Emerald of The Equator: An Indonesian TL

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6.1. Baffled Decade: Indonesia's Domestic Parties
  • 21 May 1968 Kompas TV Exclusive Report

    The evolution of Indonesia’s politics has been quite twisty dynamics. While some marked the decade as the start of a new order in Indonesia, other suggested that it would be more than just that. Growth by the end of the decade have been tremendous, especially nearing the end. Infrastructure was their top priority, along with military. Therefore, these factions, military and business, have gain status as dominant power in Indonesian politics.

    Here’s how…

    The Party of Greater Indonesia, since their Christian start, had become the largest party in Indonesia. That’s one strange case, as Indonesia is faithfully Islam, along with other religious minorities. Their key note on keeping power was, literally, the driving force of a war. So, since the war has ended, the party have to rethink about this strategy. Ignatius Joseph Kasimo Hendrowahyono, leader of PGI in the 60s to 70s, was stuck between a rock and a hard place. In one side, the military had pursued to promote economic stability and general improvement of Indonesia’s infrastructure. In the other hand, the intellectuals persisted in educating the mass about the importance of science in this new era, and approved adventurism to anywhere strategically. No one really know how the intellectuals, or the ‘Purple Faction’, turned more jingoistic than the military itself.

    The abyss of dissolution was barely avoided. If Nasution had not forced a compromise, surely the party would split up. However, the new deal instead boosted the party as a stronger one. It evolved to become a sort of symbiosis. In the end, we instead see these factions swap roles. The Military faction, or now called the Golkar, become a business faction with means of improving civil prosperity. The Purple Faction become a techno-military faction with means of improving self-prestige. In 1969 election, we would see this party victorious once more. As a pro-American party, they supported American actions, at least until America messed up. But during the 60s and so on, the party remained the largest party in Indonesia.

    Party of Greater Indonesia - Partai Indonesia Raya

    LeaderIgnatius Joseph Kasimo Hendrowahyono
    HeadquartersAnggrek Neli Murni Street No.11A
    IdeologyEconomic Liberalism
    National Populism
    Political PositionRight
    International AffiliationPro-United States

    The second party, a satellite for the PGI, was the old National Party of Indonesia. Rather than pro-American authoritarian democrat PGI, the INP was rather a liberal Party. The party used to promote Marhaenism, which functioned similarly like Marxism. However, with the political situations at sight, they threw this to the bin, and instead promote Wilopo’s marvelous legacy, the Asia-Africa Conference. Ali Sastroamidjojo, party leader after Wilopo step down, envisaged more connections to other nations like Egypt, Liberia, India and other liberated nations. Therefore, they sought for reduced American influence in Indonesia. Although this upset the Americans, the INP hovered at the ‘good guys’, and relatively undisturbed, because there were other more troublesome parties at the moment. The party needed an icon that was not too American-backed, but still an American ally. Japan was still mere satellite due to situations in the Korean Peninsula. The Philippines was giving in for a back-door in case Indonesia sever Vietnam assistance, which was ridiculously absurd. However, one Kennedy ally is fairly independent, and suitable, Federal Kingdom of Germany.

    Federal Kingdom of Germany was a developing kingdom. Their brilliant strategy of curbing anti-French radicals while cooperating with left-wing populace of Eastern Germany maintain the balance within the Kingdom. The Reich indeed detested Thorezian imperialism in a new type of communism, which involved their beloved Saar to be annexed. However, Elected King Louis Ferdinand I, directed the mass to look East, and be aware of a bigger red hegemony lurking in the borders. So, the nation became the largest fairly democratic nation in Europe. During the 70s, people would consider Fourth Reich as an oasis in Red Europe. In addition to it, the collapse of United Kingdom got Germany to replace UK’s sole power of protecting the Low Countries.

    By this case, Germany become friendly to USA. However, their friendliness was far from being controlled, like Japan or Indonesia had become. They persisted on holding the balance, befriend USA so France and Soviet Union won’t budge. They did well in teetering the European balance back to democracy (France’s election is simply formality for another Thorezian win), so well that in 70s, an African Cold War began with Germany’s rise.

    For Ali, this particular nation had succeeded to be unaffected by the red menace in every corner. He exclaimed Germany as one true Non-Aligned nation. Indonesia, once envisioned Sukarno to be unaligned to any nation, must now correct her path again as such. Our ample dependence towards the Americans could harm us in the future, which he predicted well on the 90s.

    Indonesia National Party - Partai Nasional Indonesia

    LeaderAli Sastroamidjojo
    HeadquartersPangeran Diponegoro Street No.58
    National Conservatism
    Conservative Democracy
    Political PositionCentre-Right
    International AffiliationNon Aligned (Pro-Germany)

    As PGI was the dominant right party, PUP was fairly left, social democrats to be precise. This was the case because the merging of SPI (Socialist Party of Indonesia) had turned the party a bit socialist. However, they didn’t patronize the French. Actually, they acknowledged themselves as true successor of Sukarno’s party, not like ICP. Citizens of Indonesia still praised Hatta as proclamator, and so his popularity remained high throughout the decade. As Premier also, Hatta decided government policies into effect. Unfortunately, PGI’s intervention into many of his agenda may give him some displeasure. The 70s marked the PGI-PUP split. But the 60s Hatta contained his annoyance for strategical reasons.

    Progressive Union Party - Partai Persatuan Perubahan

    LeaderMohammad Hatta
    HeadquartersPangeran Diponegoro Street No.60
    IdeologySocial Democracy
    Political PositionCentre-Left
    International AffiliationNon Affiliated

    Most leftist party in Indonesia, and the staunchest opposition in Indonesia, was Indonesia Communist Party. Still holding the most left of voters, Indonesia Communist party was famous for its propaganda and blaring speeches. Still Aidit in power, the Communist party was Chinese-leaning. There were also some percentage which was pro-Soviet or pro-France. The latter however had so little portion that no significant effect was given. The former, interestingly, gain more power during Soviet’s involvement in the Middle East. The party became increasingly polarized, as they had no idea which great communist nation to follow. China had great progress involving Great Leap Forward, so successful that Mao literally praised like a god. Although China’s involvement in Korea was debatable, many ICP members liked the Dragon Empire. In the other hand, increasing Soviet involvement in the Middle East, also boosted communist voters significantly. A creation of a particular large unified nation in the divided Middle East helped the ICP propaganda into nationalist voters.

    Indonesia Communist Party - Partai Komunis Indonesia

    LeaderDipa Nusantara Aidit
    HeadquartersGen. Suryadarma Street No.11
    Political PositionLeft
    International AffiliationPro-Soviet Union

    When 70s decade began, Indonesia still only had these four in election polls. The earlier 1950s Act of decreasing political parties strengthened this establishment. Even until the next millennium, parties were few.

    Notes: Papua and Melanesian political parties will be discussed later, as I considered them unnecessary for an early update, especially since they were quite newly established regions.
    6.2. Baffled Decade: Change of Flags and Pancasila Emblem
  • Since Sukarno’s spoke the five fundamental characteristics an Indonesian nation must have in 1st June 1945, Pancasila have become exclusively Indonesian ideology. An ideology that even Western nations envied for, and Eastern nations liked upon. The ideology that lived and roared the Europeans out during the Independence War, and screamed at the British for victory at war.

    During the United States of Indonesia Era, a national emblem had been created with an anthropomorphic form of Garuda. The Garuda hold the Pancasila’s armorial, shaped for a shield, with five different segments. However, no official Garuda form had been established in the 50s, as experts debated with each other without no conclusion.

    On January 10, 1950 a Technical Committee was formed under the name of the National Badge Committee under the coordination of the State Minister Zonder Portfolio Sultan Hamid II with the composition of the technical committee Muhammad Yamin as chairman, Ki Hajar Dewantoro, M. A. Pellaupessy, Mohammad Natsir, and R.M. Ngabehi Poerbatjaraka as a member. The committee is tasked with selecting a draft proposal for the country's emblem to be selected and submitted to the government.

    The initial design of Garuda Pancasila was by Sultan Hamid II, in the form of a traditional eagle with a human body.

    Referring to Bung Hatta's statement in the book Bung Hatta Answering to implement the Cabinet Session Decree, Minister Priyono held a contest. Two of the country's best design symbols were chosen, namely the work of Sultan Hamid II and the work of M. Yamin. In the next process that was accepted by the government and the Parliament was the design of Sultan Hamid II. M. Yamin's work was rejected because it included sunlight and showed Japanese influence.

    After the design was chosen, intensive dialogue between Sultan Hamid II, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta continued to be carried out for the purposes of perfecting the design. There was an agreement between the three of them, replacing the tape gripped by Garuda, which was originally a red and white ribbon to a white ribbon by adding the slogan "Unity in Diversity".

    Garuda Pancasila which was inaugurated on 11 February 1950, without crest and position of the claws is still behind the tape. Sultan Hamid II again submitted a draft design of the state symbol which had been refined based on the evolving aspirations, so as to create an eagle form which became Garuda Pancasila and abbreviated as Garuda Pancasila. President Soekarno then submitted the draft to the RIS Cabinet through Mohammad Hatta as prime minister.

    AG Pringgodigdo in his book About Pancasila published by the Department of Defense and Security, ABRI History Center said that the draft of the state emblem by Sultan Hamid II was finally inaugurated for use in the RIS Cabinet Session. At that time the image of the head of the Garuda Rajawali Pancasila was still "bald" and "" not crested "" as it is now.

    Completion back emblem of the country continue to be pursued. Garuda Pancasila Rajawali bird heads that are "bald" to "crested" do. The shape of the claws that gripped the tape from the front facing back to facing the front was also improved, upon President Soekarno's input.

    On March 20, 1950, the final shape of the revised state symbol received President Soekarno's disposition, who then ordered the palace painter, Dullah, to redraw the design in accordance with the final form of the State Minister RIS's Sultan Hamid II which was used officially until now.

    After the creation of Pancasila, Sultan Hamid seemed to silenced once again, quite from politics. In the 50s, he would give no major political movements for or against the government.


    (Left to Right, Up to Down: Old USI Garuda Emblem, New FRI Garuda Emblem, with meanings in Indonesian)

    Ida Anak Agung Gede Agung, however, was a different case. He entered into national politics, and be famous, exactly after Sultan Hamid’s decline in this sector. A historian and Balinese, Ida was a liberal. He didn’t join any party during the 50s and 60s, but he contributed a great factor to Indonesia’s conditions, particularly increasing federalism. He would become the leader of Maluku State, then become South Maluku State, for astonishing twelve years, until return to Gianyar as native king that cared fully for his people. He would ignite minority movements against Javan supremacy, demanding Indonesia to observe more into vast undeveloped regions of the East, rather than the build-up West.

    He, also, promoted Bali as a tourism spot for Westerners. According to his life experience as a Bali native, Bali’s sunset is ripe for tourism. As a matter of truth, Bali’s sunset maybe was the best after all across the world. So, he would assist Anak Agung Bagus Sutedja to promote tourism in Bali. Even though tourism progressed slowly in Bali, by the Oil Crisis we would see the region actually boomed in spite of an economic downfall.

    For Maludin Simbolon, he was given an extraordinary task as a Colonel in the 1950s. after the creation of Federative Republic of Indonesia, along with four military branches, Army, Navy, Air Force and Coast Guard. He was assigned by Sukarno in 1956 to redesign the military flags. The old flag was complicated and full of decorations, which dyeing it would be a nightmare. The Indonesian High Command had ordered him to conduct a simple search for ideas.

    So, Colonel Maludin Simbolon decided to give a shot. During his military expeditions cooperating with Vietnam insurgents against France, Simbolon had witnessed a unique symbol. Viet Minh designed a particular red Vietnam flag, and the contrast of the star with the blank background amazed him. The power of this flag was very obvious, as even Democrats and Monarchists tried to implement a similar adaptation to the Red flag, which was also appealing.

    In the end, he drew a rough sketch for four branches of the army, which was as follows:

    army flag.png
    navy flag.gif
    airforce flag.png
    indonesian coast guard flag.png

    (Left to Right, Up to Down: Official Flag of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and the Coast Guard)

    Sukarno accepted these new flags, and ratified it in 1957, and it was still being used even until the 21st Century. Although with several opprobria with right politicians, the flag was used neglecting all criticism, and lived on to be the flag of the National Armed Forces of Indonesia.

    Not entirely out of context, but in the 60s, a number of federal politicians began to question whether Indonesia’s then flag was universal for its ideological, government, and geographical purposes. The simple red-and-white flag, was used by Indonesia since 1945. As Sukarno said:

    Red is the symbol of courage, White is the symbol of purity. Our flag has been there for 600 years.

    That particular flag had existed way beyond the meaning of Indonesia itself. The flag's colors are derived from the banner of the 13th century Majapahit Empire. However, it has been suggested that the red and white symbolism can trace its origin to the older common Austronesian mythology of the duality of Mother Earth (red) and Father Sky (white).

    However, after Papua’s admitted as a Special Administrative Region, which was a higher autonomous region than a Federal State can, a proposal was given to the Assembly that a flag change must be done.

    No one really knew what proceedings had happened relating to this topic, but Soe Hok Gie reached the end of the road as the winner of the flag proposals. Soe Hok Gie was a Chinese-Indonesian activist, and later become politician. During his youth days, he opposed authoritarian regime, which grew after the rise of Nasution. Despite of him classified as Nasution’s potential thorn, many fellow PGI and INP bolstered him, partly using him as some sort of balance especially for the Purple Faction as Military’s balancing weight. Aside from the political concerns, in 1968 Soe Hok Gie managed to be ordained as Indonesia’s new flag creator, which he explained his flag as follows.

    The new flag of Indonesia is a balance between Indonesia’s tradition and modernity. Indonesia’s tradition was resembled by the Majapahit’s Ular-ular Perang Flag, a flag with nine horizontal stripes of alternating red and white. A Majapahit’s Sun, or Surya Majapahit¸ is positioned center of the blue section on the left side. Surya Majapahit symbolizes the greatness of Indonesia, and the awareness of Indonesian culture. Meanwhile, the blue color resembles the growing acceptance to democracy and Western politics, which will become a major characteristics for modern Indonesia. The 8 pointed stars resembles the 8 initial provinces created after Independence, also resembled Indonesia’s relations to all directions. Stars on each vertices resembles the modern Dua Benua, Dua Samudra connotation, reaffirming Indonesia’s geographical status as connector of Asia-Australia Continent, and Indian-Pacific Ocean. The five stars may also resemble Indonesia’s greatest regions, Java and Lesser Sundas as the center, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Malaya. Five-pointed stars also resembles that Indonesia acknowledges Pancasila as a national ideology. The Sun inside Majapahit Surya symbolize Indonesia's tropical sun due to its centric location, and also Indonesia's undying fire of becoming a star in the world.

    Even though Soe Hok Gie had stated the four stars resembled as such, military personnel still considered those stars as the Four Branches of the Armed Forces. In the near future however, these stars may also be considered as four Indonesian SARs, which conveniently occur after chaos in Europe. Nevertheless, public broadly accepted the new flag, and it was flown on the Presidential Palace on 5th May 1968.

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    6.3. Baffled Decade: China
  • The East is Red
    When it comes to history, China have already in the pages even before Christ. The five thousand years of history, as stated by Taiwanese historian, had shaped China as it is. However, China has gone a comprehensive transformation in the 20th Century.

    In the early 20th Century, China was on the brink of revolution. The Manchurian Dynasty ruled China in humiliation. Nearly all profitable coastal cities leased or stolen by Europeans. China was put as inferior of the human species, subjugated to European influence. After the Xinhai Revolution, China liberated itself to become a democratic republic. But, heavens forbid, Yuan Shi Kai devolved China as another Empire, and crippled China into the Warlord Eras. The Warlord Eras, ended with Chiang’s success of Northern Expedition, marked the Nanking Decade. But again, a bad luck, Japan screw China and once again the region experienced warfare into the extreme violence.

    After the WW2, CCP decided to develop the situation of China after Japanese surrender, and start a war with the KMT. A battle between red and blue, left and right, was ended with blood and death. Since then, China was divided. Mainland China is controlled under the Maoist rule, while Taiwan, or Formosa, was governed by the KMT-exiles. After Mao Ze Dong had secured China, he campaigned land reform to the peasants. From 1947 to 1951, landlords were brutally killed. And millions of hectares were redistributed to the farmers. Land seized from Landlords was brought under collective ownership resulting in the creation of "Agricultural production cooperatives". After the land reform, Mao introduced a new program, the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries. This campaign was mainly to eradicate any KMT presence in mainland China. The campaign was implemented as a response to the rebellions that were commonplace in the early years of the People's Republic of China. Those targeted during the campaign in were thereafter labeled as ‘counter-revolutionaries’, and were publicly denounced in mass trials. Large numbers of ‘counter-revolutionaries’ were arrested and executed and even more sentenced to ‘labor reform’.


    China's land reform, performed successfully for Great Leap Forward. However, many land-owners died during this implementation.

