• Paladin Wulfen Productions presents... Elysium..., to Roman America. A production that will try to last as long as the support it receives. Although this production uses recycled material from a previously made one, it is focused with greater dedication and exploration apart from a greater use of Latin-Roman terms.

    It's time to prepare for glory.
    It's time to remember the great heroes and their sacrifice.
    It's time to march following your Centurion.
    It's time to shout ROMA AETERNA


    ---:::Elysium... a Roman America:::---
    The idea of a continent beyond called Oceanus or Sea of Atlas that would later evolve into Atlantic Sea. It came when after the completion of the Conquest of Britannia at 837 Ab urbe condita (AD 84) under Gnaeus Julius Agricola opened new opportunities for entrepreneurs, builders and consumers. The popular legend that Roman ships could not navigate through the Ocean came mostly from a combination of maritime and religious superstitions since it was once believed that the Oceanus was an endless sea that surrounded the known land that would be Europe, Asia and Africa.

    Roman ships were not the first sailing ships, but they were significantly larger than most. Larger Roman-made ocean-going ships enabled the transport of objects in bulk for the first time, sometimes across the open sea. The first Roman was a businessman born in Hispania who responded to the name of Lucius Decimus, he was of Roman descent. He was born and raised in the city of Italica (near Seville, Spain) in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica. He came from a well-established, wealthy and aristocratic family of Praetorian rank.

    Hearing tales of fortune and land with powerful slaves in the seas north of Britannia, he decided to explore with crews of veteran Roman sailors and legionnaires. The explorations took them to what would be the great peninsula of Scandinavia, already known as pirates who descended from the north every summer to devastate the coasts of Magna Germania (Germany) and Cimbria (Denmark) reaching Belgium. Through this event, the Romans called them Boreanari (Northmen). The Romans sailed until they found a Boreanari village with a large number of cattle and slaves. Lucius Decimus decided to undertake a plundering action and everything of value was taken and the granaries were emptied to the last ounce of food. The Romans were amazed that the settlements were defenseless and had such a large population, as they spread stories of the vulnerability and possibility of dealing with slavery.

    The Boreanari were noted for a strong resemblance to the Germanii (Germans). This meant that men were soon used as: Gladiators; oarsmen on commercial ships; miners; Field Workers. Women, on the other hand, were destined for domestic work or work that did not require great strength: servants, sexual slaves or caretakers. The second expedition explored the coast until finally, by chance of fate, they reached Iceland, which was called Frigerra. Soon the colonization took place when the fishing of Walruses and Whales shot up to the sky, being the first ones the object of intensive hunting for their ivory tusks that could reach a meter in length.

    The hunting situation caused the expeditions to be launched, reaching what would be known as Septentriones (Greenland). For that moment it dated the year 873 Ab Urbe Condita (AD 120). Septentriones was considered a gold mine given the number of herds of Walrus allowing greater access to ivory. The difficult climatic and ice conditions of the Arctic posed a problem for the colonization of Septentriones but the human situation was different: the settlers were made up of soldiers, sailors, Boreanari and Britannian slaves around the Roman settlements, Septentriones was under Roman control. de facto of various Inuit groups, but the Romans would maintain claims to all of Septentriones,

    Fishing expeditions continued until an event occurred in Year 905 Ab urbe condita (AD 152). When the ship's captain Aulo Flavo sighted land, it was an island that Flavo would baptize as Terranova. Aulus Flavo would disembark with the crew, which would be armed with leather armor (cheaper and more comfortable than the classic legionary armor due to the cold conditions) and Gladius (Swords) and Scuta (plural shields). There after several days where they recognized the land; fertility, number of trees, availability of drinking water and etc, they made contact with the indigenous people, who were impressed to see men with metal weapons and huge boats.

    When Aulus Flavus returned to civilization, he had a plan to use Newfoundland as a place to profit himself with the help of his sailors, but it couldn't be helped that one of his sailors in a drunken tabernae talked about the west was a fertile and snowless land with barbarians who did not follow the laws of Rome. Although that sailor ended up being dragged by his companions and later punished with his life being thrown overboard on the high seas the next day, it could not be avoided that at least a dozen people heard that and the news ended up spreading.​
    Chapter I "Quintus Fabius Marcello"
  • By the year 908 Ab urbe condita (AD 155), the Empire was ruled by Emperor Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Pius. An Emperor who found it difficult to stand tall without stays. Him to the point of nibbling on dry bread for the strength to stay awake during his morning receptions. But it was the news of a Terra Nova found by settlers from its northernmost territory, that made him show interest and decided to send officials in order to check that land, avoiding a possible fable like the one told about Britannia that put Britannia as a mysterious land full of riches such as gold and gems along with fertile land.

    In command of the Imperial entourage was Quintus Fabius Marcello. Fabius sailed from Gaul to Septentriones where he later forced Aulus Flavus to lead the fleet. In the time that had passed, dozens of crews had tried to reach the land called Terra Nova but few reached it as most ended up suffering the ravages of being shipwrecked by whales that cleaned themselves using ships, wandering glaciers or storms. Luckily Aulus managed to reach the place. Marcello carried out exchanges of objects of little value with the indigenous people and was interested in the information, to then continue exploring where they found the strait, a strait between the continent and Terra Nova, through which he entered in a southwesterly direction, accessing the interior of the Gulf of Titus Aelius where he explored the multiple islands and archipelagos where Marcello had the first of two encounters with the native peoples, some brief encounters in which they carried out some commercial exchange of food-information, in those exchanges Marcello planted the foundations of what would be the belief of the Romans as a Tribe superior in technology, war and leadership although with different religious beliefs.

    His third encounter with natives took place on the shores of Gaspé Bay with a group of natives with a martial sense, where he planted a Roman eagle banner to claim the land for Rome. The banner with the golden eagle claimed possession of the territory in the name of Rome. Here he kidnapped the two sons of his boss, who was named Aurelius. Who agreed that they could be captured, on the condition that they return with merchandise to trade. Marcellus's return to Rome, accompanied by the two "Princeps Barbarus", came with the death of Marcus Gavius Maximus, one of Antoninus's most trusted advisers but who otherwise served Marcus Aurelius, the Emperor's nephew-in-law.

    The news brought by Marcellus meant that preparations soon began to be made to send out further scouting expeditions. Caledonia due to its situation, was soon pacified within two years as Pictish coastal piracy posed a problem for shipping. The whaling industry and dedicated to the hunting of Walruses continued to the point that more Roman ships knew and reached Terra Nova where they built temporary settlements where they could rest and not always be in the ships or simple tents. But it was not shortly after the death of Antoninus Pius that the Roman Eagle saw the people of Terra Nova as hostile to Rome as they committed a heinous crime.

    Quintus Fabius Marcello, was killed by the barbarians when one of his escorts was found trying to lie with the daughter of one of the most important warriors of the tribe. A few survivors managed to flee and return to their ships before bringing news of the fate of their fellow citizens. Such an event occurred in the year 918 ab urbe condita (AD 165) coincided with the War with Parthia. Due to this, the fishing expeditions had to be subjected to a greater possession of weapons and armor to face the natives who from canoes tried to attack the approaching Romans, between those times the so-called Taking of Terra Nova ended up happening where a coalition of ships with their crews, ended up taking Terra Nova (OTL: Newfoundland) where the crews ended up massacring the native male population and taking the women as slaves. While Terra Nova ended up becoming a semi-independent colony where Walrus fishing increased.

    Due to the situation with the natives of the new world, the Emperor decided to turn a deaf ear, making the territory, located beyond the ocean in what for them was the limit of the known world, become a land of great mystery, and some they refused to believe that it existed at all. Instead they focused on expeditions against Scandinavia where they ended up profiting from thousands of Boreanari slaves who were used in fields, mines, fighting arenas or even brothels. But this did nothing if not lay the foundations for greater resistance to the cold climate of the north, something that would be beneficial in the future.​
    Chapter II
  • Meme_2.png

    The situation remained relatively uneventful without the Romans except those of Britannia knowing exactly about Terra Nova, until Martius 17, 933 Ab urbe condita (AD 180) at a Castra (Military Camp) near the city of Sirmium in Pannonia, Marcus Aurelius died at the age of 58. Marcus was succeeded by his son Commodus, whom he had appointed Caesar in 166 and with whom he had ruled jointly since 177. Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus had his eyes set on more than the mere glory his father had garnered to the grave. Commodus wanted to rule as a god-emperor and rule even more territory as if he were a new Julius Caesar. Although he knew that he would not be able to acquire this in Rome, he wasted no time in fulfilling his dream elsewhere.

    Seeking absolute power, Commodus saw a simple path. If he conquered territory for the empire, then he could do what some of his predecessors had done, taking the land as his own ager privatus (private land). No doubt, just as Egypt had that status since Octavian Augustus took it in the early days, but his place in the empire and the status of his people as cives Romanes would be obstacles to his goals of absolute power. Therefore he decided to use the almost forgotten Marcellus and his braves as Casus Balli. For the death of a Roman ambassador and citizen was considered an attack on the Emperor himself that could not remain unanswered, which gave the Emperor a pretext in front of the Roman Senate.

    Commodus planned the campaign from 936 Ab urbe condita (183) to 938 Ab urbe condita (AD 185), after which he undertook a fourteen-month journey where he costed and replenished; Britannia, Frigerra (Iceland), Septentriones (Greenland) until finally reaching Terra Nova. The main landing point was on the coast of what was known as Kébec, near a gulf with an important river. The resistance of the natives was led by a coalition of tribes that managed to group 50,000 warriors. The battle lasted for two days before victory was finally achieved and a large number of prisoners were taken, including tribal chiefs and their sons.

    It was finally in 946 that news reached Rome that the last Rex Terranovis had been subjugated. The deployed generals received, in an unprecedented decision by Commodus, a joint triumph for this success. Although the generals had been fighting under the auspices of the emperor and only a general fighting under his auspiciis could claim victory, the young Commodus assured the Senate of his constitutionality. Although this Triumph was clearly unconstitutional, no one objected to an emperor's desire to honor the five generals. Going to Terra Nova for the last time, the young emperor returned to Rome in the company of the victors, giving himself a place of distinction in his great triumphal celebration.

    The conquests of the Romans were the driving force for a great migration of tribes, the likes of which had never been seen on the continent. More than a million people with their tribes were traveling west to escape the Romans and slowly disappearing in sight of the limits of Rome. The annexation of the Territory expanded the empire by vast amounts. Perhaps fewer than five hundred thousand of the original population remained, abandoned by the great migration and left alive by the legions that had swept through the land. These tribes would pose a persistent threat to the newly arrived Imperial-motivated Roman settlers, attacking their caravans and estates but not daring to attack any coloniae (state-built planned cities) with their walls and soldiers. With so-called "wild men" everywhere, the territory came to be regarded as a kind of distinct frontier, referred to by the old term limites Terranovis (Terra Nova's borders). Despite the dangers, the Romans were eager to settle these wild lands, leaving Europe by the thousands every year.

    Before settlers could arrive, the Senate decreed that all conquered land was ager publicus (public land), a state possession, beginning in 946 Ab urbe condita (193 AD). Land owned by public accounts could be given to citizens and veterans or worked by Senate employees. Not even Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul had provided as large an amount of public land as this acquisition. Furthermore, it was more useful than the Gallic frontier, empty as it was of its native population.

    Another law passed was the promise that each retiring legionnaire would have a choice: a large plot of rural land or a house in one of the new colonies in Terra Nova. But with the Year of the Five Emperors coming to an end, this decree would ensure a steady influx of battle-hardened settlers, creating a strong local citizenry to maintain control over the region. However, circumstances could change, so the law would expire after a century, avoiding a possibly unpopular future decision of having to repeal the law.

    Retired soldiers could not only manage free-roaming tribes and uncivilized terrain, but they were also a reliable population for a new territory that would ensure the allegiance of the entire population. Some would probably spend their last years as auxiliary guards for the colonies, while others would find employment protecting the caravans of merchants. By the year 953 Ab urbe condita (200 AD), more than three hundred thousand veterans lived in Terra Nova, mixing with an equal number of citizens who had come of their own initiative or had taken jobs in public mines, blacksmith shops, or sawmills. To motivate the settlers, the Senate had offered citizens an escort to any part of the new land where they could manage or operate a public facility for the exploitation of natural resources.​
    Chapter III
  • An important change was that Terra Nova was renamed Elysium, in honor of the Paradise that awaits those who live a righteous life. Never before had the empire known such a rich source of wood, tin, copper, silver, gold, and lead. Elysium was a virgin region full of animals for hunting, covered with forests for cutting and dotted with nodules for mining. At first, settlers would only exploit the surface veins of ore. As geographical surveys accelerated, the Romans established surface pit mines and eventually shaft mines and drift mines to access subterranean nodules found by surveyors. Rome brought its full range of technologies and techniques to the new land, albeit at a slow pace as the infrastructure grew.

    High on the Senate's list of priorities was the construction of public highways. Unfortunately, he had no idea which locations would eventually need freeway access, as cities had yet to grow. So the Senate was content for now to lay out simple paths built by the legions. Unlike the viae publicae in the civilized world, these roads looped around rather than through natural obstacles and were rough roads rather than finely carved stone paths. Despite this shortcoming, Elysium was already poised to become a new industrial province of the Roman Empire.

    A major drawback of the new territory was the difficulty of tilling and planting in the tough soil of northern Elysium apart from its distance. Also, any farm a citizen established on Elysium had to be set up on heavily overgrown land, which usually means forest. Extensive plowing was required to prepare the soil to accept domestic grain. Fortunately, Roman farmers in Britain had experience with similarly difficult soils and their heavy tools could be used to colonize the new territory.

    Some minor claims were heard from some citizens at the borders and some were even granted, but almost every square kilometer of Elysium was owned by the state. Each retiring legionnaire was given the choice between a house in a colonial Elysium town (Colonia Elysium) or a villa on a large plot of land in the Elysium desert (along with other land options or a lump sum of silver denarii). Elysium was large enough that the Senate continued to enforce this policy, after which most of the land was given or sold as ager privatus (private land) or designated as a restricted forest area for sustainable timber supplies. Nearly a third of Elysium was sustainably harvested for timber, while the rest of the new region consisted of colonial towns or private villages for citizens who made a living through their own forest, mine, or farm.

    Elysium in this era was described as an "uncertain but lucrative land" for a Roman citizen. Stories circulated of both great fortunes and great calamities that had befallen the colonists. This reputation gave rise to a new style of literature and theater in the form of frontier tales: stories about the hardships and successes of fictional and historical settlers. One famous play told the story of a humble actor who set out to work in the mines of Elysium, only to stumble upon a mother lode of gold; a greedy centurion learned of his fortune in a small colony and then pursued the man with the force of his century.

    A more recognizable feature of life on the frontier was the threat of tribes and raiding parties. Although most of the native tribes were driven out in the great migration, more than a hundred thousand remained and survived the purge as legions swept through the lands prior to civil settlement. With poor Latin and no hope of joining the colonies, these tribal communications continued to exist on the public lands of A more recognizable feature of frontier life was the threat of Elysean-Native bandits and raiding parties. Although most of the native tribes were driven out in the great migration, more than a hundred thousand remained and survived the purge as legions swept through the lands prior to civil settlement. With poor Latin and no hope of joining the colonies, these tribal communications continued to exist on the public lands of Elysium for years. Many of these people felt a general animosity towards the Romans and frequently came to blows with the citizens who worked on their plantations, mines or villas and the merchants who traveled the roads.

    With all the activity, this was an exciting period in Roman history. Thousands of citizens started a new life in a new province, often arriving with free land or a generous subsidy from the state. Despite losing occasional caravans to the tribes, Rome benefited immensely from public mines, plantations, sawmills, stamp mills, and other industrial facilities. Profits only grew as the level of infrastructure available in the region was expanded by action from the Senate and Caesar. By the year 1053 Ab urbe condita (300 AD), Elysium had a population approximately of 800,000 with the cities of Colonia Augusta Elysium (OTL: Quebec), Colonia Crispina Augusta (OTL: Montreal), Colonia Septimia Severus (OTL: Boston), Colonia Lenape (OTL: New York City), Colonia Pempotut (OTL:Albany, NY).
    Chapter IV
  • Unfortunately, the Empire faced problems with the division of the Empire in year 1039 Ab Urbe Condita (286). Division that led to Elysium being administered by the Western Roman Empire. The rise to power of Constantine I and his pro-Christian policies meant that many Roman believers in the old values of mos maiorum, which indicated the set of rules and precepts that the Roman citizen attached to tradition should respect, traveled to Elysium. This produced the Grand Migration which ultimately contributed to the rise to power of the Christians in Rome. The earliest populations of Elysium were fishing villages or farming communities on the more fertile lands along the rivers. The rocky soil of Elysium in those territories was not as fertile as Hispania, Gaul, and much less Egypt, but the land provided rich resources, including the timber for which it was valued. Wood was also a resource that could be exported to Britannia or other regions, where there was a shortage of wood. In addition, the hunting of wild animals provided fur for trade and food for the table.

