Emerald of The Equator: An Indonesian TL

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11.8. Rivalry: SEATO
Hawaii Pact Book One: Spratly & Paracel

The Hawaii Pact, or is better recognized as Pacific Alliance Treaty Organization (PATO), is a millitary alliance as a result of growing Chinese threat on the 21st century, Most of us although dated the background back to Kennedy's Asian focus, the real origin of Hawaii Pact is the birth of SEATO, later was merged to Spratly League as USEAN.

In July 1975, the Third Indochinese War began, A minor border conflict between the North and South had erupted into yet another warfare. This battle soon attracted spectators, and volunteers all across the world, In Hanoi, both China and Soviet Union aided the Democratic Republic of Indochina. They gave supplies, air force and money bo assist them. Meanwhile, the United States and her allies helped the Federal Repuplic in all they can afford. The South during the 1973 Border Clash had won the South until the 17th Parallel, they were trying to move upwards, this time to Hanoi. For the first three months, the fighting was inconclusive. The Communists had more men than their counterpart, but Saigon's air superiority bogged down any advances.

On November 13,1975, however, things went radically complicated, when both parties witness the invitation of the third, from the West. The Kingdom of Thailand, apparently, had waited a decade for the perfect time to invade. After foreign backing and total military preparation, everyone was outflanked when Thailand blasted their artillery.

Thailand was a kingdom ruled by military, Field Marshall Thanom decided to reverse every colonial expansion that cost Thailand their lands. Although past was not a correct justification suitable for the world to accept, Thailand manage to reduce world anger by giving some of the land for his allies, like the Kingdom of Indochina, later became Kingdom of Laos.

Bảo Long, after his military defeat on the Second Indochinese War, was crippled with Laos as his turf. Later on, that region would be overthrown by Viet Minh Symphathizers, much of it was incorporatedto North Indochina. So, the monarch must be exiled to nearest allies, which is the Kingdom of Thaland. Having strategical missions, Thailand opted supporting Laos for reclaiming their old extent.

Therefore, as both parts of Indochina were engulfed in violence. Thailand sought this opportunity to restore order, or simply a blatant land acquisition. In just a few months, Thailand pushed North and South with relative ease. And because of that, the peace deal for the Third and short Indochinese War, ended with Thailand to have new friendly kingdoms of Laos and Cambodia, also having the old 1904 Borders.

Indonesia, having some sort of mutual assistance with South Indochina, was furious with Thailand sudden aggression. At first, Indonesia wanted to invite Thailand into a regional assosiation, pimarily to be another regional group able for securing their own. However, with Thailand instead to invade Indochina, and literally disband both nations as now Vietnam only. Thailand was under Nasution’s wrath.

In late 1975, Indonesia had secured the Philippines for a possible alliance, military and econoically. As both friends of the United States, and afraid with China, Indonesia can join hands with the Philippines easily. After the Third Indochina War, public sympathy for South Vietna rose, and they all demanded for Indonesiato formally assist them. That was the elephant for Nasution.

Nasuton knew that allying with South Vietnam would fast forward the tensions against North. In superior context, the United States was able to fight both China and the Soviet Union’s volunteers because their lack of cooperation and willpower. With more members joining in the proxy war, more would be at stake, and the next war in the region will cause the world war to happen, definitely. Furtermore, things got really heated up when it was revealed that France was behind Thailand’s aggression.

France, geopolitically, could not go anywhere to China without passing Indonesia by sea. France was relatively isolated by the world, hated by everyone in Europe except Portugal and Yugoslavia. Going everywhere by land to Asia was not an option, as it would cross the EEC, which has bad relations. Gremany successfully blockade France with friends, all of France’s neighbors, the Low Countries and Italy were under EEC’s camp.

Going by sea, was relatively better. France’s best relations with UASR gave them complete access of the Suez, but when they tried to reach China, Malacca is a problem. Thorez adminitration solved this issue by basically bribe Indonesia from Madagascar. But, the Marchais Presidency was more ambitious, and he decided to make one nation on South East Asia under her (France’s) influence, so they would cross the straits safely without worrying the Indonesians would blockade them because of their ties with the United States.

