ES1702's Wikibox & Graphics Thread

Scotland Say "Yes"
First May Cabinet
3rd December 2014

Scotland Say "Yes"
Prolongation of Parliament Act 2015
The Prolongation of Parliament Act 2015 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that made legal provision for the extension of the 55th Parliament beyond the fixed five-year term set out in the Fixed Term Parliaments Act 2011. The end of the parliamentary term would be extended from 2015 to 2016 under the legislation. It was the 11th Act of Parliament of its kind, after the 10 Acts passed during the First and Second World Wars. It was triggered by the question of whether Scotland, having voted for independence in 2014, should participate in the scheduled 2015 general election and whether Scottish MPs leaving mid-term would cause political instability in the United Kingdom. To avoid this issue, the Conservatives, Labour and Liberal Democrats agreed to a one-time extension of the parliamentary term. The proposal was announced by Prime Minister Theresa May on 4 January 2015 and the bill was introduced on 5 January 2015 and received Royal Assent on 29 January 2015.

Scotland Says "Yes"
2016 United Kingdom General Election
The 2016 United Kingdom General Election was called on Tuesday 23rd February by Prime Minister Theresa May for Thursday 7th April. The passage of the Scotland Act 2016, giving effect the secession of Scotland, the week before led to the call for the election, one month earlier than the deadline provided for by the Prolongation of Parliament Act in order to avoid a clash with elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly and the National Assembly for Wales scheduled for 5th May. The House of Commons passed the motion for an early election under the Fixed Term Parliament Act 2011 without division. The 55th Parliament was dissolved on 29th February. Scotland left the United Kingdom during the campaign, on Thursday 24th March.

The notional 2010 results would have had the Conservatives on 306 seats (37.8% of the vote), with Labour on 217 (27.8% o the vote), the Liberal Democrats on 46 (23.4% of the vote) and other parties on 22 - a Conservative overall majority of 21. The outcome of the 2016 general election was an increase Conservative overall majority of 55, on 323 seats (40.0% of the vote), Labour increasing its number of seats to 238 (33.2% of the vote) and the Liberal Democrats falling to just 8 seats (9.1% of the vote). The UK Independence Party failed to win any seats, but won 10.4% of the national vote. The Greens retained their 1 seat and achieved a record vote of 4.1%.


UK Independence Party: 2,948,523 (10.4%) (+7.1), 0 Seats (+0)
Green Party: 1,157,364 (4.1%) (+3.1), 1 Seat (+0)

Plaid Cymru: 165,337 (0.6%) (+0.0), 3 seats (+0)
Others: 749,007 (2.6%) (-3.5), 18 seats (+0)

Following the General Election, Theresa May formed a majority government and her second ministry. Ed Miliband tendered his resignation as Leader of the Labour Party and Nick Clegg tendered his resignation of the Leader of the Liberal Democrats.
The Inevitable Revolution - P1
1995 Conservative Leadership Election
On 22nd June 1995, Prime Minister John Major, frustrated at rebellious backbenchers and constant rumours of a leadership challenge, challenged his rivals to 'put up or shut up' by resigning the leadership of the Conservative Party. Major stood for re-election in the contest, scheduled for 4th July. On 26th June, the Wales Secretary, right-winger John Redwood, resigned from the Cabinet and announced his decision to challenge Major for the leadership. In order to win the contest in the first round a candidate needed both an absolute majority of the electorate (equivalent to 165 votes) and a 15% margin over the runner-up (50 votes). In the first ballot on 4th July, John Major won outright with 208 votes and a lead of over 100 votes over Redwood. However, prior to the result Major had set a private threshold of 215 votes and had resolved to resign for good if he fell below this, which he did. Major announced his resignation immediately and confirmed he would not stand again for the leadership and would resign as Prime Minister once a successor was elected.

With Major standing down, members of the Cabinet were now freely able to stand for the leadership. 3 of them did so: Michael Heseltine, President of the Board of Trade; Michael Portillo, Secretary of State for Employment; and Gillian Shephard, Secretary of State for Education. In the second ballot, a candidate only needed an absolute majority to win. If no candidate succeeded the two candidates with the highest number of votes would proceed to a third ballot.

The second ballot was held on 11th July. Michael Heseltine came first with 154 votes, 11 votes short of a majority. Michael Portillo came second on 112. John Redwood lost a significant amount of support, only winning 51 votes. Gillian Shephard won 12 votes. Heseltine and Portillo proceeded to a third, and final, ballot on 13th July in which Heseltine won 170 votes to Portillo's 142. John Major resigned as Prime Minister on Friday 14th July and recommended to The Queen that she invite Heseltine to form a government, which he accepted. When forming his Cabinet, Heseltine asked Portillo to become Foreign Secretary and Shephard to become Employment Secretary. Redwood was not invited to join the Cabinet with allies of the new Prime Minister saying his 'blatant disloyalty cannot be rewarded'.