    There were other campaigns promoted by Chairman Mao during the 50s, such as Three-Antis and Five-Antis Campaign or New Democracy plea, but most of them were only campaigned for strengthening the CCP in China. The Hundred Flowers campaign, which was promoted to moralize intellectuals that was silenced during the CCP era, sheered as CCP’s method or killing rightists. By the completion of the first 5-year Economic Plan in 1957, Mao had come to doubt that the path to socialism that had been taken by the Soviet Union was appropriate for China. He was critical of Khrushchev's reversal of Stalinist policies and alarmed by the uprisings that had taken place in East Germany, Poland and Hungary, and the perception that the USSR was seeking "peaceful coexistence" with the Western powers. Mao had become convinced that China should follow its own path to communism. According to Jonathan Mirsky, a historian and journalist specializing in Chinese affairs, China's isolation from most of the rest of the world, along with the Korean War, had accelerated Mao's attacks on his perceived domestic enemies. It led him to accelerate his designs to develop an economy where the regime would get maximum benefit from rural taxation.

    The Second 5-year Economic Plan for China was about agrarian and food production. According to Mao, series of devastating war, and war on counter-revolutionaries, fester farmers and peasants from harvesting more. The conditions were quite problematic, as consumption outran production and sooner or later, China would have a famine. Inspired by Khrushchev quotes about surpassing USA in 15 years, Mao tried something similar. The central idea behind the Great Leap was that rapid development of China's agricultural and industrial sectors should take place in order respectively. The hope was to industrialize by improving the agriculture to a maximum extent for simple machinery, them start to build complex tools. The government also sought to avoid both social stratification and technical bottlenecks involved in the Soviet model of development. Interestingly, they sought technical solutions to do so. Mao and the party gave the Plan to several trustworthy experts, while also inducing political elements. Mao meanwhile advocated that a further round of collectivization modeled on the USSR's "Third Period" was necessary in the countryside where the existing collectives would be merged into huge People's Communes.

    Great Leap Forward depicted by Mao, proved as the most successful programs in Mao's historical rule. However, the Great Leap Forwards may also be Mao's decline, as factions were growing radically against Mao's leadership.

    As Mao understand the impossibilities of a perfect progress, he accepts official reports on unsuccessful quotas, and promote each commune to work harder with his astounding speeches. Mao hoped that by working together in a harmonious society transformed China into a better place, and possibly transformed the world’s view on communism. By this procedure, he has created a symbiotic cycle between the government and the communes. However, there were still maltreatments throughout the implementation. For farmers which never reached the promises thrice, CCP will kill the farmer and the family, and publicly condemn them so others would not follow. Any collectivists who owns better tools than his commune, are executed immediately and his tools are seized for government research.

    Looking at the bigger picture, it seems that the CCP has cut some slacks after the anti-right campaign. Mao has reviewed his political plan, and tossed it for an economic one. In 1967, after the Third Economic Plan was announced to continue the Great Leap Forward, China has become a great agrarian producer. However, this initiative was resulted the anxiety of The Gang of Four. The group was led by Jiang Qing, and consisted of three of her close associates, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Hongwen. This member criticizes Mao’s soft stance, although the Great Leap Forward has opened the world’s view about a working people’s communal system. They want to implement a harsher political policy, once again strengthening the communist hold in mainland China. It was called the Cultural Revolution. Although Mao’s Great Leap Forward success diminished any importance of this policy, in 1968 several CPC members already requested Mao in applying it.

    China’s domestic policy has been a great triumph for communism with Asian characteristics. Inside the nation, communes hailed Mao. Meanwhile, foreign policy is bitter for China. After the Korean War, China’s power was scorned in the international stage. Their struggle to threw men at the Korean Front ended fruitless, as the Korean War ended the border to move 175 kilometers North. Pyongyang, the capital of North Korea, had become South Korea. The border of the North-South division was from Pyongwon to Wonsan. Leaving North Korea, the rural mountainous regions. China’s second attempt was on Vietnam. After the Second Indochinese Civil War, China assisted the reds to betray their ‘united front’ compromise. The Viet Cong, as a result, start another Civil War. Once again, the battle ends in an Indochinese partition. Following the creation of North-South Vietnam, China’s foreign policy once again humiliated as the communist North fell to the capitalist South. China’s last hope was the growing divide of India and Pakistan. The CPC favored Pakistan, as allying Pakistan curb Soviet’s expansion to India. However, Gopalkrishna Gandhi, grandson of Mahatma Gandhi, has an increasing fond towards communism. The CPC and Mao enforced each other to persuade him to a communist path.
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    6.4. Baffled Decade: Indochina's Confusion
  • Hell comes to Earth: A Indochinese Wars Summary Part One
    Martin Windrose (2004)

    When it comes to the most prolonged war in Asia, Indochina is the champion. Begin with the return of France to Indochina, the apparent war finally ended when Nguyễn Hữu Chánh declared the obliteration of the seemingly last remaining New Viet Minh forces. For simplification purposes, the stages of war is divided into four stages, each and every one owns special characteristics.

    The first stage, or the first Indochina War, happened from 1946 to 1950. The first years of the war involved a low-level rural insurgency against the French. In 1949 the conflict turned into a conventional war between two armies equipped with modern weapons supplied by the United States, China and the Soviet Union. French Union forces included colonial troops from the whole former empire (Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian, Laotian, Cambodian, and Vietnamese ethnic minorities), French professional troops and units of the French Foreign Legion. The use of metropolitan recruits was forbidden by the government to prevent the war from becoming even more unpopular at home. It was called the "dirty war" (la sale guerre) by leftists in France. Luckily, the French managed to exile the Viet Minh into Thailand so peace was restored in France after the Hanoi Conference in 29 December 1950. The Soviet Union, upset by the outcome of the war, decided to abandon the comrades for some time. This, as the result, marginalized the Viet Minh, and incapable to return to Indochina for some time.

    Indochinese Colonial Troops, essential of securing the region. However, after the Second Indochina War, most of the colonial troops volunteered to fight with Viet Minh.

    The First Interbellum, as experts have said, was a dangerous peace within the French Empire. As usual, the French deposed Buddhism in metropolitans. As early as 1953 rumored allegations had surfaced of discrimination against Buddhists in Vietnam. These allegations stated that Catholic Vietnamese armed by the French had been raiding villages. Because of this, it sparked the start of the Second Indochina War. The peace however had gained the Monarchists a traction. Although Bảo Đại was a French sympathizer, he too analyzed the situation that ruling the nation as an independent sovereignty would give him more power on the Empire, thus by the end of 1957 he started revolting and fight against France.


    The Parade of Saigon in 1957, showing power especially to Western Media, that Republic of Indochina (this time the Republican faction still fought against the Communist and the Monarchists) was not only a minor rebellious force.

    The Second Indochina War was a long one, and was divided into two separate stages. The first stage was believed to be the most devastated war in South East Asian history. From 1955 to 1961, the war ended up as an arena of four factions. In one side, the fragile rule of the French was better in equipment, experience and technology. However, this positive factors were outmatched as they were overwhelmed with the driving spirit of each Indochinese factions during the war. In the end of the War, they would be humiliated badly as ‘the one at the wrong place and time’. The three other factions, however, were tough calls, as neither of them willing to give in and fought mercilessly. The miracle of Ban Ban, North of Indochina, reinforced a Monarchist control on North-West portion of the region. With another miracle of Ha Tinh, the forced of Bảo Đại had secured center of Annam from other faction’s control.

    After Wilopo’s encouraging negotiation about a ‘compromise’, the three factions finally cooperated and form a ‘unity coalition’ against France. From then one, the withdrawal of France in Indochina seemed like a clockwork. A French defeat was confirmed in 1961, and the Treaty of Bangkok secured Indochina from any French presence. By the start of 1962, Kingdom of Vietnam had been established.

    The glorious victory of Indochina was followed with a political chaos, as the Communist Party of Indochina (formerly Viet Minh) declined to collaborate in any of the new Kingdom. Partly as anti-Monarchists, the party demanded to form a republic, rather than a kingdom. Still, the first stage of Second Indochina War was mostly won by the Monarchist, so the Kingdom rejected her dissolution. Also, the Republicans sided with the Monarchists. Ho Chi Minh, infuriated with his status as the opposition, ultimately leave the coalition to restart the war. Not just six months of establishment, the nation was in shambles.

    The second stage of the Second Indochina War, in the bigger picture, was a military mess. Three factions restarted the war, and neither would team up anymore. The Communist faction, primarily supported by the Chinese and the USSR, regain most of Tonkin. The Republican faction, aided by America and partly Indonesia, control the Mekong Delta and most of South regions. The Monarchist faction, the largest of them all, resided in everything center of Indochina, Cambodia and the north-west region of Lao tribes. In 1965, a despicable event of assassination by the Communists would kill Bảo Đại during the war, and Bảo Long was crowned as successor. Bảo Long, unlike his father, was not charismatic. His sever tantrum and ego would micro-manage most of the royal army, and failed. In addition to it, his alcoholic attitude would ruin Monarchist-Republican relations, thus the worst political disaster for Kingdom of Indochina. In the end, what was once the greatest victor of the war, ended up as the loser.

    The atrocities all sides had made, and America’s nuisance to just leave the war, birthed the Kuala Lumpur Conference.

    The Kuala Lumpur Conference was a conference involving several nations that took place in Kuala Lumpur, Indonesia from April 26 – July 20, 1965. It was intended to settle outstanding issues resulting from the Korean War and the Second Indochina War. The Kuala Lumpur Accords that dealt with the dismantling of Kingdom of Indochina proved to have long-lasting repercussions, however. The crumbling of the divided Kingdom would create the eventual states of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), the State of Vietnam (the future Republic of Vietnam / South Vietnam), and the Kingdom of Laos.

    The Kuala Lumpur Accords in camera, negotiate a peace deal regarding the perpetual Indochina and Korean Tension. Ended up as peaceful as possible, the Accords was a turning factor for America's 'virtual' decline in world stage, especially after Kennedy's sudden NATO disbandment.

    The Accords were between the Royals, the Communist Party of Indochina, the Democratic Party of Indochina, the USSR, the PRC, the US, the FRI (Federal Republic of Indonesia), and the future states being made from Indochina. The agreement temporarily separated Vietnam into two zones, a northern zone to be governed by the CPI, and a southern zone to be governed by the DPI, then headed by Ngô Đình Diệm. In addition, three separate ceasefire accords, covering Laos, and Two Vietnams, were signed at the conference.

    Indochina at the end of 1966. Orange-yellow for Kingdom of Laos (Or Exiled-Kingdom of Indochina), Red for Socialist Republic of Indochina (mainly nicknamed North Indochina), dark-cyan for Federal Republic of Indochina (mainly nicknamed South Indochina)
    6.5. Baffled Decade: Korean War
  • “Hold on to your hats, Korea is a land of surprises”
    ― Don Oberdorfer, The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History

    “Eventually the Korean War will be understood as one of the most destructive and one of the most important wars of the twentieth century.”

    ― Bruce Cumings, The Korean War: A History

    Indochina Wars was one of the most confusing warfare in the history of mankind. Literally, all types of warfare could be observed. However ridiculous the battle might have seemed, Indochina shaped the latter half of the 20th Century. The perpetual guerilla warfare, scorched-earth policy, and extensive intervention by diverse nations coronate Indochina Wars as the deadliest battle in post-WW2 history. In the other hand, ‘jungle-diplomacy’ and the aftermath throne the war as one of the most decisive war in modern politics. The other aggression that was also called as one of the most decisive war, were Korean War.

    The Korean Peninsula, in the start of the 20th Century, was in Japanese hands. Nippon’s strict control over the region may have caused notable obscene crimes in history. The height of World War 2 erupted the Peninsula’s deep hatred towards Japanese, and maybe will not be gone in the far future either. After Japanese defeat, the Peninsula was divided into two occupational zones, one for the US and one for the Soviet Union. They formerly established the 38th parallel as the division, separating the Korean people into two distinct ideological sphere of influence.

    In the North, Provisional People’s Committee of North Korea has been given the mandate by the Soviet Union to form a centralized, communist nation for Korea. Kim Il-Sung, the chairman, lead the committee to later become the chairman of Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. The Soviets withdrew from North Korea in 1948, a year before the American withdrew from South Korea. During that year, Ambassador Shtykov suspected Rhee was planning to invade the North and was sympathetic to Kim's goal of Korean unification under socialism. The two successfully lobbied Joseph Stalin to support a quick war against the South, which culminated in the outbreak of the Korean War.


    (Kim Il-Sung during his visit to a random KPA division; An English version of North Korean Propaganda, translated and published in India as part of regional Communist propaganda)

    When the North declare war to the South, Seoul were unprepared. South Korea’s government was originated from Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, the exiled government when the Japanese occupied Korea. Since its establishment in 1919, the provincial government worked mainly in various China cities, waiting for the perfect time to return. After the Americans ended their occupational zones, Sygnman Rhee lead the Southern Korea, form the First Republic of Korea.


    Rhee awarding a medal to U.S. Navy Rear Admiral Ralph A. Ofstie during the Korean War in 1952

    At dawn on Sunday, 25 June 1950, the KPA crossed the 38th Parallel behind artillery fire. The KPA justified its assault with the claim that ROK troops attacked first and that the KPA were aiming to arrest and execute the "bandit traitor Syngman Rhee". Fighting began on Ongjin Peninsula in the west. On 27 June, Rhee evacuated from Seoul with some of the government officials. Within a few months, the Republic of Korea had been left with Pusan as their last remaining land against the marching North. The communists rolled the ROK army, even humiliating the Americans with several victories. With panic, the United States requested an UN Intervention regarding this war, and as many nations still despised communism, they unanimously accepted. Kim Il-Sung had anticipated a downright victory, and a peace deal for unification of Korea.

    Meanwhile, to relieve the Pusan Perimeter, General MacArthur recommended an amphibious landing at Incheon, near Seoul and well over 160 km (100 mi) behind the KPA lines. The Landing produced a massive blow to the Communist. The Northern military barely withstand what had come next. In swift and apt strategy, MacArthur almost encircled the entire KPA in the South Korean pocket. By December, DPRK was pushed back to the Baekdu Regions.


    A South Korean propaganda against the North Koreans
    That was when China decided to intervene. After secretly crossing the Yalu River on 19 October, the PVA 13th Army Group launched the First Phase Offensive on 25 October, attacking the advancing UN forces near the Sino-Korean border. The UN Command, however, were unconvinced that the Chinese had openly intervened because of the sudden PVA withdrawal after their surprise attack. So the Americans must invigorate herself to repel these attacks. It was not until 1951 when the UN Command finally noticed an influx of forces in the communist nation, that they judged it as a Chinese intervention. The war evolved to become a tug-of-war brawl, now fought mainly on the pre-existing 38th parallel.


    Infamous Yalu River Crossing by the PLA (Chinese People's Liberation Army) during the Battle of Chongju (30-31 October 1950)

    In 1955, the Americans finally regained power to push forwards once again, re-entering Pyongyang for the second time in 1956. Even with the Chinese intervention, KPA failed to hold on. In 13th October 1956, North Korea requested an armistice with the South. The plead resulted with Korean Armistice Agreement of 1957, which moves the parallel to the 39th, and left North Korea barred with Pyongyang just miles from the De-Militarize Zone (DMZ). After the armistice, Kim’s popularity plummeted. From the eyes of a North Korean, Kim was a traitor who diminish the nation’s greatness. From the eyes of China or Soviet Union, North Korea was a failed experiment, ready to be forsaken. Kim Il-Sung, burdened with such mortification, determined to impose an ‘isolationist’ policy towards North Korea. His hasty maneuver of restoring his image inside North Korea resulted a decline of livelihood as a whole, stagnating the nation further similarly like Qing or the Ottoman during their last years of reign.

    For Rhee, and the Southern part of Korea, it was quite a celebration. Although not eliminating his Northern nemesis, Rhee secured South Korea with moving the border one degree northern. In before, Seoul was threatened with possible KPA artillery fire from the border. After the ratification of the new status quo, South Korea may easily threatened Pyongyang with a cakewalk. With the increasing popularity of Rhee in Republic of Korea, he had become increasingly authoritarian. Nearing the end of the baffled 60s, the Korean Peninsula lived two ironically similar dictators. In the north was the humiliated, socialist Kim Il-Sung. In the south lived the liberalist, war hero Syngman Rhee.