Therefore, Georges Marchais got interested with the Kra Canal. Forming as an aternative to the natural sea access, this Thailand’s Suez Canal can bypassed the Malacca Straits, and ending the monopoly Indonesia had. Luckily, France was not experiencing this situation, as Nasution’s Presidency allowed the access to have relatively free tariffs, which later became one of his downfall later in 1978 Election.

A long story short, France was able to put Thailand under their influence, albeit secretly, and formed some sort of mutualism between two powers. France by Thailand was able to have a better and active relations between China (which was France’s number one priority to counter the Soviet Union), and now giving Thailand better clay. France help in the Third Indochinese War was also proven with guns and artillery support.

Of course, now South East Asia had become the first active proxy battle between three powers. It was later shown that China slowly withdrew from North Vietnam and favored Thailand, as the latter proved to be a better negotiator, rather than North’s ambivalent side between the Soviet Union or China, which still had tensions because of Mongolia. China officially abandoned North Vietnam for Thailand when China officially sided with France in 1977, a formal say of ‘go to hell’ to the Soviet Union.

In this matter, Suharto noticed two horrendous things, one that China had found himself a new, yet moderate ally that would reshape communism, two that China was expanding, and three that South Indochina was surrounded by hostiles. He needed to act quick and decisive, and this regional organization was one smart maneuver.

In 19th January 1976, the South East Asia Treaty Organization was formed. SEATO comprised of Indonesia, Philippines and South Vietnam, with the United States and Japan as member states outside the region. On the next month, a formal economic pact called Spratly League, as it was created in the Spratly Islands by three navy ships from the respective nations.

The Spratly Islands incumbently controlled by three nations, Indonesia from Malaysia’s and Brunei’s Acquisition, Philippines and South Vietnam. The Paracel Islands remained a dispute between the South and the North, not to mention that the entire South China Sea was claimed by both China and Taiwan, with the former was creating a navy for it and the latter already spawned tensions. Especially when the United States found large oil reserves full for exploitation, none of the South East Asian Nations attepted to surrender their claims.

The first dispute SEATO bizarrely concluded was the Spratly Islands dispute. Rather than splitted between three nations, the archipelago would be administered under a joint government, the Spratly Special Territory was created under SEATO, and later given to an economic alliance becoming a regional organization under the same name, Spratly League.


Happy Eid al-Fitr everyone. Wish you all well even during this unfortunate events.

My computer was having issues, and would be fixed on Thursday. So, I'm typing this on mobile.

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Map of Indochina after the Third Indochinese War

I'll give you the map of Indochina after having my laptop fixed. But, please enjoy this update!
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Given that South Vietnam was roughly where the Champa nation once ruled, the Spratly League is one step in quietly uniting the Austronesian group...
11.9. Rivalry: Lee Kuan Yew
The Rise of Lee Kuan Yew

The third term of Nasution regarded as maybe the decline for Nasution and PNI-R for the decade. There were few factors that shaped this down moments, but most of them connected to Subandrio’s Premiership. On the time frame of 1973-1978, the government was mostly a national bickering between PPP and PNI-R, with PPP ended up on the high ground.

The battle in Jakarta was nothing that had happened before. Since foreign and domestic were held by different, opposing parties, none of them were trying to cooperate into contributing growth. Both of them pry for power, battling each other because the next election was their prize. After the fall of Sukarno, Jakarta was dominated by PNI-R and had ruled the politics for more than ten years. Hatta attempted to contest PNI-R, but ended to no avail.

The first battle between Subandrio and Nasution was their infrastructure dispute. Nasution wanted Trans-Sumatra and Trans-Java to keep continue, but levelled development was what Subandrio wanted. The gap between neglected regions and not was apparent in 1975. Singapore and Malaysia was starting to discover problems for underfunded roads. The ports was still upgraded because not the government truly built it, but foreign investments afford those regions a living.

This became the first problem of Nasution's reign, Java-centrism. Nearly twelve years Nasution ruled Indonesia, and discrimination was rising. Javan trader were highly privileged while competent Singaporeans were treated as trash. Worryingly, this also effected the fragile tolerance Indonesia that has established from Sukarno's reign. We were seeing more of a mob fight between enthic-Chinese merchants and natives merchants.