First Ballot (4th July)
- John Major: 208 (63.4%)
- John Redwood 94 (28.6%)
- Abstentions: 15 (4.6%)
- Spoilt: 12 (3.6%)
Second Ballot (11th July)
- Michael Heseltine: 154 (46.9%)
- Michael Portillo: 112 (34.0%)
- John Redwood: 51 (15.5%)
- Gillian Shephard: 12 (3.6%)
Third Ballot (13th July)
- Michael Heseltine: 170 (51.7%)
- Michael Portillo: 142 (43.2%)
- Abstentions: 11 (3.3%)
- Spoilt: 6 (1.8%)


Vote ShareProjected Commons Seats
Labour (Blair): 47%
Conservative (Major): 32%
Lib Dem (Ashdown): 17%
Others: 4%

Labour Lead +15%
Labour (Blair): 409 (+136)
Conservative (Major): 193 (-150)
Lib Dem (Ashdown): 31 (+13)
Others: 26 (+1)

Labour Majority of 159
Labour (Blair): 45%
Conservative (Heseltine): 35%
Lib Dem (Ashdown): 16%
Others: 4%

Labour Lead +10%
Labour (Blair): 380 (+107)
Conservative (Heseltine): 234 (-109)
Lib Dem (Ashdown): 20 (+2)
Others: 25 (+0)

Labour Majority of 101
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The Inevitable Revolution - P2
1997 United Kingdom General Election
The 1997 United Kingdom General Election was called by Prime Minister Michael Heseltine on 24th April for Thursday 22nd May, the latest possible date under law, with Parliament dissolved on 28th April. The Labour Party under Tony Blair presented a more centrist policy agenda that in previous elections, under the brand of 'New Labour', which included promises of devolution referendums for Scotland and Wales. Michael Heseltine had spent his 22 months as Prime Minister seeking to rebuild public trust in the Conservatives following a number of scandals, including Black Wednesday, by focusing on the economic recovery but divisions still remained within the party over Europe.

Opinion polls before and during the early parts of the campaign showed strong support for Labour. The first-ever live television debates in a UK general election were held on 7th May and 15th May between Heseltine, Blair and Ashdown. Blair initially refused to partake in debates owing to his party's substantial poll lead, but later wrote that his campaign determined that not participating while the other leaders did would damage his personal popularity that had fuelled Labour's surge in the polls since he became leader in 1994. The debates proved beneficial for Heseltine, who was judged to have won the second debate. Ashdown's strong performance provided a small boost for the Liberal Democrats in the polls.

The final result of the election saw a landslide majority for Labour, making a net gain of 99 seats and winning 41.0% of the vote. The Conservatives suffered defeat with a net loss of 116 seats and winning 33.4% of the vote. The Liberal Democrats gained 16 new seats and increased their vote to 19.3%. The overall result of the election ended 18 years Conservative government, in their worst defeat since 1945.


Labour Majority of 85
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Unrelated: For those who have been following my TL 'The Inevitable Revolution', I'm currently debating with myself whether to just revert it to a wikibox TL on this thread here, rather than a dedicated TL, partly owing to fluctuating motivation to write it and difficulty in writing some of the posts to the standard I would like them to be.
Tony Blair wins a third term for the Labour Party, but despite the campaign beginning with Labour ahead of the Conservatives by 2-5% and on course for a substantial majority, the party's majority in the House of Commons crashes from 160 seats to 8 seats. At 30.1%, it is the lowest share of the vote for a majority government and the first time that the party who came second in terms of votes won an outright majority in terms of seats. The Conservatives under Iain Duncan Smith suffer a small drop in their share of the vote, but gain over 40 seats and win the popular vote by a margin of 1.3%. The Liberal Democrats under Charles Kennedy surge to almost 30% of the vote and gain over 35 seats to achieve the best result for a third party since 1923.

Tony Blair faced intense criticism of his campaign and the UK's involvement of the war in Iraq and faced demands to set a timetable for his departure. On 14th October, Blair announced he would resign before Christmas after the Livingston by-election defeat in September and reports that several ministers had asked for him to resign soon 'for the good of the party' going forward. Chancellor Gordon Brown was the only candidate to successfully qualify for the leadership ballot and was declared leader at a special conference on 19th November. Blair resigned and Brown became Prime Minister on Wednesday 23rd November 2005. John Prescott resigned as Deputy Leader and Deputy Prime Minister and was succeeded by Alan Johnson in both posts after he won 51.2% of the vote in the election for the deputy leadership.

Based on this September 2003 poll


SNP: 1.5% (-0.2) and 2 seats (-2); Plaid Cymru: 0.8% (+0.1) and 5 seats (+1); Others 6.6% (-0.3) and 18 seats (-1)

Gordon Brown was popular as Prime Minister and concluded that the 8-seat majority he had inherited from Blair would be insufficient to govern with until 2009 or 2010. After strong performances in the local elections on 4th May, in which Labour won 36% of the Projected National Share while the Conservatives won 30% and the Liberal Democrats won 27% - a swing which would, if a General Election had been held, put Labour on around 340 seats, the Conservatives on around 200, the Liberal Democrats on around 80 and other parties on 25, according to projections, leaving Labour with a hypothetical majority of 34.


Buoyed by these results, and by strong public and private polling, Gordon Brown announced on 7th June that he was calling a snap election to take place on Wednesday 5th July 2006 - the first UK election not to be held on a Thursday since 1931, and made so in order to avoid the election aftermath overlapping with the first anniversary of the 7/7 bombings on Friday 7th July. Brown focused his campaign on leadership and the economy, while Iain Duncan Smith focused on the public finances, immigration and law & order issues. Charles Kennedy focused his campaign on the finances, foreign policy and political reform. Boundary changes had yet to come into force in England and Northern Ireland, meaning there were still 646 seats to fight in this election.

