Filipinas: La Gloriosa y Más Allá

Discussion in 'Alternate History Discussion: Before 1900' started by ramones1986, Dec 14, 2012.

  1. ramones1986 Grumpy and Lazy

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    I'm starting a thread about the Philippines from 1868 to the last years of the 19th century (and possibly 20th century). I'm now writing my prologue in a notebook, and possibly typing it later, if not tommorrow.
     
  2. ramones1986 Grumpy and Lazy

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    PROLOGUE, Part 1

    The Philippine Islands has been ruled by the Spaniards since 1571, was called "Pearl of the Orient because of its importance in the geopolitics of Asia, as well as on its role on the galleon trade. From the Governor's Palace in the walls of Old Manila (the Intramuros), the Governor-General, being the representative of the Spanish Crown, ruled in an almost absolute manner, helped by the Archdiocese of Manila, the most powerful Roman Catholic in the islands.
    [​IMG]
    The old city of Manila (Intramuros), 17th century​
    In spite of external threats, including the occupation of Manila by the British for two years (1762-64), the Spanish retained its power in the islands, first via the Viceroyalty of New Spain, based in Mexico on the other side of the Pacific (and from 1821, directly ruled from Madrid). After the death of Felipe II, Spain's prestige as a colonial power began to decline.

    The political and economic development of the Philippines actually stated in the last quarter of the 18th century.
    During the term of Jose Basco y Vargas (1778-87), the islands experienced an economic boom because of his reforms, like the establishment of the Sociedad Económica de los Amigos del País, the policy of toleration towards foreign retailers in Manila.
    Meanwhile, during the term of Félix Berenguer de Marquina (1788-93), he realized the very first government reforms (though minimal) through a royal degree issued on 12 October, 1791; in the said degree, the natives of their municipalities will elect their representatives in the Junta Municipal.

    [​IMG][​IMG]
    Jose Basco y Vargas and Félix Berenguer de Marquina​
    Still, those who are capable to elect are the members of the principalia in the barrios, as well as in the población of every municipalities. This, and other form of inequalities (forced labor, unjust taxation, etc.) persisted unto to first few years of the 19th century.
     
    Last edited: Dec 14, 2012
  3. MarshalBraginsky Banned

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    So what is the PoD for this TL?
     
  4. ramones1986 Grumpy and Lazy

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    Oops, I'm just starting my thread. But it's still OK.
    IOTL, Spain ruled the Philippines from 1571 to 1898 (1571-1821, via Mexico and from 1821-98, from Madrid directly), when the Spaniards were defeated by the Americans in the Spanish-American War.
    In the 1868 "La Gloriosa" revolution, the Madrid government appointed de la Torre as the Governor-General of the Philippine Islands, where he instituted reforms. The problem is that the Church (and their conservative supporters) opposed that, so he resigned in 1871.

    Here in this TL, La Gloriosa was succesful and installed a new government and a new king (see "El Legado de la Gloriosa" by Milarqui), de la Torre will be reappointed as the Governor-General. In short, this TL spans from 1868 to the 1890s-early years of the 20th century.
     
  5. ramones1986 Grumpy and Lazy

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    Prologue, Part 2
    The first two decades1800s. Though there is a Philippine representative in the signing of the "Pepa" in Cadiz, it never implemented in the islands. This was the time when most of the American colonies won their independence. Thus, it completed the descending colonial power of Spain.
    In fact, corruption worsened, as well as the existing prejudices in the colonial society of the Philippines. Nevertheless, as the Philippine economy was growing due to its open trade with other countries, different ideas entered as well, like the French and American revolutions, the Spanish liberalism, etc.
    During this time, three Governor-Generals stand out: Pascual Enrile y Alcedo (1830-35), who developed the infrastructure of the country, Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa (1844-49), whose reforms included the calendar reform, the Catálogo alfabético de apellidos, and reforming the role of the governors) and Fernándo Norzagaray y Escudero (1857-60), who instituted reforms in the provincial government and establishment of foreign exchange currency houses.
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    Pascual Enrile y Alcedo,Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa and Fernándo Norzagaray y Escudero ​
    Still, those reforms are still minimal, at least for the ilustrados, and although public schools were established in 1863, it will take a revolution in Madrid to effectively enforce the said decree, as well as all the reforms wanted by the ilustrados for the islands...
     
    Last edited: Dec 14, 2012
  6. MarshalBraginsky Banned

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    So in this case Spain keeps the Philippines until say, 1941? Oh and you may want to keep Ramon Blanco around and to kill off Camillo Polavieja. One of my TLs had a surviving de la Torre and Blanco lead off a Spanish republican government-in-exile against the Carlists, so I can also give you advice on this TL as well.
     