The other was Indonesia's deficit of budget starting 1974. In 1974, the income was not enough for Indonesia to built everything Nasution intended to, so he opted for more loans from the United States. Of course, Subandrio tackled this by establishing BUMN, therefore boosting stimulus from national resources like oil, gas and rubber. But that also caused problems because whenever Pertamina had oil wells to extracted, it must conflicts with Shell, Chevron and even Total because of the permission dispute.

In 1975, most of the economy was driven by investments, domestically or internationally. The amount of surplus came mostly under the mercy of businesses and corporations, Subandrio had enough of this, and resorted to much more drastic measures. He intended to start combating the PNI-R influence, by inviting a group of men from Malacca, the Malaccan Faction.

Headed by Lee Kuan Yew, they supported noble intentions to fully bring Indonesia to their maximum profit. PNI-R, especially the Golkar Faction, has now grew corrupted and power hungry, less even care about humans outside of Java. The were rotten populist, satisfy only the largest population in Indonesia to maintain influence.

Lee Kuan Yew was still the head of the Singaporean District, highly autonomous yet neglected by the federal governments. He noticed the potential Singapore could make by becoming a massive trade port, let alone cooperating other districts like Batam-Bintan, Malacca City, and Penang. With just these three cities, the entire sea trade in this region would be extremely fruitious, and they would be extremely rich.

Musa Hitam was Lee Kuan Yew’s counterpart in Malacca, after Kedah's fall as a prominent monarch in Malaysia, Musa Hitam controlled the Federal District of Malacca City, and immediate side with Lee Kuan Yew. Historically speaking, Malacca City was a busy port that was strategically wanted by colonial powers, the Portuguese had secured this city first so they could monopolize the Spice Islands trade. From time to time, the city become rather underserved by the British Malaya, as they secure investments primarily Singapore. But, after Indonesia had taken Singapore and Malaya, now everyone was having the same problem, decaying from the progress of change.

In July 1976, Lee Kuan Yew formed the PPP's Malaccan Faction by the grace of Subandrio and now aged Hatta. It was purposely created for camping Malaysia's and Sumatra's votes for solid majority while Subandrio secured their Javan Metropolis pockets, like in Jakarta, Surabaya and Semarang. Lee Kuan Yew shocked the entire nation, that which tumbled Nasution, with the infamous question he demanded:

Indonesia controlled the entire trade route from China to everywhere West. When Japan wants to trade in Germany, they must passed the Malaccan Strait. Even the communists, likewise China must passed the Malaccan Strait to India for trading rice and silk. Millions of vessels passed through our seas every year, and Nasution extracted nothing from them. If we demanded one dollar a tom for every vessel that passes through. If we gain more than just good intentions by them staying in our ports. I believe that even we can financed our entire country by that.

My question it, why can't you?

Meanwhile, Nasution's objectives were to appeased America's allies by granting them investments in cities like Singapore and Batam, but that was ineffective as growth were minimum. The problem by Nasution was not because less surplus, but because the Federal Government couldn't care less to these strategic ports. So, even though Nasution implemented a so called 100-year guarantee, no one arrrived in Singapore for funding, because there were no basic requirements neede for a city to thrive.

And then, Suharto and most of his allies were privateering national resources by giving them less regulations for coming money. At this point, corruption in bureaucracy and plutocracy was increasing, and it started to affect the lower class. Social gap was widening, and Indonesia was reaching stagnation.

In a similar critic against Nasution. Lee Kwan Yew accused Suharto of all the political misfortunes all around the world. Australia was once more hostile to Indonesia, albeit we had nothing bad done to them. Thailand betrayed Indonesia for Cambodia and Laos, and France was backing them. Not mentioning China was still a threat, still increasing in power.

All Nasution did was besides completing his own creation, built lavish spending for prestige purposes. Indonesia created the Memorial Park to demolish homes between Ketapang and Olimo, turnt the ravaged destroyed to a posh park. MRT was built under a city yet unhabitated, only to appease investors and investors only, while there were very obvious alternatives for income.

Lee Kuan Yew became the rising star for fighting agains the current ‘tyranny'. Although 1978 was still quite far, Lee Kuan Yew must consolidate with Subandrio correctly in order to secure them the next term.


