Fenians, Brits, Mexicans, Canucks and Frenchies....OH, MY! An alternate American Civil War

Chapter 177
June 1880


After two weeks, the Democratic Convention had effectively fallen apart as the disparate interest groups made contradictory demands of the party platform and individual Presidential candidates.

Senator Bayard, perhaps the last scion of the old System in which northern politicians would dominate the Presidency....but only if their policies did not conflict with the dependable south. It was men like this - Buchanan, Pierce, etc, - who ensured the southern vote (usually the southerners had about 40% of the electoral vote, meaning the candidate only had to win a few key states in the north).

But, by 1880, mass immigration to the north and black migration from the south had permanently altered the nation's demographics. With five of the southern states yet to be returned to the Union, the south no longer held the electoral punch it once had.

Indeed, the growth of manufacturing (and the new form of constituent this created) would have diametrically opposite demands of their representatives:

1. For the first time, the Democratic Party was split on Tariff policy (Northern manufacturing workers wanted it, Southern cotton exporters did not).
2. Northern Democrats, particularly immigrants who disproportionately dominated the factories, were far more inclined to support Civil Rights.
3. Northern and Southern Democrats were generally happy with the stabilizing Gold Standard....but western small farmers wanted to expand the money supply by adding silver to the currency (thus making their debts cheaper to pay).

Personal rivalries would also deepen the divide in Cincinnati. Tilden and Bayard, in particular, would do much to bring factionalism to the fore.

As the assortment of "Favorite Sons" and minor candidates were whittled down, Tilden and Bayard emerged as the projected front-runners.

Bayard had the support of the South and worked assiduously to gain western support by promising to take the nation off the Gold Standard, an idea tolerable to the South but not the North.

For his part, Tilden publicly vowed to campaign against any man who would not support Freedman's Rights (i.e. Bayard) even if the Convention nominated him.

Eventually, the Convention organizers, increasingly frustrated, would see if some sort of compromise candidate may be found to bridge the gaping chasm opening under the Party's feet. However, the various factions had become so entrenched over the previous weeks that no such candidate could be found to satisfy the opposing positions. Eventually, the Party proceeded with the votes.....38 votes to be exact, with no effect.

Neither Bayard nor Tilden could summon adequate support until enough of the tertiary candidates formally dropped out and their electors allocated to one of the sides. It would be July until enough of these men gave up (and largely went home), leaving their electors to vote for whoever they wished.

By a narrow margin, Bayard would outpace Tilden.

Congressman Sam Randall, who had been a "War Democrat" but followed the Party's line ever since against Reconstruction, would grudgingly agree to serve as the Vice-Presidential Candidate. Randall had been around Washington long enough....and knew Tilden long enough....to know that this would terribly damage the Democrats' prospects in November. Bayard was utterly unelectable in the northeast and he doubted even sweeping the Midwest would be enough to gain


Though the Crowned heads of Italy and France had quietly reached out to the young King Alphonse, he flatly refused to join any form of "alliance" which might bring Spain into conflict with Great Britain, America or Germany. His friend Napoleon IV had ventured the opinion that the remnant of the Spanish Empire - Cuba, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico - would eventually be conquered by America or Britain if the alliance wasn't signed.

Alphonse doubted this for two reasons:

1. He doubted America or Britain would WANT to deal with large numbers of Spanish Catholics in a region where the profitability had long since declined.

2. He suspected that even having an alliance with France and Italy would not necessarily do much to protect these islands from America's proximity or Britain expansive navy. Indeed, any conflict between these prospective "allies" and his prospective "enemies" would be more likely to drag the Spanish West Indies into war, not protect it.

Instead, the King (seeing the writing on the wall) offered to sell the petty Spanish African claims of Rio Muni, Annabon and Fernando PO (the latter two being islands and the former control over the mouth of the Muni River). These were being surrounded by the new Anglo-American Protectorate swiftly consuming the coastline of West Africa. Seeing no particular utility in possessing the region (the Spanish possessions in the East had long been lost), Alphonse was inclined to sell now before it was taken away.
Nice chapter, can't wait to see more of the election. Would love to see the Democrats reaction to how certain views and policy they hold to are completely unelectable. Keep up the good work.
Chapter 178
July, 1880


The Democratic Convention would end, as one might imagine, on a controversial and discordant note. After finally settling on Bayard as their standard bearer, the mundane details of Party Platform had to be decided. Most of the Electors would press for the maintenance of the Gold Standard. However, Bayard, in order to gain Midwestern support, would vow to support expanded Silver currency to increase the money supply and make it easier for small farmers of the midwest to pay off their debts.