Brown emerged victorious in the election with an increased overall majority of 20 seats in the House of Commons and increased Labour's vote share by over 4%. The Guardian reported over the following weekend that the Prime Minister had "hoped for more" but was "happy" with more than doubling the majority Blair had won 14 months earlier. The Conservatives increased their vote and number of seats slightly, but the disappointing performance and increased majority for the government led to Iain Duncan Smith announcing his resignation. Charles Kennedy resigned as Leader of the Liberal Democrats after their vote and seat count fell backwards compared to 2005.


SNP: 1.6% (+0.1) and 4 seats (+2); Plaid Cymru: 0.6% (-0.2) and 4 seats (-1); Others 6.5% (-0.1) and 18 seats (+0)

In the ensuing leadership election for the Conservatives there were 5 number of candidates seeking to replace IDS: Theresa May (Chairman of the Party); Liam Fox (Shadow Health Secretary); David Davis (Shadow Deputy Prime Minister); George Osborne (Shadow Chief Secretary); and Ken Clarke (former Chancellor). In the election to succeed Charles Kennedy as Lib Dem leader there were 2 candidates: Simon Hughes (Party President) and Chris Huhne (Environment Spokesperson).

CandidateFirst Ballot (20 July)Second Ballot (25 July)Members' Ballot (8 September)
MAY, Theresa39 (18.8%)53 (25.5%)XXX
FOX, Liam32 (15.4%)EliminatedXXX
DAVIS, David57 (27.4%)83 (39.9%)120,932 (58.3%)
OSBORNE, George45 (21.6%)72 (34.6%)86,499 (41.7%)
CLARKE, Kenneth35 (16.8%)WithdrewXXX
Total Votes Cast208 (100%)208 (100%)207,431 (100%)

CandidateResult of Election (16 September)
HUHNE, Chris28,692 (56.7%)
HUGHES, Simon21,911 (43.3%)
Total Votes Cast50,603 (Turnout of 73.1%)

The 2011 General Election was called by Gordon Brown on 10th May to be held on 9th June. In retrospect, Brown had been commended by Labour colleagues for calling the 2006 election when he did due to the financial crash that awaited and would've still been hard-hitting in 2009/10. Even in 2011, though, the effects of the recession were still present. Brown used the campaign to emphasise the progress being made in the economic recovery, with growth of 2.0% expected for 2011, and touted his leadership in the global response as evidence of "strong Britain" under Labour rule. David Davis, meanwhile, fought the election on a platform of "Modern Conservatism" which included radical policies such as the creation of an English Parliament, abolishing inheritance tax for assets under £2 million, a referendum on Britain's EU membership and reforms to political party funding.

Despite some fluctuating polls throughout the campaign, in the end it wasn't close - at least in terms of vote share. Davis brought to an end 14 years of Labour government and won the first majority for the Conservatives in 19 years. The net gains of 113 were the largest for the party since 1931, while Labour's net loss of 123 was also its biggest since 1931 amounting to its worst election result since 1935 in terms of seats and its worst result since 1918 in terms of share of the vote. It was only a majority of 14, but it was a majority nonetheless that allowed the Conservatives to return. Chris Huhne had made little impact on the campaign with the Lib Dems remaining fairly consistent in the polling, picking up disaffected cosmopolitan Labour voters. Those voters helped reduce some of the 2006 losses to put the party back above 80 seats and only 60,000 votes (0.2%) behind the Labour Party nationally.


SNP 1.7% (+0.1) and 6 seats (+2); Plaid Cymru 0.7% (+0.1) and 5 seats (+2); Others 8.5% (+2.0) and 19 seats (+1)

Gordon Brown resigned as the Leader of the Labour Party on the morning of 10th June, beginning the process for electing a new leader.
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Prime Minister David Davis travelled to Brussels for the European Council Summit on 23rd June 2011, just two weeks after entering Number 10. There, he set out his plans to the EU's 26 other leaders for how he would seek to honour his manifesto commitment to hold a referendum on the future of the United Kingdom's membership of the European Union. The legislation to allow the referendum to be held had been introduced in the Queen's Speech on 22nd June but did not set a specific date, with that to be determined by Davis in due course. The vote, he told the EU26, should take place in the "first half of 2013" with the remainder of 2011 and the whole of 2012 being used to renegotiate elements of the UK's terms of membership. Davis, and his Foreign Secretary Theresa May, had a reform agenda spanning areas from fishing to borders to social policy. Without sufficient change, Davis told leaders, he would recommend to voters that the UK votes to leave the EU.

Negotiations continued throughout the 2012 and early 2013. Davis was reported to have walked out of the 8th February European Council meeting and Brussels sources said talks had 'collapsed' primarily over border and fishing issues. Cabinet was called to meet in Downing Street on Saturday 9th February 2013 after which Davis made a statement announcing the "regretful termination" of talks with the EU because of "irreconcilable differences". Davis said both he and European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso were united in their view that "nothing could be agreed until everything was agreed" and therefore nothing could be agreed. "This is not the outcome I wanted, but we now find ourselves in this unenviable position. I told our friends and partners in the EU that without sufficient change, I would encourage voters to vote to leave the EU. Unfortunately, sufficient change has not been agreed and therefore I can confirm that the Government will recommend that you vote to leave the European Union in the referendum that will take place on Thursday, 16th May".