  7. ramones1986 Grumpy and Lazy

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    I should say no. Self-government first in the 1890s, then I think of independence in 1920s or 1930s, or it depends on my future posts. Nevertheless, why not give me an advice
     
  8. MarshalBraginsky Banned

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    The Ilustrados would make a good set of ruling class, but the main issue will be secularization and the entrenched power of the hacienda landowners. The earliest year the Philippines can acquire independence will be the 1920s. Barring that, would Spain still have Franco as the Caudillo or would that be butterflied away?
     
  9. ramones1986 Grumpy and Lazy

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    Yeah, the main issues will be the secularization and democratization, but because Spain in this TL is under a new dynasty, things are got easier.
     
  10. ramones1986 Grumpy and Lazy

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    Timeline of Events, 1868

    1868​


    18-30 September:
    The "La Gloriosa" revolution rocked Spain by storm; troops led by Generals Francisco Serrano y Dominguez and Juan Prim and Prats defeated forces loyal to Isabel II.​


    5 October:
    The Provisional Government was established in Madrid. Serrano was designated as the President of the Government.​


    15 October:
    Governor-General Jose de la Gandara instituted the last of his reforms: the reform of primary education. The reform included the introduction of coeducation of the classrooms, and the introduction of the native languages (outside the province of Manila) as a subject.​


    December:
    Sr. de la Gandara received the events happened in Madrid. Upon hearing it, he wrote a letter to the Overseas Ministry (then led by Adelardo Lopez de Ayala) of his resignation from the office of the Governor-General.​
     
    Last edited: Dec 15, 2012
  11. ramones1986 Grumpy and Lazy

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    Timeline of Events, 1869-71: The First Wave of Change

    1869

    7 January:
    Overseas Minister López de Ayala received the resignation letter of Jose de la Gandara. He immediately called a private meeting with President Serrano about Gandara's successor.​


    23 January:
    After selecting the candidates for the Office of the Governor-General of the Philippine Islands, as well as a day of interruption (15 January - General elections), President Serrano and Overseas Minister López de Ayala appointed Carlos Maria de la Torre y Nava Cerrada as the new Governor-General. ​

    [​IMG]
    Carlos María de la Torre y Nava Cerrada

    7 June:
    Seven months after he wrote to the Overseas Ministry, Jose de la Gandara received the confirmation of his resignation from the Ministry. He designated Manuel Maldonado as the interim Governor-General while waiting for the new Governor-General.​



    23 June:
    Carlos Maria de la Torre arrived in Manila as the Governor-General of the Philippines. He met with the outgoing Interim Governor-General Manuel Maldonado, who received the letter from the Overseas Ministry that confirmed the appointment of Sr. de la Torre.​


    1 July:
    The very first act of Sr. de la Torre as Governor-General was the establishment of the Guardia Civil in the Philippines.​


    12 July:
    A large demonstration led by Jose Burgos and Joaquin Pardo de Tavera was held in the Plaza de Sta. Potenciana, supporting the Governor-General and his intention to reform the country. For the ilustrados and their allies, the demonstration has proven an overwhelming support for de la Torre, while the conservatives and the frailocracy are angry on the said event.​
     
    Last edited: Dec 15, 2012
  12. ramones1986 Grumpy and Lazy

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    Timeline of Events, 1869-71: First Wave of Change (continuation)

    1869

    14 July:
    The Manila newspaper El Porvenir listed the leaders of the demonstration held two days earlier. According to the said newspaper, the leaders belonged to the Comite de Reformadores. The leaders were the following:
    1. Joaquin Pardo de Tavera (doctor of laws, member of the council of administration and professor of Spanish law)
    2. Jose Icaza, alternate magistrate, Royal Audiencia
    3. Jacobo Zobel, property owner and member of the Ayuntamiento
    4. Ignacio Rocha, businessman
    5. Lorenzo Rocha, artist
    6. Angel Garchitorena, industrialist
    7. Andres Nieto, property owner
    8. Jose Cañas, landowner
    9. Jose Burgos, doctor of laws and curate of the Cathedral
    10. Vicente Infante, military warden
    11. Juan Reyes, employee of the finance department


    August:
    The Governor-General granted pardon to the bandits (tulisan in Tagalog language), led by Casimiro Camerino. In fact, he named Camerino as the commander of a batallion of the Guardia Civil which composed of former bandits.​


