Emerald of The Equator: An Indonesian TL

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5.1. Pax Nusantara Domestic Issue
Indonesia: The Youngest Asian Tiger
Liem Siew Liong, 1990

As the nation finally stabilized, Indonesia could at last planned for her future. Years of fighting for the nation truly had disrupted the economy, as Autarky was once again being implemented. This war-economy system isolated Indonesia from anything outside, and Nasution needed to change this worrying habit. And so, he proposed. Using the flaws of the Indonesian Constitution, President Nasution proposed the Pax Nusantara Policy to the Parliament. During that time, Prime Minister had been changed to Premier due to reduce similarities with existing Parliamentary system of Britain. So, Premier Hatta consulted with Nasution about Pax Nusantara, and added several domestic ideas from Hatta himself. Pax Nusantara Policy, meaning Peace Within Nusantara, was a mega-project government long-term plan that shaped 20th Century of Indonesia. It was ratified on 13th November 1966, and immediately put into effect by 6th January 1967. The policy itself included 25 chapters of government plan, also inputted various then-impossible plans like Sunda Strait Bridge, Singaporean Strait Tunnel, and Batam-Mainland Express. The plan was simplified to be divided into five, according to the five factors of industrialization.

One, Land factor.

The recent conflict enlarged Indonesia to become the largest nation in the South East Asia. Owning the most profitable sea lane in the world, Malacca Strait is everything Indonesia need to become a great power. However, the young government may face several difficulties within her borders, as with big land comes also big crimes. Piracy is still a crucial issue in national sovereignty. Although the Coast Guard had been established separate from the Navy, and also had expanded under the Wilopo Administration, Piracy still existed in Indonesia, mainly stealing fish and cargo.

In addition to it, inequality in development also became another issue. During the Dutch colonization, Java and Sumatra were the only islands that was built with a railroad, and also several industries. The rest, like Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Maluku, were considered worthless trash. After incorporated Malaya, Indonesia also faced another problem, which the Malayan government could take over Jakarta, and constructed a Malay-center government rather than the initial Java-center government. As a Javanese himself, he surely afraid of possible takeover of Indonesia under the hands on Malaya.

Pax Nusantara was a program destined specifically for improving areas once under Dutch East Indies, to compete the better British East Indies. For compensation, however, was given to the British East Indies, like Malay State, to autonomously grow under the Indonesian flag for thirty years as ‘adjustment’. Truthfully, it was intended to focus more of the under-developed Former-Dutch East Indies. Before implementation, people highly criticized this procedure as extremely pro-Java. However, after few decades of implementation, opposite opinions started to rise.

Two, Labor Factor

This sector, was where things turned complicated for the government. Nearly all of the labor force lived within Java, and minuscule amount in major cities of Sumatra and South Sulawesi. Nearly everywhere but Java was only farmers and illiterates. Fortunately, the national education plan in the 50s improve literacy in the East. So, Pax Nusantara was destined to sprawl what in Java to outside of it. 15 cities, including the United States’ promised city, Tembagapura, was included to subsidize any laborer wish to settle. Mining production was increased, so did forestry and other non-renewable drillings. Farming would become heavily mechanized, and forestry was altered into profitable specimens, like rubber. And then, textile, chemical and other industries were spawned slowly throughout the implementation.

Existing Infrastructure​
Pax Nusantara Program​
General Impact​
  • Space

  • Natural Resources
Malaya, Java and Sumatra were highly industrialized regions compared to other islands like Sulawesi, Kalimantan, and Borneo.

Natural Resources-wise, Regions particularly in the East had many potentials, like oil, minerals and fish.
Similar to Manifest Destiny, and Pax Americana.

Also, Pax Nusantara determined to maneuver any possible separatism in the East.
Eastward Expansion led to rapid growth in the East, exceedingly well also. Land wealth was genuinely extracted and exploited. However, this led to the infamous deforestation in many places.
  • Leadership

  • Workers

  • People

Java was crowded compare to any region on Indonesia. The population discrepancy in Indonesia was so high and potential on killing the economy.Pax Nusantara opened numerous factories, corresponding with natural resources there, in everywhere outside Java. Few kick-started cities, like Batam, Balikpapan, Kotabaru, Tembagapura, was given additional funding to boost the immigration.Immigrants make up a large percentage of the work forces. Javan-ization became a 20th -21st Century event for Indonesia. But, overpopulation in Java reduced dramatically.
  • Refers to the money and the factories themselves
Money had always been a problem since the establishment of the republic. The government strived for acquiring loans from other nation. In the start, only few nations like US gave funds.Foreign aid from the United States, assisted industrial boost due to Vietnam Civil War, and Indian Revolution, and shenanigans in Africa, particularly securing Madagascar.Reached a form of productive cycle between capital, industry and administration. Loaned money improve industry, which would repay the loan given. Government, as affected by profit, spent in roads, which further improved industry.
  • Roads
  • Canals
  • Railroads
  • telegraph
Railroads were exclusive in Java and parts of Sumatra. Roads were extremely limited in Eastern Indonesia, but better in Java and Malaya.Give outstanding half of total government budget to build roads and rails all across Indonesia.The establishment of a Sea-Toll for cargo. Trans-Java, Trans-Malaya, Trans-Sumatra, and Trans-Papua of rails and roads would be created. Public transportation, like a possible MRT in Singapore, Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur also were designed, and built. In the end of industrialization, 25 cities would be exposed to futuristic public transport like Monorail, LRT, Eco-Tram or MRT. 50 more would be exposed to basic transport like bus.