Prime Minister David Davis, Foreign Secretary Theresa May, Home Secretary Boris Johnson, Labour MP Gisela Stuart and former Labour MP Tony Benn led the campaign to "Leave" the EU. Labour leader Alan Johnson, former Lib Dem leaders Paddy Ashdown and Charles Kennedy and Conservative MP Ken Clarke led the campaign to "Remain" inside the EU. Former Prime Ministers John Major, Tony Blair and Gordon Brown campaigned to "Remain" in the EU, while Margaret Thatcher announced four weeks before polling day that she would vote to "Leave".


After the vote to leave the EU, Davis said the "long walk to a Greater Britain" had begun. Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty, the mechanism by which the UK would leave the EU, was triggered on Wednesday 30th October 2013. The UK left the EU with a Norway-style arrangement at 11pm on Friday 30th October 2015, passing the House of Commons by 504-137.


The 2016 General Election was called on 10th May for Thursday 16th June 2016. It was the first election since 1970 when Britain was not a member of the European Union after the withdrawal seven months prior. David Davis had built up what the media described as a 'new coalition' of voters, encompassing more Northern and traditional Labour voters in areas that voted to Leave the EU. The Conservative campaign focused on a "Great British Revival" with more investment in public services, reducing the tax burden on the poorest, new infrastructure projects, reform of the House of Lords, forming free trade partnerships around the world and keeping open the possibility of adjusting the UK's new relationship with the EU.

Under Alan Johnson, Labour focused on schools and the NHS pledging more funding for these key public services, climate change and green issues and on creating a "United Kingdom Cohesion Fund" to funnel money into deprived communities and unused wasteland for development. The Liberal Democrats were still tarnished by the driving convictions of former leader Chris Huhne, who resigned in 2012, but under Simon Hughes they pledged alignment with the European Union in all relevant areas with a view to laying the path towards rejoining and also pledged immediate reform of the electoral system for Westminster elections without a referendum citing the last few election results as further justification for their cause.

The Conservatives remained ahead of Labour by around 7-10% throughout the campaign. The Liberal Democrats peaked at 28% before a slow decline in the run-up to polling day. In the end, the Conservatives won an overall majority of 62 in the House of Commons, their largest since 1987.


SNP: 1.9% (+0.2) and 9 seats (+3); Plaid Cymru: 0.6% (-0.1) and 4 seats (-1); Others: 7.7% (-0.8) and 19 seats (+0)

CandidateResult (17 September)
Alan Johnson69,184 (52.2%)
David Miliband50,496 (38.1%)
Harriet Harman12,856 (9.7%)
Total Votes Cast132,536 (Turnout of 74.9%)

CandidateResult (7 April)
Simon Hughes29,885 (55.1%)
Edward Davey24,353 (44.9%)
Total Votes Cast54,238 (Turnout of 71.2%)

Candidate1st Round ResultFinal Round Result (17 September)
David Miliband88,515 (43.2%)107,058 (53.0%)
Chuka Umunna44,462 (21.7%)Eliminated
Angela Eagle71,919 (35.1%)94,939 (47.0%)
Total Votes Cast204,896 (Turnout of 76.8%)201,997

CandidateResult (2 September)
David Laws40,796 (62.9%)
Edward Davey24,062 (37.1%)
Total Votes Cast64,858 (Turnout of 79.2%)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ (2007-2019) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Elections to the Scottish Parliament are held every four years using the Additional Member System, whereby 73 MSPs are elected to represent constituencies using first past the post and 56 MSPs are elected to represent regions of Scotland using list proportional representation

The Leader of the Scottish Labour Party, Jack McConnell, was re-elected First Minister on 16th May with 69 votes, compared to Alex Salmond's 44 and 16 abstentions, following the reformation of the Labour-Liberal Democrat coalition which had been governing since the first election in 1999.


Jack McConnell was elected to a third term as First Minister on 18th May, nine and a half years after first taking up the post, with Labour having won an overall majority in the election (in large part due to standing more separate candidates for list seats and constituencies enabling more seats to be won on lists) the first such win in the history of the Scottish Parliament, bringing to an end 12 years of coalition with the Liberal Democrats. McConnell won the vote with 65 votes, compared to Alex Salmond's 31 votes and 33 abstentions.


Johann Lamont had succeeded Jack McConnell to become the first female First Minister of Scotland in November 2012 when McConnell stepped down after 11 years in the job. In the 2015 election, Labour's majority in the Scottish Parliament was lost but they remained the largest party by far. The Conservatives, under their new leader Ruth Davidson, made substantial gains to challenge the SNP, under their new leader Nicola Sturgeon, for second place. Following the election, Lamont said she would form a minority Labour government with confidence and supply from the Liberal Democrats. Lamont was re-elected First Minister on 20th May with 57 votes to Nicola Sturgeon's 33 and 39 abstentions.