    But as chaos increased in Europe, in Elysium it was victories and prosperity as expeditions of brave and daring Roman explorers went into the unknown, many of them accompanied by their ancient Centuries or even Cohorts as was the case with the veteran and retired Centurion Marcus Aquila who profited from leading slaving expeditions frequently made winter raids against native villages and settlements, traveling on sleds, crude snowshoes and even ice skates across frozen rivers. The Aquila Cohort, were one of the few forces able to operate in the inhospitable region despite harsh winter conditions and mountainous terrain. To the point that one winter they sold a total of one thousand men, two thousand five hundred women and five hundred boys and girls.

    The crisis facing the Empire saw constant wars on the borders against the Germanic peoples who seemed to be fleeing some eastern threat while internally it went through repeated civil wars, court intrigues and usurpations. Along with religious policies, they inflamed domestic conflicts, which further motivated the exodus to the New Territory. These events and the succession of Emperors who did nothing but squander the Imperial Treasury. This at the same time saw with the period known as the Great Barbarian Invasions when entire barbarian tribes such as the Franks, Vandals, Alans and Visigoths crossed the Rhine or Danube and settled on safer and more fertile lands in Imperial Territory.

    It was in this period that Elysium began to develop the so-called "Gloria ex amore Imperium" ("Glory and love to the Empire"): An ideology where all are equal and all must serve the Empire. Food and water will be provided to the hungry and thirsty, but they will also be expected to return the favor, when the time comes. All sacrifice is valued, but also expected. At the same time that the cult of ancient Roman gods such as Jupiter, Minerva and Mars are restored as was the creation of the Great Temple of Neptune on Abegweit Island (Prince Edward Island).

    Unfortunately, it was in the early 4th century, when the Empire broke contact with Elysium, that Britain came under increasing pressure from barbarian attacks that led to the disappearance of the imperial layers of military and military rule. Civil, administration and justice fell to municipal authorities, and local warlords gradually emerged as conflicts destroyed and degenerated naval capacity and cut the communication with Elysium at time the fishing communities in Frigerra (Iceland) and Septentriones (Greenland) die or left for go to Elysium.
    Chapter V
  • With the fall of the lines of communication, Elysium which in the year 1208 Ab urbe condita (AD 455) had a total population of one million inhabitants and three times as many slaves. The government of Elysium decided to apply a system where a key element to enter the government was Military Service. The Cursus Honorum (course of honor) was the name by which the sequential order of public positions, both political and military, that a Roman man of good family had to assume and complete was known both in the Roman Republic and in the Roman Empire. throughout his life in order to climb the Roman social ladder. Originally only patricians (members of select families of Roman origin) could follow the cursus honorum, but it was gradually released as the Roman Empire expanded. But with the breakdown of communications with Rome, a replacement was decided. The cursus honorum had as a prerequisite to serve at least ten years in the army. This service could be completed by serving in the cavalry (the equites) or by serving under the command of a general who was a friend of the soldier's family. Romans from the most powerful families could, however, choose to become military tribunes.

    Elysium wasted no time in choosing its rulers, whose Imperator was a relative of the Imperial Family called: Kaeso Iulius Caesar descended from the same Commodus, with whom the first two Consuls Publius Cornelius Scipio and Gaius Furius Pacilus were elected. Both members of the Gens Scipio and Furia, two of the oldest and noblest patrician houses. Publius Cornelius Scipio was a politician who claimed descent from Scipio Africanus and Asiatic himself; brothers and vendors of Zama and Magnesia separately respectively. Scipio along with Pacilus and much of the newly created Elysium Senate in a copy of the Roman, decided to install the city of Colonia Augusta Elysium as Capital, agreeing the name of Colonia Augusta Elysium to Augusta Elysium.

    Elysium faced problems that did nothing more than apply an exaltation of ancient Roman values while trying to improve living standards by improving areas such as science, agriculture and law. Over the previous decades, Elysium had been hit by a series of epidemics. The threat of the plague hung over the empire now with more danger than ever. Seeking to strengthen Elysium against this illusory foe, the emperor built the Galena Medical Academy as a center of healing and inquiry in the city of Colonia Septimius Severus. Designed to facilitate the study of the human body and its ailments, this academy, named for Galen's school of philosophy, consisted of four connected buildings: a library of medical texts, a clinic to care for patients, an operating room for surgeries and an office for his medical staff. A new tower could be seen at the heart of the academy on Septimia Severus, helping people find care in their time of medical need.

    Copies of available medical texts were sent to the academy, quickly filling its shelves with most of the known works on medicine. This large fraction of the literature would be essential for many of the purposes of the academy, in particular, for its role in training apprentice doctors in the best methods and beliefs of the time. At no time before in history could a medical student find so much of her culture's medical knowledge in one place. Apprentices developed a close familiarity with these texts, as they were often tasked with copying them for physicians elsewhere, both for their own learning and for the spread of Hellenistic practices in academia throughout of New world. As well as being a pedagogical boon, this great library had a tremendous effect on the evolution of medical philosophy, instigating changes in the accepted doctrines of physicians.

    Following the model of the academy, the physicians expanded their galenaria - a name that would soon attach to these sorts of comprehensive centers for learned medicine - with separate wings for surgery and quarantine (an old practice improved) as well as a library of books from the Hippocratic and Galenic corpus. A comprehensive handbook of disease was far from only contribution to medical practice - in fact, his research and writings were the largest advance in Hellenistic medicine since even Galen. By this time, a learned physician might already, for a patient, suggest diets or exercises (known collectively as regiminae) or administer purgatives, laxatives, emetics, narcotics, expectorants, salves, plasters, and other curative or palliative measures (known collectively as medicinae). Furthermore, there was already a long history in the art of chirurgia (surgery), mostly for trauma patients and for patients "needing" blood-letting or trepanning. To some degree, the task not only of uncovering the mechanisms behind known treatments or therapies but also of expanding the medicinal toolkit of the physician was accomplished.

    Perhaps his contribution of greatest efficacy was his emphasis on hygiene and sterilization, in following his theory of infection. For mouth disease, he prescribed teeth-cleaning with a brush and paste, even advising healthy patients to prevent its occurrence by adopting a regular regimen of cleaning teeth (with the added benefit, as he says, of "a more pleasing and healthier mouth"). For surgeries, concentrated vinegar had long been used to sterilize equipment and dress wounds but was prescribed a more general use of the disinfectant to cleanse the bodies of surgeons and avoid exposing patients to infectious matter (on the basis of his notion of how people get infected). The physicians learned from post-combat experience that contact with the dead or the sick spread some diseases and that even healthy doctors, without cleansing, could cause illness in patients. For these purposes, vinegar would remain the preferred disinfectant.

    As medical science flourished, Mathematical sciences also flourished with the construction of numerous devices. For entertainment, there was the eolipile, which showed how fire could produce "wind" from water, and the wind wheel, the first device to directly harness the power of wind in nature. For specific tasks, he invented a displacement pump, adopted as a fire engine; pulley systems, for backstage in a theater; a syringe, for rapidly administering fluids into a patient's body; and a source powered by hydrostatic energy storage as in a water tower. While his curiosities were popular in some temples, his practical devices were adopted throughout the world of Elysium. In particular, pump-operated fire engines were becoming essential for civil services in large cities, especially after a famous fire left three hundred people homeless.

    But while medicine and science was improved and adapted. An army made up of legions was desperately needed. With the resurgence of old customs and values, so did old military styles but with improvements. Among them came the Stirrup, one of the last technological achievements achieved by the Romans at the hands of the Goths after Adrianopolis. With the large number of unemployed youth, children of small farmers, miners and willing landless people began to form the basis of the Elysean Legions. In less than a year, The Elysean Empire encompassed 10 Legions with a total of 60,000 troops, distributing 6,000 Legionnaires per Legion.
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    Chapter VI
  • With the loss of connections with Europe and the rise of the Elysean Empire, the latifundia (hacienda) encompassed increasing importance in agricultural production. As the senatores and equites seized more prosperous farmland, not to mention that acquired by the fundi patrimonials (emperor estates), the number of unemployed plebs in the cities grew. The displaced farmers were a pressing concern for the finances of the state, against this threat, the Year 1213 Ab urbe condita (460 AD), the emperor, supposedly at the behest of Scipio, enacted a program to give all the land that was not under cultivation to private citizens, with secure land tenure and a ten-year tax exemption. This radical policy was extended to the entire Empire, raising food production, as a result of its decline as the land was abandoned or the former tenants died of various causes.

    When this policy was later expanded by buying land from the main landowners and then renting it to the coloni so that they could work it as if it were their own. Millions of mined denarii were spent on this program from 1215 to 1217 Ab urbe condita (462-464 AD), resulting in a great expansion of the imperial estate and the efficiency of farmland, and most of these purchases were made near Augusta Elysium itself.

    The emperor would emphasize the importance of a landowning peasantry, setting a precedent that his successors would continue. His strategy of buying estates and only leasing that land to peasants had the great advantage of avoiding reselling the farms to the nobility, since an emperor was less likely to accede to the patricians' demands than a plebs. Later mechanical mowers would be obtained for the coloni who could not afford them. Repopulation was under way under Kaeso, as cities recovered from epidemics and adopted a better medical system. While the urban population had not yet reached its breaking point, it still faced food shortages in its cities.

    Ranging beyond the wall became a frequent activity for the garrisons along the frontier- out of boredom as much as duty. By scouting the forests, warning could reach the limes (frontier defences) in time to concentrate forces before an enemy arrived. Of course, there were no enemies near the limes as far as the Legion could tell and most interactions with outsiders consisted of intimidating the local tribes. Over the next years, legionaries were often sent as escorts for cartographers, slowly building an accurate picture of what lay beyond the frontier of the known world. Meanwhile the Classis (Navy) undertook cartographic expeditions descending to a large peninsula while a fleet descended the Borealis Augustus (St. Lawrence River) to explore the surroundings of the great lake Latinized as Ontariorius.

    Unlike what someone might think. Elysium did not develop a slave-racial society where slaves came exclusively from a single race or origin. Slavery in Elysium just like Rome with the legendary founder Romulus, giving Roman parents the right to sell their own children into slavery. The Twelve Tables, the oldest legal code of Rome has brief references to slavery but in general it led to the result that a Roman was born a free person but that due to variable circumstances could end up becoming a slave either due to debts, military defeat or piracy. The exploration expeditions brought the possibility for the Barbarian Tribes to enter the slave trade where their prisoners would be sold at border posts to wholesale merchants who were later in charge of educating them in the Latin language and how to serve.
    Chapter VII
  • By the beginning of the Year 1253 Ab urbe condita (500 AD), Elysium had already been reconnoitred by maritime expeditions along the coast with the Oceanus Atlanticus. They reached the Archipelago that would become known as Cuba but would not undertake a colonization due to its distance of 1740 Roman Miles. On the other hand, a wide and mighty river was found that was called Magnum, which was comparable to the Rhine in Europe or the Nile in Egypt, although the technological capacity of the natives was a good vision for diplomats, their hostility made most attempts of diplomacy ended with drawn swords and drawn bows. Due to the situation, Kaeso's grandson; Gaius Iulius Caesar Augustus, were raiding tribes with renewed vigor. Using three legions and a legate with local knowledge, Augustus wasted no time in seeking a solution to this persistent problem (although Augustus would not be around for the entire conflict).

    His strategy was as ruthless as it was effective. Under the climate of itinerant tribes, involved in endegemic violence, Augustus selected several isolated villages not far from the Lenape River (Hudson) and systematically surrounded them while massacring their entire population. Messengers were sent to other villages in the region warning of the destruction of these villages by the "same tribes that had attacked and killed Roman Legionnaires" and offering Elysium's aid against its pillaging neighbors. The rumors polarized people towards Rome; those who chose to ignore this appearance of Roman help armed themselves for a more organized conflict. As a result, local enemies of Roman rule came to the fore and assimilation of the region encompassing the Lenape River, Patawomeck (Potomac), Oolikhanna (allegheny) accelerated.

    The guerrilla tactics of the Native enemies had prolonged the war, as Augustus chose a slow and cautious strategy rather than allowing the guerrillas to dictate when and where the battles would be fought, and dissuaded the emperor from an outright conquest of the region. As treaties were formed with the non-belligerent tribes and the scorched-earth tactics of the combatants gave credence to the official story, the conquest gradually unfolded in Augustus's favor. Soon a new provincium was declared and the armies hailed Augustus as Lenapus, increasing his name to Gaius Octavius Caesar Augustus Lenapus.

    During the war, the fleets of the Oceanus had been greatly expanded and maritime trade had been encouraged, as a means of keeping the legions fed in the face of scarce local supplies. This growth in the number of ships in the region took a heavy toll on the treasury, especially as the campaign offered few sources of revenue, but was sustained by the wealth from the Augustus Mines in the Northern. Following the conquest of Lenape, Augustus devoted a great amount time and energy to the assimilation and improvement of the provincium. With control over the territory, Augustus played upon the idea of Roman Gods in propaganda, emphasizing the unity under its patron gods and her place within the Roman pantheon. States of the goddess - a beautiful figure who resembled the goddess Minerva and wore a centurion's helmet - were made with greater frequency across the province. In many cases was portrayed as a proud men or woman accompanied by a wolf or a Roman legionary in a cooperative context, emphasizing a beneficial relationship with Rome.

    A focus of public works was the city of Civitas Mohawk (OTL: Philadelphia). The curia of Mohawk was assisted in the construction of a galenaria and temples to Divus Jupiter and other Roman divinities. The hospital and its staff brought Roman medicine to the territory, beginning a pedagogical line that would branch out over the next century to the other cities of territory. To assist in holding Lenape, a 540 km highway was constructed from Septimia Severus (OTL:Boston) to Civitas Mohawk. Once the road was completed, armies could move effortless north and south across using the new road, allowing for more flexible deployment of troops in this wild land.

    Over the next years, the territory saw increasing Romanization as its people integrated with the rest of the empire. Lenape participated more and more with the other provinces and became an indispensable source of wheat and corn. Throughout the campaigns and battles, the core of the army was made up of the legion. This corps was a virtually invincible unit when fighting on suitable ground and led by a diligent commander. However, the legion had a series of important deficiencies, among which the lack of light infantry and archers stood out. This situation was unsustainable in the long term, so that when the battles ended, the Emperor allowed the warriors of indoctrinated tribes and loyal to Elysium, to create a series of units that contributed to the army, specialized infantry and archers, recruited from among the non citizens of the Empire -or outside it- and whose use, being its smaller size, was more flexible than that of the legions. At the same time, it contributed to the tribes losing the sense of national character, and only the name recalled the origin of origin, which was motivated when the tribes obtained Roman citizenship after twenty years of loyal service, commonly contributing auxiliaries.

    At the beginning, the core of the auxiliary troops was made up of warriors from the warring tribes. The recruitment was very similar to that of the legionnaires, it was carried out among non-citizens of the Empire, and who had special skills that interested the army. The recruitment officers gathered them in assigned areas, where they were given a reconnaissance or probatio, and they also had to demonstrate their qualities as archers, slingers, etc. Those selected became recruits, they were given the viaticum or money for the trip so that they would join their unit.
    Map 1295 AUC / 542 AD
  • Provincia​


    Provincia Hibernia SuperiorCivis Caesaromagus(Cartwright, NL)
    Provincia Hibernia InferiorCivis Fluvius Finis (Saguenay, QC)
    Provincia Hibernia MaritimaeCivis Fluvius Magnus (Chisasibi, QC)
    Provincia Augusta ElysiumAugusta Elysium (Quebec)
    Provincia NostraCivis Mons Regius (Montreal)
    Provincia Ursi TellusCivis Caronto (Toronto, ON)
    Provincia Nova NoricumCivis Virunum (Greater Sudbury, ON)
    Provincia Nova CaledoniaPortus Viridis (Saint John, NB)
    Provincia Nova LiguriaCivis Septimia Severus (OTL:Boston)
    Provincia LenapeCivis Mohawk (Philadelphia)

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    Chapter VIII: Lucius Iulius Iudex 1295 AUC / 542 AD – 1335 AUC / 582 AD
  • In the year 1295 AUC (542 AD), Caesar Augustus while visiting the city of Mons Regius (OTL:Montreal). Augustus's health had deteriorated in the months immediately preceding his death, and he had made significant preparations for a smooth transition in power. Augustus's illness brought the issue of succession to the forefront of political and public affairs. To ensure stability, he needed to appoint an heir to his unique position in society and government. This had to be achieved in small, undramatic and progressive ways that did not arouse senatorial fears of a despotic dictatorship. If someone was going to succeed to the position of power, he would have to earn it through his own publicly proven merits.