  • application of science to industrial uses
Technology improvement was highly for cities only, as city and rurals were cut off. Any technological ease were only exercised on major cities.Giving America the right to establish Space Base somewhere on Fakfak. Improve the curriculum, national education, and slightly tackle fitful conservatism.Major advancement on this could advance Indonesia almost as levelled as Japan. Technology thrived on research center surroundings like in South Papua, West Kalimantan, South Maluku, and Bangka Belitung.
I plan on writing Pax Nusantara as 3 chapters, before I look back at the Indonesian parties. As usual, critics and comments are welcome, and noted.

For @Gajah_Nusantara , a specific but standard chapter about Pancasila, Sultan Hamid and pro-Federalist figures will have after Indonesian parties. Sorry for the queue, but I guess the only way I can explain potential rise of OTL rarely talked East Indonesian figures after I explain everything domestically.

And for further spoiler:
Singapore and Malaya may have a great commotion somewhere around the 70s, wonder why.

Hmm, Korea had been pretty silent, eh?
I plan on writing Pax Nusantara as 3 chapters, before I look back at the Indonesian parties. As usual, critics and comments are welcome, and noted.

For @Gajah_Nusantara , a specific but standard chapter about Pancasila, Sultan Hamid and pro-Federalist figures will have after Indonesian parties. Sorry for the queue, but I guess the only way I can explain potential rise of OTL rarely talked East Indonesian figures after I explain everything domestically.

And for further spoiler:
Singapore and Malaya may have a great commotion somewhere around the 70s, wonder why.

Hmm, Korea had been pretty silent, eh?
Thank you for incorporating my idea @SkylineDreamer
5.2. Pax Nusantara Domestic Issue
Part 2
Continuation from

Indonesia: The Youngest Asian Tiger
Liem Siew Liong, 1990

Three, Capital factor

Since colonization period, Indonesia had always been giving money rather than earning it. Part of wealth of kingdoms in all of Indonesia was always tribute to colonizers, such as Portugal, Netherlands and the British. During the Independence Wars, Indonesia must spend nearly all of their income for war effort. Wilopo Administration managed to return much of the money into the national vault, but dried again by the war expense of the Indonesia-Australian war.

Nasution, at that time, had nearly no budget to have. Tax was still ineffective for the government, as tax-collectors had overwhelmingly frustrated on requesting tax. In addition to it, to improve tax collecting, infrastructure must be upgraded, and that also took money as well. So, all of the budget must rely on industrial profit. Because of this, Nasution thought why not than boosting industrialization. So he did just that. In SER, investors had given total freedom in regulations. In other regions, region with high resources was immediately constructed with industrial complexes. So, a long story short, the government led business do their own work.

Furthermore, foreign relations were fostered primarily by the center government. Apart from renegaded the United States, Indonesia reached everywhere that was rich, including the Socialist France, and Japan. By that way, the shape of industrialization in Indonesia was heavily influenced by foreign nation’s requirements. Cheap labor, where ever they are, become a hotbed for industry.

So, capitalism rules primarily in metropolitans and heavy industrial complexes. SERs were flooded with money, while others rely on national budget. This resulted with high gap between SERs and States, and the clashes next to come.


Left: Construction of Peal Bank Apartments in Singapore, 1970s
Right: Bukit Timah, 2010s


Left: Bintan Military Airport, 1970s, lively during American Adventurism in Asia, boost Bintan greatly
Right: Batam Ocean Park, 2000s, located South of Batam City

Four, Connection Factor

This factor had been the most observed one for the government, because of its vitality to the national guideline. To be frank, nearly all of the 20th Century was marked with construction. The most ambitious of them all, is the plan to connect all sides of each Indonesia’s major islands.

Firstly, Trans-Java. Trans-Java was designed to envelope Java as a whole, connecting both ends with train rails and highways. Although not parallel at each other, highways were built connecting the same cities train rails had done. Split into two main paths, Trans Java had a Southern and Northern Way. The Northern Java Road, New Jalan Pantura, connected every cities lying near the Java Sea. The Southern Java Road, New Jalan Selatan, connected high elevated cities with its distinct steep and curvy roads. Links of connecting the two giants, in Bogor, Bandung, Cirebon, Semarang, was made. They joined up in Solo to later split again in Madiun, where the South travels to Malang, then return to Surabaya.