However, the northeastern and southern Electors were generally in support of a strong currency and this left Bayard forced to backtrack upon the promises of his supporters in the Midwest, without which he would not have outpaced Tilden. The ensuing uproar was hardly unprecedented in Conventions. However, Bayard and his allies had failed to recall that Cincinnati was IN THE MIDWEST.

Within hours, the news of Bayard's "betrayal" reached the local population who immediately besieged the Convention Center. It had been expected that the Convention would extend another few days to mop up a few lingering issues. However, the arrival of thousands of outraged farmers would force the remaining Electors to flee the Convention, many being chased back to their hotels where they were forced to huddle in their rooms to await the riot to blow over. Bayard himself fled directly for the rail junction, his carriage being pelted by dung and rotten fruit until he reach the safety of his railcar. He was forced to order an aide to collect his possessions in his hotel room.

Tegucigalpa, Honduras

Marco Soto was an Tegucigalpa-born lawyer who had trained in Guatemala and become a successful litigator in that country before attracting the eye of President Barrios. A supporter of the Guatemalan Liberal Revolution of 1871 (under Barrios), Soto would swiftly raised to high office in Guatemala, including the Minister of the Interior. Skilled in Administration, he became a favorite of Barrios. After a few years, he would return to Honduras and, within a year, become that nation's President.

In Barrios' mold, Soto attempted to reform Honduras socially, economically, etc, but Soto's efforts were hampered by the lack of a valuable export crop (like coffee) that would allow the nation to purchase some of the infrastructure pieces necessary for Honduras to progress.

When Barrios first began publicly discussing reforming the United States of Central America (as the two had discussed many times over the years), Soto was intrigued. If Honduras could not afford its own infrastructure, perhaps a centralized Central America could.

Ever since Independence, Central America had been riven with fratricidal wars often led by the more populated El Salvador and Guatemala. Soto might have been willing to talk unification just to prevent his nation from being invaded in the future. However, Barrios' rhetoric tended more towards conquest, especially given that few of Honduras' government would even countenance DISCUSSING the idea of unification.

El Salvador's government, under Rafael Zaldivar, in many ways had followed the example of Barrios' Guatemala. Indian land was seized and coffee cultivation encouraged. However, unlike Barrios, Zaldivar did NOT favor a new, unified Central America.

Barrios began preparing for war.
Map of World - 1880
Fenians - Map of World - 1880.png
Nice chapter and map. Things south of border seem to be heating up. The Democratic Convention is a complete failure, too divided to have a national platform to stand united on. It will take quite some time for the Democrats to get in shape for the White House again, if they're even called Democrats in the future. I think someone should just create a new party down South and cut ties with the Democrats. Keep up the good work.
Chapter 179
November, 1880


Senator Bayard's campaign had largely fallen flat over the past months as his open repudiation of the expansion of the currency to include silver had outraged the Midwestern farmers (a key demographic) and his "tariffs for revenue, not for protection" policy was no more welcomed in the Northeast.

Naturally, as a "Peace Democrat" during the war, Bayard had been smeared with the "Bloody Flag" which Republicans had used to great effect for 20 years against any Democrat which had failed to support the War. Effectively, this granted the Republicans to remind the Electorate that it had effectively been the Democratic Party which had split the nation in two and then left it weakened against foreign intervention.

Bayard's constant critique of Reconstruction MAY have resonated with some voters but the Delaware Senator seemed to target his attacks on policies against the South.....not northern or western Democrats. It seemed that Bayard, a throwback to the 1830's through 1850's, did not realize that the nation's Demographics had changed and sopping to the South no longer granted enough electoral votes to achieve the Presidency (lack of white immigration to the region, large-scale black emigration and four and a half states not yet returned to full citizenship (half of Alabama had seceded and formed their own state).

