texan counter-republic, but it's probably really implausible.