    Map of the Korean Peninsula: Red as North Korea, Blue as South Korea, with their superimposed borders indicating their claims on each other

    After the Korean War, the United States continued on giving an economic and military aid to South Korea, mainly to prevent further rapid agression by the North. Indonesia were still reluctant to participate in the Peninsula. For Japan, the peninsula was a high factor of defending home island from further communist threat. Luckily, both Soviet Union and China looked elsewhere for influence, that North Korea become increasingly neglected and isolated.
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    6.6. Baffled Decade: India
  • “Truthfully, only two Asian nations are prominent enough to change the world even in their lowest times. Those are China, and India.”
    Jean Louis-Picard, President of the French Sixth Republic

    India: A Sub-Continent History

    India is truly a Jewel for its owner. The subcontinent holds a great number of population. And with the abundance of crop-fields and tea plantation, the region became famous and rich from it. Nevertheless, the rags and riches were never truly felt by Indians during the British rule. After WW2, Britain was weakened by the casualties of war, and incapable of securing the region from pro-independence separatist. That was when the British decided to just go away from the continent and let the Indians rule India. The sub-continent was given a rough post-independence when the Partition of India was put into effect in 1947. Massive exodus of minority tribes on the two nations fled to each other. Muslim citizens flocked to nearby Pakistan, whether the East or the West, while Hindus and Sikhs citizens emigrated to the new Republic of India. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948 was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948, as part of the first results of partition. Since then on, religious divided gradually, each culminated into a point when war erupts.

    After Gandhi’s assassination, the politics of Republic of India mainly revolved onto his political apprentice, Nehru. As prime minister, he passed reforms about woman suffrage, secularism and socialist model. Five-Year Plans were shaped by the Soviet model based on centralized and integrated national economic programs. No taxation was demanded for Indian farmers, minimum wage and benefits for blue-collar workers, and the nationalization of heavy industries such as steel, aviation, shipping, electricity, and mining. Village common lands were seized, and an extensive public works and industrialization campaign resulted in the construction of major dams, irrigation canals, roads, thermal and hydroelectric power stations, and many more.

    Nehru implemented leftist policy, but that did not mean that India was a communist nation (by far). According to its foreign policy, India was a non-aligned nation until Nehru’s death. Especially on the 1950s, India was particularly accompanied with many non-aligned nations. Indonesia, Egypt and Yugoslavia was three of them. However, since the start of 1960s, all of these nations changed dramatically. Indonesia since America’s NATO withdrawal, had been inclined closer. Egypt, after the quick re-colonization by Britain, joined France’s side. Yugoslavia, albeit technically non-aligned, had leaned closer to France also.


    (Nehru during one of his road trip throughout India, 1954; an average Indian farmer in 1950s)

    In 1960s, the situation summed up as follows. India had emerged as the largest democratic nation in the world. Inhabiting nearly half a billion in its nation, India established the largest democratic election in the world. Yet, despite being the largest democratic nation in the world, India was largely influenced by one party only, the Indian National Congress. The Indian National Congress, founded in 1885, was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire in Asia and Africa. In its growth, the independence movement has transformed into a big tent for center-left voters. The party advocate social democracy, and a slice of liberalism. During Nehru’s administration, however, liberalism was partly curbed by extensive mixed economy regulation and land reform redistribution.

    Ironically, and presumed, Nehru’s government policy had fostered the other party, a more radical left, the Communist Party of India. Supporter of Marxism-Leninism, and later Maoism, the party had several base here and there especially in Indus Valley, where a multitude of farmers, and labors lived. Elamkulam Manakkal Sankaran Namboodiripad, popularly EMS, would rise from Kerala to national India, speaking blaring words about the Great Leap Forward’s success in their big neighbor, and stating that India can also follow. For the time being, the INC allied with the CPI, holding a great majority in the Lok Shaba.


    (Elamkulam Manakkal Sankaran Namboodiripad during his exclusive interview in 1963)

    While the left controlled the government, the right controlled the opposition. For nearly three decades, Janata Party, a party that sheltered the right wing, continue to criticise the government’s socialist outlook. Several demonstrations had been held by Janata Party regarding it, in 1949, 1954 and 1963. Nearly all of them, were forsaken by the government, and their voices were relatively unheard. They decided to must be heard at the fourth time, and violence was the only way.

    Meanwhile, India had carried out two wars in Pakistan, mainly ended with a stalemate. None of them succeeded in winning any of the disputed given. Luckily, in 1960, Mao relinquished China’s claims on Jammu-Kashmir region, which improved their relations significantly. With Pakistan, on the other hand, they were determined that this crisis would end up in more wars in the near future, and nothing could ever resolve the issue.

    The protests erupted Southern India, where former princely-states government during British India. At first, the people there, mostly Dravidian, had felt neglected with the massive development of the north. While cities like Delhi, Mumbai and Calcutta prospered, not so much when it went South. In addition to it, with fertile lands mainly up North, subsidies for farmers and industries mainly given there. In mountainous South, only road infrastructures were planned, and many of them left stalled. Although in national scale, India was growing. It was only the northern parts, while the south stagnated. Began in 1966, the ‘Princely Protests’, stated by Indian newspapers, spread sproradically in those Southern areas. It once was a protest against India’s negligence on Southern people. But, with some infiltration by Pakistan, the protests demanded an even forceful requirement, a Dravidian Republic. Even the protests also arrived in Sri Lanka, where British rule still existed. As Janata Party held these revolted provinces, the party showed as yet a rebellious force, similar to what Communist Party of Indochina did to Indochina.

    As protests rose in the South, the North became extremely furious about the government. Even Indira Gandhi, a relative to the hero Mahatma Gandhi, ignored this discrimination. As a result, the CPI gained much more momentum. In promise, the party requested a reconciliation with the southern states, and vowed to construct the nation equally. In addition to it, they would promote total equality to everyone on India, something that the INC never thought of.


    (Indira Gandhi when public protests in New Delhi demanded her resignation from the southern protests)

    The 4th Lok Shaba, elected in February 1967, quickly became a Communist win. Albeit their percentage was only slightly higher than the INC, the Communist managed to gather a coalition to overcome the predecessor. With slight help of China’s volunteers, the Communist party crack down the entire sub-continent, purged the Janata Party’s holdings, and everything pro-right. For southern states, however, the communist government apologized to the apparent inequality, and fulfilled its promise with the creation of the Indian Belt, a national highway project constructed to circle the whole nation.


    The first ever public violence against the police in 1966, in Hyderabad
    6.7. Baffled Decade: Kennedy's Legacy and 1968 US Election
  • "Those who dare to fail miserably can achieve greatly."
    “Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate.”
    “Those who make peaceful revolution impossible will make violent revolution inevitable.”
    "What we need in the United States is not division; what we need in the United States is not hatred; what we need in the United States is not violence or lawlessness; but love and wisdom, and compassion toward one another, and a feeling of justice toward those who still suffer within our country."

    - John F. Kennedy

    John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, on May 29, 1917. He was born on a bourgeois family, home to Joseph P. Kennedy, a man with great ambitions. He lived in a Catholic community, thus baptized at a young age. In September 1935, Kennedy made his first trip abroad when he travelled to London with his parents and his sister Kathleen. After living his childhood, he went to Harvard for college. After that, the war began. With his lack of health requirements, he failed to enrol in the Army’s, Officer Cadet School. Then he was enlisted as a Navy Reserve, where he had his short military career. After the war, his father urged him to become a politician, which he did start in 1947.


    Kennedy on his youth

    A long story short, his rise into politics was a spectacular one. He defeated his opponents in almost every fight. Although with health problems along with the war, Kennedy remained popular and charismatics for the people and his great charisma and value climaxed at his inauguration on January 20, 1961.

    In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility--I welcome it. I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavour will light our country and all who serve it--and the glow from that fire can truly light the world.

    And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you--ask what you can do for your country.

    My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man.

    His 100 days of the presidency was called ‘America’s realignment to a freer, better and equal world’. Kennedy had noticed atrocities happened in South Africa, practising ‘Apartheid’ onto their own men. As a leader for a civil and just world, he condemned the United Kingdom, although situations back then were friendly. Also, Europe under the new order, NATO and Warsaw Pact as opposite sides, caused not only another fright of another war but also the return of imperialism. This time, however, imperialism had a new meaning. ‘Neo-Imperialism’, practised by both France and Britain, contributed greatly in securing their colonies, which America had demanded them to be freed. While Algeria under the new program was flooded with French influence. Britain had fixed her eyes on South Africa, and Rhodesia.

    Besides his pragmatic stance on civil rights, Kennedy supported Martin Luther King Jr. Albeit the difficulties in passing the Civil Rights Act, Kennedy still advocated these views. After the Act, Kennedy solidified his presidency with the help of VP Lyndon B. Johnson. Yet, with all the success noted, Kennedy’s era was an era of civil violence. Where white-supremacist publicly announced segregation in many southern states, many acts of arson had been conducted. Nearing the end of Kennedy's reign, violence increased due to certain circumstances.


    Segregation in buses in South Carolina, whites at the front while blacks were seated at the back

    A piece of controversial news regarding Camelot was Marilyn Monroe. Having met at a dinner party held in his honour in New York at the beginning of 1962, Kennedy invited Monroe to a weekend in Bing Crosby's house in Palm Springs the following month, where they were not joined by his wife Jackie. This weekend is said to have been the extent of the affair but that didn’t mean Monroe didn’t want it to continue, allegedly seeing herself becoming Jack’s second First lady and even calling Jackie Kennedy to tell her so. This affair had become public as Monroe’s Affair of 1967, five years after Marilyn Monroe’s death of overdose. The posted affair was relatively unheard of when the situation in 1967 was full of what happened in Europe and Africa.

    Negativities aside, Kennedy was loved by his people. His popularity never plummeted below half, and mainly his presidency was relatively supported. His first success was the reunification of Germany, which was praised as Kennedy’s initial triumph in foreign policy.

    “Jetzt sind wir in einer Situation, in der wieder zusammenwächst, was zusammengehört.“
    ("Now we are in a situation where what belongs together, will grow back together.")

    ― Willy Brandt

    The next success was winning the Indochinese War from France, and thus liberating Indochina as a friendly republic. Nonetheless, the backlash to Kennedy occurred when Indochina returned to a state of civil war. Fortunately, Kennedy was able to divert his strategical error as ‘the red menace’ and American’s support returned shortly. Cuba was another victory. The Bay of Pigs invasion dissuaded further communist movements in Central America. The admission of Puerto Rico and Cuba as the 51st and the 52nd State of America even insured America’s heterogeneous society in the international platform.

    One of his greatest achievements during his presidency was the Treaty of Darwin. The peace deal confirmed and strengthen America’s stronghold in Asia (Japan and Indonesia as allied states). Equally important, it also kicked imperialistic remnants in America and East Asia, despite not being so favourable for the latter. Another suggested accomplishment was the save of Germany, although foes in two decades ago, unfolded as one of America’s partners in monitoring the Red’s influence in Europe.

    As more performance than errors, Democratic Party ruled unmatched in all of American politics, both local and national politics. However, as the Twenty-Second Amendment has ratified, no individual shall exceed the two-term limit on the number of times an individual is eligible for election to the office of President of the United States. As a result, the Party relatively sought another Kennedy miracle, which promised to put Robert Kennedy in the presidency. Notwithstanding, several political figures also contested for the presidency, like VP Johnson, McCarthy, and Humphrey. Devastatingly, days before the convention night, Robert Kennedy had an attempt by Jack Leon Ruby, hospitalized, and remained in a state of emergency for a few hours, until died of blood loss in hospital. Jack Leon Ruby was a segregationist Carolinian, struggling as a middle-class person to maintain white supremacy in his own neighbourhood. He suffered relative losses after the act had passed on, and he went ballistic after he saw that another Kennedy would rule the nation again.


    The assassination of Robert Kennedy

    The Democratic partly faltered on reinventing another ‘Kennedy Miracle’ and proceeded with the McCarthy-Humphrey ticket. The devastating news for the Democratic Party meant otherwise for the Republican party, especially to figures like Richard Nixon, a former political rival of John F. Kennedy. Although were displeased by the news, the assassination may have given him a chance of presidency, which it did. The next assassination, this time to Martin Luther King Jr., shaped the nearing end of Kennedy’s era as a tumultuous one. Although Jack had requested his people to remain tolerant and peaceful, growing factionalism between blacks and whites in the south grew. Once again, the Southern region returned to political chaos. Nixon ran on a campaign that promised to restore law and order to the nation's cities and provide new leadership in the perpetual Indochina War. A year later, he would popularize the term "silent majority" to describe those he viewed as being his target voters. Together with Everett Dirksen, he won the 1968 election with a small majority.


    After Kennedy, it was Nixon time.


    That's the end of Baffled Decade, next up we will refocus things on the 1969 Indonesian election, and what had happened in Indonesia for the past years. As usual, feel free to criticize or comment on any flaws made in this TL, besides I am learning.
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    7.1. Blue Revolution: UNCLOS
  • Blue Revolution: How Indonesia quickly succeed Japan as the Asian Master of the Seas
    Prabowo Purnawan


    KRI (Kapal Republik Indonesia) Col. Heru Hendropriyono , a Bonjol-Class (adopted from US Adams-Class) of Navy Vessel of Indonesia. Commissioned in 1969, famous for several of his sea campaigns, and the first destroyer to exist in Indonesian Navy

    The forthcoming of 1970 was truly an amazing progress for the livelihood of every person in Indonesia. From then a guerrilla society fought for anti-imperialism and colonial discrimination, now an extensively large native nation already growing as a regional power. Similar to what the United States of America had grown during their early independence years, Indonesia fought a war against a great power. The difference was, Indonesia won.

    After the Treaty of Darwin, Indonesia extended to more than two million square kilometers in area, yet disconnected due to various sea in between. The land was effectively Indonesia, but the seas were still international waters. In Indonesia, the territory of the Republic of Indonesia then still referred to the 1939 Dutch Indies Ordinance, namely the Zeeën en Maritieme Kringen Ordonantie 1939 (TZMKO 1939). In the Dutch East Indies regulations, the islands of the Archipelago were separated by the surrounding sea and each island only had a sea around 3 miles from the coastline. This means that foreign ships can freely sail the sea that separates the islands. Therefore, potential naval invasion was clearly possible, and the government of Indonesia could not do anything about it. Djuanda, years before the Darwin Treaty, had pressed that the law prejudiced maritime nations, and a revision must be created, which he declared Djuanda’s Declaration.


    The Sea Borders according to the TZMKO 1939

    The contents of the Djuanda Declaration, drafted on November 13, 1959, revised on April 4 1961, state:
    • That Indonesia states as an island nation that has its own style
      [*]That since a long time ago, the archipelago has been a unity
      [*]The provisions of the 1939 Ordinance concerning Ordinance, can divide the territorial integrity of Indonesia from the declaration containing a purpose:
      [*]To realize the shape of the territory of the Federal Republic of Indonesia which is whole and round
      [*]To determine the territorial boundaries of the Republic of Indonesia, in accordance with the principles of the Archipelago
      [*]To regulate the shipping traffic that is more secure ensuring the security and safety of the Republic of Indonesia.

    In the midst of the war with the Commonwealth, the borders of Indonesia expanded in the seas. As a result, justified attacks towards Australian and British convoys were legalized for the Navy. With British superiority on naval theater, the Indonesian Navy managed to sunk a sum of convoys during the mid-stage of the war. Yet, progress was still few, as Wilopo was scared of the annihilation of the entire Navy if they convened a high-risk raiding. When the Americans intervened things went exactly on the favor to Indonesians. The joint US-Indonesian Navy conducted battles in these ‘Indonesian seas’ and mainly won. United Kingdom requested a UN embargo to Indonesia, as they were attacking on international waters. But, since the Americans were involved, the UN decided to back down the issue, but condemn the UK that had been having atrocities in Papua.

    After the Treaty of Darwin, the United States was revealed on how important sea borders was to the integrity of the nation. Besides, the US still owned a number of islands in several oceans, and notable of them located strategically on geopolitical rivals. Kennedy already promoted an international agreement regarding the sea problem in 1962. But because the situations in Europe and in the midst of the war, the projected convention largely turned into a failure. In the second Convention, the United States gave a total attention, and it replied with the UNCLOS II 1968.

    The convention set the limit of various areas, measured from a carefully defined baseline. (Normally, a sea baseline follows the low-water line, but when the coastline is deeply indented, has fringing islands or is highly unstable, straight baselines may be used.) The areas are as follows:


    Internal waters
    Covers all water and waterways on the landward side of the baseline. The coastal state is free to set laws, regulate use, and use any resource. Foreign vessels have no right of passage within internal waters. A vessel in the high seas assumes jurisdiction under the internal laws of its flag State. Pursuit of a ship by the Coastal State may only take place in the internal waters and is required to end when reaching the contiguous zone.

    Territorial waters
    Out to 12 nautical miles (22 kilometers; 14 miles) from the baseline, the coastal state is free to set laws, regulate use, and use any resource. Vessels were given the right of innocent passage through any territorial waters, with strategic straits allowing the passage of military craft as transit passage, in that naval vessels are allowed to maintain postures that would be illegal in territorial waters. "Innocent passage" is defined by the convention as passing through waters in an expeditious and continuous manner, which is not "prejudicial to the peace, good order or the security" of the coastal state. Fishing, polluting, weapons practice, and spying are not "innocent", and submarines and other underwater vehicles are required to navigate on the surface and to show their flag. Nations can also temporarily suspend innocent passage in specific areas of their territorial seas, if doing so is essential for the protection of their security.