It is time for the decline of PNI-R. And I need to discuss this Java-Centrism further. In OTL New Order, Java (and partly Sumatra) was the only thing New Order think of. ITTL, I guess a similar thing could happen, but luckily there was still democracy and not authoritarianism.

Javacentrism is Java-nization, different, yet similar in terms of effects. And I will discuss it further.

The next update was a choice of you guys, either discuss further into domestic matters, or travel abroad for events around the world?
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11.10. Rivalry: Java-centrism and Java-nization
Javan Decade: From a Proud Spirit to Sour Prejudice

Even before Sukarno's resignation due to his ties with pro-China PKI at that time, the progress of Java-nization and Java-centrism has progressed under Wilopo's reign. Most of his policies were effective under the island of Java and Sumatra, with the latter even gaining traction in Northern parts. But, the process was done because of the Australian Aggression.

During the war that cost Indonesia most of their development and ten years, the Australian Aggression was manipulated as a prudish snob for Java's defense. During that time, only Java remained untouched, although Surabaya was landed by British and Australian soldiers. In Sumatra, Medan was partly conquered by British Naval Invasion, and nearly steamrolled Indonesia until General Ahmad Yani slowed their advanced in Pekanbaru, and thus create a stalemate at Indragiri River.

Kalimantan, although remained untouched, was primarily because the British wanted it to be a rapid war, and strike key cities first, which was mainly in Java. As a result, Kalimantan was judged as waste of occupation and neglected throhout the war. Everywhere East, most of the places were either occupied by Australia for most of the war, and partly occupied from failed naval landings.

After the war, while most of the region was devastated, Java was an exclusion. Albeit Java's key ports was grazed by bombers, but things stayed relatively at peace on rural regions. Therefore, rural Java became more developed. After the war, which demanded war reparations for the bombings happened in Java. Wilopo used it primarily on Java, as most of the cities were grazed and needed federal assistance. Because of that, in a few years, Java became the most developed land in Indonesia, while everything else was ignored.

Other cities outside of Java, was not as damaged as those inside. Medan was partially destoryed, only military strongholds, while civilian buildings was ironically protected by foreign occupants. Rest of them like Padang, Palembang and Bandar Lampung remained less inflicted. After Wilopo's transfer of power to Nasution, that was where things messy.

Nasution's reign was immediately confronted with one issue, race. For nearly the entire existence, Java remained as the key power of the East Indies, while competed with Malays. After the partition of Malay population into British and the Netherlands, Java became a solid majority inside Dutch East Indies, which later became Indonesia. Java was comfortably well as Indonesia's ethnic majority, until the peace happened. After the annexation of Malaya, therefore uniting the East Indies, Java's people was on par competitive with Malay Population, therefore upsetting the priviledges Java majority has.

Nasution, infact, was ethnically Bataknese, which was strongly affiliated to Malays. However, in his military career, he was strongly influenced with Java's officers, and later bureaucrats. He, as a PNI-R memners, especially on the Gollkar Faction, interfaced with various Javan elites and riches, that had gained prominence on Wilopo's pragmatism.

He also preferred a strong Java-Sumatra base, which alone already encompassed most of Indonesia's population. Even with Malaysia, Papua and Madagascar into Indonesia, Java and Sumatra was left with a fair 65% majority on population-wise. However, he later trashed the plan because of the Suharto.

Premier Suharto ‘s Blue Revolution has a secret twist, which was transmigration. As Java was increasingly unwell in terms of overpopulation, a plan to disperse must be done. He decided to start the program, by giving subsisides for Javanese farmers to start expanding outside their island. Lampung, Bengkulu, Palembang, and even Kotawaringin and Makassar, arrived visionaries from Java which to move there. The government also wanted those regions to cultivate crops as well, so to lessen crop dependency on Java itself.

However, the effects were quite dramatically radical. As complex human society was, tendency to favor supremacism and ethnocentrism was still easy for everyone, and much more chaos erupted. In 1973, the thirid year of Suharto's premiership overan Lampung into a Javan pool, as the ethnic clashed with rushing transmigrants, and ended up losing their population. In Central Kalimantan, similar trends were also happening. Sunda, other ethnic living in Java, also provoked series of mob fights between ehtnics in Sumatra, Kalimantan and Sulawesi.