Next, Trans-Sumatra, similar to Trans Java, but with a larger costlier construction. From Medan to Lampung, roads and railways would be built. Medan and Palembang would be connected from this project. Hoped it would become a major contributor for increasing economical rate in Sumatra, Trans-Sumatra had given another intriguing factor, cultural connectivity. Immediately after the construction, isolated tribes had started getting to know the outside world, and dramatically reduce illiteracy, poverty, and social inequality.

Trans-Borneo and Trans-Sulawesi were smaller sample of this megaprojects, solely the roads were being built. Trains yet never established until the 21st century, when the 2nd General Construction begin.

However, the last but the most curious case, the Trans-Papua. Trans-Papua, although with the population very sparse, was intensively built to surpass even Sumatra. Bechtel Group, funded this project to facilitate the United States strategic foreign policy, which is securing Indonesia by making Papua an American outpost. Therefore, they built Papua like it is Hawaii, and the infrastructure galore was used optimally when 21st century came.


Left: Gasip Interchange, connecting Trans-Sumatra to Pekanbaru, which later proceeds to Padang
Center: Sosrobahu Technique used for the 2nd Jakarta Ring-Road Construction
Right: The Spectacular Central Papua Interchange, connecting East-West to North-South. In fact, in 2000s, a city named Sukarnopura built South East of this interchange.
Sorry for the long wait, camping and stuff to do for the last few days.

The new update conveniently give me access to resize shape, which is wonderful.
Half of the national budget for roads and rails? My God this is infrastructure development on steroids. Nasution as President is an interesting prospect. The New Order's economic development without (hopefully) the corruption.
Half of the national budget for roads and rails? My God this is infrastructure development on steroids. Nasution as President is an interesting prospect. The New Order's economic development without (hopefully) the corruption.

I honestly do think corruption will still be a worrying issue for the 20th Century Indonesia, but not as bad as OTL's. IMHO the fact that Malaya (during that time still better than Indonesia as a whole) will be there watching how Jakarta governs (or else seperates) resulted the government to be less reckless.

Further note: Suharto will still be a major figure in Indonesia, and better than OTL.
5.3. Pax Nusantara Technology Factor
Part 3

Still Continuation from

Indonesia: The Youngest Asian Tiger
Liem Siew Liong, 1990

The four factors were greatly affected to national course for the rest of the century. The last factor, technology, however, was entirely affected to the other part, foreign relations.

Technology in Indonesia was extremely rare. After series of wars, conflicts and general confusion of the society. The condition stagnated until 1970s Indonesia still look like the 1950s, except with more population. Many, many of farming tools is still 1955 dated, as also with military, industrial and administration means. Indonesia had survived to 1966 with only 1st Wilopo Era Modernization. As a result, Nasution decided to change things.

His power in the Army was superior during his Presidency. In addition to it, general dissidents yet lingered around the Parliament itself. PGI had grown to be divided into two factions, a moderate and an aggressive faction. The moderate faction, led by General Suryadarma, with Suharto and Nasution as fellow believers, promote an American Approach and firmly confident of Indonesia’s path to greatness by relying on the United States. The moderate faction had been relatively economist and militarist, but no intellectuals. The second more radical version of PGI, nicknamed the ‘Purple Faction’, by Senator Frans Kaisiepo. A natural Papuan descendant, Senator Frans trusted that Indonesia’s only way to greatness was to become a major power for Asia, with the first step by reuniting Austronesia as a whole. That also means to promote a Non-Aligned Outlook, which Sukarno had proposed decades earlier. Jacob Suebu, Frans’ right-hand man, even stated that from Easter to Madagascar, it shall be truly Indonesian. Besides their ambitious territorial claim, and a harsher jingoistic manner, Purple Faction had a more, scientific method of ways. The Purple Faction really believe that Science might be the answer for Indonesia’s greatness, and promote intellectuals to support this, like well-known Aburizal Bakrie, an ITB electro-technician who left his family business legacy to assist in constructing nuclear power plants, as well as the founder of BTNI (Badan Tenaga Nuklir Indonesia) or INEO (Indonesian Nuclear Energy Organization).

For Nasution, the split of the party may lose them the later 1969 Election. However, he wanted his military faction maintain their leadership. So, he orchestrated a compromise between two factions, with proviso as follows.
  • Several Purple Faction members will hold several important government officials regarding technology and information. That means they leave the technology problem to the Purples.
  • With the rest still control by the Military Faction, they must secrete augmented adventurism that favors the interests principally to Indonesia. Madagascar must be secured, and so does the Pacific.
This matter greatly cost more money than the national budget could handle. The additional funding necessary for the Purple’s satisfaction still generated headache for Nasution. So, he requested, once again, an American help. This time, however, was NASA.

"First, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the Earth."

That proclamation by President John F. Kennedy before a joint session of Congress on May 25, 1961, set the stage for an astounding time in our nation's emerging space program. The goal -- fueled by competition with the Soviet Union dubbed the "space race" -- took what was to become Kennedy Space Center from a testing ground for new rockets to a center successful at launching humans to the moon. Neil Armstrong's "one small step" on the lunar surface in 1971 achieved a goal that sounded like science fiction just a few years earlier.