    Archipelagic waters
    A baseline is drawn between the outermost points of the outermost islands, subject to these points being sufficiently close to one another. All waters inside this baseline are designated Archipelagic Waters. The state has sovereignty over these waters (like internal waters), but subject to existing rights including traditional fishing rights of immediately adjacent states. Foreign vessels have right of innocent passage through archipelagic waters (like territorial waters).

    Contiguous zone
    Beyond the 12-nautical-mile (22 km) limit, there is a further 12 nautical miles (22 km) from the territorial sea baseline limit, the contiguous zone, in which a state can continue to enforce laws in four specific areas: customs, taxation, immigration and pollution, if the infringement started within the state's territory or territorial waters, or if this infringement is about to occur within the state's territory or territorial waters. This makes the contiguous zone a hot pursuit area.

    Exclusive economic zones (EEZs)
    These extend 200 nautical miles (370 kilometers; 230 miles) from the baseline. Within this area, the coastal nation has sole exploitation rights over all natural resources. In casual use, the term may include the territorial sea and even the continental shelf. The EEZs were introduced to halt the increasingly heated clashes over fishing rights, although oil was also becoming important. The success of an offshore oil platform in the Gulf of Mexico in 1947 was soon repeated elsewhere in the world, and by 1970 it was technically feasible to operate in waters 4,000 meters deep. Foreign nations have the freedom of navigation and overflight, subject to the regulation of the coastal states. Foreign states may also lay submarine pipes and cables.

    Continental shelf
    The continental shelf is defined as the natural prolongation of the land territory to the continental margin's outer edge, or 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastal state's baseline, whichever is greater. A state's continental shelf may exceed 200 nautical miles (370 km) until the natural prolongation ends. However, it may never exceed 350 nautical miles (650 kilometers; 400 miles) from the baseline; or it may never exceed 100 nautical miles (190 kilometers; 120 miles) beyond the 2,500-meter isobaths (the line connecting the depth of 2,500 meters). Coastal states have the right to harvest mineral and non-living material in the subsoil of its continental shelf, to the exclusion of others. Coastal states also have exclusive control over living resources "attached" to the continental shelf, but not to creatures living in the water column beyond the exclusive economic zone.

    Since the enaction of these sea laws alleviate the importance of Indonesia’s two armed forces, the Navy and the Coast Guard. In before these branches found difficulties in optimizing their tasks. Now, nearly everything inside the archipelago is Indonesia. Navy would repel any hostile ships, while the Coast Guard skirmishes any piracy along the coasts. However, the sea laws that was put into effect also resulted into the largest crisis in the history of South East Asia, the Malaccan Crisis, which happened on 23rd March 1971. Nevertheless, UNCLOS gave a new meaning on sea exploration, and thus also legalize further off-shore drilling in observed potential zones like East Kalimantan Coasts,or North Brunei Coasts.
    7.2. Blue Revolution: Hatta's Revelation
  • The 1969 Election was beginning to hype up. Political parties had started to campaign again. The Political Act of 1967 diminished any provocative measures of campaign that could be done by parties. A distinct characteristic of a military-led government was mainly stability as the foremost, therefore the act was immediately passed. Nasution, as President, was mainly predicted to win the election. But for Hatta, he was resigning.

    For him, the age of 60 was a demoralized number. Mostly in Indonesia, the age of 60 was old. The physical capabilities on that age was far from their youth eras, and mainly would affect the work performance of one’s abilities, especially when the man was the Premier of Indonesia. So, he had informed his party that after the election had been held, he would resign and left politics. In Hatta’s mind, however, the reason why he left was affected by what had happened to Sukarno in 1963.


    It has been a long time that I have involved in politics, and met you in person. My exile to Ende, my old house-arrest mansion, have been a pleasure to my retiring life. It is already six years of my exit, and I felt relaxed, actually. Indeed, my resignation was controversial. Abandoning the nation in the state of war, surely no war leader has ever performed. Neglecting my duties as President of Indonesia, is an infamy indeed. But, this was not why I wrote this letter for. Instead, I want to reveal the true reason why I left politics.

    Back then in 1962, I was a leader at the utmost eclipse of popularity. Leading a war that was finally winning, a war against the largest European empire in history of mankind. Struggling to fight against the true core of imperialism, truthfully that was my awaited dream. Because of that, you may have noticed my tendency towards left-wing or left-leaning politics. Communism, likewise, was the ideology you loathed, but I adored. For me, Communism could go hand in hand with Pancasila. Our core virtues of an Indonesian Culture lives within Gotong Royong, which was one Communist values.

    Me entering into PKI, was my choice. I really aspired a strong left government with the help of PKI, the best party for me. I was achieving to create a great PKI for Indonesia, akin to Yugoslavia, and China. These two nations, with two great leaders, became my both inspiration and prospective allies. But that soon changed.

    What I really upset for is China. China, under the leadership of Mao, ruled under the system of a communal society, what I had tried to succeed. The solidarity and persistence of the Chinese people I adored. Nevertheless, after our ambassador reported Mao’s move for the rapid change of allegiance of Mongolia, led to China’s future annexation of it. It initially disgusted me as a democratic leader. The rough ‘coup d’état’, although still maintain the sovereignty of the Mongolian People’s Republic, they concluded with a promise of China’s annexation in 1970. The previous Jamsrangiin Sambuu was pro-Soviet leader, albeit close friends to Mao. He advocated a strong communist alliance with all supporters, but also advocated the reunification of Mongolia’s lost territories, which were held by China. Mao, livid by it, decided to teach Sambuu a lesson, which then overthrew him ‘democratically’ by a Great Khural vote and elected Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal, staunchest pro-Mao. As an act of gratitude, he promised a Mongolian admission to PRC, and bargain with Yumjaagiin’s position for Secretary for Mongolia Autonomous Region (Inner+Outer).

    PKI’s allegiance to support the new Chinese expansion was not my deepest concern. We also trialed that cause, with the Aggression War to Australia, and the Treaty of Darwin confirmed it. I before dreamt for a united Austronesia, from Madagascar to Easter Island, from Taiwan to Tasmania. However, as the circumstances had given, my ambitious vision went nowhere. On the contrary, there were two subsequent actions which left me in total frustration for the ideology.

    After the success in Mongolia, China decided to abandon Russia’s, her northern ally, and form a similar-but-different communism. For Karl Marx, which application was re-introduced in Khrushchev era, the proletariat were the urban working class, which was determined in the revolution by which the bourgeoisie overthrew feudalism. For Mao Zedong, the proletariat were the millions of peasants, to whom he referred as the popular masses. In other words, while Marxism called for the laborers, Mao called the entire Chinese mass as proletariat, meaning there would be no difference in all of China. So, his actions led to believe that religion was against his views, and that led to the first wave of genocide in Sinkiang.

    Yes, since 1962, projected plans of eradication of stubborn Uyghur faithful has been conducted. It was estimated that by 1970, Islam would drastically reduce in the region. Other similar plans, like removing the Dalai Lama from any influence, was also created. In other words, China was communist on front, but extreme fascism on their interior. It is highly disturbing that my so-called comrades were killing beloved believers of Muhammad only to declare them pertinacious on their belief.

    Then, not long after the projected plans was leaked, Yugoslavia too, had somewhat similar plans. I yet unconfirmed whether Tito had briefed such plans, but the Serbs planned a discrete eradication of ethnic Albanians from the Kosovo region. For the ethnically diverse European nation, Kosovo was the largest thorn of them all, uttering all means of separation from Yugoslavia, especially from Serbian hands. After that, we would note several killings that have been done, and maybe someday those sin would be exposed.

    Since then, I questioned communism. The Soviet Union, famous for seize Poland, a friend and ally of him, was truly a traitor too untrustworthy to partner. China was too greedy to befriend. Yugoslavia was too prudish of their forms of diversity. These nations were all examples of a ‘successful’ Communist nation, and I truly regret of joining as one of them.

    I hope you still weren’t mad at me after all this time, and hope for a reconciliation between our older selves. For the end note, I hope your retirement will go as planned.


    After Hatta read the letter, he immediately caught up a plan for his ending. It later was addressed on the Assembly months before the election, and his same address would mark the start of a PUP-PGI drama, which revolved around Indonesia until the 1990s. The plan would affect greatly on one region that was having their greatest crisis, and open up for better tolerance in Indonesian society.

    I, having read again my own TL, has decided to finally clear up what had made Sukarno resign. The reasons before then were unspoken, but now, at least this is viable. In other words, he regret having involved in communist policies, the same policies he supported even since post-independence.

    For the cliff-hanger on the ending, here's a quick spoiler.
    Last edited:
    7.3. Blue Revolution: Progressive Union Party/Partai Persatuan Pembangunan
  • PUP, 28 May Incident, and the Rise of Subandrio

    If the Indonesians wanted to determine the start of a new system, the 1969 was a good start. The election would have a three months long duration, from the Legislative Election for the Regional and Representative Council in August, and the Presidential Election in November. Both of those elected officials, legislative and executive, would be inaugurated in January 6. And campaigning was restricted to as long as one year prior until as short as one month prior. Because of that, during those campaigning years, many parties competed in attracting ballots.

    The Progressive Union Party was one. As a party essentially ‘crabbed’ by the PGI. The PUP had sworn to change this by the next election. As a party of Hatta, the PUP never actually struggled to gain voters. A strong base for Revolutionary Spirit of 1945 - the one those fired during 10 November 1945 in Surabaya, or Bandung during the Bandung Sea of Fire, and during the General Offensive of 1st March- had been established for five years.

    For now, the PGI have introduced the 1965 Generation, a generation where Indonesians felt their proud and prestige in overcoming the United Kingdom in a war, and unifying most of Melayunesia. However, the 1965s would sometimes clash with the 1945s, mainly because of several differences. For once, the 1945s were people of the independence era. They stood up against allied aggression, and made their way towards independence. In other words, they were strictly anti-imperialism, and also non-aligned folks. The 1965s were slightly different, they also hated imperialism, but not nationalism. For them, uniting Austronesia, like what had done in Treaty of Darwin, was a natural act of nationalism. Furthermore, they also advocate a strong centralized government, differ from the 1945s which prefer a decentralized government.


    Linguistic Map of Austonesia, in PGI context, Australia and Papua were often included to unite them as one Austronesia Realm. In some devious ways, PGI named their own manifesto Pax Australia (Not to be confused with Australia, an UK Dominion)

    Other strong distinction of these two generations was how they treated the little continental bit in South East Asia, Malaya. For the 1965, Malaya must be kept on their own. The former British Malaya was better than Indonesia in all aspects, except race-equality. Nearly everything, infrastructure, administration, industry and even farming was already accommodated by the former colonial government. For instance, that specific reason was why the government, particularly 1965 PGIs, thought that incorporating Malaya roundly into the Indonesian realm would contribute great consequences, one of them was shifting the power to Malaya, rather than Java. For the PGIs, Java was a sacred symbol for Indonesia. They would do everything to stop asserting Outer-Java influence from the government, that also included Hatta’s presence as Premier. As a result, PGI’s main policy towards incorporating the region, was ‘give them space, until we can out-pace them’.

    For the PUPs, they had a different drastic approach. The reason why we should avoid Malaya was the same reason why we should hurry in incorporating it. Malaya’s resources were sufficient enough to run their own, but that could be diverted to assist Indonesia’s growth as a whole. As one example, the rubber and oil industry in Malaya was already developed to actually sustain US foreign demands in constructing Papua. So, what PUP had thought of was giving in some places for Malayan public figures, which Hatta would later on… The 1945 Spirit was thought to be reclining, Hatta thought. The 1965 had nearly swept the whole archipelago, mainly increasing an expansion view to a certain place in Africa. In addition to it, the whole Java was seemingly ‘sanctified’ by the PGI. No other islands combined were much importance than Java itself. For Hatta, a new discrimination was getting out of hand, and it must be contained. Luckily, he knew exactly how because of a certain crisis.

    The crisis of Malaya, had already happened back from the colonial years. For some time, a general gap between ethnic Malays and Chinese had taken place. Ethnic Chinese lived majorly in the small islands south of the Peninsula, Singapore Islands. Ethnic Malays dwelt everywhere else, in the mainland Peninsula, or even the Borneo portion. Chinese were extremely crowded in the island, not like the sparse Malays. Therefore, the population proportion in total was quite equal. Indeed, the Chinese had traditionally better economic affluence and the Malays tended to be poorer.

    The plan on granting a Federal Malaya from the British really scared these two ethnics. However, those were scrapped after the Indonesian had acquired them. As a compromise between these two ethnics, Malaya and Singapore was split apart. However, what the Malays unable to accept was the status of Singapore as SEZ, while in Malaysia, only Penang and Malacca were given. Even Penang, located north-east of the peninsula, were also had high Chinese diaspora. In Singapore, groups of Malays living there had growing tension with them now as the minority. Lee Kuan Yew, a Singaporean political activist, adopted non-communal politics whereby it called for equality for all regardless of race or religion. However, the Malays demanded the provision of exclusive privileges for the bumiputeras (indigenous Malays in Malaya). For provocative purposes, these ethnic bubbles were supported by those in State of Malaya, where led by Governor Abdul Rahman. Then, not long, the riots began.

    The 28 May Incident, happened after the celebration of Mawlid (Birth) of the Prophet.


    According to the NOC official report, at around 6 pm, fist fights broke out in Setapak between a group of Malays from Gombak travelling to the rally and Chinese bystanders who taunted them, and this escalated into bottle and stone throwing. News of the fighting then reached the gathering crowd in Jalan Raja Muda, and shortly before 6.30 pm, many Malays broke off from the rallying point at the Chief Minister's house and headed through adjoining Chinese sections. The Malays, armed with parangs and kris, burned cars and shops, killed and looted in the Chinese areas; according to Time, at least eight Chinese were killed in the initial attack. Once violence broke out, it spread rapidly and uncontrollably throughout the city within 45 minutes,to Jalan Campbell, Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman (Batu Road), Kampung Datuk Keramat, Kampung Pandan, Cheras and Kampung Kerinchi.

    Not long, the entire region turned into chaos. Police forces were deployed to Singapore and a state of emergency was being given. Hatta, Premier at that moment, was already knew how to handle the situation, and he gave to his party associate Subandrio.


    Subandrio was born in Malang, East Java, and educated at the Sekolah Tinggi Kedokteran Jakarta (GHS) in Jakarta. As a medical student he was active in the movement for independence. During World War II, while practicing medicine, he worked with anti-Japanese resistance forces. After the war he was appointed secretary-general of the information ministry.

    After 1945 Subandrio became a supporter of Sukarno, and was sent as Sukarno's special envoy in Europe, establishing an information office in London in 1947. From 1954 to 1956, he was ambassador to the Soviet Union. During this time, he developed strong left wing views, although he was never a Communist as later alleged. After 1956, he was immediately sent home to manage Indonesia’s war effort against UK. During that time, he met Hatta, and quickly became great companions. After 1963, he joined the PUP, and mostly become Hatta’s right-hand man in every occasion. He rallied the people on encouraging socialism, civic nationalism, and social conservatism in his later years. After the war, Subandrio would stay in Indonesia longer, becoming a Malang Senator, or Regional Representative.

    He was given a simple but troubling task by Hatta, settle a compromise in Singapore. For him, this was not an easy task, especially involving two ethnic groups that before had clashed against each other. For three days, he was given time to think about the crisis. For every day he delayed, the crisis spewed even broader. In 4th of June, he given a negotiable peace concession from those battling factions. For the Malays he offered a special treatment from the Indonesian government itself by giving money and regulation subsidies especially for Malay merchants. As a counter-balance, the Singaporean Chinese-descendants were given increasing political rights. Although the Malays refused to accept, they ultimately decided for in the end, and finally peace returned to Singapore.

    For several years, the little Malayan diaspora in the region was slightly funded by the government, called the Bumiputera exclusive rights. However, this was only given in five-year’s time. For the Chinese, their struggle for equality was halted, but by this they also promoted a rising star into Indonesian politics, none other than Lee Kuan Yew.
    Lee Kuan Yew, already an established politician with a conservative view, would join as a PUP member in 1969. An even after just his brief entrance, he would become PUP’s golden boy, by placing him an extremely strategic position in Indonesia, one seat that would cause extensive dramas to the PGI. By the end of the conflict, Subandrio was enacted as national hero of equality, showing the true vigor of just and equal judgement towards the two disputable ethnics.


    Lee Kuan Yew during a short speech about Singaporean's future in Indonesia
    7.4. Blue Revolution: Partai Komunis Indonesia
  • PKI Reformation

    One thing was certain for Indonesia’s politics back then, which was PKI would wrinkle if they kept implementing their same strategy all over again. Although PKI’s had almost a tenth in the Representative Majority, it was a dwarf comparing to the three other parties. In addition to it, PKI’s survival was so dependent on D.N. Aidit, that any controversial issues he had make during speeches, the party’s popularity trembled and fluctuated.