What was more, the Republicans under Lincoln, Seward, Hamlin and Grant had actively sought to distance themselves from the anti-Catholic message of the No-Nothings (which had largely been folded into the Republicans in the 1850's). Therefore, many Catholic immigrants had gravitated to the Democratic Party in the 1850's. Efforts were made over the years to bridge this gap. By 1880, the pro-Protestant, anti-Catholic message of the party had largely been dampened down (though regional permutations abounded) and the Catholics were no longer overwhelmingly Democrat. Indeed, by this decade, the bigger problem with the Republican Party was that many poor Catholics were gravitating towards manufacturing jobs under largely Republican ownership. This formed a natural path back to the Democratic Party. Catholic immigrants to the west were largely removed from this and tended towards Republicans.

In the 1880 Presidential Election, Grant would be reelected in a landslide. The relatively positive Catholic vote and the increasing importance of the Freedman vote in New York ensured that the Republicans would carry that key battleground state (and New Jersey) by moderate percentages (8% and 7%). Outside of the Old Confederate South, only Indiana, Kentucky, Kanawha and, for some reason, Nevada (speculated that silver miners were supportive of the use of silver as currency), fell to the Democrats. Within the Old South, Calusa, Arkansas, Texas, Mescalero, Aranama, Mississippi and Arkansas all voted Republican.

That made for a massive Electoral victory though the overall popular vote was only 53% to 45% (the rest going to tertiary parties).

Tilden's open contempt for Bayard had ensured Democrats were not actively supported in certain segments of the Northeastern Democratic Party.

Madagascar, Merino Empire

For several years, the French had quietly extended tendrils towards Africa in hopes of reforming some scrap of the French Empire. A French trader named Lambert had involved himself in Merino affairs and received a land-grant. When this was withdrawn by a later administration, Lambert (and later his heirs) would petition the French government to support their position. The Merino Queen would resist any attempts at coercion and she sought out closer ties to Britain and America, her primary trading partners. Most of the Madagascar elites had converted to the Protestant faith over the 19th century by British Missionaries.

When the Queen quietly requested assistance from Britain and America, the two nations would, via back channels, warn off the French intimidation. Britain's close alliance with Egypt ensured control over the Suez while the expansive coastline now being dominated by the Anglo-American Co-Protectorate would make naval operations beyond Europe's waters almost impossible.


The self-proclaimed "Mahdi" would call for a Holy War against Egypt (and most other neighboring states). The Sudan had once been under control of Egypt but that hand had largely relaxed in past decades as Egypt grew far more interested in the Levant and failed expeditions to the Hijaz and Tripolitania.

Augmented by British advisors and modern weapons, the Egyptians fortified the southern border and prepared an expedition south.

Ethiopian Kingdoms

Over the course of the next decade, the Christian Kings of Ethiopia would commence wars of Unification throughout the highlands of Ethiopia, many inflicting terrible atrocities upon Muslim populations who refused to convert.

December, 1880


President Barrios would, in November of 1880, launch an attack across the border into Honduras with the intent of forging a new United States of Central America.

Honduras' government dispatched pleas for aid to their Central American neighbors (El Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica) as well as to Britain, America and neighboring Mexico.

Mexico City

President Zaragoza would depart office with the relief of a man who just released a long-anticipated and delinquent bowel movement. Zaragoza hated politics and was happy to turn the office over to others.

The same month that he planned to retire, the desperate cry for help from Honduras reached Mexico City. Guatemalan relations with Mexico had been somewhat damaged after American turned British Honduras over to Mexico (instead of Guatemala) but Zaragoza never really expected that Barrios would launch another fratricidal war among the impoverished Central American states.

Feeling more than a little responsible for the chaos, Zaragoza offered to assume command of a Mexican force to evict the Guatemalan Army from Honduras. Mexico's economy was solvent for the first time since.....ever. Her borders were secure from foreign invasion (this was largely due to Mexico's good relations with America) and social reform and economic investment proceeded on an annual basis.

By 1880, Zaragoza (and many powerful Mexicans) were ready to consider the idea that Mexico should take more of a leadership role in Latin America. President Grant himself had sought Mexican support for many regional initiatives (though Zaragoza had sought to keep a low diplomatic profile, instead concentrating more in domestic issues).

But if Mexico could not even prevent small countries on her border from warring.....were her borders really secure?

Would this not be analogous to America standing by helplessly as Quebec and Canada went to war?