During the 1960s, the infrastructure of the Launch Operations Center took shape as preparations for the lunar missions continued. However, after serious considerations of the climate, geography and social effects, the space center moved to newly rented 10 hectares of land given to the Indonesian government. Now, it is called the Liberty Space Center.

The Apollo 10 launch from pad 39A came on March 26, 1971. The eight-day mission took the crew on a 935,000-mile journey to another world. On April 1, an estimated 530 million people watched the televised image and heard Armstrong's words as he became the first human to set foot on the moon, fulfilling President Kennedy's challenge.

By 1970's end, the Apollo Program had completed twelve successful moon landings, and Liberty Space Center was the launch capital of the world. Not until 1980s, when political movements led the United States to build Forrester Space Center to relocate the launch capital of the world further west.

Against a backdrop of the decade's social changes, the exciting achievements in space gave Americans collective pride.

Cheryl L. Mansfield
NASA's Frank Forrester Church Space Center

Long story short, Papua was given an impressive task on modernizing Indonesia with technology by making the island a bridge between Indonesia and the United States in terms of development, technological advancements, and political situations. After the increase incentives in technology, Indonesia in the 70s, and especially the 80s would spark an electronic boom. The boom was so massive that Indonesia could compete Japan in producing electronic devices. But, lack of entrepreneurs and several coincidental rigors threw Indonesia deeply into trouble. Much more of it would be seen later in the height of 80s.

To strengthen the point, Indonesia decided to sell Kennedy Island in return for another extensive assistance for technological advancements and other requests. The States accept greatly, but in a few years, this just and fair trade must shuffled again when a certain figure in the US ascended to power.


aburizal bakrie.jpg

Left to Right (BTNI Office in Jakarta, finished construction in 1975, became a nuclear supervisor for Oceania and South East Asia, still become a National Headquarters until a new building built on the Reclamation Project; B.J. Habibie in holding his dream plane, he establish a major contribution of Indonesia's role in world aerospace technology, opening Nurtanio which will rival Boeing and Airbus in 2040s; Aburizal Bakrie during his reign in BTNI, teamplay with US for building several nuclear stations in Indonesia; Ford Mustang 1966, a famous racing car in Indonesia during the 70s)


Left to Right (Functioning Kalijati Nuclear Power Plant near Cirebon, part of the 70s One Island One Plant Policy, shadowed by 90s Green Declaration, the Nuclear Plant was the only plant active in Western Indonesia; Fly Nuclear Complex, built under the Pampered Papua Crisis, capable of withstanding the entire consumption of two Meraukes [now 3 million people])
did Timor Leste aquire yet?

Yes, 1954 of the old game because Portugal turn Communist and left every overseas territories ungoverned.

Because of you mentioning Portugal, however. I have another problem from the old TL. It seems I forgot about the 1954 French-Algerian Problem, lol.
6.1. Baffled Decade: Indonesia's Domestic Parties
21 May 1968 Kompas TV Exclusive Report

The evolution of Indonesia’s politics has been quite twisty dynamics. While some marked the decade as the start of a new order in Indonesia, other suggested that it would be more than just that. Growth by the end of the decade have been tremendous, especially nearing the end. Infrastructure was their top priority, along with military. Therefore, these factions, military and business, have gain status as dominant power in Indonesian politics.

Here’s how…

The Party of Greater Indonesia, since their Christian start, had become the largest party in Indonesia. That’s one strange case, as Indonesia is faithfully Islam, along with other religious minorities. Their key note on keeping power was, literally, the driving force of a war. So, since the war has ended, the party have to rethink about this strategy. Ignatius Joseph Kasimo Hendrowahyono, leader of PGI in the 60s to 70s, was stuck between a rock and a hard place. In one side, the military had pursued to promote economic stability and general improvement of Indonesia’s infrastructure. In the other hand, the intellectuals persisted in educating the mass about the importance of science in this new era, and approved adventurism to anywhere strategically. No one really know how the intellectuals, or the ‘Purple Faction’, turned more jingoistic than the military itself.

The abyss of dissolution was barely avoided. If Nasution had not forced a compromise, surely the party would split up. However, the new deal instead boosted the party as a stronger one. It evolved to become a sort of symbiosis. In the end, we instead see these factions swap roles. The Military faction, or now called the Golkar, become a business faction with means of improving civil prosperity. The Purple Faction become a techno-military faction with means of improving self-prestige. In 1969 election, we would see this party victorious once more. As a pro-American party, they supported American actions, at least until America messed up. But during the 60s and so on, the party remained the largest party in Indonesia.

