A sort of timetable for this might be:- - For whatever reason, the Amerindians manage to keep all or most European invasions and settlements out. - Spain, chased out of Mexico, occupies Morocco. A big Muslim army is wiped out at (say) Alcazarquivir alias Al Ksar al Kebir. Spanish settlers pour in. - Other nations get alarmed at Spanish spread. France grabs Algeria and Britain grabs Egypt, both well before OTL. - Much of the settlement wave that OTL went to the Americas, goes instead to North Africa, particularly to Egypt, which only had about 2 million population and much of the Delta was uncultivated papyrus swamp. More settlement than OTL, because the European settlers didn't have as far to go. Plus Britain bringing Indians in from India. - 1820's: the Greek War of Independence is won quicker and less destructively because there is no Muslim Egypt for an Albanian adventurer called Muhammad Ali to use as his power base. - about 1840: native Egyptians are outnumbered by imported Hindu Indians and their descendants, and both of those by Europeans. - Turkey and other Islamic countries try to do something about this; raids and trouble. This leads to a European occupation of the eastern Mediterranean coast, and later Mesopotamia. Much of Mesopotamia is desert, crisscrossed by irrigation canals which have not carried water since Batu Khan's Mongols attacked many centuries before. Mass European settlement there also. Jews tend to go to Palestine, more and sooner than OTL. and become the majority in most of Palestine and Transjordan. In those days Europeans breed fast as well, and the natives decisively lose the breeding race. - Bedouin raids out of the desert become a determined jihad attempt to harass the Europeans into leaving. Trouble goes on for many years. Finally in the 1880's while Turkey's army is tied up in the Balkans yet again, after one damaging raid too many, the Europeans in the Middle East gather all their armies and march into the Hijaz. The Arabs gather all the men they can and harass them and finally cut them off, but the Europeans reach Medina first and hold it. Jews among the army there hold kaddish for their kin who were killed there when Islam arose long before. A navy comes from Britain and lands an army at Yanbu al Bahr. Relief of Medina. The general in charge at first wants to respect the natives' religion, but that would leave enemies unfought. He "crosses the Rubicon" and marches southeast; another army lands at Jidda. The Battle of Mecca lasts 17 days with much loss of life on both sides and leaves little standing there. It is said that 5 out of 6 of the native warriors of Arabia perished in that battle. (Transplant OTL Omdurman and make it much bigger.) British find nothing much stopping them from marching through the rest of the Hijaz and the Tihama and linking up with Aden. Much trouble in Muslim-inhabited colonies across the world, but it is gradually suppressed. The British authorities at first are willing to let the Arabs rebuild and ready their sacred area for the next Hajj. Under cover of the rebulding and the pilgrimage, many weapons are smuggled in. Native revolt, which is suppressed after 9 days. The Hajj is not allowed again after that. - 1890's and around: After one too many Bedouin attacks from the desert, the Arabian desert is gradually cleared of Bedouin, who are resettled as settled farmers. After that, the desert vegetation, rid at long last of nomadic grazing pressure, slowly starts to recover, and the area slowly becomes rainier. - 1920's: Oil is discovered in Arabia. That makes Britain even less willing to quit Arabia. Archaeologists dig the former Kaaba area and find what they find about the pre-Islamic history of the area. - 1932: The Black Stone finally turns up, in a regiment's trophy room in Aldershot in England. - 1970 say: A map of Egypt shows in the Delta large areas where up to 75% of the place names are European type and some Hindi, and some names in Ancient Egyptian by scholarly people who treated it as the right language for the area. As OTL, Egypt has its own aircraft factory near Helwan - but the suburb round the factory is called Vimananagar and no name in the language of the religion of the Prophet; its borough limits signa are in the Roman alphabet and Devanagari and hieroglyphics but not Arabic. Helwan is still called Helwan, despite two attempts by some of its inhabitants to get rid of the apparent reference to Hell and rename the town Bletchley after the town or origin of the first white settlers in the area.