    That was Lucius Julius. On 14 May 542 AUC, Caesar Lucius began his reign by doing nothing. After a brief inaugural festival in Augusta Elysium, he dismissed the Senate for the day and retired to the Domus Augustana on the Island of Bacchus (OTL:Île d'Orléans). On the following day, senators received messages from him that ordered the cessation of all discretionary spending, maintaining only those services necessary for the public (e.g. army, hospitals). Vague reference to something unpleasant, should they refuse, cautioned senators and officials from ignoring his demands on him.

    Receiving a stable financial situation from his father, the young Lucius Iulius only needed to avoid major follies and he could be remembered as a good emperor. However, there were high expectations for the most young sons. Public knowledge of his publications on natural philosophy and stoicism led senators to infer he was of a similar mind to Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius. They were right not only in terms of Iudex ideals but also his similar horror imperii about taking the curule throne.

    As his first public action, Lucius announced sweeping tax reforms throughout the empire. The head tax that Kaeso had imposed on citizens was repealed for plebs and lightened for patricians; internal duties on shipping goods from national were abolished but tariffs on foreign mercantile goods were more than doubled ports to lessen the fall in revenue; and more than a dozen other changes were imposed, generally decreasing the number of existing taxes but raising the burden of others. Over the course of half an hour, the new emperor had cut revenue for the state down by a third (back to around 5% of GDP).

    After specifying these changes, Lucius announced the union of the treasuries for the Senate and imperial family, combining them into one account, known as the Fiscus, owned by the emperor but shared with the Senate, allowing an emperor to openly restrict funding to magistrates or the Senate itself when deemed necessary. Using this control, Lucius would maintain a near total balance of spending throughout the rest of his reign, neither overspending nor spending too frugally.

    As taxation became more sophisticated, Lucius deployed the resources of the treasury to improve other aspects of the empire. In his view of him, a weakness of the present system of government was the imbalance of wealth between the provinces, which he had mitigated by bringing the newest method of taxation into the latter realm (reducing the chances of abusive tax collection). For this purpose, Lucius wanted to develop strong commercial and administrative centers outside Capital.

    As the number of citizens beyond Elysium Augusta grew, demand increased for more courts of Roman law in which to settle criminal and civil disputes between citizens (peregrini (foreigners) were permitted to settle their private disputes but were subject to certain public laws). In Elysium Augusta, judicial procedure fell under the jurisdiction of Praetores, the highest magistrates for presiding over law beside emperors. For regular cases of private law, a judge would be proposed by the prosecution and permitted by the defendant, from a list of licensed judges maintained collectively by the praetors. For delicta publica (crimes dangerous to the public), a praetor would serve as presiding iudex (judge). Over the last decades, various fields of crimes that threatened the public were gradually recognized by the magistrates of Elysium, motivating the institution of specific magistrates to judge criminal cases in each field.
    • Praetor Urbanus, issuing the Edictum Perpetuum, the criminal laws upheld at the reigning emperor's discretion so that previously legislated civil law could be modified or extended by an emperor
    • Praetor Peregrinus, who arbitrated in public conflicts between peregrini (freeborn non-citizens) and cives (citizens)
    • Praetor Fiscus, who arbitrated between the public accounts (fiscus) and private citizens
    • Praetor Repetundae, who presided over the extortion courts for claims against corrupt magistrates or governors
    • Praetor Ambitus, who presided over the courts on electoral law, such as cases of bribery in the Senate
    • Praetor Majestas, who presided over the treason courts
    • Praetor Peculatus, who presided over the embezzlement courts
    • Praetor Familias, who presided over the adultery courts
    • Praetor Falsum, who presided over the perjury courts, such as cases of someone bearing false witness in court
    • Praetor Sacrilegius, who presided over the sacrilege courts
    • Praetor de Fideicommissa, who presided over the inheritance courts
    • Praetor Tutela, who presided over the courts on guardianship
    • Praetor de Sicariis et Veneficis, who presided over the courts on assassination and murder
    • Praetor Furtus, who presided over the larceny courts for claims of theft or unlawful use of leased goods
    • Praetor Damnatias, who presided over the defamation courts
    • Praetor Mancipatus, who presided over the courts on the slaves, such as cases of mistreatment against one's slave
    • Praetor Obaeratus, who presided over the debtors courts
    • Praetor Fraudulosus, who presided over the fraud courts, such as cases of violating business contracts

    Not only did the praetor for a specific jurisdiction preside over the highest court for relevant charges but he decided which judges were permitted to preside over less public cases of similar crimes. These lists were solely with the major courts of law residing in the city of Augusta Elysium. In other provinces, the governor acted as chief justice, presiding over the highest provincial court. While corruption did not run as rampant in the provincial courts of the time as it did during the Republic, benefactors of governors and enemies of governors received their respective special treatment in public court. As a result, wealthy and influential citizens had the freedom to defeat litigation against themselves whenever weaker citizens opposed their illegal activities. As a means of reducing corruption and creating more public courts, Lucius gave the Senate the power to appoint a Praetor Provincialis in each city with more than 40,000 citizens. This office would bear the responsibility of organizing a list of judges for his appointed city and of presiding over cases he deemed dangerous to public safety. Provincial governors lost the authority to serve as a judge in a court of law, putting a new check on their regional powers. The eighteen praetors in Augusta Elysium were recognized as Praetores Curules to distinguish their authority from that of the provincial praetors, symbolized by their curule thrones. With the decree of the lex juridica generalis Elysium, acting praetores provinciales began to be appointed in cities.

    When he fell to fever on March 19, 1335 AUC (582 AD) after 40 years of rule, Lucius Julius left a stronger and more unified empire gaining the cognomen "Iudex". Roman law was slowly spreading into the provinces, accelerated by the presence of praetors and by the creation of coloniae. The frontiers were placed against difficult to pass natural barriers like montains or rivers and many sections were secured by vast systems of fortifications. Those few gaps in this national hide were kept safe by the presence of nearby legions and local auxiliary forces.

    Regarding internal affairs, the currencies were strong and taxes were efficient but not oppressive (although the later would change in a few decades as less conscientious regimes came to power). There was predictable revenue for the state treasury through taxes and public land while the populace could expect reasonably consistent demands due to information from the public census. The entire territory of Elysium Imperium was woven with highways, dotted with colonies, and enveloped by walls. Many citizens at the time believed with justification that Rome would not follow the lead of other nations, comparing her continuity to the stories of Greek Empire. The empire was too large and interconnected to suffer external threats lightly and too prosperous as well as prestigious for its internal nations to want to leave, unless motivated by some series of calamities or ideological incentives.
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    Chapter IX: Appius Julius Sapiens 1335 AUC / 582 AD – 1385 AUC / 632 AD
  • Iudex's successor was Appius Julius Sapiens. Iudex raised the boy carefully, devoting much of his efforts to instructing him in rhetoric, politics, legal science, ethics, and nature. Observant of other people's behavior, especially once he joined the Senate as the emperor's son, Appius came to the firm conclusion that many influential people were unfit to manage the affairs of a complex state, and he resolved to impose checks and balances. that would safeguard Elysium from future incompetence.

    As his first action, Sapiens announced that the size of the officium (staff) of the central government would be restricted, as magistrates, emperors, and the Senate had increased their numbers of accountants, aides, servants, scribes and other assistants to inordinate proportions to ease their burdens. Some senators hired their own assistants but there were hundreds of civil servants on public salaries, in a system completely lacking in organization. Under the new decree, there would be maximum and minimum limits for the numbers of each type of assistant and specific boundaries of this sort would be assigned to particular magistracies. These limits fell far below earlier numbers, prompting one brave senator to object to the emperor they would have to work much harder with so few people to delegate tasks. Before continuing his speech, Sapiens simply responded, "Sic." ("Precisely").

    As another measure, Sapiens created more magistracies for senators to pick up the slack from the reductions in the public staff. Neither magistrates nor regular senators were paid for their services to Elysium, a benefit of having an aristocratic class governing the state, so it was cheaper to give duties to senators than to hire them assistants. By replacing apparitores (civil servants) with magistrati (magistrates), the emperor effectively reduced the load on the treasury by delegating more tasks to the Senate.

    Sapiens named one of his closest supporters, Gaius Cornelii Scipio, as the Magister Fiscalis (Master of the Purse), a new magistracy with absolute authority over quaestores and responsible for analyzing public spending records to inform the Senate on financial decisions. Another companion, Kaeso Annius Longus, was named Pro-princeps, a new magistracy intended as a close advisory position beside the princeps. Since an emperor wielded nearly absolute power in practice, Sapiens thought that having a person who was second to the emperor, almost but not quite as a co-ruler, would moderate the qualities of the absolute monarch, by giving him an adviser who could not be lawfully reprimanded by an emperor for any reason. A Proprinceps had the sacrosanctity of a censor but the authority to act on behalf of the princeps civitatis. Most importantly, Sapiens saw the Proprinceps as a close adviser to himself and to future emperors, since a Proprinceps was more free to speak his mind.

    Although an emperor could not reprimand his Proprinceps, his behavior was at the mercy of the censores and any of his executive decisions could be overruled by the emperor, regardless of the delay in the emperor's response. Furthermore, after the death of an emperor, a Proprinceps would also lose his office and become vulnerable to judgement by the next emperor. In any case, Sapiens had created two high magistracies for senators to pursue and tremendously enlarged the powers of the Senate, by giving senators the authority to elect every future Magister Fiscalis and Proprinceps. Of course, the first citizen reserved the power to overturn most of these appointments (with the exception of Proprinceps).

    Other lesser positions were created for senators, covering the administrative tasks of managing the city of Elysium Augusta and of supervising the activities of provincial governors, the fiscal tasks of supervising the mints and the logging of tax information, and the legal tasks of auditing the album iudicum (list of licensed judges) and hearing the petitions of commoners to the Senate. On the whole, the new emperor had attempted to reinvigorate the Senate by expanding its responsibilities and powers.

    As a way of ensuring the participation of senators, Sapiens imposed hefty fines for senators (and civil servants) who failed in their duties. For example, a senator would incur a 3000 denarii fine if he missed senatorial assemblies for two weeks in a row, unless he had specific duties keeping him outside the capital or was on a period of personal leave (as senators were entitled to have). This restriction was sharply distinguished the reign of Faustilon from earlier periods, when the majority of senators were fine with avoiding the Senate altogether and quorum had become an almost foreign concept. Fiscatores (tax collectors) and censitores (census-takers) similarly faced fines for specific failures of their duties but the penalties were more modest.

    [the word fiscator began to be used by politicians to distinguish tax collectors from the accounts of the treasury, viz. the Fiscus]

    Membership in this Concilium Civium (Council of Citizens) constituted an additional duty for several magistrates - in both old and new offices. There were no formal meetings of the Concilium. Instead, participation meant that the magistrate had to be available when the first citizen sought his advice and had to inform the emperor of issues within his jurisdiction. Upon creation, the Concilium consisted of ten magistrates: the Proprinceps, the Magister Fiscalis, the Praetor Urbanus, the Magister Officiorum (Master of the Staff), the Praefectus Argentarius (Overseer of Banks), the Praefectus Tabularius (Chief Archivist), Praefectus Annonae (Overseer of the Provisions), the Praefectus Memoriae (Overseer of Public Relations), the Magister Correctores (Master of Overseers), and the Magister Militum (Master of the Soldiers). Some of these offices had no precedents in earlier permanent offices but resembled temporary positions that previous emperors had given to their chosen companions.

    Through his unprecedented restructuring of the government, Sapiens had earned the unrestrained respect of senators, a situation that had many in the Senatus and Populus of Rome referring to him through the cognomen Sapiens (Wise).

    On travels as a prince, Sapiens noticed how excessive the viae (roads) of the empire were. Thousands of kilometers of road were receiving virtually no traffice while more heavily traversed routes fell into disrepair. After coming to power, he formed a committee to design a new network of interprovincial highways spanning the entire Imperium. By 1340, detailed plans for the system were complete and the emperor had already begun annually funneling 80 million denarii into banks for eventual spending on the new highways, anticipating that the project would require monumental expenditure.

    A basilica was built near the outskirts of the city of Augusta Elysium to serve as the office of a prime commissioner of public roads (legatus viarum publicarum), a permanent new position charged with employing curatores (commissioners) and redemptores (contractors) for maintenance of viae publicae (public roads). This office could be filled by any patrician as an optional stage in his cursus honorum (political career).

    Altogether, the new Imperial Highway Network streamlined maintenance costs for public roads and greatly reduced travel times along major trade and communication routes - a tighter, more practical public transportation system. This highway system was the grandest construction project of the New world, requiring more materials than both the Chinese Great wall, and servicing a wider area than any single existing network of roads. Advantages of this improvement were:
    • faster mobilization of troops to the borders and to internal crises​
    • faster communication through a rearrangement of stations for the public postal system​
    • lower costs of transportation for merchants, census-takers, and tax collectors​
    • more mobility for citizens or scholars who are willing and able to travel the empire​

    Overall, this system ensured greater connectivity between cities in the empire and shortened the political distance between Augusta Elysium and its more distant provinces.

    Enough information had been gathered by 1345 to establish a grading system for levels of urban development, allowing the government to evaluate settlements on requirements above what was needed for a city to merely function. Among the factors of a city's grade were per capita: inflow of water, outflow of sewage, number of banks and hospitals, available food, and even wealth. Generally, stuff like population density, road safety, and cleanliness were factored into an evaluation as well. Settlements that couldn't reach recommended standards for their size and composition, lost the right to even be called an urbs (city) and incurred an extra tax on their residents then eventually a repeating personal fine for their municipal leaders.

    At the time, there were four types of settlements in the empire: a vicus (garrison town without official recognition); municipium (existing settlement brought into the empire); civitas (planned city designed by the state); and colonia (planned city built by the state for retired soldiers, magistrates and apparitores).

    Under Sapiens's regulations, vicus parvus came to indicate the lowest status for a settlement, aside from oppidum (village) which referred to a settlement of primitive foreigners. An oppidum was not subject to laws governing and evaluating settlements in the empire and would continue to be run by whatever procedure was employed by the locals.

    Once the population of a vicus exceeded 8,000, it would have ten years to build its own amphitheater and forum, elect its own city senate, and maintain its streets at a certain level of cleanliness, before incurring fines and extra taxes. Successful improvement would garner a vicus the status of municipium. Even settlements with mostly non-citizens were expected to abide by these standards, as long as they were previously recognized as vici parvi. There were strict rules for what sufficed as a forum or an amphitheater and for how to run a city senate. Similarly, the original standards that needed to be met to become a vicus parvus in the first place included having roads, at least 100 people, a decent marketplace, and some kind of path to the public roads without having to travel off-road through a forest or a canyon of some sort. Since there were modest tax benefits to being a vicus parvus, residents of small settlements were encouraged to collaborate toward improving their home. This benefited census-takers and tax collectors as such settlements became more accessible.

    Indeed, attempting to encompass the entire population of the empire into the census had revealed a number of unnoticed issues. Even fifty years later, there were still many regions that were not regularly covered by censitores (census-takers), even some villages or estates of Elysiums citizens. While new inhabitants were steadily being discovered and recorded, censitores visiting known settlements had also been reporting back to Augusta Elysium about the need for bridges near small towns, more deverticula throughout the countryside, more organized marketplaces, and better access to fresh water. Wells remained the most prevalent means of accessing fresh water but Sapiens mandated that a municipium needed to have aqueduct service once its population became greater than 25,000 people. By the same law, a municipium with an aqueduct required at least two amphora (13.8 gallons) of water capacity per resident of the city (obviously with a substantial margin for error).

    Above a population of 80,000, a municipium would have ten years to improve its roads with drainage; to build a galenaria, a banca, a post office, a censitorium, a therma, a barracks, a public fountain, and a public stable with a capacity of at least five dozen horses; to enlarge its public forum; to institute local fire departments, and to have access to at least four amphora (27.6 gallons) of water capacity per person through its aqueducts, or else suffer certain fines and heavier taxes. A city senate would be granted a temporary license to tax its citizens on top of regular taxes in order to fund these building projects. Successful adherence to these regulations would grant the municipium the status of urbs (city) and a stipend of 1 denarii per resident as well as 2 denarii per citizen (in addition to the residential funding). These funds could be used at the discretion of the city senate to maintain its status as urbs and to employ the required military garrison of one auxiliary soldier per 1,000 residents. All cities of this size had an additional income from latrinae (public latrines), through their profitable near monopoly on stale urine; thermae (public baths); and other minor services provided exclusively by the municipal government.