    1-25 September:
    Throughout the archipelago, oaths were taken to affirm their loyalty to the 1869 Spanish Constitution. The said constitution, already approved in Mainland Spain last May, was considered as the most advanced in Europe at that time.​


    26 September:
    An oath taking for local officials of Manila was held in the Palace of Malacañang, led by the Governor-General himself.​


    30 September:
    The first anniversary of La Gloriosa revolution. As stated on his official report to the Overseas Ministry in Madrid, de la Torre described the event as simple.
    ¨

    17 November:
    The Suez Canal opened to shipping. Its effect on the Philippines will be more profound; as travelling and trading became easier, as well as introducing new ideas to the Islands.​

    [​IMG]
    The opening of the Suez Canal

    1870

    March:
    It was revealed that the Governor-General was planning to set up a Junta General, an advisory council. Through an exclusive interview to the liberal Manila newspaper La Esperanza, de la Torre explained that the junta will compose of the delegates chosen by their respective Juntas Provinciales. He added that he need to consult with the leaders of the ilustrados until the final implementation of the proposal.​


    April:
    The authorities decided to rebuild the Manila Cathedral, destroyed by a devastating earthquake seven years ago (1863). Immediately, it necessitated the transfer of the remains of Simón de Anda y Salazar from the Cathedral crypts.
    On the Day of the transfer, in the middle of a solemn Mass, a young priest left his group with a wreath of flowers on his hand. He bowed to the Governor-General as he made his way to the catafalque where he laid the wreath; it has a ribbon that beared the legend:
    It was followed by a student laying another wrath, then followed by some gobernadorcillos. The crowd was surprised by the gesture.
    The day after the said event, the gesture was the talk of the town, both in the streets, in the tertulia and in the newspapers. They knew that José Burgos was behind it, but instead of anger, they sympathized with the priest, as well as the reforms of Sr. de la Torre.​


    October:
    The Governor-General received a series of decrees from the new Overseas Minister Manuel Becerra. Two of them were related to education; the establishment of the Instituto Filipino and the conversion of the Universidad de Colegio de Sto. Tomas into a public university.
    On the case of Instituto Filipino, it was a secular and public educational institution that will offer free secondary and vocational education, absorbing the existing courses offered by the other schools such as the Colegio de San Jose and Ateneo Municipal (both owned by the Jesuits) and the Dominican-owned San Juan de Letrán.
    Two days after the receiving the decrees, Sr. de la Torre created a committee to study the decree and decided on its implementations.​


    November:
    A group of liberal students (La Juventud Escolar Liberal), led by Felipe Buencamino staged a demonstration at the Universidad de Santo Tomas to demand reforms for the school. Later, the group also expressed support for autonomy of the Philippines. Later, the students received a letter from the Governor-General; Buencamino immediately read the letter in front of the protesters. This is the part of the letter:
    The letter was applauded by the protesters, but infuriated the already indignant Dominican friars.​

    [​IMG]
    The campus of the Universidad de Sto. Tomas within the walls of Old Manila
     
    Last edited: Dec 15, 2012
  13. othyrsyde Sana ka'aha yo pendejos!

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    Hella tight, Philippines TL:D. Never seen this before, usually the islands just get handed from one colonial master to the next.
     
  14. ramones1986 Grumpy and Lazy

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    True story OTL. :D Well, there are other Philippine-centric TL's, but mostly they never continue, so I planned to update regularly, and thanks by the way for visiting (though I'm just a neophyte)
     
    Last edited: Dec 15, 2012
  15. brokenman Kick-Lord of Mt. Invulnerable

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    Great PoD. With that, the revolutionaries would never rise. You also need to squash the hacienderos and distribute the excess lands of the church and theirs. That way you could maximize local support for the governorship of the island.

    Another one, Mariano H. del Pilar became very good friends with fellow revolutionary Sun Yat-Sen. Further support may strengthen the two nations in the future.
     
  16. ramones1986 Grumpy and Lazy

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    Oh, thank you, I really appreciated it; I'm still writing some of the future events on a notebook, but this is confirmed: NO REVOLUTIONARIES; instead, they will become Nationalists, demanding independence for the nation.

    Marcelo H. del Pilar meeting with Dr. Sun? ;)
     
  17. MarshalBraginsky Banned

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    This is quite good so far.
     
  18. brokenman Kick-Lord of Mt. Invulnerable

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    Sorry mate, it was a wrong person that I have referred! My ailing memory.