Party of Greater Indonesia - Partai Indonesia Raya

LeaderIgnatius Joseph Kasimo Hendrowahyono
HeadquartersAnggrek Neli Murni Street No.11A
IdeologyEconomic Liberalism
National Populism
Political PositionRight
International AffiliationPro-United States

The second party, a satellite for the PGI, was the old National Party of Indonesia. Rather than pro-American authoritarian democrat PGI, the INP was rather a liberal Party. The party used to promote Marhaenism, which functioned similarly like Marxism. However, with the political situations at sight, they threw this to the bin, and instead promote Wilopo’s marvelous legacy, the Asia-Africa Conference. Ali Sastroamidjojo, party leader after Wilopo step down, envisaged more connections to other nations like Egypt, Liberia, India and other liberated nations. Therefore, they sought for reduced American influence in Indonesia. Although this upset the Americans, the INP hovered at the ‘good guys’, and relatively undisturbed, because there were other more troublesome parties at the moment. The party needed an icon that was not too American-backed, but still an American ally. Japan was still mere satellite due to situations in the Korean Peninsula. The Philippines was giving in for a back-door in case Indonesia sever Vietnam assistance, which was ridiculously absurd. However, one Kennedy ally is fairly independent, and suitable, Federal Kingdom of Germany.

Federal Kingdom of Germany was a developing kingdom. Their brilliant strategy of curbing anti-French radicals while cooperating with left-wing populace of Eastern Germany maintain the balance within the Kingdom. The Reich indeed detested Thorezian imperialism in a new type of communism, which involved their beloved Saar to be annexed. However, Elected King Louis Ferdinand I, directed the mass to look East, and be aware of a bigger red hegemony lurking in the borders. So, the nation became the largest fairly democratic nation in Europe. During the 70s, people would consider Fourth Reich as an oasis in Red Europe. In addition to it, the collapse of United Kingdom got Germany to replace UK’s sole power of protecting the Low Countries.

By this case, Germany become friendly to USA. However, their friendliness was far from being controlled, like Japan or Indonesia had become. They persisted on holding the balance, befriend USA so France and Soviet Union won’t budge. They did well in teetering the European balance back to democracy (France’s election is simply formality for another Thorezian win), so well that in 70s, an African Cold War began with Germany’s rise.

For Ali, this particular nation had succeeded to be unaffected by the red menace in every corner. He exclaimed Germany as one true Non-Aligned nation. Indonesia, once envisioned Sukarno to be unaligned to any nation, must now correct her path again as such. Our ample dependence towards the Americans could harm us in the future, which he predicted well on the 90s.

Indonesia National Party - Partai Nasional Indonesia

LeaderAli Sastroamidjojo
HeadquartersPangeran Diponegoro Street No.58
National Conservatism
Conservative Democracy
Political PositionCentre-Right
International AffiliationNon Aligned (Pro-Germany)

As PGI was the dominant right party, PUP was fairly left, social democrats to be precise. This was the case because the merging of SPI (Socialist Party of Indonesia) had turned the party a bit socialist. However, they didn’t patronize the French. Actually, they acknowledged themselves as true successor of Sukarno’s party, not like ICP. Citizens of Indonesia still praised Hatta as proclamator, and so his popularity remained high throughout the decade. As Premier also, Hatta decided government policies into effect. Unfortunately, PGI’s intervention into many of his agenda may give him some displeasure. The 70s marked the PGI-PUP split. But the 60s Hatta contained his annoyance for strategical reasons.

Progressive Union Party - Partai Persatuan Perubahan

LeaderMohammad Hatta
HeadquartersPangeran Diponegoro Street No.60
IdeologySocial Democracy
Political PositionCentre-Left
International AffiliationNon Affiliated

Most leftist party in Indonesia, and the staunchest opposition in Indonesia, was Indonesia Communist Party. Still holding the most left of voters, Indonesia Communist party was famous for its propaganda and blaring speeches. Still Aidit in power, the Communist party was Chinese-leaning. There were also some percentage which was pro-Soviet or pro-France. The latter however had so little portion that no significant effect was given. The former, interestingly, gain more power during Soviet’s involvement in the Middle East. The party became increasingly polarized, as they had no idea which great communist nation to follow. China had great progress involving Great Leap Forward, so successful that Mao literally praised like a god. Although China’s involvement in Korea was debatable, many ICP members liked the Dragon Empire. In the other hand, increasing Soviet involvement in the Middle East, also boosted communist voters significantly. A creation of a particular large unified nation in the divided Middle East helped the ICP propaganda into nationalist voters.

Indonesia Communist Party - Partai Komunis Indonesia

LeaderDipa Nusantara Aidit
HeadquartersGen. Suryadarma Street No.11
Political PositionLeft
International AffiliationPro-Soviet Union

When 70s decade began, Indonesia still only had these four in election polls. The earlier 1950s Act of decreasing political parties strengthened this establishment. Even until the next millennium, parties were few.

Notes: Papua and Melanesian political parties will be discussed later, as I considered them unnecessary for an early update, especially since they were quite newly established regions.
Seem like there will be no G30S .
the intellectual become more jingoistic than the military :winkytongue: very strange indeed lol.