    Once an urbs surpassed 240,000 people, it could be designated a magnum urbs with enough effort. Although there were few cities of this size, Sapiens wanted to guarantee the special treatment of the largest cities in the empire, even after his death. As such, his regulations required a city of that size to achieve several goals before the fines and taxes would be lifted:
    • colonia_ulpia.jpg
      possess at least 4 km of cloacae (sewers), a Great Temple dedicated to Roman Gods, a dedicated slave market, a central bank, a cistern with a water capacity of at least 200 million gallons, and a small castrum (fort) for stationing troops​
    • field at least 400 auxiliary soldiers for its defense​
    • daily capacity of at least eight amphora (55.2 gallons) of water per person through its aqueducts​
    • access to a via princepesque either directly or through a via consularis​
    • create a quisquillia comparata collegium (public street cleaners) for organizing the cleaning services in the city​
    • construct a monument to glorify the empire that meets the standards of the prime commissioner of urban regulations.​
    Although grade was important to a settlement, there were other categories in the regulation of places of living. Strictest of all were those rules governing the design of coloniae and incolatia (regular settlement). The accompanying image provides an accurate representation of what a colonia of municipium grade required. In general, standards of living were expected to be higher in colonies, since the entire free population consisted of citizens. There were two general types of colonia: a colonia moenia was a settlement build all at once with a wall, a concrete foundation, and facilities integrated into the streets. These towns were of an exceptionally high quality, with proper drainage and aqueduct access despite usually having a capacity of less than about 10,000 citizens and their families. The other type was a colonia probata. Classified in the same way as the original municipal meaning of the term civitas, these colonia were built gradually according to a careful design and were meant to serve as urban footholds for the colonization of new territories (a colonia militaris had a similar function but was built for retiring personae publicae).

    To monitor adherence to these rules, the Senate created the position of legatus regulae urbanae (prime commissioner of urban regulations), tasking its occupant with sending special commissioners to evaluate applicants for higher or lower grades of settlements and performing some evaluations himself. Without compromising the special status of citizens, these regulations raised the standards of living for foreigners and citizens alike, enforcing a certain minimum for many people living under Elysium rule (it bears mentioning that more than a three-quarters of people did not live anywhere more densely populated than a small village).

    The stance of Sapiens on peregrini (foreigners) was infamous in the Senate, where non-citizens were regarded either as a source of tribute or as a minor inconvenience. Under his rule, the annona - a free grain ration for the urban poor of the city of Augusta Elysium - was extended to the city of Lenape, adding another large yearly expenditure to the cost of maintaining the empire. Nevertheless, the Senate enjoyed a low proportion of military spending out of an already high public revenue, which was unusual for a state at this period in time (most kings devoted the majority of their wealth toward military affairs).

    During this period, the population of the Empire alone approached 3 million citizens spread among coloniae in other provinces. According to the census. Since the institution of the first public hospitals (galenariae), the empire had experienced a steady march toward a more regulated and state-funded health system. As recently as 1350 AUC, Caesar Sapiens had outlawed the practice of any form of medicine by people without a record of passing federal examinations over several years at a medical academy. Since many physicians practiced outside of public hospitals, properly enforcing this regulation was nearly impossible. To this end, Sapiens had hospitals built throughout the empire and initially took measures to encourage doctors to practice in them.

    At the end of his reign, Sapiens outlawed private medicine entirely, forcing doctors either to become private physicians in the employ of a single client or to work on a salary at a hospital. Salaries for physicians varied with rank and were at the discretion of the archiatrus (medical chief), who supervised all of the employees at his assigned hospital. A position of Magister Archiatorum (Surgeon-General or Master of the Chief Healers) was created for the Senate. Its tasks were to appoint medical chiefs from among doctors and to oversee their compliance with Elysium standards for medicine. In general, an archiatrus could expect to make more than thirty thousand denarii annually while the average doctor worked for a tenth of that amount. The possibility of receiving sufficient recognition to be named archiatrus helped motivate the sorts of behavior that led to a good reputation.

    Over time, the position of medical chief became a third avenue toward starting a political career, as an alternative to legal practice and military service. The reputation and wealth of these doctors placed them among the equestrian class (ordo equester), where they were eligible to begin a political career in the Senate.

    The importance of regulating the activities of physicians was obvious to anyone living at the time. Even in the 6th century, a doctor could effectively threaten to withhold treatment unless his patient accepted a proposed price, basically extorting money from wealthy clients. Back in the 3st century, some doctors were making tens of millions of denarii from this practice and matters had only scarcely improved, due to competition with hospitals, by the reign of Sapiens. His predecessor had made some attempt to confront this problem by imposing maximum prices on the medical services offered by all physicians but the lack of oversight made the existence of these laws of only nominal effect.

    In his concern for public health, Caesar Sapiens had laws passed to enforce better hygienic standards in thermae (public baths). Although a bathhouse was one of the most viable ways for the average citizen to stay clean, these facilities were often cesspools of repeatedly used water, dirty bathing implements, and infectious floor tiles. This situation changed as the regulations of Sapiens were enforced across the colonies and municipalities of Elysium. To facilitate their implementation, the laws specified that each night the pools were to be drained while the floors, walls, and benches were cleaned using concentrated vinegar before being watched down in preparation for the following day. Vinegar was known to stave off the effects of miasma (polluted air) that accumulated around stagnant water, open wounds, and dead bodies, so it was the natural choice for cleansing baths. Meanwhile, the strigils and other grooming tools available at baths (not everyone could afford their own bathing implements) were to be washed in vinegar before allowing other patrons to use them. In Elysium Augusta, slaves did this type of cleaning for thermae.

    These regulations transformed public bathing and were a major leap forward in hygiene. Baths used to be common means for the spread of tuberculosis and often caused gangrene or fungal infections but could now truly contribute to public health. Elysium would come to express great pride in the state of their baths and the prominence of those facilities in their daily lives.

    As stoic as Sapiens was, the man had an emotional side - a soft spot for his family. When his wife Livia died, he was shaken to his core. He would rarely leave his palace and news of the completion of his highway program gave him no pleasure. Many of his duties were laid on his Proprinceps.

    Worried senators became even more concerned when a bill was noticed for a mausoleum to be built outside Mons Regius. They learned that the emperor wished to be buried with his descendants - his sole vanity project in a reign of 50 years. On the 5th day of September in 1385 AUC / 632 AD, neither his family nor his slaves had seen him all morning. It did not take long for them to find him in his bed, having passed away peacefully in the night. His heir, Marcus Julius Aurelius , took the titles of office the following week.​
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    Chapter X: Marcus Julius Aurelius 1335 AUC / 582 AD – 1385 AUC / 632 AD
  • When Marcus Julius Aurelius came to power in 1385 AUC / 632 AD, the empire stood at a Good position. Although its decline over the coming decades would not be serious, Elysium would not recover until expansionism was reignited by a foreign invasion. Among the civilizations of its day in the New Continent, Elysium possessed certain unique technologies, either of Roman design or as an inheritance from Greek or Phoenician civilization.

    For its agriculture, Elysium had long been using a mechanical reaper that would separate the valuable ears of grain from the rest of the plant as it was pushed by oxen through a field. This device saved an enormous amount of labor for farmers, supporting the high level of urbanization enjoyed by the empire. There had been only minor changes to its designs over the last four centuries and little had been done that improved upon the functions of the reaper.

    For milling grain, Elysium were heavy users of watermills, providing greater output than animal-powered mills used by other cultures. A unique application of waterwheels by Elysium was in a turbine powered off an aqueduct, giving access to a watermill's power to anywhere fed by an aqueduct. Waterwheels had been used in creating sawmills for rapidly cutting wood or marble while others could be found near mines for crushing stone in massive stamping mills.

    As a way of creating reservoirs for feeding aqueducts, Elysium built many gravity dams throughout Provincia Nostra, Nova Noricum, and Lenape. Elysium dams rank among their other marvels of engineering, alongside ponta (bridges), aquae (aqueducts), and viae (roads). Concrete had revolutionized dam construction in the 1st century but even more outstanding was the gradual introduction, of using dams as a power source. One application of this technology was the miling dam but another that became even more widespread was lifting water to a higher elevation. For this process, water would flow through a turbine in the dam, powering mechanisms that raised different water to a higher starting point for supplying an aqueduct. If an aqueduct carried water from a higher starting elevation, then there was more energy to spare for turbines along its length. In a sense, this is the earliest case of energy transmission from a power plant (a dam) to a facility (a mill) that used the energy elsewhere.

    Aqueducts were not only needed for milling grain and feeding cities; they also supplied water to mines. Flowing water had many uses in a mine: sweeping away soil to expose veins on the bedrock, removing waste rock from the mining site, and quenching hot rocks that were heated in fire-setting. When water needed to be removed from a low-lying position, Archimedean screws were used to lift the liquid to a higher elevation. Unfortunately, unlike at a dam, screws in mines could not be water-powered, as this would defeat the purpose of elevating one body of water by bringing another body of greater weight down to the same level.

    Using these innovative techniques, Elysium revolutionized the power output of human beings. Most agrarian cultures had widespread access to power on the scale of horses or oxen, surpassing those cultures limited to available manpower. Elysium had a wider access to water as an energy source than any other people at the time. Through their aqueducts, Elysium could transmit energy for use or storage elsewhere, permitting industry on an unprecedented scale. Between animal power and steam power, this unprecedented use of water power stood as a middle ground for a developing society and gave Elysium the highest power capacity per person than any other civilization by a large margin.

    or construction, Elysium had the treadwheel crane, raising the indirect lifting capacity of one person from 50 kg, using logs and ramps, to about 3000 kg of straight lifting. Overstating the benefits of this technology is difficult but suffice it to say that the vast and rapid construction abilities of the empire are in no small part owed to this device. For moving rather than lifting heavy weights, Elysium used a windlass that had pulling capacity to match the lifting of the crane.

    All varieties of Roman-made machinery were enhanced by liberally employing advanced mechanisms for transferring a force from one direction to another or for magnifying a force at the cost of freedom of movement. Among these devices were the crank, hydraulic piston, pulley, force pump, valve, screw, gear, chain drive, turbine, wedge, hinge, lever, and wooden ball bearing. All except the last device saw widespread use and were employed in some of the most complex machines imaginable, with few limits on how Elysium were able to employ them. While cranes and mills were two types of machine employing these mechanisms, there was also the mechanical reaper, stationary fire engine, fountain, wind-wheel, differential gear train, hypocaust, aeolipile (steam-powered toy), hydraulic organ, shower, and a number of military engines.

    Elysium had full practical understanding of how their machinery functioned but no one had formulated general principles of operation, lacking an understanding of forces, energy, and work. These concepts would gradually emerge from Elysium engineering, out of the more primitive understanding of Aristotelian forced motion and the mechanical geometry of Archimedes and Hero. In fact, the geometry of mechanics is the more direct precursor to force vectors and modern dynamics of motion than Aristotelian mechanics, lacking still a quantitative and explanatory account of motion (that would not arise for several centuries).

    Military engines designed according to Roman mechanics were highly elaborate devices that exceeded anything used by other civilizations. Of course, Elysium still used the traditional battering ram, onager, and siege towers but even these were on a scale above contemporaries. For instance, a Elysium siege tower could be built as tall as 25 m and was iron-plated to deflect enemy missiles, with an internal ballista as a turret to return fire. The ballista was technically a class of siege weapons, rather than one specific device, all sharing a characteristic similarity to a crossbow.

    The largest ballistae were crossbow-like machines three time the length of a human and capable of firing 78 kg projectiles at great distances. These were in sparse use by the Legion but were devastating when brought to bear on enemies. More common was the manuballista, a handheld or mounted crossbow used for sniping, accurate as it was up to 500 m. The terrifying precision of this weapon is described in accounts of the Lenape War, where infantry charges would be halted by taking out the lead horses before either army was even in range of traditional weapons. For maneuverability, Elysium employed the carrobalista, which could be rapidly deployed on the field from a cart, allowing high flexibility in firing positions.

    Perhaps the most frightening of all siege weapons was the polybolos. Using a chain drive operated by a windlass, this device would semi-automatically prepare its next shot over a span of less than six seconds, permitting a high rate of fire. A mere ten of these artillery pieces stationed on a hill and firing into a massed army could easily tear through hundreds of enemy soldiers in the span of minutes, the time between an enemy entering its range and engaging with a Elysium army. When several hundred of these weapons are employed, as at the Battle of River Mohawk, an entire enemy line could be broken, opening them to a direct charge by Elysium cavalry or Legionary heavy infantry. This move was just one lethal tactic of the Legion that used advanced siege weapons.

    Overall, engineering was an integral component of the military. A legion could build kilometers of walls, bridges, causeways, tunnels, paths, or forts within a matter of days while on the move. Since every legionary carried his own shovel and every cohort had its own mobile brick kiln, the entire legion of 5,200 men could contribute at once on a construction effort, allowing for such incredible works of engineering to be done over a short period. As an additional benefit, legionaries could be brought in to work on public works when more labor was necessary. They had the exact skill, discipline, and physical strength that made for ideal construction workers and that facilitated massive projects.

    While all of these technologies were already being used during the period under discussion, they are mentioned here as summary and as introduction to some contemporary developments. In 1400 AUC / 647 AD, Aurelius had the entire Domus Augustana redone to incorporate a hypocaust throughout the whole palace and to expand the sewers for a private bath and private latrine that was accessible from inside the palace. The latter came from the designs used in most houses in Septimia, the site of the most advanced cloaca (sewage system) in the Empire. In effect, the emperor now had one of the most comfortable domiciles in his empire, with accommodations that compared with modern conveniences in personal hygiene and central heating.

    At the same time, the Senate was exercising its newfound authority with the election of a new Magister Fiscalis. At his behest, the Senate commissioned the construction of over a hundred waterwheels at key points that he had identified. There was need for new stamping mills and sawmills in the mines of provinciaes Hibernias while in Lenape there was need for more watermills to work on the growing supply of grain. One watermill was even built right inside the city of Augusta Elysium, running off one of the urban aqueducts. These mills were built and operated by the Senate, providing new sources of income for the government.

    Since the Great Migration, The Weroance Lupus-Rubrum from Powhatan people had amassed a force of tens of thousands of natives which he intended to use to conquer Lenape and more. Approaching the Lenape, Lupus-Rubrum taunted the Elysiums from outside their weapons' range, attempting to goad them into a more equitable open battle. After consecutive days of this affair in 1395 AUC, one daring Elysium archer snuck down the wall as the sun fell and fired an arrow into the gut of this bothersome tribal Warchief. Enraged at this front, the army of Lupus-Rubrum charged in the direction of the archer, accidentally leaving a dust cloud and kicking up dirt over their leader. Not only did the archer get lifted safely onto the wall but the Natives were dissuaded from pressing the attack, with minimal casualties on either side, and Lupus-Rubrum would die four days later from an infected wound.

    Chaos overtook the tribals after losing their leader but they managed to elect a new leader with little bloodshed. Uniting behind Weroance Denta-Lupus of the Powhatan , the Powhatan joined their forces with the remnants of the Free Algonquian peoples, forming a substantial army of near a hundred thousand men. For the time being, Denta-Lupus would bide his time as he armed his people for war and used what army he possessed to hold back the another tribes. Rumors began to circulate throughout the empire that this barbarian kingdom possessed a force worth a hundred legions and the reality of the matter was obscured by hundreds of kilometers of dense forests and other fearful tribes.​
    Chapter XI Gnaeus Julius Maximius 1385 AUC / 632 AD - 1392 AUC / 639 AD
  • Marcus Julius Aurelius's successor was his son Gnaeus Julius Maximius. Maximius was noted for being known to have served as Tribune in the Lenape Provincia.​

    In 1385 AUC, Weroance Denta-Lupus of the Powhatan brought his armies to bear against Elysium. Attacking the Limes with siege engines like ladders and rams, the tribals broke through with an army of ~150,000 warriors. Capturing Nova Toletum Emerita (OTL: Pittsburgh) and the governor of Lenape, Weroance Denta-Lupus waged guerrilla warfare against the pursuing legions. For the next two years, Denta-Lupus managed to evade direct confrontation despite the Elysium advantage of speed and supplies, as the size of his armies forced Elysium to concentrate its own army during the pursuit. By 1387, Denta-Lupus's troops were exhausted by a harsh Winter, during which the legions did not repeat the mistakes of the previous Winter - never relaxing from their pursuit. Low on all the necessities of an unorganized army - food, rest, and pleasures - the Powhatan army became less mobile and was eventually forced to fight what was now five legions trying to deal with the persistent crisis.

