First joy, then sadness, for Henry VIII: A timeline from 1516

Franco-Spanish War, Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis 1558, Calais
France was victorious in the war with Spain and its allies in the 1550s. It ended with the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis on 17 October 1558, signed by Francois II of Spain and Philip II of Spain. It was the same as that treaty of 1559 in OTL, except that France did not return the island of Corsica to Genoa, which was a Spanish ally. (1) Also because Elisabeth of Valois was married to John of Austria, she did not become the wife of Philip II, and Margaret of Valois was the wife of Prince Edward, Duke of York, she did not marry Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy.

Because England was neutral in that war, it did not lose Calais.

(1) See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Cateau-Cambresis_(1559), section headed Franco-Spanish agreement.
 
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Archbishop of Canterbury, Protestantism in England
Although England was a Catholic country, there was a significant Protestant minority which was largest in London and eastern England. They were not persecuted for their faith and met for their religious services in their own houses. Protestant worship was not banned, but not allowed in churches.

The Archbishop of Canterbury, Stephen Gardiner, died on 12 November 1555. He was succeeded at Canterbury by Edmund Bonner, Bishop of London.
 
universities, schools, translation of Bible into Welsh
King Henry IX believed strongly in education. Trinity College, Oxford and St. John's College, Oxford, were founded in 1550 and 1552 respectively, and St. Mary's College, Cambridge in 1554. Also twenty schools were established in the 1550s, among them Brentwood, Oundle, and Repton. He gave a large grant to Oxford in 1550. Leeds University was established in 1558, the third in England after Oxford and Cambridge, and Carmarthen University in 1564, the first in Wales. Also in 1558, Henry authorised the translation of the Bible into Welsh.
 
John Knox, Scotland
In this timeline John Knox stayed a Catholic. He joined the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) and was ordained a priest, and later a bishop. In 1554 Pope Gregory XIII (Reginald Pole) appointed him Archbishop of Glasgow, and in 1556 made him a cardinal. In 1558 his book In Defence of Women Rulers he argued that God gave both men and women the capacity to be rulers. He rejected the idea that God intended women to be subordinate to men, and asserted that the two sexes were fundamentally equal. Margaret I, born 11 May 1551, was then Queen of Scots.

Knox had a fervent devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary and wrote a book of prayers to her. He also wrote theological works defending and explaining the Catholic faith, and was an eloquent preacher. He worked for reconciliation between Catholics and Protestant. He gave generously to the poor in his diocese, and was much loved by the people. He died in 1572. He played a major part in keeping in Scotland Catholic. He was canonised by the pope in 1890.
 
Joan Shakespeare, William Shakespeare
Mary Shakespeare, the wife of John Shakespeare, gave birth to their third daughter and third child, on or about 23 April 1564 in Stratford-on-Avon. They named her Joan. She was baptised in Stratford parish church on 26 April.

A few days before 13 October 1566, Mary gave birth to a baby boy. She and John named him William. He was their first son. He was baptised in Stratford parish church on 13 October.
 
Joan Shakespeare, William Shakespeare New
Joan Shakespeare was an imaginative and precocious child. She liked creating and telling stories. She was also mad keen on the theatre and enjoyed watching the touring players who visited and performed every year in Stratford-on-Avon.

Her brother William attended King Henry IX Grammar School in Stratford, but girls were not admitted. So Joan was educated at home by private tutors, Her parents were middle class. Her father, John, was a glove-maker, and her mother, Mary, was born into an affluent land-owning family.

Women in Tudor England were expected to get married. There were few occupations open to middle-class women like Joan. She dreamed of becoming an actor, but that profession was barred to women.
 
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