    Actually, it was Mariano Ponce who bought and secured support from the Japanese government and merchants for the independence of the Philippines with the help of Sun-Yat Sen. Volunteer troops, and lots of rifles and ammunition are scheduled to be shipped to the Philippines in two stages. First by the Nunobiki-maru, next by an unknown ship (disregarding enemy navies).

    Unfortunately, the Nunobiki-maru (or naru?) was sunk in a typhoon off the coast of Taiwan. Disgruntled by that event and the rebellion is seemingly over, the second ship (filled with supplies) was sent to Sun-Yat Sen for goodwill and support.

    I forgot the title of the book, because I only read it in a public library. I believe I have read that fact before on the Internet also.

    http://kahimyang.info/kauswagan/history_current_events/1192-today_in_philippine_history__june_20__1899__nonubiki_maru_leaves_nagasaki_for_the_philippines_loaded_with_rifles_and_ammunition

    That was from the Internet.
     
  19. ramones1986 Grumpy and Lazy

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    I saw the link, and it happened on 1899. Nevertheless, let's see in the future. ;)
     
  20. ramones1986 Grumpy and Lazy

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    Timeline of Events, 1869-71: The First Wave of Change (last part)

    1870

    December:
    The Governor-General received other two decrees from the Overseas Ministry; in one degree, it calls for an inventory of the properties of the two Dominican-owned educational institutions (Letran and Sto. Tomas), and the other degree calls for immediate approval of applications for seculariztion of a priest/nun.
    Having realized that the inventory could be difficult, he immediately called the Committee to a special meeting. After updating the Governor-General about the earlier decrees (it was revealed that the colleges agreed to absorb their existing courses to the proposed Instituto Filipino), Sr. de la Torre accepted the suggestion that credible and neutral accountants should be hired to do to the said task.
    On the the issue of secularization, the Committee advised the Governor-General to implement the decree immediately, taking effect on the 24th.​


    24 December:
    Christmas Eve. the day remembered as La vispera Sorprendida; the day the decree of secularization took effect, various municipios across the nation started their day suprised with long queues of priests and nuns holding secularization application forms. The friars were shocked and infuriated when they learned the news, seeing it as a serious threat to their influence.​



    1871

    January:
    Carlos Maria de la Torre wrote a letter to the Overseas Ministry that he should be relieved of his post to the Governor-General of the Philippine Islands.
    Meanwhile, his companion (and rumored mistress) Maria del Rosario Gil de Montes, published the bookEl Hombre del Dios, in which she defended liberalism in the Islands. While it caught the attention of the public (a masterpiece for the liberals, scandalous for the friars and conservatives), soon it will become a classic of Philippine literature.​


    February:
    At the meeting of the Committee, it was decided that Instituto Filipino will be opened in June (the start of the school year 1871-72); meanwhile, all existing secondary and vocational education programs outside Manila will be shared between the Jesuits and the Juntas Provinciales until further notice.
    In a party held in the Palace of Malacañang (where Ma. del Rosario Gil wore a gown with ribbons that said: Viva la Libertad and Viva el Pueblo Soberano, the Governor-General thanked the people who supported him for his fight for justice and change. The guests have no idea what will happen next.​

    [​IMG]
    The Palace of Malacañang, the official residence of the Governor-General

    4 March:
    The Governor-General received a letter from the Overseas Ministry. The said letter contained the following:

    [​IMG]
    Leopoldo de Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, the new King of Spain (Su Majestad, Rey Leopoldo I)

    5 March:
    When the public learned of the resignation of his post as the Governor-General, they were disappointed but grateful. They gathered at the Plaza de Potenciana to express their suppport to Sr. de la Torre. The Governor-General's response to the affection was more than emotional; shedding tears of joy, he waved to his supporters. ​


    4 April:
    It's time for Carlos Maria de la Torre to say goodbye. Leaving from the Palace through a carriage, he waved to a multitude of Filipinos who really loved him. For the liberals, this is the most difficult yet most optimistic time (hoping for the new Governor-General to be like him), for the friars and their allies, they're little enthusiastic and pessimistic.​


    SUMMARY
    The effects of La Gloriosa reached the Philippines, thanks to the appointment of Carlos María de la Torre to the post of Governor-General. In his short yet productive two years, he instituted reforms that ushered real change to the Philippine society; he ended the government monopoly on tobacco industry, established the Instituto Filipino, and encouraged the secularization of the priests (and defending them). The ilustados and liberals admired and respected him, the friars and their allies loathed him. For now, his other plans were interrupted by his sudden resignation. The people wondered, "Will his successor had the courage enough to continue the reforms?"
     
    Last edited: Dec 19, 2012