The 2019 Scottish Parliament election marked 20 years since the first election to the body and marked a historic moment in the history of the Parliament as the Conservatives became the second largest party for the first time, overtaking the SNP. On 15th May, Johann Lamont won the vote to become First Minister with 50 votes, compared to 36 for Nicola Sturgeon, 34 for Ruth Davidson and 9 abstentions. Labour would govern in minority, but again made arrangements with the Liberal Democrats to provide extra votes. Vote-by-vote arrangements were also made with the Greens and Conservatives to provide further votes when necessary.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ (2007-2019) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Elections to the National Assembly for Wales are held every four years using the Additional Member System, whereby 40 AMs are elected to represent constituencies using first past the post and 20 AMs are elected to represent regions of Wales using list proportional representation

Rhodri Morgan was re-elected First Minister of Wales in the Assembly vote on 26th May after Labour won a majority in the National Assembly in the election, after fielding more candidates for the list seats than in 2003. Rhodri Morgan won 33 votes, Nick Bourne won 13 and there were 14 abstentions. Their gains, alongside those of the now second place Conservatives, were primarily at the expense of Plaid Cymru, who lost a third of their seats.


As before the 2007 election, there was intense speculation that if Labour fell short of a majority there would be a three-way coalition to remove them from government. In the end, they lost 5 seats and fell 3 short of a majority. The Conservatives, Plaid Cymru and Liberal Democrats commenced negotiations on a coalition that concluded successfully on 10th May ahead of the scheduled vote to elect the First Minister on 11th May. Nick Bourne was elected with 32 votes, to Carwyn Jones' 28, ending 12 years of Labour government in Wales.


The Conservatives and Plaid Cymru formed a new coalition following the 2015 election, with Nick Bourne being elected First Minister on 13th May with 30 votes, compared to 26 for John Griffiths and 4 abstentions. While the Liberal Democrats would no longer be participating in the coalition, they would support the coalition on a case-by-case basis where necessary.


The Conservative-Plaid Cymru coalition was renewed after the 2019 election, with Nick Bourne re-elected for a third term as First Minister on 8th May. Bourne won 31 votes, with Vaughan Gething winning 26 and 3 abstentions.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ (2008-2020) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Elections for the Mayor of London take place every four years using the supplementary vote system, alongside elections to the London Assembly. The Assembly and the Mayoral position were established following a referendum in 1998, with the first election taking place in 2000.

Incumbent Mayor Ken Livingstone was re-elected for a third term, and his second term as a Labour Mayor. The Conservative candidate, Henley MP Boris Johnson, had been widely tipped to win the election but his defeat was blamed on his campaign's lack of canvassing for second preference votes and his 'rudeness' to the Liberal Democrat candidate in the Newsnight debate.


For the second election in a row, the Conservative candidate (now London Assembly Member Andrew Boff) won the first round of voting, but incumbent Labour Mayor Ken Livingstone won a fourth term on the second round, albeit by a narrow margin. Successes on transport, green issues and preparations for the London Olympics in July and August were considered key reasons for Livingstone's victory.



Lord Sebastian Coe, the Chairman of the Organising Committee for London 2012, won the 2016 mayoral election in London to become the first Conservative Mayor of London. Ken Livingstone had announced his intention to stand down as Mayor in 2016 and not seek a fifth term. Former minister Tessa Jowell was selected as the Labour candidate. The Green Party candidate, Sian Berry, overtook the Liberal Democrats for the first time to take third place in the election.


Sebastian Coe won a second term of Mayor of London in the 2020 election after a successful first time in which London hosted the IAAF World Athletics Championships, decreased unemployment and poverty, increased affordable housing and reduced carbon emissions. Shadow minister David Lammy was the candidate selected by Labour to contend the election, who saw a drop in the share of first preference votes compared to 2016, but increased the final round share of the vote for Labour. Sian Berry was the Green candidate for a second time and increased the Green share of first preference votes to over 10% for the first time.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ (2015-2019) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Elections to the English Parliament are held every four years using the Additional Member System by which 185 MEPs are elected to single-member constituencies using first past the post and 115 MEPs are elected to multi-member districts using list proportional representation. The Parliament was established by the England Act 2013, enacting one of the key political reform policies of the government of David Davis elected in 2011.

The inaugural election for the English Parliament took place on 7th May 2015, alongside elections to the other devolved institutions in the United Kingdom. The Conservatives, under the leadership of Rory Stewart, won the election with 138 seats and a lead of over eight points in the constituency popular vote, though Labour under Lucy Powell narrowly won the regional vote nationally after strong performances in the districts in London, the North East, North West and Yorkshire & the Humber.

The first English Government was formed by Stewart after being elected First Minster on Friday 15th May with 140 votes, compared to Powell's 124 votes and 36 abstentions. The Liberal Democrats, under the leadership of Nick Clegg, abstained after having agreed to support Stewart's government on a confidence and supply basis. UKIP's 2 MEPs supported Stewart's election as First Minister without any discussions between the two parties taking place.