This being Mexico, there was some concern that granting Zaragoza a commission would lead to a potential Coup in the future. However, his successor knew Zaragoza would be little interested in any form of return to power and was probably the man most trustworthy to command a force of Mexican soldiers.
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Chapter 180
April, 1881

Isle of Man

A rarity among European nations, the Isle of Man would pronounce that women possessing certain property levels would have the vote. This would be a minor but notable step towards female enfranchisement throughout Britain and Ireland as well as much of the developing world.

The Congo

In 1881, a new town was inaugurated along the Congo River to be named Gladstoneville by Sir Henry Stanley. As his sponsors were both Britain AND America, Stanley would also seek to name some great natural formation or town after President Grant.

For his services, Stanley had been granted a Knighthood by Queen Victoria and granted a Silver Medal by Congress. He would be disappointed by the lack of financial reward as Stanley assumed he'd be granted some enormous lands or such boon in Africa. However, the still-embryonic Anglo-American Co-Protectorate had already formed dictates that these African lands would not be given away to white dignitaries. They were not colonies in the conventional sense and the "partners" were more interested in making sure the other did not get some advantage than gaining one themselves.

Traders were already setting up along the West African Coast as explorers and diplomates sought to open markets in the interior.

Already, it was obvious that the vast expanses of Africa were too remote and disparate to govern from but one capital. Already, the British and Americans were discussing splitting the Co-Protectorate into regions - West Africa, Africa, Angola and Mozambique.

In the meantime, the debate over the nature of the government (effectively a Council) would lead to the discussion over who could constitute it.

Puerto San Jose

With President Barrios leading the invasion of Honduras, the first Mexican troops.....ferried by American and British ships....would disembark in Puerto San Jose, the primary Pacific port of Guatemala. Barrios had been warned to no avail. He continued towards his goal of unifying Central America in spite of the largely unified opposition to the idea (there may have been more support had Barrios not unilaterally proclaimed himself President of ALL Central American nations.

After depositing 6000 Mexican soldiers (largely southern veterans of Oaxaca and the Yucatan, mostly Indians and Mestizos) under former President Zaragoza, the American and British ships sailed south to Acajutla in El Salvador where another 4000 troops raised by the President of that nation had been hastily armed (by Americans) and trained after a call for volunteers.

By May, the sweltering coastal city (abandoned by her nominal defenders of just a few hundred local militia) was host to 10,000 foreign soldiers. Within weeks, the oppressed Indian tribesmen of Guatemala, whose land had been effectively stolen from them and then forced into debt peonage, would rise up in a bloody revolt.

While President of his own nation, Zaragoza had struggled to reconcile the dual and contradictory goals of maintaining the peace with the myriad Indian tribes of Mexico while also acknowledging that the land use of such tribes tended to underutilize the resources. However, Zaragoza had largely toed that line (with Sonora being a particularly region to pacify) more with diplomacy than violence.

Barrios had simply confiscated all land and directed the Indian peasants to their new landlords and employers. While productivity and exports certainly rose greatly, the cost was the virtual enslavement of the Indian (and Mestizo majority).

Learning of the foreign invasion, the predominantly Mayan Indian population (and many Mestizos and political opposition figures) would rally to the Mexican flag, especially when so many of the Mexican soldiers proved to be of Mayan blood from the Yucatan.
Chapter 181
May 1881

Monrovia, Liberia, Anglo-American Co-Protectorate

The initial governing body of the Anglo-American Co-Protectorate would include twelve members, six each nominated by America and Great Britain. Per agreement, at least half of these members had to be residents of Africa and of Color (though this would be rather liberally interpreted in some cases). However, all six of Grant's nominations would be people of color.

Among these were Charles Douglass, son of Frederick Douglass and a high-ranking member of the Freedmen's Bureau. Another would be the current Vice-President of Liberia, Alfred Russell.

As most of these new "States" had historically only controlled modest coastal areas, there was only moderate opposition from the Colored elites (almost all the descendants of "Returnees" as the rapidly unifying West Africa was plainly taking the sheen of a potentially powerful nation. "Presidents" (mainly Liberian) would effectively be reduced to the status of American state governors while the true executive, judicial and legislative function would be allocated the Ruling Council.