    Portrait of Dipa Nusantara Aidit

    The other perturbing habits of an Indonesian Communist Party was their revolts. In the course of history, the Communists had revolted two times, in 1926 and in 1948.

    In May 1925, the Exec Committee of the Comintern in a plenary meeting ordered communists in Indonesia to form an anti-imperialist front united with non-communist nationalist organizations, but extremist elements dominated by Alimin & Musso called for a revolution to overthrow the Dutch colonial government. At a conference in Prambanan, Central Java, trade unions controlled by the communists decided that the revolution would start with a strike by the railroad workers who would signal a more general and broad strike for the revolution to begin. This will lead to the PKI which will replace the colonial government.

    In November 1926 the PKI led a rebellion against colonial rule in West Java and West Sumatra. The PKI announced the formation of a republic. Together with Alimin, Musso who was one of the PKI leaders in that era was not in Indonesia. He is in talks with Tan Malaka who does not agree with the rebellion's move. This rebellion was finally brutally crushed by the colonial authorities. Thousands were killed and around 13,000 detained, 4,500 imprisoned, 1,308 of whom party cadres were largely exiled, and 823 were sent to Boven Digul, a detention camp in Papua. Some people died in custody. Many non-communist political activists were also targeted by the colonial government, citing the suppression of the communist uprisings. In 1927 the PKI was declared banned by the Dutch government. Because of this, the PKI then went underground.


    A picture of the First PKI Generation in Batavia/Jakarta months before the revolt

    During the signing of the Renville Agreement in 1948, the outcome of the Renville negotiation agreement was seen as favorable to the Dutch position. On the contrary, Indonesia has become a disadvantaged party by the narrower area it has. Many Republican armed units returned from conflict zones. This gave some of Indonesia's right-wing beliefs that they would be able to rival the PKI militarily. Guerrilla units and militias under the influence of the PKI were ordered to disperse. In Madiun the PKI military group refused to go along with the disarmament of members who were killed in September of the same year. The murder sparked a violent uprising. This gave a reason to suppress the PKI. This was claimed by military sources that the PKI had announced the proclamation of the 'Soviet Republic of Indonesia' on September 18 by referring to Musso as president and Amir Syarifuddin as prime minister. At the same time the PKI condemned the rebellion and asked for calm. On 30 September Madiun was taken over by the TNI from the Siliwangi Division. Thousands of party cadres were killed and 36 000 jailed. Among the executed leaders included Musso, who was killed on October 31 while captured in Niten Village, Sumorejo District, Ponorogo. Allegedly when Musso tried to escape from prison. Aidit and Lukman went into exile in the People's Republic of China. However, the PKI was not banned and continued to function. Reconstruction of the party began in 1949.


    The Madiun Revolt in 1948

    In 1950, the PKI resumed its publishing activities, with its main organs being Harian Rakjat and the Bintang Merah. In the 1950s, the PKI took the position of a nationalist party under the leadership of Aidit, and supported anti-colonialist and anti-Western policies adopted by President Soekarno. Aidit and the surrounding groups, including young leaders such as Sudisman, Lukman, Njoto and Sakirman, gained control of the party leadership in 1951. At that time, none of them was more than 30 years old. However, the slow-and-steady PKI rise must be halted with PGI meteoric rise, nearly wipe out PKI chances of further expansion. The lucky PGI managed to seized the position as a better nationalistic party under the leader of Ignatius Joseph Kasimo Hendrowahyono. Even farther, the insult from this party was duplicated after they promoted pan-nationalism and pro-Western policies, everything the PKI hated. Even with Aidit and his wonderful speeches, PKI must bow to PGI since 1950s, until now.

    During the war, PKI’s popularity was gradually increasing. The problems led by a British blockade promote the PKI into discussing several matters against people’s prosperity. As food, money and trade dived low during the war, the PKI had used this opportunity to gain more supporters. Nevertheless, after the war ended, their bases were completely disintegrated as Indonesia deify the PNI as leader of the war, whom which also allied with the PGI. Lost for almost 20 years, and no important seats to ever acclaimed, PKI was anxious. Inner party leaders convened a lot to talk over this situation, and nearly all presented plan ended up with failures. In the eyes of PKI, the PGI party seemed to be indestructible from the outside, and even harder from the inside. The PKI had attempted infiltration to PGI’s base, and no significant results had been given.

    As the election day was nearing, D.N. Aidit was nervous enough of his party’s survival that another extraordinary congress must be held. A 35th Extraordinary Congress in Jakarta, March 3 1969, to consider all issues regarding the party. During the congress, thousands members of PKI were present, and none of them was as appealing as Colonel Untung bin Syamsuri.

    During the war for independence Kusman joined the Sudigdo Battalion in Wonogiri, Solo. Next Military Governor Col. Gatot Soebroto ordered the Sudigdo Battalion to be moved to Cepogo, on the slopes of Mount Merbabu. Then Kusman went to Madiun and joined his friends. After the Madiun incident, Kusman changed his name to Untung Sutopo and entered the TNI through the Military Academy in Semarang. Before being drawn to the Cakrabirawa Regiment, Untung was once the Commander of Battalion 454 / Banteng Raiders based in Srondol, Semarang. This battalion has the same quality and level of legend as Yonif Linud 330 / Kujang and Yonif Linud 328 / Kujang II. During the Australian Agression, Untung would command his battalion into many fights in Papua. The most famous for Battalion 454 was becoming the first Army to arrive and secure the Christmas Island. After the Battle in Christmas Island, he would later be promoted to Colonel.

    After the war ended, he would later gain interests in politics, especially on left politics. He strongly bolstered libertarian-communism, which explains a broad range of economic and political philosophies that emphasize the anti-authoritarian aspects of Marxism. It was a reaction after the authoritarian measures by Mao and Stalin. Thorez was also one libertarian-communism follower, also idolized Rosa Luxemburg, and Untung seemed to favored him.

    Indonesia, was naturally socialist. Gotong Royong, our national symbol, have proved them exactly. Now I ask to all my comrades: Why us, a party supporting socialism and communism, must lose to our arch nemesis of neo-imperialism and pan-nationalism?

    Here is how, my comrades, because we are too inclined to Moscow and Beijing at the same time. Opposition to any policy of the government is our sounding objection to decrease the equality, but also same time leading communism to only a stagnation.

    Join me, comrade Aidit, comrade Djoto, and all comrades in this hall, to threw Comintern to the bin and instead be our own communism, a Indo-communism.
    Colonel Untung bin Syamsuri


    Colonel Untung with a Military Police escorting him

    During his speech, he also commented that ‘Indo-communism’ will be an upgraded relic for former Sukarno-ism. With his initial Extraordinary Speech, he would rise in the ranks of PKI. This speech also reformed the PKI as a whole. Aidit, completely amazed by his vision, declare a reformation of the party. However, the aftermath of this reformation would start to affect nationally after the PGI’s contentious argument about their post-1969 plan.
    7.5. Blue Revolution: 1969 Legislative Results

    The legislative elections of 1969 is here and hot, as four parties has contested in Indonesia, with once extra local party for Papua. With a divided left and one strong right party, Indonesia is given a hard choice when 1970s is on the stake.

    The Party of Greater Indonesia is currently the largest party in Indonesia. Holding nearly two-fifths of the population, the party endorsed a nationalistic stance. If it were established in a fascist era, PGI surely would become one of the largest members of it. Albeit its nationalistic stances, PGI is relatively tolerant to minorities, and actually practices notable socialist economic policies, especially the Golkar faction, which consisted mainly of the military. The radical version of it, the Purple Faction, includes intellectuals and scholars. Many of those people, in fact, react Indonesia’s clear potential greatness as imminent future, and proceed in involving themselves in most ambitious projects nationwide. In spite of the party’s, solid pseudo-secular stance, there is a tiny portion of it, called the ‘Ulamas’ which advocates religious values.

    PGI’s junior partner, the PNI, is another nationalistic party. However, rather than the capitalist, less regulation PGI, PNI strongly views regulation and government control in economic sectors. On the other hand, the PNI favors federalizing more of the nation rather than PGI’s centralizing attitude. In foreign policy, PNI has the greatest advantage as a non-aligned party, something the founding fathers of Indonesia had keen on. So far, PNI still cooperate with the PGI. Within the PNI, there are some factions growing within. The “New Faction” led by Fajar Lubis, is a democratic faction. The faction’s staunch opposition towards Indonesia’s leaning towards the US has make them famous. This faction believes that democracy is not meant to lean only one side of the world, albeit represent the whole world. Therefore, France, Germany and many of South American nations (which were democratically elected until ‘American junta’ arrives) are all a valid nation of democracy and must not be hated. Meanwhile, Wilopo’s bases sticks to pragmatism and instead to real-politics. There is no distinct policy when it comes to Wilopo, it is only maneuvers on opportunist stances.

    PUP is a splinter party from the government, dissatisfied with PGI’s authoritarian behavior and even meddle in domestic policy, when it was actually PUP’s responsible. A center left party, this Hatta party is also a neutral party, uninvolved to any political affiliation happening outside. This party grew up to own a different character of socialism, which is in Indonesian characteristics. The slogan ‘Gotong Royong’ have become somewhat a god spoken symbol and motto for supporters. Nevertheless, this party is nicknamed to be the most ‘racist’ ones, as they are reluctant to appeal Javan and Papuan voters and attract more in Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Lesser Sundas. This strategy still is not a problem because of Hatta’s proclamator status that is widely known in Java. Interestingly, there were no tangible differences that may differ PUP from PNI. Because of that, usually these two parties are considered as half brothers, only to separated with how their relationship with PGI. The party is united under Hatta, and there are no factions forming inside the party.

    PKI, the largest sole communist party in Indonesia, is clinging on for its survival. The Second Phase of the Cold War, which the communist is deeply divided, also gives an effect to the platform. There are three types of Communism, Maoist, Thorezians and Marxist-Stalinist, all of them create the factions in Indonesia. In order of authoritarian measures, Thorezians are definitely the last, because of its libertarian components. Maoist and Soviet’s Marxist-Stalinist, are difficult to distinguish. Nevertheless, both of them compromise between a total government control on political matters, or economic and social matters. The former is worryingly progressed, as their ‘Great Leap Forward’ continue to inspire people.

    After the election night, there are no surprises to contain inside those ballots. But, because of PGI’s contentious declaration about the status of Amir Syariffudin, the party is the one who declined in votes. During the independence wars, Amir Syariffudin was a national hero who became the Second Prime Minister for Indonesia. However, after the disastrous Renville Agreement, he decided to left the government and build a new one in Madiun. This movement is now widely known as “Madiun ’48 Revolt”, a communist movement destined to established a red regime opposed to any Allied negotiations. When the party was asked for its opinion, Lieutenant General Suharto misspoke his words, saying that Amir Syariffudin is a ‘hero turned villain’ and yet we still must remember him.

    The reactions about what had he spoken was dire, as the party convened itself to have a minor ruckus. In one moment, the Purple Faction, had thought of expelling him. But surely, expelling him would he the end of PGI. Suharto was on par as Nasution, or even stronger. His connections inside the Army, and his lobbying effort was efficient indeed. Therefore, party’s unity was shaken a bit, and it affect the popularity as well.

    In 1969, there are two councils to contest. The first one, proportionally elected, was the People’s Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat). The body was so far the largest among three. There are three different councils, Indonesia, Papua and Melanesian councils. Indonesia had 320 seats, Papua 100 and Melanesia 50. Each of those council were eligible for nationally ratified parties, except Eastern Coalition Front, which owned Papua specially. The DPR would become the stem for a Premier’s Cabinet, holding the power to rule the government. The winning coalition or party shall elect a leader, which will become the Premier. The Premier, according to 1959 Constitution, will control domestic issues within the government. The councils are limited each of the Republics, therefore Indonesia ‘s Council should not interfere Papua’s ones, or Melanesia’s ones, or vice versa. For SAR Councils (Papua and Melanesia), their leaders are called not a Premier, but a Deputy Premier. Still, a Deputy Premier still owns a special cabinet and administration.

    The other one, was the People Regional Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah). This body however has only one body different from the former. For each regional states will have four representatives, each Special Economic Zones will have five representatives, and each Special Administrative Zones’s regional states will have six representatives. This body is on par to the President, although holds also as part of legislative council. Therefore, this body mainly convenes on foreign issues, and oftenly discuss with the President instead of the Premier. There are 34 regional states in Indonesia, 5 regional kingdoms in Indonesia, 5 SEZs in Indonesia, and 6 regional states incorporated to SARs. That makes a total of 217 seats. This seats were permanent, rather than growing DPR, and would mainly stayed up that way even until the 21st century ends, except there would be more expansion.

    When the night had finished, the election was hardly amusing, because the results were extremely close to what had predicted. The one that intrigued political experts was the factions within the parties. The PGI, for instance, were dominantly ruled by Golkar faction. After the 1969 election, the Purple Lists had a growing percentage, even matching with the Golkar. The PKI, secondly, now had a Untung owning half of the party, along with his communism with Indonesian characteristics akin to Thorezian in France. However, in the DPD we would see a decline in PGI's power, and that should also affect the Presidential Election up next.

    People's Representative Council of Indonesia (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Indonesia)


    320 Seats

    Party of Greater Indonesia - Partai Indonesia Raya - 110 Seats, 34.38% (-14)
    • Golkar Faction - 57 seats
    • Purple Faction - 41 seats
    • Ulamas - 12 seats

    Indonesia National Party - Partai Nasional Indonesia - 71 Seats, 22.19% (+5)
    • Old Faction 'Wilopo' - 52 seats
    • New Faction 'Fajar Lubis' - 19 seats

    Progressive Union Party - Partai Persatuan Perubahan - 105 Seats, 32.81% (+6)

    Indonesia Communist Party - Partai Komunis Indonesia - 34 Seats, 10.62% (+3)

    • Pro-Mao - 15 seats
    • Pro-Soviet - 7 seats
    • Unique Communism "Untung" - 12 seats


    People's Representative Council of Papua Special Administrative Region (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah Admnistrasi Khusus Papua)

    Papua DPR.png

    100 Seats

    Party of Greater Indonesia - Partai Indonesia Raya - 55 Seats
    • Golkar Faction - 45 seats
    • Purple Faction - 3 seats
    • Ulamas - 7 seats

    Indonesia National Party - Partai Nasional Indonesia - 7 Seats
    • Old Faction 'Wilopo' - 4 seats
    • New Faction 'Fajar Lubis' - 3 seats

    Progressive Union Party - Partai Persatuan Perubahan - 1 Seat

    Indonesia Communist Party - Partai Komunis Indonesia - 2 Seats

    • Pro-Mao - 0 seats
    • Pro-Soviet - 1 seat
    • Unique Communism "Untung" - 1 seat

    Eastern Coalition Front - Front Gabungan Daerah Timur - 35 Seats


    People's Representative Council of Melanesia Special Administrative Region (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah Admnistrasi Khusus Melanesia)

    Melanesia DPR.png

    50 Seats
    Party of Greater Indonesia - Partai Indonesia Raya - 40 Seats
    • Golkar Faction - 38 seats
    • Purple Faction - 1 seat
    • Ulamas - 1 seat

    Indonesia National Party - Partai Nasional Indonesia - 1 Seats
    • Old Faction 'Wilopo' - 1 seat
    • New Faction 'Fajar Lubis' - 0 seats

    Progressive Union Party - Partai Persatuan Perubahan - 0 Seats

    Indonesia Communist Party - Partai Komunis Indonesia - 1 Seat

    • Pro-Mao - 0 seats
    • Pro-Soviet - 0 seats
    • Unique Communism "Untung" - 1 seat

    Eastern Coalition Front - Front Gabungan Daerah Timur - 8 Seats


    People's Regional Council of Indonesia Federal Republic (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah Republik Federal Indonesia)

    DPD (1).png

    217 Seats

    Party of Greater Indonesia - Partai Indonesia Raya - 77 Seats, 35.48%
    • Golkar Faction - 51 seats
    • Purple Faction - 18 seats
    • Ulamas - 2 seats

    Indonesia National Party - Partai Nasional Indonesia - 46 Seats, 21.20%
    • Old Faction 'Wilopo' - 29 seats
    • New Faction 'Fajar Lubis' - 17 seats

    Progressive Union Party - Partai Persatuan Perubahan - 62 Seats, 28.57%

    Indonesia Communist Party - Partai Komunis Indonesia - 26 Seats, 11.98%

    • Pro-Mao - 13 seats
    • Pro-Soviet - 9 seats
    • Unique Communism "Untung" - 4 seats

    Eastern Coalition Front - Front Gabungan Daerah Timur - 6 Seats, 2.77%
    7.6. Blue Revolution: 1969 Presidential Election
  • When the Legislative Elections had secured the PGI-PNI in a majority, although how slim it is, Nasution was finally had the green light to go for the election. But, since Lieutenant General Tahi Bonar Simatupang was redirected as the leader for the DPR, Nasution needed to find another successor. General Suharto was one option, but then declined due to strategic party purposes. PGI wanted, needed, General Suharto as the Premier. His strong stance for his policy, and the extensive stubbornness of his may enforce PGI’s influence over Indonesia, and for decades to come. Suharto also was cooperative with businessmen, suitable for Indonesia to boost its economy from business.