The second election to the English Parliament took place at the end of Rory Stewart's first four-year term as First Minister of England. The election was noted for the rise of the smaller parties as the media reported "the English have finally understood the point of PR". The Greens and Liberal Democrats were the biggest gainers of the election, with the Reform Party (formerly UKIP) also improving significantly on 2015. Both Labour and the Conservatives saw falls in their votes and seats. Following the election, the Conservatives entered into talks with the Liberal Democrats about forming a coalition government. These were successful and on 10th May Rory Stewart was elected to a second term as First Minister with 170 votes, compared to 124 for Lucy Powell and 6 abstentions.

The 2021 General Election, sometimes referred to as the 'David Election' in reference to the fact that the leaders of the three main party leaders were all called David, was called on 12th May by Prime Minister David Davis for 10th June. The Parliamentary Constituencies Act 2018 substantially reduced the size of the House of Commons from 650 to 550, after England received a devolved legislature. The conditions for boundaries in the Act resulted in England having 444 seats (-89), Scotland having 56 seats (-3), Wales having 32 seats (-8) and Northern Ireland having 18 seats (=). The notional 2016 result on the new boundaries left the Conservatives with an overall majority of 62, on 306 seats while Labour had under half of that on 152 seats.

After seeing their support rise in England after the introduction of the English Parliament, the Greens were seen as the success story of the election, doubling their vote share to almost 5% and gaining an additional seat to take their numbers to 2 MPs. The Conservatives won a third term under David Davis, with a reduced majority of 40 seats. Labour under David Miliband saw a small uptick in their vote share, and increase their seats to almost 170. Both the SNP and Plaid Cymru saw drops in support in Scotland and Wales, respectively.

Davis (72) announced his intention to stand down as Conservative Party leader and Prime Minister before his 75th birthday in December 2023, at the 2021 Conservative Party Conference in Cardiff, by which time he would have served 12 years as Prime Minister - the longest continually serving Prime Minister since Lord North almost 250 years prior (1770-1782) and the longest-serving in general since William Gladstone (four terms between 1868 and 1894).


Greens: 4.9% (+2.8) and 2 seats (+1); SNP: 1.5% (-0.4) and 5 seats (-3);
Plaid Cymru: 0.5% (-0.1) and 3 seats (=); Others: 5.5% (-0.1) and 18 seats (=)
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ (1940-2023) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


Donald Dewar (Labour): 17 May 1999- 11 October 2000

Elections: 1999 (Labour-Lib Dem)
Tenure: 1 year, 147 days

Jim Wallace (Liberal Democrat): 11 October 2000 - 26 October 2000

Elections: N/A
Tenure: 15 days

Henry McLeish (Labour): 26 October 2000 - 8 November 2001
Elections: N/A

Tenure: 1 year, 13 days
Jim Wallace (Liberal Democrat): 8 November 2001 - 22 November 2001
Elections: N/A
Tenure: 14 days

Jack McConnell (Labour): 22 November 2001 - 20 November 2012
Elections: 2003 (Labour-Lib Dem), 2007 (Labour-Lib Dem), 2011 (Labour)
Tenure: 10 years, 360 days

Johann Lamont (Labour): 20 November 2012 - Present Day
Elections: 2015 (Labour), 2019 (Labour)
Tenure: 8 years, 202 days

(As of 10 June 2021)


Alun Michael (Labour): 12 May 1999 - 9 February 2000
Elections: 1999 (Labour)
Tenure: 273 days

Rhodri Morgan (Labour): 9 February 2000 - 9 December 2009
Elections: 2003 (Labour), 2007 (Labour)
Tenure: 9 years, 303 days

Carwyn Jones (Labour): 9 December 2009 - 11 May 2011
Elections: N/A
Tenure: 1 year, 153 days

Nick Bourne (Conservative): 11 May 2011 - 2 April 2021
Elections: 2011 (Conservative-Plaid-Lib Dem), 2015 (Conservative-Plaid), 2019 (Conservative-Plaid)
Tenure: 9 years, 326 days

Suzy Davies (Conservative): 2 April 2021 - Present Day
Elections: N/A
Tenure: 69 days

(As of 10 June 2021)

Rory Stewart (Conservative): 15 May 2015 - Present Day

Elections: 2015 (Conservative), 2019 (Conservative-Lib Dem)
Tenure: 6 years, 30 days

(As of 10 June 2021)


Ken Livingstone (Labour): 4 May 2000 - 7 May 2016
Elections: 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012
Tenure: 16 years, 3 days

Sebastian Coe (Conservative): 7 May 2016 - Present
Elections: 2016, 2020
Tenure: 5 years, 34 days

(As of 10 June 2021)

United Kingdom
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
The United Kingdom, as it is currently constituted, was established on 6th December 2018, though its roots are traced back to the Union between the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland in 1707, which was dissolved in 2016 following the 2014 referendum vote for Scotland to secede from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The Act of Union between Great Britain and Ireland was dissolved in 2018 following the reunification of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, enacting the result of the 2017 border poll on unification.

England and Wales continue to form the United Kingdom, with a population of 59,439,840 and the 7th largest GDP in the world at $2.34 trillion in 2019. The United Kingdom has been a member of the European Union since 1st January 1973, but is in the process of withdrawing following the referendum vote to leave the EU in May 2019, which saw 53.2% vote to leave. The UK's exit is scheduled for 31st January 2022, two years after the triggering of Article 50 of the Treaty of Lisbon. The UK is also a member of the G7, G20, United Nations, IMF, OECD, NATO, Council of Europe, WTO and Commonwealth of Nations. It is a great power, a recognised nuclear weapons state and has the world's sixth highest defence expenditure.