With ten of the twelve members of the Council (the Assembly had yet to be incorporated) being of Color, the Chairman would be as well. After weeks of internal politicking, the choice would be considered somewhat odd as the man would not really be American or British bred.

Alfred-Amadee Dodds was a Senegalese-born (St. Louis) French officer. His father was a Metis (French and Native American) and mother was a mixed race Signare (upper-class free African) who had served in the French army. When Senegal was taken by Britain from France in the past war, the officer opted to transfer his allegiance to Britain and was granted a commission in the local African Regiment. Here, he rose through the bureaucracy (Senegal was never a destination for white men) and was selected by Gladstone for his military and administrative acumen.

Dodds was considered adequately independent (despite being a British nominee) and an acceptable political compromise.

In the meantime, the initial bureaucrats would begin to arrive from America and the West Indies to act as Custom's Officials, Judges, Lawyers Postal Workers, Teachers, Clerks, etc, etc. English (unsurprisingly) would be the only official language of the Co-Protectorate. This would eventually rub on many native tribes but would also (it was hoped) ease the way of government and creating a common West African identity.

It was hoped.

Guatemala City

Having seen his scheme to conquer Honduras halted in its tracks by the invasion of western Guatemala by Mexican and El Salvadorian forces, President Barrios would hastily withdraw from Honduras only to find that much of his own nation was in abject chaos. Indian and Mestizo rural workers rose up against their employers (who had largely squatted upon land seized from the tribes). This slowed Barrios' retreat from Honduras to the point that General Zaragoza would reach the capital of Guatemala City before Barrios. Zaragoza was welcomed by the political opposition in the Capital and with abject elation from the countryside.

It would take weeks before Barrios could summon the bulk of his army against the interlopers. In that time Zaragoza would seize most of the Guatemala City armory and prepare defenses against the Guatemalan Army. Large numbers of Mayan rural workers regularly informed the Mexicans of Barrios' movements.

The Congo

The Anglo-American Co-Protectorate would dispatch another soldier to help Stanley govern the Congo region. General Charles Gordon was bored with his desk position in London and eagerly sought out ANY form of field assignment.

Rural Ireland

The "Land League" was an outgrowth of the Irish tenant rights' movement dating back at least since the 1850's (the Famine). Ireland's economic recovery had quieted this down a bit but bad harvests and low prices would lead to an increase in evictions in 1879 through 1882 and the "Land League" was formed to combat this. General labor strikes and mass refusal to pay rent would be the greatest weapons used against the Anglo-Irish landowning aristocracy.

The "Land War" of 1879-1882 would seriously undermine Gladstone's attempts to ease the path to Irish Home Rule (which he had vowed to support).
Chapter 182
August, 1881

Baton Rouge, Louisiana
Lexington, Kentucky
Boston, Massachusetts
Chicago, Illinois

Over the course of 1879 and 1880, the Federal government had debated which schools would be affiliated with their "Co-Protectorate" training program. It had originally been determined that there would be four schools, generally East, West, North and South. Eventually, this would be narrowed down to Southern University, Transylvania University, University of Massachusetts and Northwestern University.

Effectively copying the British system of education for future (British and Indian) administrators of India, the program would wed intelligent young men (while not explicitly relegated to black but implicitly assumed) to excellent universities to learn the basics of the stilly embryonic government forming along the vast coasts of Africa. Unlike the British Residency System for India, the Co-Protectorate would assume that all Residents (high level administrators to lower level clerks and teachers) would communicate in English for it seemed impossible to oblige the dozens (hundreds, really) of native languages many of which did not possess a written form. English was to be the default language of the Co-Protectorate. However, training on the various local cultures would be included later upon the Co-Protectorate actually knowing enough about them to teach someone else.

As there were large numbers of Freedmen (though that term was starting to losing favor as it had been nearly 19 years since manumission) graduating from Universities throughout the nation, many recently established as "Black" Universities (like Southern), there was no shortage of college-educated blacks (and some whites) to apply for the first few thousand positions in Africa. Many more would follow.

In the initial phases, the bureaucrats would be funded by Britain and America but within two years, it was expected that the Co-Protectorate would pay for its own government via modest tariffs levied upon trade goods (Angola would be the primary contributor with the Gold Coast following) of 5% on British and American goods and 10% on other nations' wares. Like many countries (including America), tariffs would be a (if not THE) largest provider of government funds.