    In a battle between 100,000 barbarians and an organized army of 30,000 legionaries escorted by 10,000 sagittarii Auxiliary (archers), there was no contest. Denta-Lupus may even have been a better commander than the Legatus Augusti pro praetore of the Elysium forces but his resources were of such inferior quality that his skills meant little. Unfortunately for the Powhatan's Weroance , he survived the battle and was brought before the emperor in Augusta Elysium. Receiving no trial as an enemy of war, Denta-Lupus was painfully executed on the outskirts of the capital and buried under the repaired section of the wall that had been broken during the Sack of Nova Toletum Emerita. A monument was built over that section of the Wall, displaying the personal symbols of Denta-Lupus. Sitting directly on this monument was an enormous golden eagle, clutching a plaque on which a visible message marking the spot where a powerful king invaded Elysium and, as a result of his decision, was buried. Along the wall nearby, meter high letters spelled out the phrase "SPQE POWHATANUS VINCIT".

    Meanwhile, Maximius tried to earn the reputation of a Greek hero by building gladiatorial arenas in major cities and then fighting in these arenas as a combatant. While less dishonorable than fighting in Augusta Elysium (since patricians could not be direct witnesses of his "embarrassing spectacle"), the rumors that Maximius was participating in gladiatorial combat were enough to offend the elite and draw more criticism from those who saw him as a figurative whore to the masses. While he only took part in arena combat during the last five years of his reign, his hobby ensured that those years would be his last. Although his fights were always staged to some extent, something went wrong in June of 1392 and the emperor was killed on the arena floor.

    This turnaround was an outrage for the crowd and the governor of Nova Caledonia. The entire gladiatorial school of Portus Viridis received the death penalty as accomplices in the death of an emperor.​
    Chapter XII Publius Julius Lepidus 1392 AUC / 639 AD - 1406 AUC / 653 AD
  • After the murder of his father, Publius Julius Lepidus came to the curulian throne with little fuss. His reign would be the calm before the war storm - a period of absolute peace, with no conflicts whatsoever. Lenape remained pacified and the nearly half a million Natives nomads that had settled along the walled borders continued peaceful trade.

    For a peacetime leader, Lepidus made one of the greatest contributions of any emperor to Elysium military strength. In the year 1389 , Lepidus founded an academy for centurions and other legion officers, near Civis Lenape (OTL:West Point Academy). Lepidus called his institution the Academia Bellica. Once construction was finished in 1398, the War Academy consisted of six primary buildings. Second largest of these structures was the Biblioteca Bellica, a library filled with every text on strategy, wars, and tactics that the empire could procur - including some prominent pieces of literature. Next largest was a grand series of halls and rooms called the Aulam Deorum (Hall of the Gods), where spoils of past wars and military artifacts would be displayed. Some items were symbolic of defeated enemies, military heirlooms such as the sword of Denta-Lupus. Anything that remained from ancient battles and that did not need to be kept elsewhere was brought to these halls. Between doorways in the Hall were statues that honored the greatest generals of Rome and Elysium, those who deserved to be immortalized in stone.

    Among these facilities, the largest building in the Academy was the Ludus Bellicus (military school). With over 50 classrooms, the school of the War Academy could annually host over 3,000 students.
    From a first year of ~1000 students, never any more than fifty would be accepted as officers in the Legion after three years of training. Their procedures were very selective, requiring tactical acumen and physical fitness all at once. Some ambitious patricians would apply a dozen times over their lives, hoping each time to surpass their peers and become a centurion.

    The courtyard of the school had one of the largest gymnasia in the world, at nearly a (Roman) mile long. Military exercises were performed several times per week once classes began, enforcing rigid fitness in students (in a way, it may be more accurate to call them recruits). Such was the intensity and broadness of this school that many wealthy Equites would sent their sons to attend the school simply for the physical and mental training, as the education process closely matched the traditional Greek system of education, with a focus on developing the body as well as the mind.

    Although a legionary could rise through the ranks without attending the War Academy, this institution made battlefield promotion to centurion an honor for exceptional cases. Within a century, nearly every commander in the Legion would have come from the War Academy and most emperors would send their biological as well as adopted children there after the age of 18.

    Near the entrance facing the rest of Civis Lenape, workers erected a victory arch to Commodus in 1395. This monument honored the emperor who place the origins of Elysium. The Arch of Commodus was an important tool of propaganda, reminding prospective officers of Rome's and Elysium military superiority. Everyone recognized that the empire had come a long way from that time and few doubted that the actions of the forefathers could be repeated when the time for conquest would come. Publius Julius Lepidus would die on the night of April 27, 1406 in his sleep due to spring fevers.

    But while this was going on, in an alchemical laboratory on Septimia Severus, A young equite, named Sextus Furia Secundus, demonstrated an insatiable curiosity and penchant for consistency. By the age of 12, Secundus was already an avid collector of different stones and flowers, classifying them with his own imagined words by their similarities. Many of the plants that he collected contained medicinal or toxic herbs whose effects on animals Secundus investigated. For example, I have found that the nectar of one beautiful yellow flower could kill livestock in two or three days. For this reason, when entering adulthood, he put the modest wealth afforded to him by his position of him to further his understanding of the inner workings of nature. By the age of 30, Secundus tried another mixture of sulphur, charcoal bits, and urine extract. His particular proportions on this attempt (~20%, ~20%, ~60%) formed a compound that would release a spark and pops of energy when heated. Striking a flint over the mixture caused all of the material to pop - a detonation of the powder. His mixture of him was the first chemical explosive, the infamous black powder (Pulvis Fulminata). Seeing none of the violent applications for his powder from him, Secundus instead used it to bedazzle the wealth for money, receiving a royal sum after "magically" filling the Imperial throne room with smoke using his powder.​
    Chapter XIII Gaius Julius Caesar 1406 AUC / 653 AD - 1427 AUC / 674 AD
  • f5671ddc122de92d91ede97af34f3187--roman-centurion-pax-romana.jpg

    Eldest surviving son of Caesar Lepidus, Gaius Julius Caesar came to power at a weak point in Elysium history. The Treasury was strained by its regular expenditures on the military and on hospitals, among a number of other commitments that the Senate was forced to uphold to maintain its public image. As a result, the Treasury was nearly empty and only a few public works projects could be enacted at any given time. Lepidus had focused his efforts on a military academy and various monuments for propaganda in the face of growing fears of Native invaders but Caesar would devote available funds during his reign to the land expansion.

    Throughout the first five years, the young emperor, only twenty years old, made frequent trips to the border, introducing himself to soldiers and consulting with his Legates. During one of these excursions, Caesar spent several months gathering local volunteers for the war. There he oversaw the raising of two legions. The emperor's presence, coupled with his powerful and inspired rhetoric, based on the Sack of Nova Toletum Emerita, the need for ancient values in these difficult times, etc., attracted many volunteers but, as required earlier in the war, the recruitment filled much of the ranks.

    Financing the future war, a task made even more difficult by the expansion of the army, had pushed Caesar early in his reign to sell palace slaves and drastically reduce his personal chamberlain retinue. In his precarious position, he chose not to burden the people with new taxes or the senators with new duties. The constant shortage of money demanded great personal austerity on the part of the emperor; otherwise the task of keeping the army supplied and organizing games to keep the people happy would have been nearly impossible along with the irregular expenses.

    The marching through South

    It was in 1411 AUC that he, he decided to cross the Potomac River. With a force of five Legions, a total of 30,000 combatants advanced with a single objective: Expand the Empire. For eleven years he fought using a combination of cunning, effective campaigning, and greater military prowess than his opponents. Caesar pursued a "divide and conquer" policy to wipe out his enemies, siding with individual tribes during their disputes with local opponents. He systematically gathered information about the tribes to identify their characteristics, weaknesses and divisions, which in turn would allow him to get rid of them. Caesar's core was made up of his core consisting of heavy infantry legions, supported by the equivalent of two more to reinforce them if necessary along with a use of cavalry and light infantry. Caesar used his forces most effectively, stimulating the pride of individual units to put forth more effort as a competition for more fame.

    Caesar's tribal opponents were considerably less skilled than the Elyseans in military terms. They could command huge armies but suffered from a lack of flexibility and discipline. The tribal warriors were fierce opponents and this earned them the admiration of the Elyseans, but they lacked discipline on the battlefield. Their tactics were restricted to charging their enemies en masse or harassing them from a distance, and their lack of cohesion made them incapable of being effective during engagements. They also had no logistical support and could not stay in the field as long as the Elyseans. On the other hand, the defeat was also due to the enormous weakening suffered by several of their generations due to the constant war against the invaders, whom they could only counteract at the cost of the loss of large numbers of warriors. The victory was compared to the victory of Rome against Gauls during the Republic making the Emperor's cognomen Caesar. The new provinces received names according to their territories and many veteran Legionnaires were rewarded for their work and years with lands in which they fought.

    With the riches achieved after the so-called Belli Appalachian, Caesar commissioned the Grand Harbor of Civis Lenape (OTL Place: Staten Island) as a substantial increase in capacity and available maneuvering space. He believed that if firm naval outposts were present at strategic points along the internal coastline, the navy could more easily combat piracy and stabilize the sea. At this time, Civis Lenape had seen better days. Although its military academy prospered, the new portus (harbor) had more than six times the capacity of the old and could simultaneously handle hundreds of commercial vessels and traders.

    Adjacent to this commercial port, a military port was constructed that would allow the docking of warships during peacetime. The hope was that naval battles would take place far from Civis Lenape, eleven other naval defenses were established throughout the rest of the sea, but these war docks were still designed to resupply ships between battles. In practice, the docks primary purpose was as a storage site for warships, with enough space to hold and service well over 100 galleys at any given time.

    A shipyard of ten drydocks was built a half a kilometer west of the ports. Some of the most adept shipwrights in the empire were brought by the emperor to work in this shipyard, concentrating production skills in one location. Caesar's efforts set a precedent for future emperors and the Senate, who would continue to bring expert shipwrights to this region. The drydocks were arranged back to back in two columns of five. Resting on artificial stone supports, the shipyard stuck out from the edge of Civis Lenape like a precarious cliff - in the form of a 277 m by 185 m peninsula emerging from the land.

    The Grand Harbor itself stretched out from within the coastline. As its focus was a 1.48 km diameter circular wharf with a 285 meter thick rim within which ships could dock to release their cargo. At the center of this ring was the imperitus umbilicus, a control center for all of the port's activities. Every captain docking his ship in the Grand Harbor had to procure the equivalent of a parking permit before he could enter the city for his business. Stretching 3 km from this ring were the major docks, intended for larger vessels. The walls that enclosed this artificial lake of sorts rose 50 meters above sea level and were 23 meters thick near the base. Whereas 140 ships could dock inside the ring, the major docking area could handle an additional 60 ships of literally any size that would be seen in the day. Even the docks of Alexandria paled in comparison to the Magnus Portus Lenapense.

    Along the outer edge of the major docks were watchtowers bristling with heavy ballistae, missile weapons able to fire 45 kg projectiles, and polyboloi, semi-automatic crossbows able to fire every six seconds. The former were immediately visible to any ships approaching the harbor, intimidating possible pirates and comforting honest merchants. With both safeguards, even the largest navy in the world would have trouble breaching the Grand Harbor to attack Civis Lenape.

    As an extension to the Academia Bellica of Civis Lenape, Caesar added facilities in 1425 for a Ludus Nauticus (Nautical School) to serve as the primary naval staff college for the empire. Officers of the navy would be trained here just as officers of the Legion were being trained in the Ludus Bellicus of the War Academy.

    Unfortunately, Gaius Julius Caesar would be assassinated on August 2, 1427 by a slave of Appalachian origin, who thus avenged the destruction of his tribe. Caesar's death caused alarming rumors to begin circulating in the Central Western frontier. An Imperial Army officer stationed on the Limes recounted the terrifying appearance on the banks of the Fluvius Ohio of men whom he described as follows:

    "Giant barbarians who watch with eyes full of cruelty. They enter the battle in masses, while their mixture of voices makes a wild noise. And since they are lightly equipped with leather armor and even looted Lorica Hamatas, they deliberately suddenly split into bands They scatter and attack, rushing in disorder here and there, inflicting terrible slaughter, and because of their extraordinary speed of movement, they are never seen attacking a wall or sacking an enemy camp until the fight is over. call them the most terrible of all warriors, because they fight at a distance with missiles that have sharp bones, instead of their usual points, attached to the antlers with wonderful skill; then they run and fight hand to hand with swords, axes or hammers, without care about their own lives"
    These barbarians would be known as Iroquois.​
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    Chapter XIV Valerius Julius Magnum 1427 AUC / 674 AD - 1460 AUC / 707 AD
  • Elysium faced its greatest threat for centuries in the form of the Iroquois, a powerful confederation of tribes that had been augmented by the fleeing Elysium tribes. Valerius Julius Magnum was the successor to Caesar for being in power when the Iroquois finally invaded.

    In 1430, Elysium's greatest fears were realized. The Iroquois invaded. Led by their High Sachem Kishpoko, these nomads crashed like a tsunami against the frontiers of the empire, invading with the collective forces of all tribes who was attacked by the Elysium. Iroquois Empire had grown over the last four decades to encompass hundred of thousends, from various cultures. With armies numbering in the millions of men, the Iroquois were the greatest absolute threat that Elysiumhad ever faced in her history. The ultimate goal of the Iroquois was to capture Elysium Augusta as their new capital. They had little intelligence on the Elysium Empire but they had heard that it was governed from the largest and most luxurious Village to ever exist. If this village could be captured and territory taken for settling the Iroquois people, then the Iroquois would possess a marvelous territory from which to build a new empire. It was inconceivable that the Elysium would field an army greater than Kishpoko's horde and, therefore, he reasoned it was impossible for the empire to defeat him in battle.

    Kishpoko first attacked a point along the Limes Lenape. Nothing of his forces was held back. Legionaries along the wall could do little against the onslaught of warriors bearing down upon their position. There was only one chance factor that gave the Elysium army an edge, albeit nowhere near the advantage required to achieve victory. Over the last century, philosophers in Septimia had been experimenting with petroleum-based fuels derived from a formula used by the Athenians in the time of Thucydides. This original Fire of Athens consisted of a variety of compounds and so these were tried in different proportions for several decades before a liquid mixture was found that burned hard and would not be extinguished by projection through air. The resulting liquid, known as hygron pyr (liquid fire), could be projected at a distance from certain high-pressure displacements pumps (siphones) similar to those used for pumping water from fire engines. By lighting the fuel as it releases from a siphon, Elysium had invented an effective flamethrower.

    By good fortune, the Legion had been testing a mobile version of the hygron pyr on Lenape forests that year and there were a number of prototypes on the area when the Iroquois invaded. Half an hour into the battle, one of these was able to be taken to the breach in the wall to bathe the invaders in liquid flames. Although the event would be traumatic for the barbarians - who could not conceive of how such a weapon was possible - it only killed a few hundred Iroquois before being overwhelmed. Were it not for how long it took to move the entire horde through the gap opened in the wall, the hygron pyr would not have even seen action that day and the Iroquois would never have witnessed its awe-inspiring power.

    Scouts who had fetched the weapon were also sent along the limes to warn the legions about the invasion. They brought news of a sea of barbarians breaking through the border like flood waters from a bursting dam. General Lucius Cornelius Venerus led his three legions in Lenape to intercept the Iroquois near Nova Toletum Emerita, using the highways to cross the intervening space from Nova Toletum Emerita to the limes breached. Meanwhile, the Iroquois were traveling at a pace of about 5 km per day and were still miles away from the provincial capital, if they would even go in that exact direction. Cornelius sent scouts to get a better idea of the enemy forces. His scouts returned with news that the advancing barbarian army stretched almost as far as the eye could see - they estimated the Iroquois had about one million soldiers. The general wisely cancelled his plans for a surprise attack and worked to consolidate his forces with the troops requested from Augusta Elysium.