    Therefore, Nasution decided he would accept a Vice-President from PNI. To be fair, PNI had been a keen follower for PGI, and rarely express much squabbling about any of the PGI’s policy. In truth, PNI was still Wilopo-affiliated, which were largely pragmatic and realpolitik politicians, so the lack of opposition. Suharto would call Wilopo into politics again, as Ministry of Interior, so he would not become Vice President. Choosing a person for such seat was hard. Nasution wanted a person to be PNI, but was moderate enough to not block him about his actions. He would seek his second-man to be helpful for him, while also giving reasonable critics in case his judgement was so slanted. Interestingly, he would find a man in PNI. He was called Idham Chald.

    Since childhood, Idham was known to be very intelligent and brave. When he entered school he immediately sat in second grade and his speech talent began to be seen and honed. His oration skills will become Idham Chalid's main asset in pursuing a career in the political platform.

    After school, Idham continued his education to Madrasah Ar-Rasyidiyyah in 1922. Idham, who was growing and infatuated with knowledge, had many opportunities to explore Arabic, English, and general science. Then Idham continued his education to the Gontor Islamic Boarding School located in Ponorogo, East Java. The opportunity to study at Gontor was also used by Idham to deepen Japanese, German and French.

    Graduating from Gontor, 1943, Idham continued his education in Jakarta. In the capital, Idham's fluency in Japanese made Dai-Nipon invaders very impressed. The Japanese also often asked him to become a translator in several meetings with religious scholars. It was during these meetings that Idham became familiar with the main figures of NU.
    When Japan lost the war and the Allies entered Indonesia, Idham Chalid joined the struggle bodies. Towards independence, he was active in the Regional Indonesian Independence Committee in the city of Amuntai. After the Proclamation of Independence, he joined the Indonesian People's Union, a local party, then moved to the Indonesian Muslim Union.

    In 1947 he joined the Central Kalimantan Indonesian Rebels Organization, led by Hasan Basry who was also his student at Gontor. After the war for independence, Idham was appointed as a member of the Indonesian Provisional Parliament representing Kalimantan. In 1950 he was re-elected as a member of the DPRS on behalf of Masyumi. However, after the Masyumi loss in 1950, and what had become of it disintegrates. Most Masyumi members split and spread out, although most of them return as PGI’s Ulamas. But, Idham was not one of them. He joined the PNI in 1954, and continued to be fond of Indonesia’s struggle into the world stage. He once also criticizes Wilopo’s Asia-Africa Agreement, saying that it was utterly ‘racial’ and increase Western-homophobia. But, since he mastered in foreign policy, especially during the Australian Aggression years, when he would three times become acting foreign minister, 1956-1957, 1959-1962 and 1964-1965. After the war, he would remain a critic for Wilopo’s base, also not supported Fajar Lubis’ base, a suitable companion for a PGI.

    By 21 September, Nasution would announce Idham as his running mate. And the ticket of PGI-PGI was officialy announced.
    The PUP and PKI on the other hand, had difficulties on each own. For PUP, Hatta was retiring, and he would not budge to nominated himself as a 1969 candidate. He had explicitly stated his age was consuming his energy, and being as a government official for another 5 years was already too much for him. Subandrio, his announced successor, was having another trouble, as he urged PUP to cooperate with the PKI, something the former members were not happy upon. Chairul Saleh, was one oppose, stating that ‘we would not once cooperate with those bastards who abandon us at war!’.

    Subandrio, after his initial candidacy, was taken down by its party members. He also thought that maybe after Untung took over PKI, maybe he would retry it again. Instead, the party gave Adam Malik a chance, along with Sjam Kamaruzan, a fellow PKI defected to PUP. This was said to be the weakest candidacy of them all, as neither of the pair could even cooperate itself. Adam Malik was keen on improving Indonesia’s relations to European nations, while Sjam Kamaruzan opted for increasing rebellions in Africa and Asia, thus damaging the European relations.

    PKI, voted for a more popular approach, they would bring forth Aidit and Untung as a pair, hoping that maybe a miracle would come. Sadly, it did not.

    1969 Presidential Elections

    Total Population 111,8 million
    Eligible Votes 66,753,315

    1 Nasution-Chalid - 37,676,285 - 56,44%
    2 Malik-Kamaruzan - 4,513,164 - 6,76%
    3 Aidit-Untung - 24,563,833 - 36,80%

    PUP was torn to shreds after the election, and seek immediate changes from the party. Yet, much of the changes would be better effects after 1973, especially after a certain acquisition.

    Guess what will happen based on this quote:

    "Remember, it's not the size for the fight – it's the size of the fight. Overcoming challenge, confounding the skeptics, reinventing ourselves, this is what we do. It's called leadership. Quality precedes quantity, we will improve it not by numbers, but by specifications. Therefore, by this we shall win in Africa."

    "We started ourselves with Pax Nusantara, and we will complete it with a Revolution, a Blue Revolution. A revolution to change the Indonesian characteristics as a whole, still old but enhanced, traditional and modern, all for the glory of Nusantara."

    "I can't believe we let them take Malagasy just like that."

    "Damn Nasution. Let us teach them a lesson."
    Last edited:
    7.7. Blue Revolution: Order '65
  • General Suharto folded his arms. Truly, becoming a Premier was always his dream, along with Golkars’. However, observing the slim majority PGI-PNI had for the Fifth Congress, he knew that one way or another, he must back down several policies to not angry them.

    It’s actually your fault Suharto, you make the mess because of your hasty declaration against Amir. You could have just ignored it!” Nasution remarked with a higher tone.

    It’s not my fault that a traitor ever ran our government. It is history, who are we to rewrite it!” Suharto replied back with his arms.

    Just find something that can solidify our party and I will have your support.” Nasution said and then sat harshly on the chair.

    For nearly weeks after inauguration, Suharto and Nasution had been, well, in a dispute. Nasution only wanted to maintain his Presidency, which was already seemingly well during his first term. His Pax Nusantara was like his best work for Indonesia. In five years, Indonesia had become from scratch to a decent infrastructure stage. It is so outstanding that, Trans-Java is almost done with all the railways and road maps. Even in Jakarta and Singapore, plans for digging a metro have already been planned. However, all of this was actually assisted by the help of the super-majority Indonesia had during his first term. Even with the super coalition, the PKI also gave in some support in some of Pax Nusantara, which ended up nearly total assembly support.

    Since the entrance of Suharto, however, things were not so good. Indeed, the PUP had always wanted to left the coalition. But if it was not Suharto’s provocation against one of the members, we would still have them in our pockets. Suharto was one strong folk, he aimed to rule with iron fists. For him, it was time for Indonesia to enter a higher stage, not just as a mere junior for the US. If there was an embodiment of power hunger, Suharto was the one. In the minds of Suharto, cooperation on all sides was not an option. He wanted his government policy to be as purely right as possible. Grant business subsidies to increase capitalism and corporatism, give more lenience to investors, both domestic and foreign. And also, one controversial, is expanding the armed forces again. The last bit had become a problem in the Assembly, because of the existent influence.

    After the initial expansion of the armed forces during the Australian Aggression, a significant increase in armed force that influence Indonesia’s politics. With PGI as the outright platform for them, more and more personnel had joined in as government officials. For several people, especially those inside the PUP, the government was going dangerously towards ‘military junta’, with just a little bit of push. The populace also afraid of such futures, therefore there was a little disturbance in the PGI base when Suharto was appointed Premier. Nasution thought that Suharto must not be chosen. His hard idealism about ultra-nationalism and militarism was a threat to the upcoming term. He even directly stated his support for the Chilean and Brazilian junta, both of those created after Nixon’s aggressive policy about Pax Americana, and the increasing military presence in Argentinian and Nicaraguan politics. Nasution, an army himself, never liked Indonesia to become another Chile or Brazil. For Nasution, democracy isn’t a disease, it was Pancasila’s dream, and so be ours. In the other hand, he was needed by the party to express a strong government. His strong will was similar to what the haram Hitler, but the difference was there was no genocide in planning, only militaristic society.

    This Green Revolution you proposed, indirectly rose military presence in the government. We have already caused problems with us as government officials, now you are seemingly created a junta.”, Nasution sighed.

    This is necessary for strengthening our government Nasution. I have seen the troubles of parliamentary democracy. You give them too much, up until one point that you can’t. Since then, I guarantee you, nothing can ever be passed.” Suharto fired back.

    No, this path is not what Pancasila had wanted. And even what we all wanted. I’m warning you, Suharto, find something better than increasing the military. If not, just follow one of my initial orders, and start from there.” Nasution replied.

    Nasution was just leaving the Premier’s office when Manai Sophian, the elected foreign minister entered the office.

    Mr. President, and Mr. Premier, I think we have a huge problem.” Sophian said while immediately closed the door Nasution had opened. “Pardon me for my rude manners, gentlemen, but seriously, this is very dire.”

    Nasution perplexed for a moment. Sophian were never as anxious as this. At one moment when during his years as PNI-representative for South Sulawesi, he ever got nervous after being alleged of attacking Wilopo’s foreign policy, but never this magnitude.

    Sit down, Sophian. Calm yourself. Give it a moment before you said this news.

    Suharto also sat in his chair, now with both eyes directing to Sophian. He catches a few inhales, and finally spoke up.

    It’s about Malagasy, and it was extremely serious.

    Nasution was taken aback. Malagasy, the largest island across Mozambique, was one strategical importance to Indonesia. As part of the Austronesia lingua-sphere, Indonesia was intrigued of having them in a close relationship, but always ended the same due to the French presence. In 1950, a French Protectorate of Malagasy has been established, as a compromise with the Malagasy rebels. Philibert Tsiranana was appointed by the French, and always ruled there for years. We had a friendly attitude towards him, hoping that someday he would leave the French. But that days never came because of French new government. There was no way the French would relieve us into Malagasy, except…

    Did they declared independence?”, Suharto shot first. Damn he was more quick-thinker.

    Yes, Premier, but actually no. The situation was not that simple. Just a few days ago, the Fifth Republic has a rebellion, the one with National Front with Jean-Marie Le Pen. The right wing party held a number of seats in Southern France, and when Thorez enacted the ‘Equality Act’, Le Pen had enough. By the first 24-hours, Marseille, Lyon and Nice had already taken as strongholds. The French Civil War had begun.

    Sophian stood up to take a tea in the far left side of the office.

    The Americans, had already predicted this, and enacted their long planned Operation Joan D’Arc. The operation consisted of giving all insurgent camps all around French Africa. When the time comes, all of these camps had already prepared to attack, and now an African Implosion had begun. Benin, Togo, Niger, Mali, Gabon, much of them revolted. Although most of them satisfied with the Thorezian government, instead counter-attack those insurgents.

    That probably Senegal, Ivory Coast, and also Mauritania, yes?” Suharto asked. In the 1950s, a specific French Migration Act had pushed several natives away from these regions. However, after the communist regime, these secluded natives had given rights. As a result, it created a unique stability within the region, with enough number of French to erased the thoughts of leaving France, and also enough number of natives to maintain less aggressive segregation like those in South Africa. Now, it became of those French strongholds.

    Yes. They issued a war against these people. Meanwhile, those insurgents also crossed into British colonies, like in Nigeria, Ghana, and most of West Africa, convulsing Britain deeper into chaos. The Americans never thought of such possibility, and the pro-Britain Nixon opted to remain their lease or just assisting Britain against the rebels. Gentlemen, I believe we witness the African decade now.” He then sat down.

    I’m sorry,” Nasution cut, “But what is this have to do with Malagasy? I thought there were pretty distant on everything the chaos?

    Malagasy, just yesterday, was given with an ultimatum by three parties, confusing eh? The first one, the Communist, was just saying that Malagasy would not interfere anything troublesome that had erupted in Africa and just stayed on as Protectorate. Le Pen urged the Malagasy government to just follow his cause. The Americans meanwhile, urged them to just declared themselves independent. None of these was viable for Tsiranana. He would not want to being in any of those aggressing parties, but also not strong enough to construct their own government.

    So?” Nasution stressed again about the relations.

    Just last night, that same man, Philibert Tsiranana, had given to Thorez that he wanted to have a green light of leaving France peacefully. Thorez knew Malagasy wasn’t ready for independence, and so Thorez asked the question ‘Who is it?’ and he replied ‘Indonesia’”

    What? ‘Who is it?’ What does that mean?” Suharto said.

    Gentlemen, don’t you get it. The Malagasy people had requested to join Indonesia. Well, actually the French requested Malagasy on joining to Indonesia, with the request of one, not interfering on this war in Africa” Sophian said. “They demanded an answer by the morning

    With those words had spewed out of Sophian’s mouth. Both figures silenced themselves, yet unable to speak for a moment, until Suharto broke the silence.


    Suharto”, Nasution called.

    Yes, Sir.” Suharto replied.

    I believe it’s time to execute Order 65.” he instructed, ”and maybe insert that Green Revolution of yours to construct an address to the Assembly.

    With that, the entire office turned into hustle and bustle. Leaving the Foreign Minister alone in the Premier’s office.

    I was trying to have a different point of view about my TL. And this is what I came up. Hope y'all like it.

    What do you think about this?
    Can anyone guess about Order 65?
    7.8. Blue Revolution: Madagascar Opening
  • Camarade, please hear me out!”, George Marchais upon the angry and aging Thorez.

    Is red evil? Why does every move I wanted to contribute to République always ended up angrying one side or the other? Why does Malagasy want to leave us?”, Thorez reacted at George Marchais’ briefing. Thorez was briefed that in the start of the French Civil War, and also the African Implosion. Malagasy, the far-eastern protectorate, have given a plead for independence. He never reasoned why, as all he did during his reign as President was granting equality, something every non-French descendant have dreamt on.

    Camarade, listen to me! I believe this independence of Malagasy may give us benefits!”, Marchais yelled accidentally in frustration. Thorez then stuttered, and finally sighed for Marchais to speak.

    I know, Camarade. I know that you have tried your best at convincing the French people that communism is not only what can be presented by the Soviet Union and China. We, the French Communist Party, had enacted something spectacular that even a capitalist nation could not do, which was granting the perfect equality to all races! Even the Americans could not do it? Look at them, segregation and civil rights movement is still a thing while we already passed the Act for it! It seems we are losing in Africa, but the people’s enthusiasm of liberty and equality is still strong, and we still can win the war. I believe, Camerade, and I swear, that this small loss of the people can open to more victories.

    For the first time, Thorez’s frustration seemed to left. All he replied was, “How?

    We can use Malagasy for means of negotiation. It can be a tool for less enemies, and even to more allies. I believed one nation have that potential, and that is Indonesia,”Marchais said.

    Thorez’s minds finally started to digest. Indeed, Indonesia have always had his eyes towards this African island. The nationalist coalition, the one that has ruled Indonesia since independence, approximately, have rallied his people into more expansions. Tsiranana had already cautioned Thorez, that Malagasy people had a strong indication magnet to Indonesia. He suspected that Indonesian spies were already inside Malagasy. Nevertheless, nothing mattered anymore, as a new crisis for France has brewed in the Western side.

    And then, in just a flick, he finally got it.

    France could have just use Malagasy as a table for talks. For every commissioner in France, they worried about one thing which was Indonesia’s expeditions. If the Australian Aggression were not convincing enough, although with US intervention, the ones in Indochina was one great example. During the Indochinese Civil War, French spies in the North had reported the outstanding moves a mere 3 divisions of Indonesia had caused. The Americans heavily bombed the nation, fixedly outside Kennedy’s attention, but those bombs were ineffective to the jungle terrain Vietnam has. As a counter-measure, the Communists built a Ho Chi Minh Trail, digging a tunnel just beyond the border of proper Vietnam, and even reached Saigon. Unsuspected, the Communists were able to raid a few American posts, until they left to continue their guerilla tactics. Just as the news of a successful raids reached Hanoi, the party left halted as the exact same tactics came to Hanoi, this time under the same 3 divisions of Indonesia. Stupidly enough, just three miles East of the original Ho Chi Minh Trail, a Suprapto Trail was dug on the same objectives as the former one, except different targets. That 3 divisions wreaked havoc in Hanoi, forcing the communist leadership to negotiate a peaceful deal satisfying the South. Of course, the Americans used this as one of their successful campaign, but every red knows that the Indonesian Army was one rat even machine gun could not kill.