Guatemala City

After a series of short, sharp battles, the Guatemalan Army under President Barrios had dissolved under lack of pay and general unpopularity with the people. Having lost the capital, Barrios was swiftly reduced to petty country insurgency. Given that the worst of his detractors (the Maya) lived in these regions, it proved nearly impossible for President to evade the Mexican, Salvadorian and rebel Guatemalan forces for long.

It would be August when the President himself, down to about 100 followers, were caught in an ambush and Barrios slain.

The "Guatemalan War" was over. But the peace would prove more complex as many of the Mestizo and Indian populations of the nation no longer trusted the government in Guatemala city (either the Liberals or Conservatives). Many begged General Zaragoza to assume control as President. This the General had no intention of doing, though he did effectively govern as a temporary governor while he attempted to set up a convention.

In the end, a large faction would requested annexation to Mexico as a state, believing that this would protect their interests far more than any previous government of Guatemala. As the Mayan Indians were closely related to the Indians of the Mexican Yucatan, this was another reason for potential unification. Naturally, the ruling classes of Guatemala City would recoil against this (both Parties) but the countryside swiftly became pro-Mexican and demanded a vote.

By the fall, the election would be held and 61.4% would vote for annexation. As the Mexican Army (the Salvadorans would have returned home by now) was concentrated in the Capital and coastal cities, there was little violent resistance.

The President of Mexico would formally visit in 1882 to welcome the new state into the nation.
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Chapter 183
September, 1881

Monrovia, Capital of Northwest African Co-Protectorate

Frederick Douglass Jr, was horrified by the abject chaos of the new government. As dozens of temporary administrators (mostly British and American military men seconded to the government) went home to be replaced by the first of the new bureaucrats educated in the West Indies and America (the first few American “classes” would be hired directly via college and not the formal process being established in four American universities).

It did not take Douglass long to figure out the British knew what they were doing far better than the Americans. America was not a “colonial nation” and there was not a corps of skilled administrators of foreign peoples.

But there was no shortage of enthusiasm among the majority black bureaucrats as they rapidly sought to establish order. First order of business was….as with all governments….achieving revenue. This meant throwing their best resources into the harbors where the tariffs would be collected. This was somewhat cold-blooded given the needs elsewhere but no nation could exist without money and the Anglo-Americans were NOT going to foot the bill for long.

In truth, Douglass was shocked that the “home nations” would even allow their own goods to be taxed entering Africa given that this was always a political issue at home.

But slowly, chaos turned to order and the still-young government would turn its attention to forming schools, hospitals and encouraging good relations with the tribes of the interior.

A new subcommittee for distributing land to settlers from America would form with the explicit instructions NOT to hand over large plots to cronies or the like.

October, 1881

Havana, Washington

King Alfonzo of Spain would spend over a month and a half in the Spanish West Indies. Having abolished slavery and encouraged more local government and autonomy (political participation was HIGHER in the colonies than at home), the King was unsurprisingly welcomed wherever he disembarked.

The King would also visit Washington where he was courteously welcomed by the President and feted by Washington society. While Americans lacked the manners and etiquette of Europe, the genuine warmth of the people were appreciated and did much to heal ill-feelings towards America over its seizure of the remnant of the Spanish Pacific (Guam, etc) and the sale of the tiny Spanish exclaves in central Africa) to the Co-Protectorate.

November, 1881


While Gladstone had seen several diplomatic successes (the growing rapport with much of Latin America, the expansion of the Co-Protectorate, better relations with the Boers, etc), he was beset by “internal” issues in Ireland and India.

Irish MP’s had transferred their loyalty from the Conservatives to the Liberals years before when Gladstone vowed to support “Home Rule”. Unfortunately, this would not sit well with large portions of the party and then the frustrated MP’s of Ireland began to defect back to the Conservatives when little progress with Home Rule was made.

Gladstone’s majority thinned to a razor margin.

Then, yet another series of strikes hit India, this time over government worker pay, and the Ministry began to falter.
Chapter 184
October, 1881

Mindanao, Sumatra

Despite years of harsh suppression, the Japanese occupation and annexation of the former Philippines and Dutch East Indies continued to be contested. This was partially due to the fact that the Spanish or Dutch had not sought to immediately remove all local Kings or assert their authority in all regions of the islands. Their governance was relatively light compared to Japan.