America's NATO disbandment released Cold War Tension as a whole, which is why G30S didn't happened ITTL. Sino-Soviet Split, which was reaffirmed with Mao's success in Great Leap Forward, also destabilize the Communists.
I'm guessing ITTL's Great Leap Forward they avoided the idiotic forced industrialization, the resulting famine, and the destructive Cultural Revolution, or at least altered the Cultural Revolution to be less destructive of cultural and historical artifacts and landmarks.
6.2. Baffled Decade: Change of Flags and Pancasila Emblem
Since Sukarno’s spoke the five fundamental characteristics an Indonesian nation must have in 1st June 1945, Pancasila have become exclusively Indonesian ideology. An ideology that even Western nations envied for, and Eastern nations liked upon. The ideology that lived and roared the Europeans out during the Independence War, and screamed at the British for victory at war.

During the United States of Indonesia Era, a national emblem had been created with an anthropomorphic form of Garuda. The Garuda hold the Pancasila’s armorial, shaped for a shield, with five different segments. However, no official Garuda form had been established in the 50s, as experts debated with each other without no conclusion.

On January 10, 1950 a Technical Committee was formed under the name of the National Badge Committee under the coordination of the State Minister Zonder Portfolio Sultan Hamid II with the composition of the technical committee Muhammad Yamin as chairman, Ki Hajar Dewantoro, M. A. Pellaupessy, Mohammad Natsir, and R.M. Ngabehi Poerbatjaraka as a member. The committee is tasked with selecting a draft proposal for the country's emblem to be selected and submitted to the government.

The initial design of Garuda Pancasila was by Sultan Hamid II, in the form of a traditional eagle with a human body.

Referring to Bung Hatta's statement in the book Bung Hatta Answering to implement the Cabinet Session Decree, Minister Priyono held a contest. Two of the country's best design symbols were chosen, namely the work of Sultan Hamid II and the work of M. Yamin. In the next process that was accepted by the government and the Parliament was the design of Sultan Hamid II. M. Yamin's work was rejected because it included sunlight and showed Japanese influence.

After the design was chosen, intensive dialogue between Sultan Hamid II, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta continued to be carried out for the purposes of perfecting the design. There was an agreement between the three of them, replacing the tape gripped by Garuda, which was originally a red and white ribbon to a white ribbon by adding the slogan "Unity in Diversity".

Garuda Pancasila which was inaugurated on 11 February 1950, without crest and position of the claws is still behind the tape. Sultan Hamid II again submitted a draft design of the state symbol which had been refined based on the evolving aspirations, so as to create an eagle form which became Garuda Pancasila and abbreviated as Garuda Pancasila. President Soekarno then submitted the draft to the RIS Cabinet through Mohammad Hatta as prime minister.

AG Pringgodigdo in his book About Pancasila published by the Department of Defense and Security, ABRI History Center said that the draft of the state emblem by Sultan Hamid II was finally inaugurated for use in the RIS Cabinet Session. At that time the image of the head of the Garuda Rajawali Pancasila was still "bald" and "" not crested "" as it is now.

Completion back emblem of the country continue to be pursued. Garuda Pancasila Rajawali bird heads that are "bald" to "crested" do. The shape of the claws that gripped the tape from the front facing back to facing the front was also improved, upon President Soekarno's input.

On March 20, 1950, the final shape of the revised state symbol received President Soekarno's disposition, who then ordered the palace painter, Dullah, to redraw the design in accordance with the final form of the State Minister RIS's Sultan Hamid II which was used officially until now.

After the creation of Pancasila, Sultan Hamid seemed to silenced once again, quite from politics. In the 50s, he would give no major political movements for or against the government.


(Left to Right, Up to Down: Old USI Garuda Emblem, New FRI Garuda Emblem, with meanings in Indonesian)

Ida Anak Agung Gede Agung, however, was a different case. He entered into national politics, and be famous, exactly after Sultan Hamid’s decline in this sector. A historian and Balinese, Ida was a liberal. He didn’t join any party during the 50s and 60s, but he contributed a great factor to Indonesia’s conditions, particularly increasing federalism. He would become the leader of Maluku State, then become South Maluku State, for astonishing twelve years, until return to Gianyar as native king that cared fully for his people. He would ignite minority movements against Javan supremacy, demanding Indonesia to observe more into vast undeveloped regions of the East, rather than the build-up West.

He, also, promoted Bali as a tourism spot for Westerners. According to his life experience as a Bali native, Bali’s sunset is ripe for tourism. As a matter of truth, Bali’s sunset maybe was the best after all across the world. So, he would assist Anak Agung Bagus Sutedja to promote tourism in Bali. Even though tourism progressed slowly in Bali, by the Oil Crisis we would see the region actually boomed in spite of an economic downfall.

For Maludin Simbolon, he was given an extraordinary task as a Colonel in the 1950s. after the creation of Federative Republic of Indonesia, along with four military branches, Army, Navy, Air Force and Coast Guard. He was assigned by Sukarno in 1956 to redesign the military flags. The old flag was complicated and full of decorations, which dyeing it would be a nightmare. The Indonesian High Command had ordered him to conduct a simple search for ideas.