Whilst remaining one of the few countries in the world without a single codified constitution, the Constitution Act 2019 sets out that the United Kingdom is a de jure unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy, though it is a de facto federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy with England and Wales having their own legislatures and governments with defined minimum powers entrenched in the Act. The UK government remains responsible for common standards, foreign policy, defence, immigration, the constitution, currency and a number of other areas of competency. The United Kingdom Parliament consists of a House of Commons of 448 proportionally elected members and a House of Lords of 250 appointed members.

The current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has been on the throne since 6th February 1952 making her the longest-reigning monarch in British history. The current Prime Minister is Michael Gove, who took office in June 2017 after David Cameron resigned following the Northern Ireland referendum result. Gove won a majority for the governing Conservative Party in the 2020 general election, securing a full five-year term in office.


The Long Walk - Part One

2016 United Kingdom European Union Membership Referendum
The United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, commonly referred to as the EU referendum or the Brexit referendum, took place on 23rd June 2016 in the United Kingdom and Gibraltar to ask the electorate whether the country should remain a member of, or leave, the European Union. The result would then be facilitated through the European Union Referendum Act 2015 and also the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000. The referendum resulted in 50.3% of the votes cast being in favour of remaining in the EU. The result was welcomed by Prime Minister David Cameron, the European Union and the United States of America. Prominent campaigners in favour of leaving the EU, including UKIP leader Nigel Farage, have called for a second referendum to be held owing to the closeness of the 2016 result.

Membership of the EU had long been a topic of debate in the United Kingdom. The country joined the European Economic Community, the forerunner to the European Union, in 1973, along with the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Atomic Energy Community. A referendum on continued membership of the EEC was held in 1975, with 67.2% of the population voting in favour of Britain remaining a member. Another referendum on the issue was held in 2016 following the election of a majority Conservative government in the 2015 general election after their manifesto pledge to hold an in/out referendum on the question before 2017. Britain Stronger in Europe became the official group campaigning for the UK to remain in the EU and was endorsed by Prime Minister David Cameron, Chancellor George Osborne and Conservative MP Boris Johnson. Vote Leave was the official group campaigning for the UK to leave the EU and was fronted by Conservative MPs Michael Gove and Penny Mordaunt, along with Labour MP Gisela Stuart. Other campaign groups, political parties, businesses, trade unions, newspapers and prominent individuals were also involved, with both sides having supporters across the political spectrum. Parties in favour of Remain included Labour, the Liberal Democrats, the SNP, Plaid Cymru and the Green Party, while UKIP campaigned in favour of leaving the EU. The Conservative Party remained neutral. In spite of their official positions, both Labour and the Conservatives allowed their MPs to publicly campaign for either side of the issue.

Immediately after the result, financial markets reacted positively and the value of the Pound rose significantly. David Cameron remained Prime Minister and conducted a reshuffle of his Cabinet one week after the vote which saw prominent campaigners for Leave given jobs in a bid to demonstrate unity. The closeness of the result and the dissatisfaction with Labour's own campaign led to continued leadership problems in the party. Support for UKIP rose in the aftermath of the result.



The Long Walk - Part Two

Aftermath of the European Union Referendum
The result of the referendum had been in doubt throughout the whole of referendum night. Two polls were published when polls closed at 10pm on 23rd June. One from YouGov had the Remain campaign leading by 52% to 48% and another from Ipsos MORI had the Leave campaign leading by 51% to 49%, giving no unanimous view on what had happened over the 15 hours of voting throughout the day though the average of the polls predicted 50.5% for Remain, close to the final result. The first two results from England both showed stronger performances for Remain than had been expected if the country was going to be split 50-50. The BBC's 'Polling Index' to make those forecasts had Sunderland voting 59-41 to Leave in the event of a 50-50 split, it actually voted 58-42 to Leave, while Newcastle was expected to vote 60-40 to Remain in the event of a 50-50 split, it actually voted 62-38 to Remain. The closeness of the result meant it was not until 5:52 in the morning after over 365 of the 382 counting areas had declared that it could be forecast officially that Britain had voted to Remain inside the EU, albeit very narrowly with a final margin of victory for Remain of just 163,000 votes.

The stock markets and currency markets rose around the world on the confirmation of the result, while campaigners for both campaigns welcomed and derided the result. The Leader of the Liberal Democrats, Tim Farron, called the result a "moment of joyous history" and senior Remain campaigner & Energy Secretary Amber Rudd said that the United Kingdom had voted to keep the country "on the right the track". Vote Leave campaigner Gisela Stuart said she was "disappointed" at the result, while UKIP leader Nigel Farage said "it is not a done deal" and said it was "inevitable" that there would be a second referendum in just a few years due to the closeness of the result.

David Cameron emerged from Number 10 at 8:20am to deliver a statement on the results and the victory for his renegotiated terms of membership for the UK in the EU.