Indeed, this first foray into colonialism was as much an eye opener for the Japanese as their American counterparts were experiencing in Africa (though the latter was much less violent).

But the Japanese, seeking resources not available on their barren home islands, did not see an alternative to maintain their sputtering march towards industrialization. To their chagrin, they would see that British Malaya (and Australia) had more metal-producing potential than any of the lands taken by Japan. It would arose frustration and jealousy.


With their own rebellion in the past, the Empress’ government (largely without Isabel’s input or interest) would form a revolutionary “guest worker” program which would provide transport and guaranteed contracts for foreign workers (Italians being the most common). Unlike many migratory groups of the centuries, the bulk of the Italians would go home eventually.

Dominion of Australia

Seeing the bulk of the British emigrants (a large number indeed) sailing for America or Canada, the Dominion of Australia would request that the home government encourage more British emigrants (that nation’s population expanding rapidly) to sail for Australia, the Cape, India, etc.

The British government was willing but insisted that Australia and the other Dominions/Colonies foot the bill for the transport (still very long and expensive relative to sailing for North America). This was largely agreed and the centuries-long practice of Britons sailing for America starting to change with the bulk of British emigrants by the turn of the century sailing for British possessions.


Though her son was still younger than most would prefer for a King, it was becoming obvious that Queen-Mother-Regent Maria Pia was being blamed for much of the nation’s woes over the past few years (i.e. the loss of their African Empire). It was determined that the King would assume his formal duties the following year and give his long-suffering mother a welcome retirement.

Following the open theft of their Empire by the British and Americans on a flimsy pretext, the nation was happy to remain politically neutral from then on.

Northern United States

Over the course of the past decade, the first large-scale migration of white (and black) settlers to Dakota, Winnipeg and Saskatchewan would take place. Surprisingly, among the most common settlers were Scandinavian and German immigrants. Given how few people wanted to live in the bitter cold, no one in Washington complained. It would be over a decade before these territories would be ready for statehood but the process was finally under way.

Utah, Comancheria

Two other territories would soon apply to statehood. Utah was no longer majority Mormon (and those that remain had abolished any form of polygamy in their church) and was considered a quiet and well-behaved Territory worthy of admission.

Comancheria had been part of the region which had seen borders torn asunder for years by Washington as they redrew lines on a map of an area unlikely to ever be seen by most of Congress. But the population had grown to a reasonable level and the railroads knifing through the territory made for easy transport.

Congress would have little reason to delay admission for either territory to statehood.

Yukon Territory

While the vast territory of land acquired from Russia (and some land added from the British cessation) was never expected to achieve a population adequate for statehood, there hopes of mineral wealth were finally met in 1881 with the discovery of gold inland. Yet another gold “boom” was in the making.


The Chinese Navy would happily receive delivery of two ships of the new “Arkansas-Class” design (which was one more than the American Navy had received). This would return the balance of power with Japan back to China’s nominal favor. China had no interest in Japan or her colonies but Japanese aggression could not be discounted….or British or Russian or American for that part. China MUST have a strong navy to protect her coasts.


Even as the Abyssinian Empire was slowly forming from the various Ethiopian Kingdoms, challengers would arise. Italy was already looking to expand into the colonial sphere (which was harshly resisted by Britain) by influencing Eritrea and the Somalis.

Worse, the self-proclaimed new “Mahdi” of the Sudan was starting to look aggressively towards his Christian neighbors as well as north.


With barely a fight, the Mahdist forces seized Khartoum. A few thousand people, mainly Egyptians and a handful of westerners, would manage to sail north to Upper Egypt.

The Mahdi would determine which direction to ride now and elected for north where the Egyptians were actively demanding British support against the madman from Sudan who had been deemed a heretic by much of “conventional Islam” for claiming to be the heir to Muhammed.
Chapter 185
November, 1881

Boer Republic

Though the Boers had lived for decades with heavy tensions with their neighbors, the Republic’s relationship with Britain had improved enough to lift the ban on British immigration and labor. Joint efforts at establishing the border would lead to peaceful resolutions of several disputes and the Republic and the Cape Dominion would return to more important activities: like making money.