So, Colonel Maludin Simbolon decided to give a shot. During his military expeditions cooperating with Vietnam insurgents against France, Simbolon had witnessed a unique symbol. Viet Minh designed a particular red Vietnam flag, and the contrast of the star with the blank background amazed him. The power of this flag was very obvious, as even Democrats and Monarchists tried to implement a similar adaptation to the Red flag, which was also appealing.

In the end, he drew a rough sketch for four branches of the army, which was as follows:

army flag.png
navy flag.gif
airforce flag.png
indonesian coast guard flag.png

(Left to Right, Up to Down: Official Flag of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and the Coast Guard)

Sukarno accepted these new flags, and ratified it in 1957, and it was still being used even until the 21st Century. Although with several opprobria with right politicians, the flag was used neglecting all criticism, and lived on to be the flag of the National Armed Forces of Indonesia.

Not entirely out of context, but in the 60s, a number of federal politicians began to question whether Indonesia’s then flag was universal for its ideological, government, and geographical purposes. The simple red-and-white flag, was used by Indonesia since 1945. As Sukarno said:

Red is the symbol of courage, White is the symbol of purity. Our flag has been there for 600 years.

That particular flag had existed way beyond the meaning of Indonesia itself. The flag's colors are derived from the banner of the 13th century Majapahit Empire. However, it has been suggested that the red and white symbolism can trace its origin to the older common Austronesian mythology of the duality of Mother Earth (red) and Father Sky (white).

However, after Papua’s admitted as a Special Administrative Region, which was a higher autonomous region than a Federal State can, a proposal was given to the Assembly that a flag change must be done.

No one really knew what proceedings had happened relating to this topic, but Soe Hok Gie reached the end of the road as the winner of the flag proposals. Soe Hok Gie was a Chinese-Indonesian activist, and later become politician. During his youth days, he opposed authoritarian regime, which grew after the rise of Nasution. Despite of him classified as Nasution’s potential thorn, many fellow PGI and INP bolstered him, partly using him as some sort of balance especially for the Purple Faction as Military’s balancing weight. Aside from the political concerns, in 1968 Soe Hok Gie managed to be ordained as Indonesia’s new flag creator, which he explained his flag as follows.

The new flag of Indonesia is a balance between Indonesia’s tradition and modernity. Indonesia’s tradition was resembled by the Majapahit’s Ular-ular Perang Flag, a flag with nine horizontal stripes of alternating red and white. A Majapahit’s Sun, or Surya Majapahit¸ is positioned center of the blue section on the left side. Surya Majapahit symbolizes the greatness of Indonesia, and the awareness of Indonesian culture. Meanwhile, the blue color resembles the growing acceptance to democracy and Western politics, which will become a major characteristics for modern Indonesia. The 8 pointed stars resembles the 8 initial provinces created after Independence, also resembled Indonesia’s relations to all directions. Stars on each vertices resembles the modern Dua Benua, Dua Samudra connotation, reaffirming Indonesia’s geographical status as connector of Asia-Australia Continent, and Indian-Pacific Ocean. The five stars may also resemble Indonesia’s greatest regions, Java and Lesser Sundas as the center, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Malaya. Five-pointed stars also resembles that Indonesia acknowledges Pancasila as a national ideology. The Sun inside Majapahit Surya symbolize Indonesia's tropical sun due to its centric location, and also Indonesia's undying fire of becoming a star in the world.

Even though Soe Hok Gie had stated the four stars resembled as such, military personnel still considered those stars as the Four Branches of the Armed Forces. In the near future however, these stars may also be considered as four Indonesian SARs, which conveniently occur after chaos in Europe. Nevertheless, public broadly accepted the new flag, and it was flown on the Presidential Palace on 5th May 1968.

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6.3. Baffled Decade: China
The East is Red
When it comes to history, China have already in the pages even before Christ. The five thousand years of history, as stated by Taiwanese historian, had shaped China as it is. However, China has gone a comprehensive transformation in the 20th Century.

In the early 20th Century, China was on the brink of revolution. The Manchurian Dynasty ruled China in humiliation. Nearly all profitable coastal cities leased or stolen by Europeans. China was put as inferior of the human species, subjugated to European influence. After the Xinhai Revolution, China liberated itself to become a democratic republic. But, heavens forbid, Yuan Shi Kai devolved China as another Empire, and crippled China into the Warlord Eras. The Warlord Eras, ended with Chiang’s success of Northern Expedition, marked the Nanking Decade. But again, a bad luck, Japan screw China and once again the region experienced warfare into the extreme violence.

After the WW2, CCP decided to develop the situation of China after Japanese surrender, and start a war with the KMT. A battle between red and blue, left and right, was ended with blood and death. Since then, China was divided. Mainland China is controlled under the Maoist rule, while Taiwan, or Formosa, was governed by the KMT-exiles. After Mao Ze Dong had secured China, he campaigned land reform to the peasants. From 1947 to 1951, landlords were brutally killed. And millions of hectares were redistributed to the farmers. Land seized from Landlords was brought under collective ownership resulting in the creation of "Agricultural production cooperatives". After the land reform, Mao introduced a new program, the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries. This campaign was mainly to eradicate any KMT presence in mainland China. The campaign was implemented as a response to the rebellions that were commonplace in the early years of the People's Republic of China. Those targeted during the campaign in were thereafter labeled as ‘counter-revolutionaries’, and were publicly denounced in mass trials. Large numbers of ‘counter-revolutionaries’ were arrested and executed and even more sentenced to ‘labor reform’.