This referendum was perhaps the biggest democratic exercise in the history of these islands. 33 million people - from England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and yes, even Gibraltar - all having their say in a supreme act of national sovereignty. We should remember that we're fortunate to live in a country with democratic institutions, the rule of law and this - the opportunity to ask the people on an issue that goes to the heart of Britain's place in the world. And we will never forget that, during this exercise in democracy, we lost a true servant of democracy, the brilliant MP and campaigner Jo Cox.

The British people have spoken and decided to remain in a reformed European Union. Let me thank the people who were involved in the campaign: everyone who worked with Britain Stronger in Europe; all the politicians who took the brave decision to cross party lines and argue for what they believed was in the national interest; and all the young people who took to the streets and took to social media to say 'this is about our future - this matters'. But I also want to pay tribute to those involved in the Leave campaign. They made strong arguments about our country and they believed was in its best interests. Of course, no one can deny that there has been vigorous debate on both sides. It has divided families, friends, colleagues - and yes, politicians too. But it has demonstrated that there is one thing that unites us:

We are all patriots.

We all love Britain.

That is what motivated us, what made us so passionate and it is now what must bring everyone back together again. We all believe in Britain and I know I now have a special responsibility to bring not just politicians, but our whole country, back together.

It is worth remembering why we had this renegotiation and referendum. It's because the status quo wasn't working properly for Britain. We needed to fix some of the problems with the EU: safeguarding the pound, cutting bureaucracy, ending 'something for nothing', but above all, I don't think Britain ever felt comfortable about the prospect of deeper political integration. So things needed to change. And now they will. Because we voted to stay in on a reformed basis, key elements of Britain's enhanced special status will be set in stone.

This afternoon in Brussels, new rules to protect Britain from Eurozone discrimination come into force. From today, national parliaments will have new powers to block EU legislation. And - as of this moment - we are out of ever-closer union for good. Let me put that another way: as far as Britain is concerned, the political project for further integration in Europe is over. And next week, I'll be going to a meeting of the European Council to report the result of the referendum. I'll be pointing out to my European counterparts that while just over 50 per cent of our country voted to Remain, almost 50 per cent voted to leave the European Union altogether.

Institutions in Brussels must understand that they work to serve the people and democratically-elected governments of Europe - not the other way round. The EU needs to recognise that this referendum was about not just people making a decision but also about listening. And they will have heard the British people's concerns, for example about the impact of migration, loud and clear. So the work of reform doesn't end here. And Britain's voice gets stronger, too. In all the things we need to do together - fighting terrorism, completing the Single Market, dealing with the migration crisis, creating job opportunities for young people - Britain will now play an even bigger role.

I believe it was right to hold the referendum early on in the Parliament so the uncertainty didn't hang over us. And it was right to say ministers could campaign on whichever side they chose. But the Cabinet will come back together, we will meet on Monday and we will get on with the work set out in our manifesto and Queen's Speech. We are servants of the people. They rightly expect us to do what we were elected to do a year ago. So we must be one government, with one goal: building One Nation.

We want this to be a country in which everyone - whatever their background - can get on in life. Where it doesn't matter where you come from - it's where you're going that counts. That means a stronger economy, so people can get a good job, a decent wage, a home of their own. It means extending life chances right across our country. And let's remember: while there were many people who felt that leaving Europe was a threat to their economic security, there were some who never felt that security to begin with - worried about their job prospects, worried about the impact of migration, worried about getting on in life. They need a government that delivers the security they crave and we will not rest until we build One Nation, in which everyone is a part of Britain's success.

We are on a long walk to a Greater Britain. It's not always a straight line, or the easiest of journeys. But today, thanks to the British people, we've taken what I believe is an important step forwards. We will continue to move ahead with a strong economy that delivers opportunity for all. We will go further and faster in building an open, outward-looking, tolerant society - one that we will be proud to pass on to our children and grandchildren. We will be that big player on the world stage, fighting for our national interest. And we will do so together, as one government, as one people and as one United Kingdom.

Jean Claude Juncker, the President of the European Commission, welcomed the result saying "our close bond with the United Kingdom endures stronger today than ever before". French President Francois Hollande heralded a "Victory for Europe", while German Chancellor Angela Merkel said she was "pleased" that "our close friend and partner" had voted to stay in the EU. Ireland's Taoiseach Enda Kenny said "Northern Ireland and the UK have voted for a positive future, to retain our close relationship and to avoid the unwelcome sight of a new border in Ireland". In the United States, President Obama said he was "enthusiastic" about the "bright" future that lay ahead for US-UK and US-EU relations following the result, sentiments echoed by Democratic presumptive nominee for President, Hillary Clinton. Republic presumptive nominee Donald Trump, who was in Scotland on the morning of the referendum result, said he was "disappointed" by the result, adding he was the "biggest believer" in the idea of Brexit but went on to say "Great Britain is a fantastic country and when I'm in the White House we will the best relationship".

On 30th June, one week after the referendum, David Cameron conduced a wholesale reshuffle of his Cabinet in a 'show of unity' in the Conservative Party after the referendum campaign which divided them down the middle. Prominent Leave campaigners were rewarded with new jobs, while Remain campaigners were shuffled about to different roles.

Great work! I think Cameron might be under pressure given the closeness of the result, if Osborne tries the underhand tactics of the punishment budget ITTL I wouldn’t be surprised to see Leave MPs call for a vote of no confidence in Cameron’s leadership.