Papua was a differently extreme case, as the Americans were also attempting to ‘colonize’ the region. Tembagapura was made into a some or of American treaty port, similar to what happened to Hong Kong, although unofficially. And the United States had lilled most natives during their Freeport Expansion, which also unsettled PPP members. Republic of Papua, remained silent of this cause, as the republic had receive many incentives of building the nation, killing few of his men sacrified for building the entire islands was a great offer. Indonesia, not wanting the region rebelled due because lack of connection to the Federal Government, also added funds to build the island while also adding more Javans into Papua. As a result, Kotabaru was 59% Javan, and Biak was 55%.

The most serious of them all, was Aceh. As Aceh was under military occupation since they had revolted way before, Nasution solved this resistance problem by seemingly using the hard but effective procedure, immigration. So, as military personnels which monitored Aceh were already Javanese and Sudanese, it only added a few steps towards full-force migration. At the end of Nasution's third term, most of Aceh cities were settled by Java. Frankly, Acehnese were mad about this, and started underground campaigns.

Other infamous things both Nasution and Wilopo did, was changing names all across Indonesia, to be more friendly into Javan-speakers. Cities all across Papua had encountered massive change of names in cities, towns and even villages. Roads named after Javan heroes, like Diponegoro, Fatahilah and Sultan Agung.

The PPP had used this as a brunt force against the PNI-R. The technic used was eeriely similar to pacification according to Dutch colonials. The regime was turning as authoritarian as ever, although Nasution never actually crossed democracy. More clashes helped PPP for their cause, which later accused PNI-R for destablizing the country.

This would be the intro chapter, of what would be the longest topic I would talk about in Nasution's administration. Even though 31 years is not the same as 13 years, the effects were actually similar. Nasution had extremely fast forwards the process, with a devastated Indonesia from war and Java still high populace.

But before I wanted to dig even further. I would like to write about foreign chapters. Please choose between these two:

  1. America: Nicaragua​
  2. Europe: United Kingdom​
I'm really curious for everyday folks' perspective of this development. Does traveling between regions already common? Thoughts of Javanization and the rise of LKY?

Travelling between regions were only in developed places like Java and Malaysia, while the rest was still underdeveloped for such luxury. Remember that Indonesia was still rebuilding, although gar better than before, but parts of Sumatra, Kalimantan, whole of Sulawesi was having less help. Even more in Maluku. Nasution's expensiture was mainly on Java, transmigration areas and Papua.
2. Europe: United Kingdom

the Javanization really alienate the other people of Indonesia. Frankly, I'm suprise that Papua didn't try to break away already.

Oh and also since the accsptance of puerto rico and cuba why doesnt all of the us territories accepted into the union (guam,american samoa,usvi etc)
2. Europe: United Kingdom

Man, I can't imagine if these Javanization policies managed to reach Malay peninsular of all places. Although with Suharto in helm, I'm not surprised if he did brute force his way in.
2. Europe: United Kingdom

the Javanization really alienate the other people of Indonesia. Frankly, I'm suprise that Papua didn't try to break away already.

Quick word:



Oh and also since the accsptance of puerto rico and cuba why doesnt all of the us territories accepted into the union (guam,american samoa,usvi etc)

Guam, America Samoa afaik was still low popp, comparing Puerto Rico and Cuba, not worth stating.
Will the us create the north american union? And oh do indonesia possess a cruiser like they did in originally? (kri irian)
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With how far flang Indonesia territory now, it's about time that Indonesia have a carrier
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Well what about the us will they create a north american allience or perhaps even create a nort american union? And what happen to venezuela in this timeline
I'm still not quite certain about this. But thanks for the idea. ITTL Canada is still on Britain's grasp so not yet North American Union. Venezuela will soon come.

So if Indonesia are going to own carriers somewhere in the future, what kind of naval doctrine would the Navy adopt? Is it going to be command of the sea, fleet in being or guerre escadre?
Thanks for the suggestion. Since Indonesia still not yet have carriers (per 1975 ITTL), I can't decide much. But, seeing the vast extent of Indonesia (from Solomon Islands to Madagascar, I think it is more of command of the sea. However, thinking about it would possibly gain dispute against the already 'commander of the sea', the United States.