Many Boers had feared the discovery of gold and other metals over the years as these may stir renewed interest among the British colonial office. However, it also ensured a massive immigration boom over the past decade which saw the nation’s population expand greatly to the point that the lightly populated nation would feel more secure in her borders.

Indeed, the Boers were so flooded with Europeans (of all stripes) that they were more than willing to eject much of the black population of the Republic. The tribes (or what was left of them) were forced further and further north towards Mozambique and other remote regions (Let the British and Americans deal with them) and the mixed descendants of slaves were forcibly put on boats for Angola or Liberia.

Unfortunately, most of Africa would soon suffer a terrible blow. Some Italian cattle would be shipped via the Suez Canal to Africa by a local Italian migrant. These animals harbored a terrible disease – rinderpest - which was devastating in conjunction with sleeping sickness. This would spread throughout much of Africa, wiping out vast swathes of cattle, horses and various other animals.

Absent these herds, millions would die of starvation for lack of meat or plough animals. The very land itself would transform as the beasts which once kept the prairie “Mowed” would see vast swathes of land reclaimed by scrub (and the terrible tse-tse fly which inhabited them). Millions of square miles of land once dominated by humans would soon see elephants, rhinos and other animals long marginalized by human encroachment, particularly in southern and eastern Africa.


Though viewed by many as having backed away from the rapid reforms of earlier years, the Czar Alexander II would consent to maintaining a permanent Duma which would help “oversee the rapidly expanding bureaucracy” including revenue collection, etc.

Russia was simply too vast a land for one man and his cadre of favorites to govern and the Czar was forced to concede to reality. However, the Duma would maintain pressure on the Czar for continued reform and cession of power to it.


President Grant was pleased that the economy appeared to be doing well. Trade was up (as was tariff revenue) which aided the payment of the war debts. These were down nearly 60% by 1882 and, at current rate, the debt would be paid off by 1886.

There were already calls to eliminate the last of the war taxes but Grant feared that failing to pay off the debts early would result in them never being paid thus he declined.

Instead, Grant would use the mid-term elections to point out the growth of the country, the stability of the bank and currency (now using paper script in a VERY controversial move) and the continued progress of the Freedmen.

The Navy appeared to be falling behind Britain (again) and Grant would endorse expanded funding but agreed to allow the army to be reduced by another 20,000 men to compensate.

Perhaps most controversially, Grant would support Douglass’ Freedman’s bureau to advocate unified classrooms of white and black students. As the Federal government had FAR more power to do this in the Territories and former Confederate states STILL not returned to the Union, this would prove a rather risky experiment.

In Louisiana, truncated Alabama, Georgia, Florida and South Carolina, this “integration” would inspire greater resistance…and violence….among the white population. Burning of schools and churches returned. However, as for the students themselves, the greater portion of the white population refused to send their children to school, leaving the schools disproportionately populated by black children (which was largely fine by them).

This would have a terrible effect upon the white population of which only tiny minority could afford private tutors. Much of an entire generation of white children were deprived of school.

Only a handful of northern and western states would follow suit to this Federal dictate though and segregation remained common with black students almost always deprived of equal resources.

Luanda, Angola

Against his father’s wishes, young Theodore Roosevelt would apply for a position in Luanda with the Co-Protectorate government. An athletic young man of great wealth, the New Yorker sought a “more exciting life” than the business office his father envisioned of him.

In many ways, Roosevelt clashed with his aristocratic father, not least in the fact that the elder Roosevelt had declined to serve in the War Between the States. By the time that the conflict had expanded to Britain and (at least nominally) France, the American government’s policy of allowing wealthy men to form their own regiments, with themselves as Colonel, had changed and the senior New Yorker had no intention of serving as a “gentleman volunteer” or as starting as a Lieutenant under some plebian Captain. Seeing brave men returning from serving his country while his father did nothing brought a wave of shame to the young man and he vowed never to see his nation in peril without extending every effort to her defense.

Thus, when the Co-Protectorate sought out soldiers for their newly raised regiments in “Southwest Africa”, Roosevelt volunteered. The Co-Protectorate would raise forces largely of locals but also some foreign volunteers. As a “gentleman”, Roosevelt was naturally offered a Lieutenant’s position. This was adequate enough for Roosevelt who longed for adventure more than status.
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