    After this so-called Operation Joan of Arc by the Americans, France would immediately find Indonesian volunteers pouring into the jungles of Africa. Even with equivalent tech as the US in terms of military, Indonesia is still a fright annoyance to every French General. Giving the Malagasy to them could prevent them from entering the war in Africa, and thus maybe help France’s position. Moreover, he could get more demands to Nusantara. Surely enough, Indonesia was a hardly camped American ally. But Thorez imagine, that even a most solid ally will be topple by any government objectives, which is why he is optimistic that Indonesia will negotiate.

    I get it, camerade. I know what you finally mean. Now tell me, after this Tsiranana’s will come to me. What are your strategies?
    Marchais then whispered few straight points towards Thorez. Much of then seems to delight Thorez a grin.

    Very well, camerade. And also, I want the Indonesians to sat down for talks by two days."


    Nasution sits on the chair on the left side of the Premier’s. The newly elected Premier, however, stand on the podium to express one of the most pre-planned speech in all of Suharto’s history.
    Assalamualaikum waramahutullahi wabarukatuh

    Since the last decade, Indonesia has been given a fascinating growth that a nation can pace. Our wonderful Pax Nusantara has built the cores of Indonesia up until a stage that we can drive on both ends without touching gravel. Considering the number of mobility, we could have in the near future, those rails and roads have estimated to control that near possibilities.

    The Armed Forces, also has significant growth. When the war finished, the previous administration greatly expanded the inadequate Army. Although situations in warfare had completely crossed this statement, our Army was expanded because comparing to the Navy and Coast Guard, both of them dwarfed the Army.
    I surely expect backlash in expanding the Army again. My fellow Indonesians believed that we have given too much off influence. But hear this:

    The last few days, we were given a negotiable table from France. They had negotiated to release Malagasy into our reach, while demands several compensations. While the matters of foreign negotiations are in the hands of Foreign Minister and the President, they believed that we will acquire that.

    Several shocks and awes are seen across the whole Assembly. The PGI, especially, claps in enthusiasm about this miracle. Nasution remarks of Suharto’s careful selection of words. First praising the gifts of the old government, and also the troubles of it. They, Nasution and Suharto, talked about this before the Address, and the former now seemed pleased.

    However, brethren, that this acquisition leads the current leadership to notice, how fragile our current state of the military. All of them are capable of defending Indonesia onto the optimal stage, but not when Malagasy will be on our republic. Malagasy is the fourth largest islands, greater than Java and Sulawesi.

    But, fortunately, the necessity of a larger army does not mean that we should have an expansion stage. The miracles of Suprapto Trail have practiced the extreme lengths every Indonesian could achieve. We still can do enough with the numbers, but what we can’t do is with the qualities.

    In this year, I have proposed an upgrade for the military, a modernization. With our major military gears are mainly 50s tech, we will improve it. Once, a nation fight against all odds with their technological marvels. I believe, that today, we should practice it.

    In addition to the technology, I think it is also time to reform ourselves.
    "That’s new", says Nasution in heart. The current last bit has maybe disoriented Nasution a bit. He has always been the one-man-show, everything what he says will be spoken.
    In the last decade, Indonesia is declining from the old traditions of Gotong Royong. Since the Americans introduced market-liberalism to us, I believe the effects are mixed. In one way, the free-market introduced us to more prosperity that even the socialist regime could ever imagine. In the other, that same thing also leached our own socialist values in us.

    I believe that we should pick the best in every side. Both ends, capitalism and socialism, to merge as a perfect combination. But, to realize this, I believe we should start from ourselves a thorough change, or should we say, a Revolution?

    We started ourselves with Pax Nusantara, and we will complete it with a Revolution, a Blue Revolution. A revolution to change the Indonesian characteristics as a whole, still old but enhanced, traditional and modern, all for the glory of Nusantara.

    We will not perish, we will prevail. Instead, we will rise from Nusantara as a beacon, a beacon for a healthy democracy for the world to heed, and a compromise for the both ends to concede.
    The Assembly is filled with standing applauses from its legislators. Even the President himself, is proud. This time, he thinks that choosing Suharto is a good idea.

    Suharto continues to talk about several other things, until he is finished. After that, Assembly Leader Sultan Hamengkubuwono XI determine a voting for the Blue Act, which was already explained by Suharto. Nasution is just leaving the Assembly building, satisfied, when his Secretary Adam Malik, showed up.

    It’s about Malagasy. Thorez calls you to talk about it.

    Nasution sighed, this will be a long day.
    8.1. All Eyes Towards Africa: The Beginning
  • africa_1.jpg

    African Implosion and Drama

    The African Implosion was one giant intertwined wars that happened completely inside the Continent. In the 1990s, the historians were unable to distinguish one conflict after another that they decided to just compile them into one great even called African Implosion. The first signs of the implosion dated back towards the creation of Egyptian Socialist Republic in 4th October 1966. But the common start date for the African implosion sited much after, when French Civil War erupted in 5th February 1970.
    The continent was already a mess. Since the beginning of the African colonization, much of the natives had already encountered the fierce policies of the European nations. Even with major changes in WW1, and WW2, much of the Continent suffered subjection. Nevertheless, the start of the 60s gave way into two types of colonialism, mainly the French and the British type.

    Victory in the Korean War meant a few things for the United Kingdom. One, that oil is important. The landings in Incheon, and the counter-attack in Korea fully imaged the dire necessity of oil in battle field. For the Americans, gaining oil was easy, as most of their core territories own oil rigs. United Kingdom, however, was not so lucky. Mostly, oil that the kingdom received was from the jewels in Africa, such as Egypt, Kuwait and a few others. Therefore, they intended to halt the decolonization process even longer. 50s turned to 60s, and gradually the decolonization plans were scrap by the Conservative Government and instead stubbornly resist any pro-independence movements. The intended policy was maintaining most of the Middle East, which was the problem.

    Egypt was the problem. The nation which ever became the cradle of civilization was so enough of the British rule that it was common to kill an Egyptian for accused ploy. The repeated invasion from Britain ended up to be the most tumultuous era of Egyptian history, until of course the savior arrived. General Abdul Nasser swept the nation as the first leader of the proclaimed Egyptian Socialist Republic. Since then, most of the British war effort was situated for only that certain region. From 1958, dispatches from British Army has been given to always tried to prevent Egyptian expansion. Many short wars against Egypt had been commenced. The first one, the Independence wars, ended up badly as the Egyptian could finally declare independence. The second one, ended badly for the Israelis. The third one, 1962, luckily British, returned the Egyptian stage to protectorate. The current last one, 1966, created the abominable Egyptian Socialist Republic, which proved to be a British threat when with Syrian republic formed the infamous United Arab Socialist Republics. This UASR proved to be lethal in Middle East stability, as many nations were appealed by the spirit of Arabian unity. In 1968, an Iraqi Socialist Ba’ath Party assumed the Iraqi leadership, and they announce to join the Union. In addition to it, in 1969, the launched the 10-Days War against Israel. Much of the resulted ended up with outstanding Egyptian-Jordanian victory, and ended up craving Israel into non-existence. However, the Union betrayed the Jordanian Kingdom a few months later, forcing them to be acquired as Jordanian Socialist Republic, part of the United Arab Socialist Republic. Since the Jordan annexation, most of the states grew terrified on this newly regional power, although inside the stability wasn’t so good.


    (1970 border of United Arab Socialist Republic)

    That region also indirectly destabilized another region; this time was the Southern parts of Africa. The temporary leave of British garrisons for arming against the Egyptian threat caused several oppressed Africans to finally revolted. In the Southern Areas, segregation was extremely high and common, as the number of Europeans heavily influenced the region. However, several parts, like Bechuanaland, did not own a lot of whites. However, the region still had a black majority inside the region. Therefore, when the Bechuanaland Revolt happened in 1968, everywhere around the region, South Africa, Rhodesia and Nyasaland, followed suit. This part was called the Great South African Revolt.

    Unfortunately, the apartheid governments of South Africa and Rhodesia and Nyasaland Federation had already prepared for this. The troops from dominion the former, and protectorate the latter, were already ready for wiping out insurgents, and thus giving the most lethal suppression of them all – mass killings. Eerily similar to the plans Hitler had made during the World War 2, the South African governments issued a discreet extermination policy. The policy was so carefully planned, that even the most intelligent of espionage only found these horrible atrocities too late. Every assault the army made, they must involve pillage and burn. Although the former weren’t intensively done due to the less resources the natives had. As a result, the Revolt ended much shortly, and Bechuanaland was still a British colony, albeit the high influence Dominion of South Africa had towards the region.

    If you think the madness ended here, it didn’t. The stories of mass killings had reached many of the surrounding regions. Two of them was the troublesome Angola and Mozambique.

    After the Portuguese Communist coup in 1950s, every overseas territories Portugal had had been neglected. Timor was easily conquered at ease by Indonesia. So does Goa and Macao by India and China respectively. But not quite peaceful for Angola and Mozambique. The void of power in those regions had urged Britain to intervene. The region was quickly seized by the British government and stated them to be as another part of the British Empire. The Portuguese Former Realm, weren’t British concerns, as they were authoritarian nation. But then, the House of Braganza, home to the old Portuguese Kingdom, requested the territories to be theirs. The British, knowingly the region had less benefits than problems, agreed to the offer. Duarte Nuno, current house of Braganza, rejoiced of the return of the jewel crowns, and decided to announce them the Kingdom of New Portugal. Later on, the Guinea-Bissau, refused to return to the New Portuguese Crown, and instead form an independent republic of Guinea Bissau.

    Flag of the New Portuguese Kingdom

    This new kingdom, majority of black Africans, disputed the Portuguese friendly relations to Britain, although the former crown had no intention of wiping the native population. The end of the war started skirmishes of the Angolan Salvation Paramilitary Army, an unofficial armed forces consist of Angolan natives, to relieve their African friends. This angered the Dominion and the neighboring Protectorate, and demanded the kingdom to disband the terrorists. Inside the kingdom, Angolan and Mozambique-an citizens loathed the increasing brutality of the white rule. New Portugal, then wedged between the interest of his people and his royal, had now entered a crossroad. The Kingdom had to choose between undermining their own people against the apartheid South, or chose to survive against the neighbor for the sake of the kingdom’s own sovereignty. In the end, Duarte Nuno chooses the latter.

    Just a few months after the end of Bechuanaland Revolt, New Portugal announced that the voice of the people is one, which is to remind Africa who is their people. Although white himself, the royals strove against their neighboring whites. Conveniently, the Braganza may finally fulfill their old African ambition of the Pink Map, linking Mozambique with Angola at last. This war, unfortunately, was longer than the previous, and much giving all Commonwealth's power to decline. Not long, Eritrea, Sudan, and even Tanganyika revolted.

    The West Africa, meanwhile, were relatively peaceful. The Nixon administration blatantly supported the British government, stating that the ’old administration was stupid enough to leave our ally’. Initial Nixon’s part of reconciliation program, decided to help Britain secure their West African holdings. A smart move, Nixon ignored assisting South Africa, as the apartheid-phobia was still high in America. But, one controversial move Nixon made was allying himself with the British Unionist Party. Although the American blessing for Britain erased BUP thoughts of emigrating Jews into Israel, which was already non-existent anyway. The BUP had increasing thought of black-phobia, one that was mainly influenced by the South African branch of a nationalist party. Nevertheless, this increasing influence of America in parts of British West Africa resulted the US to construct a plot to weaken France.

    On the other side, France was a difficult nation to weaken, especially in Africa. His pushing stance towards equality in Franco-sphere had boosted sympathy in Africa. The Thorezian regime began to implement equal verdicts to all races, which amused Kennedy for a bit. Although started a decade ago, 10 years was enough for France to consolidate many of their protectorates. Algeria,Tunis, Benin and Senegal were already in the French camp, while Morocco had several problems. Ivory Coast, Mauritania, French Guinea, Comoros and Djibouti still loved the French, even if the last demanded more autonomy in 1967. The rest of this, was following a slower, but similar trend. But, the rest of Africa could be persuaded into independence by the Americans, and so underground activities had started from 1968, and was fruited into action in Operation Joan of Arc. This whole mastermind was led by none other than Kissinger himself.


    (Henry Alfred Kissinger, will show more in the future)

    Henry Alfred Kissinger was a realpolitik person, even better than Kennedy. His foreign policy was so pragmatic that several controversial actions had been done during his ministerial years in history. One of them was the Dirty War, a war he provoked to topple left governments in Central and South America, with the first one to fall was Chile. The other was Panama re-admittance to the Union in 1969, which sparked many anti-US dissents in third world countries.

    His plot of weaken France involving weaken Britain as well, according to Operation Joan of Arc, he knew that those paramilitaries rebels would inevitably supported all West African natives into revolting against their colonizers. However, this risk wasn’t addressed to Nixon, which Nixon also noticed that. In a small fight in the Oval Office, Kissinger was fired from Secretary of State. Nevertheless, the die is cast, and Operation Joan of Arc had continued without the United States. The new Secretary of State, Robert Stephen Ingersoll, would turn around completely, and now determined to banish the Operation Joan of Arc, their old creation.

    Operation Joan of Arc completely burn West Africa into warfare, except Senegal, which was particularly stable throughout the conflict, and independent African nations like Guinea Bissau and Liberia. Everything else, was pulled into devastating conflict of insurgents.

    In May 1970, just months after the powder had popped. Africa was in fire, and a global crisis was brewing.
    8.2. All Eyes Towards Africa: Madagascar Republic
  • Nasution quickly evaluated French demands for giving the Malagasy. After Suharto's Blue Speech, Nasution was acquainted of Thorez requesting trades for this transfer. He returned to the Presidential Palace shortly for coming discussions. With his fresh Private Secretary Soe Hok Gie, he conversed the demands for gaining Malagasy Island.


    Soe Hok Gie
    • The French Fifth Republic acknowledges Malagasy Island and the Scattered Islands to be sovereign states of Federal Republic of Indonesia, and that the French Republic and all heirs and successors relinquish claims to the Government, property, and territorial rights of the same, and every part thereof,
    • Indonesia will prevent future exoduses of the French diaspora in Malagasy Island and the Scattered Islands

    "Well, this is manageable," remarked Nasution, "so far so good."

    • Indonesia will grant oil benefits for the French company, Total S.A, in extracting oil reserves in Tarakan Block.
    • Indonesia will pursue a beneficial relation towards the French Fifth Republic, and will immediately begin diplomatic relations.
    • Indonesia will not, in any form or approach, involve in French domestic issues, such as the current conflict in Africa.
    • Indonesia's Armed Forces will not, in any form or approach, involve in undermining French foreign interests, especially in Africa.
    • Indonesia will accede to upcoming French investors in Papuan Special Administrative Region.

    Nasution then crumpled the paper and sighed. This particular five points of demands will inevitably exacerbate Indonesia's relations with the United States. The Nixon Administration was keen on improving relations with Western European nations, especially the United Kingdom. In the other hand, the United States was attempting to undermine France as another communist power in Europe. With Operation Joan of Arc as a double-edged blade for America's international aims, the United States then planned for a new operation.

    Operation Eagle Assist is a joint US-UK operation where the Army would skirmish British West Africa colonies to counter against militias who have crossed the border. The United Nations is also concerned in this, although their presence is weak. The United States has high interests in this region. A hidden objective of Operation Eagle Assist is to keep the militias rebelling against the French, possibly granting them independence. However, Nixon will not permit those same militias into entering British colonies.

    Nevertheless, Indonesia is in a rock and a hard place. Indonesia will be very thrilled by acquiring Malagasy. On the other hand, accepting this offer will mean that Indonesia will not meddle in Africa. Thus, this will provoke the United States to an extent. Indonesia is reliant on its good relations with the United States. Companies like Chevron, General Electric, and even DuPont, has started to invest in Indonesia.

    “Do we have an alternative approach so far?” Nasution asked Soe Hok Gie for opinion.

    “I believe we should take it. In my opinion, this is still the best deal we could ever create.” Soe Hok Gie said.

    “Well, at first we would experience a backlash in the international community. But, we can deal with this by a referendum for Malagasy, which they will vote for us anyway. Regarding the Americans, though, I believe we just let it slide for a moment.”

    “Really?”, Nasution questioned Gie.

    “Sure. The Nixon administration is playing with fire. They still have strong anti-British supporters thanks to Kennedy, and Nixon is pushing too hard. Kissinger, I believe, was the better player in this political field. Nixon is just too oblivious to even notice the danger. The British unilateral declaration of war against the Kingdom of New Portugal is sufficient to instigate a national resentment in the United States. Even if Indonesia’s relations with the United States turn sour, we will reconcile again with a new administration.”

    Nasution recognizes the ominous prediction of the last sentence. “How can you be so sure Nixon will not be elected again?”

    “Cut off one's nose to spite one's face. The thing he was desperate to throw away would return with a blast.”

    Nasution swallowed the sentence initially, then finally realized the meaning behind it. After the revelation, he ordered Soe Hok Gie.

    “Call Thorez. I believe we have a deal.”