    News had reached Caesar from Nova Toletum Emerita only three days after Cornelius had left with his legions. Caesar Valerius immediately sent an order to the limes Appalachia to bring all of their legions to Lenape, leaving only a few auxiliaries to watch the border. One adviser recommended that some legions be left at the other borders in the event this invasion was a ruse but his cautionary advice was rejected once numbers for the invading army were relayed to Augusta Elysium (if a million men were being devoted to a mere trick, then God help the empire). Messengers reached both destinations by the end of five days, meaning the Iroquois had been in Elysium territory for 18 days and were now within miles of Civis Lenape (although the horde was too unwieldy to use the highways, Kishpoko knew enough to follow them to major population centers).

    The Iroquois advanced, devastating the countryside of the Lenape Province, pillaging their farms to feed their huge army, sadly, 105,000 inhabitants were massacred in the worst possible way while the Iroquois feasted on their food reserves. While the infrastructure of the towns ended up intact both for future use and out of amazement at the free availability of fresh water in the streets of the towns. Requiring only enough water to drink, the million-strong army easily survived on an aqueduct supply. Well fed and well rested, the Iroquois forces led by Kishpoko came to see Civis Lenape, the sight he found truly splendid. His great host was greeted by the Elysean army fully motivated and even with tales of terror and annihilation of citizens of Elysium in their minds. The Emperor decided at that moment that he would have a decisive victory, or die. He therefore drew the battle lines and started the battle.

    In his overconfidence, Kishpoko ordered a direct charge against what he hoped would be another small army to slow him down. Once his men faced the auxiliaries: descendants of tribes annexed by Elysium, they were met with a volley of arrows and searing flames. Fire casters were placed at the west and east ends of the battle to soften up the horde for the flanking ambush. The east approached first, the stronger of the two battle groups, while the bowmen from the west unleashed their first volleys. When this pressure had disoriented the western flank, the other legionnaires with their recruits joined the fray.

    The Iroquois cavalry of a few hundred tame wild horses moved up and down the lines, pummeling the legions with missiles, dashes, and even occasional charges. If it wasn't for the Emperor's willingness to make sure every soldier remained in Formation, he would most likely have ended up with a massive charge opening them up for destruction. As the lines drew closer and it became clear that the cavalry would not cause a break or route, the infantry and archers prepared for the fight to come.

    Iroquois archers showed why they were so feared and respected when they rained death down on the advancing Elyseans, killing thousands every minute. Unfortunately for them, Elysium also had its own core of skilled auxiliary archers to strike back with equal force. Ranged contingents from both armies would spend the rest of that fateful battle targeting each other or trying to pick off the infantry on both sides. Eventually though the Elysean imperial legions encountered warriors bred for slaughter. It was a bloodbath as the Iroquois proved to be seemingly infinite in number and competent fighters all. The legions proved to be the top heavy infantry their reputations suggested they were, as Elysian training and weapons proved their worth.

    The razor-sharp Roman Gladii moved with practical precision to slice through armor, skin, muscle, and finally bone to kill the man on the other side. Helmet against helmet as an Iroquois warrior knocked his opponent out of formation and knocked the Elysiean legionnaire to the ground and brutally beat him to death. A stray arrow hits a legionnaire in the scrotum, causing him to fall with a high-pitched groan in the process, briefly opening a gap in the lines. A breach that the Iroquois mercilessly exploited and were immediately punished when the weight of the entire legion moved as one to kill all those hundreds who thought they were smart. An Elysean arrow hits the commanding officer of the left flank in the eye, killing him and sending the entire line that was already being hit hard into a massive rampage.

    Trapped in a meat grinder, the horde began to splinter from the rear, men fleeing in vain. As most of the Iroquois retreated, the Elysiean horsemen charged into battle and picked off the stragglers. What was left of the Iroquois passed between the archers on the hills and were cut to pieces. Like herding dogs, the knights forced the remnants of the horde into small groups to capture them as the giant legionnaire regained ground on them.

    In all, losses to the Iroquois army are estimated to be in the range of 500,000-650,000 casualties, with nearly all of the survivors captured in the end. The battle was a clear victory for Elysium. By comparison, the judicious tactics of the Legate Cornelius ensured a loss of fewer than 40,000 Elyseans, almost entirely recruits and auxiliaries. More importantly, the High Sachem Kishpoko had been eliminated by a bolt that pierced his chest pinning him to the ground.

    Elysium celebrated his victory with great parties, the emperor declared March 12 a national holiday. A humiliating and potentially fatal defeat had been averted and everyone in the Eternal City of Elysium breathed a collective sigh of relief. In a sense, the Iroquois had conveniently concentrated all of the empire's usual enemies into a single army, providing a clear target for Elysium, but the near strangulation of civilization was a great risk to suffer for this convenience.

    Without disbanding the huge army now stationed outside the Civis Lenape, Magnum convened the Senate in early November to discuss the issue of conquering Iroquois territories. He argued that there was no significant military force left in the region and there were fertile grasslands and fertile forests to exploit. Among the problems facing Elysium, the most important was the continued conquest of the Iroquois lands. Magnum would not dishonor the efforts of the men who had fought the Iroquois.

    With this goal, the Elysean armies advanced for five years, killing no fewer than 1,500,000 Iroquois. All officers were under strict orders to stop once they reached the maximum possible. A geographer accompanying each group would determine how successful their trip was. Each group fortified their position on the river, sending out patrols along its length both for communication and to alert the legions to any tribe trying to return, but many were repulsed, adding to the fervor with which this vague confederation was moving away from Elysium. The news came from the emperor at the end of November. His message praised the generals and their men for their great service to the Elysium Empire, matching the civilian contributions of the generals even Julius Caesar himself. Magnum designated his location at the time of his letter as the Mississippi limes, a new permanent border spanning the continent from north to south. However, he lamented that Elysium could never expect a single river (as wide as it was) to repel its enemies from raiding its lands. Only a strong wall, protected by legionnaires, would suffice.

    Some emperors before Magnum had shirked their responsibilities to the state - Aurelius, Maximius, and even venerable Caesar had left the mundane task of administration to magistrati and other public officials. This would not continue under Magnum, who was known to personally check the reports on grain, corn and another foods shipments, public trials, and the like, but he was not too personal in his administrative work to avoid restructuring the bureaucracy to better manage the growing empire.

    In this regard, Magnum's greatest reform is surely his expansion and streamlining of the aedileship. A few months into his reign, he abolished the six aediles plebes, aediles curules, and aediles cereales - these magistrates had become mere servants to the Caesars, who abused the aedile authority over public spending by using them as errand boys in their personal spending. In their place, Magnum created new magistracies bearing the name and role of the aediles.

    Foremost among these offices were the four aediles curules that he stationed in Augusta Elysium. Each imperial aedile would be made responsible for a specific duty pertaining to the management of the Eternal City of Elysium. One of them would supervise the food dole, another would supervise the renovation and maintenance of public buildings (basilicae) within the city limits, a third would plan the days and times for public games, and the last one would supervise the public services, namely the vigiles (police forces), spartoliani (fire department), galenariae (hospitals), and quisquili (street cleaners). The second aedile received the secondary duty of approving all expenditure bills passed by the Senate, only refusing bills when they violated restrictions imposed by the empire's master of the treasury - the Magister Fiscalis. An emperor could now spend without aedile approval.

    For spending outside Augusta Elysium, Magnum instituted twenty aediles provinciales. The responsibilities of a provincial aedile would vary with his placement. Postings were permanently allocated to the cities of Septimia, Civis Lenape, Mons Regius, Caronto, Nova Olisippo, Portus Magnum Fluvius, and Civis Virunum but the other 13 aediles provinciales would go wherever the Senate demanded. Their sole purpose in the provinces was to distribute the wealth of the empire through judicious spending. When assigned temporarily to a province, an aedilis could spend as much as he was allocated for his tenure (a mere year) but he was encouraged to spend from his own pocket, a generosity that would earn him a name in Augusta Elysium and a strong reputation in his assigned province. Few aediles would ever be permitted to spend more than two million denarii during the reign of Magnum.

    At this point in Elysium history, much of the government consisted of unofficial bureaucrats appointed at the whim of emperors. Each Caesar would tend to place his own people in positions of power, ignoring existing magistracies for the same purposes or filling a hole that had been left unfilled by a previous administration. Competent emperors had made great use of this mode of government, but then they were also the ones to institute other new magistracies. Magnum's efforts would be a similar step forward for the bureaucracy of Elysium, allowing him to fire hundreds of men on a public payroll. Magistracies were an effective tool of government, one that Elysium had pioneered during the Ancient Roman Republic. Unlike other citizens who participated in the bureaucracy, such as the censitores (census-takers) and fiscatores (tax collectors), a magistrate received no wage and had the authority (imperium or potestas) to come to his own decisions. In many ways, the magistracies were the primary reason for maintaining a strong noble class, as plebeians could not afford to work for nothing but honor and power. Reforming the aedileship in particular would place greater authority over public spending into the hands of the Senate, removing the possibility that his successors would waste as much money paying bureaucrats as his predecessors. At least, a long rule would firmly ingrain his reforms into the informal constitution of the empire and be an obstacle to counter-reforms.

    Unfortunately or by decision of the Gods, an accident would cause the Emperor to die after catching a cold in winter. Magnum adopted an heir to the throne, restarting the tradition of an emperor selecting his successor for his apparent competence. His choice was Aulus Magnum Avitus, the son of a wealthy Appalachian who managed routes into Augusta Elysium. The young man showed prowess in managing his late biological father's business, the results of which Magnum noticed. Previously, an emperor would have adopted someone that had impressed them enough at some social event, but Magnum saw fit to seek out his heir.​
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    Chapter XV: Aulus Magnum Avitus 1460 AUC / 707 AD - 1512 AUC / 759
  • 19089dce947e7f29befa51ea3ab1b92c.jpg
    Annexing the Iroqueois territory enlarged the empire, with 2,457,066 km² of new territory. Perhaps less than five hundred thousand people remained from the original populace, left behind by the great migration and left alive by the legions that had swept across the land. These tribes would pose a persistent threat to Elysium settlers, raiding their caravans and estates but not daring to attack any coloniae (planned cities built by the state) with their walls and soldiers. With so-called "wild men" everywhere, the wilderness came to be regarded as a distinct boundary of sorts, referred to with the old term limites germanici (German frontiers). Despite the dangers, Elysean people were eager to settle these wild lands, pouring out in the thousands every year.

    Before colonists could come, the Senate decreed that all land was ager publicus (public land) - a possession of the state - Land owned by the public accounts could be given to citizens and veterans or worked by employees of the Senate. Another law passed was a promise that every retiring legionary would get a choice: a large plot of rural land or a house in one of the new coloniae. For the next century, this decree would ensure a stable influx of battle-hardened settlers into Iroquois land, creating a strong local citizenry for maintaining control over the region. However, circumstances could change so the law was set to expire after one century, avoiding a possibly unpopular future decision of having to repeal the law.

    Retired soldiers could not only handle freely roaming tribes and uncivilized terrain but they were a reliable population for a new territory that would ensure the loyalty of the entire populace. Some would likely spend their later years as auxiliary guardsmen for the coloniae while others would find employment guarding caravans for merchants. By 1455, over three hundred thousand veterans lived in the three provinces of Magnum Lacus, Dacotas and Irocois, mingling with an equal number of citizens that had either come on their own initiative or taken jobs working in public mines, smithies, or lumber mills. To motivate colonists, the Senate had offered citizens an escort to anywhere in the new land where they might manage or operate a public facility for the exploitation of natural resources.

    The new provinces was an unspoiled region filled with game for hunting, covered in forests for chopping, and dotted with nodules for mining. At first, only surface veins of ore would be exploited by settlers. As geographic surveys accelerated, Elyseans would establish pit mines on the surface then eventually shaft mines and drift mines for accessing underground nodules found by agrimensores. High on the list of priorities for the Senate was the construction of public highways. Unfortunately, it had no clue what locations would eventually need access to a highway, as cities had yet to grow. For this reason, the Senate satisfied itself for now with laying simple roads built by the legions. Unlike the viae publicae in the civilized world, these roads went around rather than through natural obstacles and were rough paths rather than finely crafted stone walkways. Despite this shortcoming, The new provinces was already poised to be a new industrial heartland of the Empire.

    A major downside to the new territory was the difficulty of tilling and planting in the hardy soil. Furthermore, any farm that a citizen established had to be prepared on heavily overgrown land, usually meaning a forest. Extensive plowing was required to prepare the soil to accept domestic grains. Fortunately, farmers had experience with similarly difficult soil and their heavy tools could be brought to bear in colonizing the new territory.

    Caesar Aulus Magnum Avitus had devoted nearly the majority of the state's resources to protecting and assimilating all new territories. From a legislative direction, he had claimed all the land in the region for Elysium as ager publicus (public land). Some small claims by a few citizens on the borders were heard and some even granted but nearly every square kilometer of the new provinces was owned by the state. By 1480, nearly a third of the new provinces was exploited sustainably for wood while the rest of the new region consisted either of colonial cities or of private villas for citizens making their living through their own forest, mine, or farm.

    The Territory in this era was described as an "uncertain yet lucrative land" for a Elysean citizen. Stories circulated of both great fortunes and great calamities that had befallen colonists. This reputation gave birth to a new style of literature and theater in the form of frontier tales - stories about the hardships and successes of both fictional and historical colonists. One famous play told the story of a lowly actor who set out to work the mines of Magnum Lacus, only to stumble upon a mother lode of silver; a greedy centurion caught wind of his fortune in a small colony then pursued the man with the force of his centuria. Such stories became immensely popular in Augusta Elysium and in the other coloniae of the empire, leaving an indelible mark on Elysium history and culture.

    Colonists became regarded as hardy and resourceful people with a penchant for skilled labor. This widespread belief helped create the good reputation of Dacotas, Irocois even Magnus Lacus craftsmen and enticed citizens who fancied themselves that type of person into immigrating. A most recognizable feature of frontier life was the threat of natives bandits and raiding parties. Although most native tribes were expelled in the great clean, over a hundred thousand remained and survived the purge as legions swept through the lands in advance of civilian colonization. With poor Latin and no hope of joining colonies, these tribal communications continued to exist in the public lands for centuries. Many of these people bore general animosity toward Elyseans and would frequently come to blows with citizens working in their plantations, mines, or villas, and merchants traveling on the roads. Sometimes, a villa would disappear off the map, leaving only broken buildings and a signs of struggle and corpses defiled.

    Elysium was not idle against this blatant aggression. There were four legions stationed in castra (forts) throughout the territory and tasked with protecting colonists at any cost. At first, defending a territory as large as the provinces was difficult but around 1493 Avitus had reformed the Legion to facilitate the separation of legions into more mobile centuriae that could act as patrol groups to cover as much ground possible. These units occasionally separated further into their contubernia to go from villa to villa in an attempt to keep as informed as possible. A single contubernium was a match for a Tribal raiding party while a century could handle most tribal villages. However, the Native tribes were not entirely unorganized and most were armed with simple weapons, ensuring that even a couple could pose a serious threat to a merchant caravan or family of citizens. Richer colonists met this threat by paying the state for a permanent garrison of legionaries on their lands.

    However, the legions could not be everywhere and citizens were forced to come to their own defense on many occasions. A civilian market for military equipment opened to meet this demand, after authorization from the Senate. Three classes of high complexity weapons were used to great effect by colonists. A manuballista was a handheld crossbow, often mounted on a tripod due to its weight, which had an effective range at almost 500 meters. No other weapon could be as accurate at that distance, giving colonists an advantage against bandits. As a relatively inexpensive and portable weapon, the manuballista became known as the quintessential colonial weapon of Elysium- an iconic weapon for a legendary period in Elysium history.

    Designs of manuballistae evolved more rapidly after the 5th century, producing a wide variety of designs. Some new designs were sturdier, some lighter, and some longer ranged but massive. One of its main advantages were the sighting elements that were commonly placed in the metal head of the crossbow. Larger weapons of a similar design had a different name due to their size but retained the great range of the manuballista, some even exceeding a range of 600 meters.

    Merchants favored varieties of the carroballista, since a heavier but cart-mounted artillery piece could deliver more penetrating blows and at a higher rate of fire than handheld crossbows. By 1500 AUC, most trade caravan had several carroballistae for fending off bandits on the emerging highways. Richer merchants could afford a fusion of the carroballista with a polybolos, the Legion's semi-automatic artillery piece. Feeding ammunition into a vertical funnel, two operators could easily drive the chain belt of one of these weapons fast enough to maintain a rate of 11 bolts each minute. Every shot struck with the force of a heavy crossbow and could be relied upon to incapacitate any lightly-armored attacker. Designs for the polybolos were closely guarded by the Senate so only a couple of dozen workshops were licensed for and capable of its production.