China's land reform, performed successfully for Great Leap Forward. However, many land-owners died during this implementation.

There were other campaigns promoted by Chairman Mao during the 50s, such as Three-Antis and Five-Antis Campaign or New Democracy plea, but most of them were only campaigned for strengthening the CCP in China. The Hundred Flowers campaign, which was promoted to moralize intellectuals that was silenced during the CCP era, sheered as CCP’s method or killing rightists. By the completion of the first 5-year Economic Plan in 1957, Mao had come to doubt that the path to socialism that had been taken by the Soviet Union was appropriate for China. He was critical of Khrushchev's reversal of Stalinist policies and alarmed by the uprisings that had taken place in East Germany, Poland and Hungary, and the perception that the USSR was seeking "peaceful coexistence" with the Western powers. Mao had become convinced that China should follow its own path to communism. According to Jonathan Mirsky, a historian and journalist specializing in Chinese affairs, China's isolation from most of the rest of the world, along with the Korean War, had accelerated Mao's attacks on his perceived domestic enemies. It led him to accelerate his designs to develop an economy where the regime would get maximum benefit from rural taxation.

The Second 5-year Economic Plan for China was about agrarian and food production. According to Mao, series of devastating war, and war on counter-revolutionaries, fester farmers and peasants from harvesting more. The conditions were quite problematic, as consumption outran production and sooner or later, China would have a famine. Inspired by Khrushchev quotes about surpassing USA in 15 years, Mao tried something similar. The central idea behind the Great Leap was that rapid development of China's agricultural and industrial sectors should take place in order respectively. The hope was to industrialize by improving the agriculture to a maximum extent for simple machinery, them start to build complex tools. The government also sought to avoid both social stratification and technical bottlenecks involved in the Soviet model of development. Interestingly, they sought technical solutions to do so. Mao and the party gave the Plan to several trustworthy experts, while also inducing political elements. Mao meanwhile advocated that a further round of collectivization modeled on the USSR's "Third Period" was necessary in the countryside where the existing collectives would be merged into huge People's Communes.

Great Leap Forward depicted by Mao, proved as the most successful programs in Mao's historical rule. However, the Great Leap Forwards may also be Mao's decline, as factions were growing radically against Mao's leadership.

As Mao understand the impossibilities of a perfect progress, he accepts official reports on unsuccessful quotas, and promote each commune to work harder with his astounding speeches. Mao hoped that by working together in a harmonious society transformed China into a better place, and possibly transformed the world’s view on communism. By this procedure, he has created a symbiotic cycle between the government and the communes. However, there were still maltreatments throughout the implementation. For farmers which never reached the promises thrice, CCP will kill the farmer and the family, and publicly condemn them so others would not follow. Any collectivists who owns better tools than his commune, are executed immediately and his tools are seized for government research.

Looking at the bigger picture, it seems that the CCP has cut some slacks after the anti-right campaign. Mao has reviewed his political plan, and tossed it for an economic one. In 1967, after the Third Economic Plan was announced to continue the Great Leap Forward, China has become a great agrarian producer. However, this initiative was resulted the anxiety of The Gang of Four. The group was led by Jiang Qing, and consisted of three of her close associates, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Hongwen. This member criticizes Mao’s soft stance, although the Great Leap Forward has opened the world’s view about a working people’s communal system. They want to implement a harsher political policy, once again strengthening the communist hold in mainland China. It was called the Cultural Revolution. Although Mao’s Great Leap Forward success diminished any importance of this policy, in 1968 several CPC members already requested Mao in applying it.

China’s domestic policy has been a great triumph for communism with Asian characteristics. Inside the nation, communes hailed Mao. Meanwhile, foreign policy is bitter for China. After the Korean War, China’s power was scorned in the international stage. Their struggle to threw men at the Korean Front ended fruitless, as the Korean War ended the border to move 175 kilometers North. Pyongyang, the capital of North Korea, had become South Korea. The border of the North-South division was from Pyongwon to Wonsan. Leaving North Korea, the rural mountainous regions. China’s second attempt was on Vietnam. After the Second Indochinese Civil War, China assisted the reds to betray their ‘united front’ compromise. The Viet Cong, as a result, start another Civil War. Once again, the battle ends in an Indochinese partition. Following the creation of North-South Vietnam, China’s foreign policy once again humiliated as the communist North fell to the capitalist South. China’s last hope was the growing divide of India and Pakistan. The CPC favored Pakistan, as allying Pakistan curb Soviet’s expansion to India. However, Gopalkrishna Gandhi, grandson of Mahatma Gandhi, has an increasing fond towards communism. The CPC and Mao enforced each other to persuade him to a communist path.
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