    In 10th of February 1970, Malagasy was officially granted independence. The Republic of Malagasy, later on, that week, would hold a referendum, stating their wish to join Indonesia. By 20th of February, Malagasy has become one of Indonesia’s Special Administrative Regions, renamed as Madagascar. Nasution would later visit the island in March, and conduct some talks with Tsiranana. The Fourth Amendment for Madagascar was immediately drafted. The Social Democratic Party of Madagascar immediately became the sole party for Madagascar, until in 1975 Indonesia’s national parties would be allowed to join the election. So far there were no native parties that were enlisted after the Social Democratic Party, at least until the 1980s.


    The United Nations expressed Malagasy’s admittance to Indonesia as ‘democratically unionized’, although several member states still questioned Indonesia’s haste expansionism. One of those critiques was the United States. Angered by Indonesia’s sudden decision, Nixon immediately seized all military operatives with Indonesia, and also encourage US companies to not invest more in Indonesia.

    In April 1970, the Indonesian government fully incorporated Madagascar into the Federal Republic. Pro-Indonesia partisans were still high at that time, and luckily no significant insurgents occurred during the decade. The Armed Forces of Indonesia arrived in May 1970 to protect the region against the chaos of the Continent. Until 1975, there were few incidents happened on the Madagascar strait, most of them instigated by Rhodesia and South Africa.


    " A Federation of Islands, a federation of the Indies, a federation for the Caribbean."
    Kenneth Blackburne

    "I have not prone to certainty, but you have drawn that measure."
    Queen Elizabeth II

    "We shall declare our independence from Belgium."
    Patrice Lumumba

    "White rule for South African Empire"
    Ian Smith

    "Rejoice! Rejoice! The Monarchy finally achieves our long time goal."
    King Duarte Nuno
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    8.3. All Eyes Towards Africa: British Demise
  • The Sun Finally Sets on the British Empire
    John Cradford, 2010

    If the Australian-Indonesian War was the moment that time fast forwards to sunset at the British Empire, the African Implosion was the final straw for the unity of it. This change was inevitable, as the United Kingdom shifted to right-wing politics, this time about Afro-phobia.

    After the 1966 snap-election, the Labour-held government began. Robert Michael Maitland Stewart, Baron Stewart of Fulham, was appointed as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Some liberalising social reforms were passed through parliament during Steward’s first period in government. These included the near abolition of capital punishment, decriminalisation of sex between men in private, liberalisation of abortion law and the abolition of theatre censorship. Steward’s 1966–70 term witnessed growing public concern over the level of immigration to the United Kingdom. The issue was dramatised at the political level by the famous "Rivers of Blood speech" by the BUP politician Enoch Powell, warning against the dangers of immigration.


    Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Baron Stewart of Fulham

    For the first time also, this Labour Prime Minister was the first to promote education instead of defence, although insurgencies were rising in Africa. Steward continued the rapid creation of new universities, in line with the recommendations of the Robbins Report, a bipartisan policy already in train when Labour took power. The economic difficulties of the period deprived the tertiary system of the resources it needed. Nevertheless, university expansion remained a core policy. One notable effect was the first entry of women into university education in significant numbers. More broadly, higher education overall was significantly expanded, with a distinct bias towards the non-university sector.

    One of Steward’s modest policy was the ‘Retreat from Africa’. For Steward and his Secretary of State James Callaghan, leaving Africa was entirely the only option left. However, he intended this withdrawal to be as convenient as possible, not giving the hostile insurgents a chance for independence. Stewards instead prefer them to stay at the Commonwealth. He also would not mind for natives ruling their lands, and that troubled the governments in Rhodesia and South Africa.

    South Africa was ruled by the National Party for decades, their stance against the Black rule was obvious. Rhodesia Front, the ruling party for Rhodesia had ruled from the 1960s. Both of them had similar attitudes towards Africans, and they thought Apartheid was the option. When the Labour government applied their African policies, both nations turned upset to the Albion, and they thought the decolonization efforts would ruin the white rule in those lands. Therefore, unilaterally in 1971, exactly 11 November, both nations declared their independence from the United Kingdom.

    At first, Steward’s tried to undermine Rhodesia first. Coincided with the Armistice Day, Ian Smith attempted to garner support in the UK by reminding people of the contribution of the colony to the war effort. Unfortunately, Smith was personally appraised in the British media, and the BUP was strengthened. Wilson's immediate recourse was to the United Nations, and in 1971, the Security Council imposed sanctions, which were designed to last until official independence from the United Kingdom. This involved British warships blockading the port of Beira to try to cause economic collapse in Rhodesia. However, the efforts of economic collapse failed, as the South Africans were too involved. Several nations did not join in with sanctions, also undermining their efficiency. With South African might and Ian Smith’s speech, the Duo Apartheids of Africa was standing so well, that they had forgotten the enemies of the Northern neighbour.


    Prime Minister of Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Ian Smith

    Just after the unilateral decision of independence, the Kingdom of New Portugal quickly had a new ally, the ally which fought them before, the United Kingdom. At first, the United Kingdom truly did not want the Rhodesians and South Africans to free themselves, so they requested their old enemy to join the cause. The deal was simple, New Portugal would acclaim their Pink Map territories, except Rhodesia, while the United Kingdom would seize their independence from them.

    This time, New Portugal succeeded in achieving its objectives. They immediately march to Salisbury, the capital, and even reached them before the United Kingdom even reached South Rhodesia. Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland capitulated on 23 May 1972 and sought for a peace deal. The New Portuguese were reluctant to peace deal separately with the United Kingdom. But, the situations changed, and the new Kingdom must face a new threat up North.

    "We shall declare our independence from Belgium."
    Patrice Lumumba


    Prime Minister of the DRC, Patrice Lumumba

    In 1971, the Belgian rule in Congo was ended. Patrice Lumumba was elected as the First Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Belgians, not a single effort of just leave that away, stirred a secession crisis in Katanga. Lumumba appealed to the United States and the United Nations for help to suppress the Belgian-supported Katangan secessionists led by Moise Tshombe. Both refused, so Lumumba turned to France for support. Lumumba also noticed that Katangan secessionists were party assisted by the New Portugal Kingdom, particularly because of friendly ties among royals. So, ignoring the consequences, Lumumba declared war to New Portugal, opening the Kingdom a front in the North.

    New Portugal immediately aware of the dire state of affairs, and immediately requested a separate peace to South Africa. As a compromise, North Rhodesia and Nyasaland shall be given to the Kingdom, while South Rhodesia was annexed by South Africa. Formalised in the treaty of Salisbury, they also formed a co-belligerence, destined to contain the Congolese threat.

    The United Kingdom, before had the upper hand in the independence crisis, then had returned to square one. Steward was so furious of the Kingdom’s betrayal of peace that he announced an immediate act of war to them. The Cabinet, now worry with Steward’s state of mind, immediately requested the military’s urgent victory to ease him down. However, none of them returned the favour. New Portugal separate peace isolated Britain’s holdings in Kenya to move more into South Africa. In addition to it, Kenya and Tanganyika were all also rebelling against the British. More chaos ensued in the Parliament, and none is willing to make a move, except the Queen itself.

    In 14th of October 1972, years after the significant stalemate across the events, Britain was situated in even more chaos. Almost none of their holdings in Africa were peaceful. Nigeria was involved in the Civil War with Biafra, and of course, the Islamic majorities in the North, trying to form their own Nigeria. Sudan was under attack by the Egypt-backing of insurgents. Fundamentalist Somalia was also forming. Kenya, Uganda, Tanganyika were all involved in several clashes with separatists backed also by the Soviet Union and Congo. The entire region, especially central Africa, was in utter chaos. However, every cloud has a silver lining, Sierra Leone, The Gambia and Ghana were relatively peaceful compared to the others, although the last region was also subjugated in Burkina Faso militants. All of these was due to consider the “Retreat from Africa” policy by the Labour government, then under Wilson.

    On that day also, no government ideas were pushed, as the Parliament was a deadlock in a stalemate. An economic recession was brewing, and the United Kingdom was pushed barely into the abyss. No one seemed able to resolve this issue, except Queen Elizabeth II. The Queen stormed the House of Commons, and deliberately end the Parliament with one quote to remember.


    "I am not prone to certainty, but you have drawn that measure."

    I thought that I can wedge in everything in one post, but I think this was too much. For that, I will divide this supposedly one thread into two.
    8.4. All Eyes Towards Africa: Full-Moon rises for the British Empire
  • For the first time in centuries, the Parliament was dissolved. Even across the world, international media was surprised by this change of situation. In November, a snap-election was held. Unsurprisingly, the BUP claimed the majority. Taking almost 60% of seats in the Parliament, the British Unionist Party, a party of nationalism, white nationalism and pro-monarchism, swept the Labour and the Conservatives as ashes of the old era. Arthur Kenneth Chesterton was elected as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He instantly attempted to finish the problems in Africa.

    In a single declaration, he proclaims that all territories which belong in Africa shall decide their fates. In the London 1972 Declaration, all British Overseas Territories were given the mandate to choose their future; either stay within the Dominion or announce their independence. All of them must reply to the declaration two months after.

    With just that, nearly the whole region of Africa opted for their independence. White-supremacism was vilified by most of the Africans. By the start of 1973, Sudan, Eritrea, Somaliland, Kenya, Uganda, Tanganyika, Zanzibar, Nigeria and Gold Coast/Ghana declare their independence. The number of liberated nations in Africa on that year was considered as the African Year by most of us. Sierra Leone, and the Gambia, were the only ones who preferred to stay in the Empire, and thus was elevated as a Dominion, equivalent to Canada.

    The next policy the BUP conducted was negotiating South Africa and the rump Rhodesia. After the Portuguese had received their portion of lands, the Federation was left with only South Rhodesia. Ian Smith, knowing that his old federative nation was lost, decided to subjugate his nation to the Southern larger nation. The National Party, the ones who then ruled South Africa, reluctantly accepted, and form the Union of South Africa and Rhodesia.

    Chesterton was delighted to see his initial plans were already progressed by other people. He firstly requested that Rhodesia and South Africa unite, so to reduce the number of ‘White Supremacist nations in the Empire’. This strategy was used to decrease the UN’s dissuasion in British controversial policies, which Chesterton will attempt to. So, what he needed to do was only negotiate with South Africa for reconciliation and possibly returning South Africa to the Empire. Indeed, the similar beliefs of the BUP and the National Party in South Africa were enough for them to harmonize themselves. With a slight help of a UN intervention, both parties finally square themselves and South Africa was finally reincorporated as the Dominion of South Africa and Rhodesia this time. As part of the negotiable deal, Ian Smith, the same guy who betrayed the Kingdom by unilaterally declare Rhodesia independence, was appointed as the acting Prime Minister for South Africa and Rhodesia. In his inaugural speech, he exclaimed that South Africa will be a White nation by the new century, and glory for the Empire. In a controversial choice, however, he denominated his nation as an Empire, which slightly provoked the United Kingdom.

    "White rule for South African Empire"
    Ian Smith

    While the African issue was done for Britain. Arthur Kenneth Chesterton had vowed for the British people that ‘as long as he was in charge, no Englishmen shall meddle in petty African affairs.’ The BUP’s popularity was gradually increasing as they had resolved their most troubling issue. But in terms of Overseas Territories, the United Kingdom was put into bother again as a new similar problem developed in the West Indies. The United Kingdom had held several islands in the Caribbean Sea, particularly in the Eastern part, where the littlest islands dwelled in. During the 1960s, those areas demanded self-governance. However, those micro-nations were practising nationalism, which enhances the dissolution of the territories to even smaller states.

    Chesterton settles this issue with a simple remark. He invited Kenneth Blackburne for a future Federation, which he accepted. However, Chesterton also realized that forming a Federation for the West Indies would cause another dispute between small islands and the powers of Jamaica, Trinidad, and Barbados. As a result of it, Chesterton intended to establish three different Dominions in the Empire, a Dominion of Jamaica, Trinidad and the Federation of the West Indies. Sir Alexander Bustamante was appointed as the Prime Minister for Jamaica, Eric Williams for Trinidad and Tobago and Kenneth Blackburne for Dominion Federation of the West Indies.

    " A Federation of Islands, a federation of the Indies, a federation for the Caribbean."
    Kenneth Blackburne


    In another Kingdom, a celebration was held for their success. For the first time, their colonies of Angola and Mozambique were united by land. King Duarte Nuno appraised this new achievement with the rename of his kingdom. Before was the Kingdom of New Portugal, was renamed the Kingdom of Novo Lusitania, as in another name for New Portugal. Uniquely enough, the Braganza reigned mostly for African tribes in Angola and Mozambique, which will later prove to affect the rule.

    "Rejoice! Rejoice! The Monarchy finally achieves our long time goal."
    King Duarte Nuno
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    8.5. All Eyes Towards Africa: Congo Conflict 1st Stage
  • “History is never good with the Congolese, and the Congolese has made it worse.”
    Francois Mitterrand


    A rough image to picture the crisis in Congo, neglect the dates.

    In the midst of a global crisis brewing in Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo is considered the epicenter of it. The pro-France, later Pro-Soviet nation, have been the key of instability for the new decade of the African resurgence. Their domestic fiasco will affect the entire African continent, while their foreign relations will affect the world entirely, even the United Nations.

    Here’s how.

    In 27 October 1971, the Belgian Congo had finally declared their independence. After years of political struggle of Patrice Lumumba with his Mouvement National Congolais (MNC) has finally fruited. With the help of Joseph Kasa-vubu, they established the Democratic Republic of Congo with means to finally have the Congolese free of will. In practical aspects, however, things were not as simple.

    The Katangan secessionists, led by Moïse Tshombe, destabilized the new government, by waging war from their native Katanga region. At first, the Katangan rebels were only assisted by their former Belgian overlords. As times go by, yet, these secessionists have mainly assisted by most of the Western powers, like the US, Germany and even the Great Britain. In 1972, most of the supports given by those powers have maintained the insurgence alive, and that infuriated the current government in Leopoldville, now Kinshasa.

    Lumumba is a communist figure. Therefore, when he attempted to request help for fighting the rebels, he contacted two opposing left giants, the Soviet Union and France. Both of them actually prefer to help the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 15 October 1972, things changed unexpectedly. Antoine Gizenga formed a rival government in Stanleyville, now Kinsangani) and form the Free Republic of Congo, the republic that France directly assisted them. As the Congo region burnt in fires of civil war, the United Nations, finally, intervened.

    The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations. But, after the US-Soviet relations turns sour, and pave for the Cold War, the United Nations is wedged between two superpowers clashing for superiority, paralyzed the organization. In the 1960s, after the disbandment of NATO, the UN was seemed to rise again as a intergovernmental organization. However, much of the proposed plans, including the problems in Africa, was disputed by all 5 members of the Permanent Security Council, now each of them has their different objectives.

    The Congolese Civil War, preceding the First Pan-African, is one conflict the UN sought to resolve. With the General Secretary Randolph Churchill. Randolph Churchill, son of the famous Winston Churchill, has developed a peacekeeper characteristics, along with a negotiator traits, akin to his father. As a prominent defunct-Conservative Party, Randolph declared independent or non-affiliated after the death of his party, which attracts many to put him in the UN chair. However, Randolph was not restraint, and mostly straight-forward, which leads to most of the resolution including split of nations. One example is the Nigerian Civil War, which end up liberating Biafra in 1971, months after the spark of Congolese Civil War.

    In a quick negotiation with the Katanga leader Tshombe, the United Nations declared Katanga to be officially admitted to the UN membership, in attempt to undermine Lumumba’s declaration of Katanga’s illegitimacy. Following the UN, most countries also followed suit, one of them particularly was the Kingdom of Lusitania. As a reaction for this mess, Lumumba cut the strings, and achieve the improbable.

    The DR Congo declared war on literally everyone. He started a war to the Lusitania, and also the French part of Congo, also under dismay by Operation Joan of Arc. He also declared war on alleged Tanganyika who supplied also Katanga. By 1972, every neighboring nations of DR Congo, except Sudan, is under a state of war. This unexplainable move of Lumumba led to his demise, an assassination in 2 July 1972.

    On that day, a coup was commenced by Joseph-Désiré Mobutu. After the failures of the current government, Mobutu stormed Kinshasa and declared him to be the legitimate leader for DR Congo. In an instant, he also declare his government to be politically aligned with the US, granting the superpower access to the nation. As the Congolese Civil War had been evolving into a potential all-out war between France, Soviet Union, and the US, the United Nations scurried to return peace in the region, which end up with Luanda Conference.

    The Luanda Conference, conducted in 31 February of 1973, concluded the First Congolese Civil War. Belgian Congo was split into three, the Republic of Zaire in the East, the land-lock nation of DR Congo, later changed into Republic of Kivu, and also the Republic of Katanga. Unfortunately, the madness didn’t stop there, as the region engulfed again in a war after the rise of an Eastern power, particularly Kenya and the regions. As a pity also, the Congo region would be maintained to be divided for so long, that even until 21st Century, hatred among those nations is plentiful.
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