    With all the activity, this was an exciting period in Elysium history. Thousands of citizens were starting new lives in a new province, often arriving with free land or a generous subsidy from the state. Despite losing the occasional caravan to Natives tribes, Elysium profited immensely from public mines, plantations, sawmills, stampmills, and other industrial facilities. Profits only grew as the level of infrastructure available in the region was expanded by action of the Senate and the Caesar.

    Since mills needed either a river or an aqueduct to supply energy for heavy industry, the state built over a thousand kilometers of aqueducts (aquae) throughout the provincies, connecting cities, mines, and other sites for public industries. Private citizens could only afford access to water for mining by opening a contract for their mine wherein some profits went to the national treasury. More ambitious colonists supplied themselves with water by building simple wood and ceramic aqueducts. More than any other region, the region was highly suited for production on a proto-industrial scale using mechanical hydropower. There was a higher volume of river flow per square kilometer than any place of a similar expanse and the population density was low, allowing this vast supply of water to be devoted toward watermills instead of nourishing cities.

    While the first aqueduct was started in 1460, Avitus was primarily concerned with building a network of roads to bring the region into closer contact with Augusta Elysium. His goal required the connection of new cities to the viae publicae princepesque (imperial public highways) that spanned other provinces. Starting work in 1480, architects and engineers used maps of river networks and of existing colonial cities to plan the placement of major highways. For the highways, methods used by the great patron of the interprovincial highway system were copied (as in, they literally plagiarized old records for this project and took credit for the designs in the eyes of the emperor). Despite hundreds of millions of denarii going into construction, the highways did not fully connect all municipia until over a decade after the death of the emperor.

    At the same time, three routes for the national postal service (cursus vehicularis) were instituted in region. The mutationes (change stations) and mansiones (rest stations) were far more sparcely supplied than those elsewhere but a message could still be sent from the capitals, to Augusta Elysium in a mere seven days once the roads were done.

    The vast wealth of a Empire made these ambitious projects possible but not trivial. The creativity of surveyors, senators, and engineers was heavily strained, even as these experts were drawing heavily from the extensive knowledge that was available to a civilization as ancient and well-recorded as the Roman Empire. In many ways, the challenges of colonizing the territory are viewed as a driving force for the innovations that would arise throughout the 7th century.

    Around 1465, a blacksmith in the Civis Virunum began to heat his furnaces beyond the melting point of iron. After a few little accidents, he learned to pour the resulting liquid iron into stone molds for casting. His method for raising the temperature of his bloomery was very tedious, requiring several men to work bellows for a long period of time and seeking to get around this issue, he worked with other craftsmen in Virunum to build a tall furnace which had multiple open ports for cold blasting air into the furnace. Ore was charged through the top with a limestone flux while air entered from the bottom, passing through the material being smelted. Iron would gradually descend through the furnace, coming out in molten form by opening a valve.

    As a step forward in ironmaking, this method was really the final stage of about a century of evolution and this blacksmith was far from the first Elysean to heat his iron beyond its melting point - only the first to pour the resulting liquid into moulds. Norica was an iron ore product with exceptional qualities, used by the military for its swords and Lorica Segmentata. However, not all bloomeries in the province of Nova Noricum produced such high quality iron, some were producing low quality iron that would be reforged at a different location into useable iron. This blacksmith who first created a blast furnace had only gone the extra step of melting this low quality iron before reforging and then pouring the liquid iron into casts.

    This liquid iron became an extremely low quality iron. Due to its quality and the manner in which it was excreted from a furnace, its Elysean inventor named it ferrum stercum (pig iron). Liquid pig iron could be cast into shapes while removing its impurities. The resulting cast iron was useful for iron kitchenware and farm implements, making its inventor, Titus Albucius Stena, a rich smith. Although Stena soon found that his pig iron was similar to a type of low quality iron forged in some parts of the empire, his addition of casting and blasting methods was unique and were the techniques that earned him fame.

    By 1478, Stena accumulated enough wealth to build blast furnaces in other cities, namely Civis Lenape and Nova Toletum Emerita. He ran these other facilities through a guild that he founded, wherein he could appoint people to operate his furnaces in other towns. This expansion was the beginning of a powerful industrial guild in the Elysium Empire. While commissioning forges in Noricum for his reorganization of the Legion, Avitus caught wind of the unique products of the Stena Guild and offered generous incentives for him to expand his smithies. This was the beginning of the most powerful commercial entity that would ever exist - the Elysium Labor Guild.

    Avitus too reformed the standard equipment and structure of the Elysean Legions. First, he increased the length of the gladius by 14 cm, improving its effectiveness in individual combat without loss to the ease of stabbing. Similarly, the spatha became the primary weapon for auxiliary soldiers at a length 0.92 meters while the equestrian spatha was redesigned at 1.05 m. Equestrian swords were also rounded more at the tips to prevent sticking inside flesh when running down infantry.

    At the time, the standard armor of a legionary was the lorica segmentata. The segmented armor plates on this cuirass were forged from norica in a process which left the core soft to absorb the shock of direct blows - a process known as case hardening. While the plates were unchanged, Avitus replaced bronze components in the armor (e.g. buckles, hinges, tie-rings) with cast iron to reduce costs. These parts could be standardized from casting molds for production en masse for regular orders by the Legion. Although Avitus permanently phased plumbatae (darts) out of the Legion, the pilum (javelin) was still given to every legionary, as their brief volleys in the moments before engaging an enemy were highly effective against barbarian armies.

    New regulations assigned one chirurgius legionis (field surgeon) to each centurion, formally enforcing a standard that had been haphazardly employed since the founding of the Septimian Surgical Academy. While field surgeons could tend to the wounds of the troops, assistants were regularly needed to organize the equipment of legionaries, who would be busy building fortifications and digging trenches when their legion made camp. Every contubernium was assigned two servants for loading and unloading equipment from its pack mule. On a march, some timber, food, and cloth would be carried by mule, while the mules of a cohort would pull its mobile brick kiln in turn. When moving in a defensive capacity within the empire, a legion could leave its heaviest equipment back at its station, permitting a faster response time to danger. However, this came at the risk of being incapable of creating fortifications, perhaps in the circumvallation or contravallation of an already entrenched enemy army.

    Aside from its civilian support, a cohort once had its own scout cavalry, varying in number according to circumstances, and an accompanying manipulus (division) of heavy cavalry, drawn from the equites of society. Over the last century, the Legion had begun to favor a form of horseman which was even more heavily armored than a legionary, draped from the head of the rider to the legs of the horse in heavy scale armor. These Kataphractoi were made a standard component of the Legion, remaining the main division for citizens above the status of Pleb. There were to be 40 cataphracts for every cohort, i.e. 400 per legion.

    Just as the cataphracts were integrated into legions, command over archers and artillery was directly given to the centurions and signiferii of their assigned cohortes. This reorganization involved precise standardization of the number of certain unit types that were allocated to each legion (usually as a specific number assigned to every cohort).

    A legion after the military reforms had exactly 1,600 sagittarii (archers), 80 ballistarii (artillery observers), and 200 libratores (gunners). Ballistarii were specialists, trained either at the Academia Bellica in Civis Lenape or taken from legionaries and libratores who apprenticed as "extra credit" with existing artillery observers by assisting in the management of artillery pieces and learning the techniques of artillery spotting and repair. Many legionaries who took upon this role would become a librator, soldiers who did the manual work involved in operating artillery. For now, a full education was a far less prevalent means of learning how to build and operate siege equipment than apprenticeship. In terms of standard siege weapons, each legion under the reform would field 40 polyboloi, 10 mobile carroballistae, and 120 manuballistae. Each weapon needed only one librator to operate once prepared but a number of other gunners were needed to prepare the equipment and assist as needed. At the same time, ballistarii were needed to spot for batteries of artillery and to maintain the equipment during operation. Both members of the artillery corps also had the task of building then operating field-assembled siege engines, a class of artillery pieces that included onagers, rams, siege towers, and heavy ballistae.

    In emphasizing the Legion, Avitus reduced the importance of the Auxilia (non-citizen army). Maintenance of auxiliaries along the provincial fortifications was delegated to the government of an imperial province. Each division of border auxiliaries would be under the command of a comes or (count) of the region to which they were assigned. For the most part, the reform was meant to ensure that auxiliaries would no longer see battle far from their station. In this way, Avitus dissolved the tradition of mounted archery in the Elysium army, in favor of more cheap archers who fought on foot.

    Elysium needed a more structured and efficient military as an empire that was now firmly rooted in its territory. The professional arm of its military was the Legion, drawing from Elysium's massive number of fit male citizens. Artillerymen came from a similar stock while archers were now also solely citizens. The Auxilia was now functionally a wing of the military consisting of two sections: the Comitana which had town guards employed by the city senate of an urbs at no less than one auxiliary for every 1,000 residents, and the Limitana which consisted solely of border guards or fort contingents employed by a province. As another vital measure, Avitus instituted new standard wages for different positions in the Legion and the Auxilia.

    Meanwhile, the classis (navy) was in a sorry state. Caesar had separated the navy from the Legion and renewed its contingent of vessels but there had been few replacements or repairs since his renewal. Most ships were ones built during his reign, although what few new ships were built came straight from the drydocks of Grand Harbour of Lenape and were of a high quality. Avitus had little concern for the strength of the navy because nobody match the Elysium Classis in this new land... yet. Altogether, Avitus left behind a leaner but stronger military for the empire. Long-term contracts were signed with smithies and woodshops to supplement what could not be produced in industries on public land. With the growing number of public mills and smithies, maintenance costs for the military plummeted by their replacement of private contracts.​
    Chapter XVI Lucius Magnum Canus 1512 AUC / 759 AD - 1533 AUC / 780 AD
  • After Caesar Avitus die eated by a crocodile on a hunting near Nova Alexandria, his little brother Lucius Magnum Canus took power. Canus was an intelligent man of 24 who had graduated from the Academia Bellica three years ago with the highest honors. Canus was away on campaign in Dacotas when he received the news.

    Clepsydrae (water clocks) steadily grew more sophisticated as law courts and hospitals demanded better timers for their distinct purposes (e.g. doctors used clocks to measure a patient's heartbeat). In general, sophistication entailed more precise control of the flow rate and more convenient displays indicating the passage of time. Two problems for precision were that water flowed at a faster rate when warm or at high pressure. The former had been mitigated around the time of Hero of Alexandria with conical reservoirs but the latter was not addressed until standards were enacted by Caesar Agricola which specified how to prepare a water clock of a particular temperature relative to body temperature (relying on the senses of a person in a warm room).

    Further improvements arose, adding an extra reservoir - the compensating tank - to the water clock. This basin was situated between the primary reservoir, containing all of the water for the clock, and the mechanism that counted out the passage of time. A constant water level was ensured using a drain at the desired height in the reservoir, combined with pouring in water faster than the compensating tank released it into the clock mechanism. When the primary reservoir was refilled, the waste water that came from the drain over the same period could be disposed of alongside the water used for the mechanism. At a constant depth, the water pressure at the bottom of the compensating tank did not change for the duration of its measurements, improving the accuracy of clocks compared to using a single conical reservoir. As far as mitigating the problem of water pressure, this development marked a high point for the accuracy of clepsydrae.

    Passage of time was marked by the ringing of gongs or bells but in the 7th century most water clocks had pointers that displayed the time remaining on a graduated cylinder. Fancier water clocks used the movement of figurines or doors to mark the passage of a predetermined amount of time. Regardless of display, water clocks were exclusively used as either a stopwatch, a timer, or as a way to count the hours in a day, say from sunrise or sunset. Most craftsmen had a water clock to time processes in their work and both city guards and the Legion used water clocks to apportion a night watch into equal shifts. Since these were the purposes of a water clock, none were designed to count out more than a day before requiring a refill and their accuracies were poor on short time scales (e.g. on the scale of a thousandth of an hour). Furthermore, the concept of an hour had no universal definition, varying in its meaning from one place to another and from one season to the next (based as it was on the shadow clock or gnomon).

    Few people had ever been concerned about the limitations in the accuracy of water clocks but there was still a constant demand for ever more accurate timepieces, especially from the medical community. Multiple basin clepsydra remained the most accurate clocks for many centuries and were sufficient for the purposes of measuring the rate of a person's heartbeat for anomalies. In 1515 , the problem of modifying water clocks to match the season was resolved with the invention of a balance clepsydra. Using a "steelyard" balance, adjustments could be made to the pressure head of the constant pressure reservoir, according to settings on a graduated cylinder (usually marked to indicate the appropriate time of the year). Obviously, water clocks that were used as stopwatches did not benefit from this development but those used to replicate the purpose of a sundial benefited enormously, to the point that a clepsydra could never exactly replicate a sundial before this invention (requiring cumbersome and often inaccurate modification of the pressure over the seasons to achieve the effect).

    At the same time, the mechanisms for water clocks were steadily becoming more robust and precise, producing less wear on the components over time and achieving ever greater reliability. Of course, there were no standards for clepsydrae except the Agricolan regulations for their use in the courts so the quality of clocks varied widely from one manufacturer to another. Nevertheless, the demand for water clocks was approaching a point where craftsmen could make most of their money building clocks for a variety of clients (judges, priests, doctors, and other craftsmen), up to the point that a collegium horologatores (guild of clockmakers) was founded in 1522 within the city of Augusta Elysium (no city had a higher demand for clepsydrae than the capital).

    Canus had no love for the peregrini (non-citizens or foreigners) living in his empire, showing particular distaste for how they would benefit from Elysium despite contributing almost nothing to maintaining the peace of the empire. They paid a poll tax, known as the Tributum, and some fought as auxiliaries for the empire, but the burden of financing public services fell largely on the shoulders of the citizens. For this reason, Canus raised the poll tax on non-citizens while removing it for patrician citizens, so that the nobility were no longer the only class of citizens paying a head tax in addition to their income and property taxes.

    With the census determining how many people lived in peregrini households, unless those foreigners paid as a whole tribe, there was little difficulty in drawing as many taxes as possible from non-citizens. Canus became the first emperor to use census data for the specific persecution of peregrini. Although he did not use violence, he ordered the Quaestores (financial magistrates) and the censitores (census-takers) to find valuable facilities or plots of land that were owned by non-citizens. These could be taken as "taxes" by the state with no way for the affected people to retaliate in a legal or military capacity. For now, this abuse of political institutions would be without consequence for the emperor.

    A number of mining sites, mills, and farms were appropriated by the state under Canus's program of exploiting the peregrini. In many cases, the robbed people were left to starve or be cared for by their communities. A great deal of riverside property was also taken by the government, providing good sites for watermills for Elysean industries. Indeed, part of the motivation for these public thefts of property was to create more industrial sites within the older provinces.

    Aside from abusing natives, Canus raised taxes on luxuries, implementing a grape tax in Lenape and Provincia Nostra as well as a tax on evaporation ponds for salt. These were profitable markets with a high demand, businesses that would not suffer a great deal from higher taxes. While Canus's efforts had a positive effect on public revenues, he went a step further into enriching his purse by trimming the fat in the bureaucracy, performing a similar purge as his grandfather had during his reign.

    With the additional revenue, Canus raised the annual payment to parents for their children from 15 Dn to 25 Dn per child while lowering the maximum age for receiving this subsidy from 10 years to 5 years old. Altogether, spending on children subsidies for citizens fell by a tenth of the prior cost. Canus reasoned that a higher upfront payment would be more motivating for citizens, even though the total reward was reduced. Sponsoring the children of citizens, Canus believed that Elyseans would more easily "outbreed the foreigners in [their] land."

    With a better distribution of national wealth during the last century, demand for leisure activities, such as travel to Hispania Maritimae, was rising. Patricians and most equestrians could afford the journey from Provincia Nostra to Hispania Maritimae or some of the coloniae but most citizens did not have the luxury of paying traveling merchants for a ride in a carriage or ship. Even the wealthy faced a hefty price for a journey to somewhere as far away as Nova Alejandria or Colonia Tequesta (OTL:Miami).

    Under the sum of these pressures, Canus urged the Senate in 1520 to make travel throughout the empire cheaper without simply throwing money at the problem (as he was devoting as much funding as possible to his own project). Their decision was to found the Collegium Itinerarium as a public guild offering transport for citizens along major routes. Starting with forty raeda (heavy carriages) driven by a battalion of coachmen (raedarii), the guild could offer trips from Augusta Elysium to the ports in Civis Lenape or Septimia Severus. Whenever funds could be diverted, gradual extensions were made to the service, reaching every urbs by 1540.

    Any journey taken through this service cost a citizen 2 Dn per day (wives and children were not counted for this cost but every adult male member of a group had to pay this fee). A single coach could carry as many as 15 people, each with a few kilograms of luggage, so the number of carriages on any given route varied. A question was added to the regular Census asking citizens where they had traveled since the last Census, providing data for the Collegium to use in allocating carriages along routes. For managing this system, the Senate appointed a magistrate known as the Praefectus Itinerarius. This office also assumed the duty of organizing the vaults where state maps were stored. On the year of Canes's death, the Collegium Itinerarium was netting 3.2 million denarii each year in profits for the public purse.​
    Chapter XVII Flavius Magnum Ulpius 1533 AUC / 780 AD - 1542 AUC / 789 AD
  • Ulpius, the adopted son of Canes, truly cemented his name after the Ulpius Great Plague even though he was known throughout much of the empire before that calamity for providing welfare in the provinces. His journeys made him perhaps the only emperor since Marcus Aurelius who had a profound sense of the plight of the average pleb. Especially in the face of the wastefulness of his father, Ulpius resolved to relieve some of the suffering of the poor when he ascended to the curule throne.

    Of course, as devastating as the past wars was to the military strength of the empire, the plague which was onset was a different beast entirely. This wave of the disease lasted into the next decade and unfortunately, the rest of the western side of the empire were nowhere near as lucky. Almost 28% of the population of provinces going clockwise fell to the plague over that one decade. Some places such as Provincia Magnum Fluvius took a hit up to 40% of the population. When the plague subsided, taxation in affected provinces did not restart until 1557 AUC, leaving the empire with reduced revenues for much of the period. However, before the plague, annual revenues were exceeding a billion denarii, due to growing industries, so the result was merely a return to earlier tax revenues.

    On the other hand, Ulpius spent hundreds of millions of denarii subsidizing what food could arrive in cities, ensuring that when it was available, people need not pay the entire inflated price from shortages. Augustus Elysium also faced higher grain prices but this was similarly subsidized by the government. For its part, Hispania Maritimae did not allow unrestricted contact with the rest of its empire until 1556 and even then, hospitals were extremely cautious and continued to advise the entire population to avoid meeting anyone who seemed ill. There were small local outbreaks of the same disease in Provincia Nostra as in the rest of the Elysium world over the next two centuries but these were no more worrisome than regular sickness.

    A dreadful series of winters heavily aggravated the starvation that some cities faced during the plague. Some of the shortages in Appalachia Superior were alleviated by reopening grain routes. Astronomers were fervently interested in explaining this unusual cold period as these years were marked by entire days without sunlight. Careful records were kept in the Musaeum of Septimia during the quarantine - at the same time as got caught up in a frenzy of eschatological discussions and speeches. Indeed, the situation in Septimia Severus was so grim during that first winter that much of the city believed the end of the world was at hand.

    Meanwhile, a group of Sioux in the province of Dacota openly rebelled against the empire by sacking a legionary fort, stealing its entire store of food. A firm response from the other legionaries swiftly put an end to this and a number of other sporadic uprisings by the locals in light of food shortages and meagre interaction of Sioux towns with Elysium. The Legatus Augustus of Dacota, who had been appointed under Ulpius, took this rebellion as an opportunity to weaken the Sioux presence in his province, allowing his legions to raid their towns for food and to kill the locals without discretion.

    As an idealist, Caesar Ulpius lamented that the leges (statutes) and mores (customs) of Elysium law (based in the roman laws) were outdated, pagan, and sometimes oppressive - a poor code for what he considered the foremost civilization. Criminal laws to which judges and advocates referred in Elysium courts had been enacted over the course of centuries, some even before the transfer of power to Octavian. Since judges often adapted their judgements to contemporary morals and popular ideas, sometimes either ignoring certain statutes or even enforcing their own customs, a great deal of the legal authority in the provinces was in the hands of non-magistrates - a system that made one court case vary greatly from another. Matters of ius publicum (public law) were handled by provincial governors or by judicial magistrates (e.g. praetores) but matters of ius privatum (private law) were at the mercy of judges who were only licensed by magistrates. Private courts were considered poor reflections of the public courts that preside in Augusta Elysium.

    Worst of its flaws, the law incorporated loopholes and superstitious nonsense that could still be referenced in court. The customs of jurists going as far back as the Republic still carried weight for people who spent their life studying law, maintaining the authority of the mos maiorum even as its influence in Roman-Elysium culture gradually disintegrating in the face of time. This disconnect between the prevailing culture and the juridical culture was hurting the legal systems and a full replacement of the customs of the mos maiorum with more authoritative laws was long overdue.

    During his time in the imperial court of his father, Ulpius had worked with jurists he knew on collecting a list of active statutes and customs used by judges. When he became emperor, Ulpius used this list to try recodifying Elysium law. His efforts were near a final product when the great plague start. Driven by these reasons, Ulpius spent the next three years discussing his code of laws in the Senate, devoting his time to convincing senators, in the civilized fashion, that they should support his laws. Citing ongoing unrest was a powerful argument in his favor but he also brought the Pontifex Maximus to argue his case and drummed up support with the people of the capital city. Senators were not particularly opposed to the content of his code, generous as it was to them, but passing so many new laws was unusual and many senators were cautious about setting the precedent that Roman law could be changed so easily. In many ways, the debate in the Senate was one of the value of tradition against the advantages of progress, a long overdue conflict for Elysium.

    Once enacted in 1540, the Corpus Iuris Civilis consisted of two parts - a codification of old laws that would be retained albeit with rewording or modification of content, known as the Codex Ulpianus, and new statutes written by Ulpius and his jurists, known as the Novella Constitutiones. The codification of existing laws and customs included the following:
    • Elysium Senate has the authority to promulgate laws (legislative authority) by issuing a senatus consultum that contains the content of the new statute, unless the law is vetoed using tribunician powers.​
    • Only members of the equestrian order are eligible for membership in the Senate. Membership in the equestrian order is only available to citizens who meet a wealth threshold, specified by the Senate, according to the Census.​
    • Patriciani are equestrians whose ancestors achieved consular or praetorian authority or who have personally held one of those positions. Senatores are simply members of the Elysium Senate.​
    • A patricianus must be officially referred to as vir spectabilis (an admirable man). Similarly, documents mentioning a senator should append his name with vir clarissimus (a most distinguished man). Going further, a present magistratus maior must personally be referred to and addressed with the title Illustris (the Illustrious). Also, the princeps must be addressed as Caesar <name> Augustus or with the title Dominus (Lord), and his name is to be appended with primus inter pares et vir praestandis (first among equals and a magnificent man), among other possible titles.​
    • Candidates for a consulship need (1) to have served a term as praetor, (2) to be no less than 42 years of age, (3) to be approved by the emperor, and (4) to have heritage within the consulship's foederata.​
    • Unlike before the Codex, only one praetor provincialis is elected to each province (as opposed to one for each major city). Every city in that praetor's province bows to his judicial authority, meaning he may overturn the rulings of any of the judges that he or his predecessor has licensed to issue lawful judgements on citizens in his province. Non-citizens remain subject to their own laws but their interactions with citizens are now under the judicial authority of a praetor rather than a provincial governor (stripping governors of their judicial authority over citizens).​
    • There are now two praetores curules (imperial praetors) who preside over courts outside Augusta Elysium: the praetor militaris, who presides over military tribunals at the War Academy in Civis Lenape, and the praetor fiscalis, who presides over trials of magistrates for mishandling funds from the treasury.​
    • Removal of funds from the aerarium stabulum (national treasury) can only be approved by an aedilis. There are four aediles curules elected now by popular assembly and twenty aediles provinciales elected by the Senate, with the permission of the Master of the Purse. An aedileship is not necessary for a political career but offers the opportunity to improve one's reputation and confers better speaking privileges in the Senate.​
    • Aediles cannot appropriate more than a certain amount of money by their own authority but must approve any consultations for spending handed to them by the Senate or emperor. Requests for funds to a provincial aedile by a provincial governor or consul to which he is assigned cannot exceed certain limits determined by the master of the purse or emperor.​
    • The Magister Fiscalis (Master of the Purse) must approve of every candidate for an aedileship or quaestorship and has the power to dismiss them while in office. His primary duty is to prevent overspending based on predicted revenues (although he could only with difficulty oppose an emperor who wanted to ignore financial limitations). Otherwise, the magister fiscalis is responsible for the ager publicus (public land) that provides revenues to the treasury and for the minting of coins, supervised by his praefectus argentarius in Augusta Elysium.​
    • Magister fiscalis is a magistrate elected by the Senate from among its highest ranks.​
    • Senators of a higher rank are privileged to speak before lower ranking senators in the Senate, with formal rank determined by the highest magistracy that a senator has held in his career. Bottom ranked senators may only speak when granted the right by the presiding magistrate of the Senate, otherwise these pedarii must remain silent. The sole political power of a regular pedarius in the Senate is his vote, both in the Senate itself and in the popular assemblies.​
    • There are limits on the officium (staff) of accountants, aides, servants, etc. available on a public wage for magistrates and the Senate. These limits are stricter than before the Codex.​
    • Censor is the highest position in the Senate besides the princeps senatus. There are at most twelve senior censors assisted by at least 28 junior censors, a change in structure from before the Codex. Both types of censor perform the Census in Augusta Elysium but only the former can revoke citizenship or strip political imperium from a magistrate, based on their review of public records for illegal practices and breaches of civil duties.​
    • Status of Princeps Civitatis (First Citizen) and Princeps Senatus (First Senator) are codified as dispensations of a popular assembly in Augusta Elysium and of the Senate respectively. These offices and their corresponding powers are to be conferred upon a single man after the death of their previous holder. Other titles for the first citizen are Caesar and Augustus.​
    • Adoption is the means by which a reigning first citizen selects his successor, with approval required from the censors when the choice shares his blood. This successor becomes a member of the Senate and is named Princeps Iuventutis (First of the Young). His duties during the reign of his adopted father are to preside over games, pursue a political career or military career, and earn the love of the people of Augusta Elysium through public appearances. When his father dies, a princeps iuventutis faces the real possibility of not being elected by the people of Augusta Elysium.​
    • When a princeps dies without naming a successor, the Senate elects a new princeps from its ranks.​
    • Civitatem Elysium (Elysean Citizenship) is reserved to dispensation by the Senate or Caesar and to birth from a father who is a citizen. Also, a citizen can adopt a foreigner below the age of two, giving them citizenship. Both men and women may be citizens but only male citizens who live within certain areas are afforded the right to vote in popular assemblies.​
    • Every person has a complex legal status consisting of some combination of categories. For status civitatus, people are cives (citizens), peregrini (local non-citizens), or hostes (foreign non-citizens) - although most Elysean colloquially use the term peregrinus to refer to any non-citizen and the term hostis to refer to people presently at war with the Elysium Empire. For status libertatis, people are either liberti (free people), libertini (freed people), or servi (slaves) - where servus indicates a person who has the legal status of re (object) rather than persona (person). Only a citizen has a status ordonis: each civis has a status based on his or her wealth (where the separate wealths of spouses is added together in this calculation). Each citizen is either a plebis (commoner) or an eques (noble). However, citizens of equestrian rank are distinguished into those who descend from a former consul and those who do not, where the former are called patriciani. For status publicus, a citizen may be a civis privatus (private citizen), a miles (soldier), or a senator - non-private citizens are collectively referred to as cives publici and do not include commissioners or members of municipal senates. Lastly, for status familias, citizens are distinguished as mothers, children (without gender distinction in law), and the authoritative pater familias.​
    • Only a citizen can enlist in the Legion, restricting peregrini to service in the less prestigious and less rewarding Auxilia.​
    • A citizen facing criminal charges in a public court has the right to take his case before the emperor, who could defer this appeal to the supreme court of Augusta Elysium at his discretion.​

    A number of criminal laws and civil rights were retained with slight modification from before the Codex Ulpianus:
    • Tort law and Inheritance law prevalent in the city of Augusta Elysium are now codified as national statutes.​
    • Marriage laws first legislated under Augustus are retained. Marriage remains outlawed between people of senatorial rank and people who are not of equestrian rank (i.e. plebes, peregrini, libertini, and servi).​
    • Contracts are retained in their earlier form as written agreements in the form of questions with answers that were to be orally repeated before a licensed judge (stipulatio) to become binding.​
    • Manumission remains in its recent regulated form with minimum age of 40 for the slave and 20 for the master.​
    • Property rights (ius commercium) for non-citizens are left equivalent to those of citizens. As before, the state reserves the right to procur land as either a tax or with fair compensation.​
    • Equestrians remain the only citizens with the rights to run for public offices (ius honorum). Plebeians are only permitted to take part in the lottery for tribuneships and to hold municipal offices, as far as political involvement is concerned.​
    • Many laws written by the famous jurists Gaius, Paulus, and Marcian are now codified as statutes. Any other statements of theirs that were once cited as laws are no longer authoritative in Roman courts.​
    • Certain medical treatments at a galenaria (hospital) would still be guaranteed to any citizen for free. Stricter rules on what treatments are free have been added to the laws.​
    • Immigration quotas for people moving into urbes stay except procedures are put in place by the Codex to allow the Senate to change these quotas for a specific city without issuing a new decree (allowing faster modification of quotas).​
    • Stricter use of the vexillum morbidum (a flag indicating a ship carried disease) is now enforced for ships traveling to any destination.​
    • Treason remains a capital offense for citizens.​
    • Obvious loopholes are fixed in major laws and frequently abused laws are outright abolished.​

    One change to imperial laws that should be mentioned is a major addition to the judicial system. Before Ulpius, private courts in the provinces would be presided over by judges, licensed by a local praetor, and private courts in the city of Augusta Elysium would have the imperial praetors as their judges. Specific departments of criminal law were presided over in Augusta Elysium by a specific praetor, as they had been during the Republic, but other praetors were appointed in the provinces with more general authority there. Certain cases could be appealed to higher magistrates, ending when the case came before the emperor.

    In principle, bringing a case before the emperor took it to the highest judicial authority in the empire. However, few emperors in the last two centuries have had any interest in law, dissuading citizens from this course of action. To restore the faith of the people in the judicial authority of Augusta Elysium, Ulpius instituted a permanent office for presiding over the highest court in Augusta Elysium. Elected by the Comitia Centuriata from a pool of candidates approved by the Comitia Censoria out of equestrian jurists who applied, this office of Princeps Iudex (First Judge) would preside over the highest court of Roman law.

    Ulpius had plans to construct a basilica (public building) for the court of the princeps iudex but there were never enough funds during his reign. For now, this Iudicium Maium (Greater Court) would be held on the Forum Elysium, in full view of the public. This practice would continue until a dedicated location would be build for the iudicium maium.

    Another political idea that Ulpius recognized was the notion that the only true democracy was a lottery for authority. Although he regarded such a system in isolation with disdain, he wanted the democratic - or rather republican in his terms since democratia implied mob rule - component of the Roman government to employ a lottery. This system inspired the method of selecting the Tribuni Plebes. Once a citizen's name came up in the lottery during the month of elections, he had six months to prepare put his affairs in order for a year in the capital. For his year in office, he received a salary of 2400 Dn and lived in the tribunician residence near the Forum Elysium. Since a tribune would usually return home at the end of the year with over 1000 Dn, he was able to relatively easily afford the costs of restoring his affairs after being away for a year. Only citizens who lived in a settlement that was the size of a municipium or larger were included in the lottery, for practical reasons.

    In principle, these statutes could be changed later by an assembly or a future emperor could bully the Senate, with his military authority, into enacting laws that he desired. However, this was no less possible now than for dictators or imperators to do the same during the Republic, an event that only occurred under extenuating circumstances. For now, the new laws were protected by love for the emperor that made them and, in time, they would acquire the force of tradition themselves. In practice, this code of laws was only an official recognition of a political reality wherein the Senate, with its bureaucracy, had slowly regained respect and power since the old Rome. It would take great upheaval to reverse this ongoing trend.

    Ulpius made certain the populus romanus knew that his code of laws granted them great powers. For this, he would be much loved by the majority of citizens, even the nobility. Similarly, present and future Pontifex Maximus would be ardent supporters of the Novella Constitutiones of Caesar Ulpius, advocating against the dissolution of any of its statutes. With such support, there would be serious opposition to changing Roman laws, unless the change was seen as in the spirit of the corpus.

    Unfortunately, Ulpius would be assassinated in his prime, before he thought it necessary to adopt a successor. By his own statute, none of his children could assert themselves as his successor, leaving the decision to the Senate to elect a new emperor. Its choice was a newly elected consul and hero of war - the former legate Gnaeus Fabius Lupus.​

    I admit that this chapter has given me a brutal headache since I had to talk to some lawyer and historian friends to at least do something logical and stable.
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