Eagle of the Andes V2.0

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Whilst i love the F-4 for its ugly glory, and effectiveness, i was thinking about going along another line for the Eagles air group. I don't think that Nixon would be willing to push the Brits to give the Chileans the F-4k that they need until after 74, and the fall of Vietnam. That means the Chileans will need to find an air defense fighter without the option of shopping for American birds. Given they are going British for their carrier needs i figured that the Bucc was a superlative attack craft, which will be filling the majority of the Eagles air group. For air defense i was thinking either a Mirage F1M or and F2, leaning towards the F1. The french were looking to replace their F8's and Entandards around this time, and with the promise of a Chilean order on top of the marine national's order they could probably be induced to spring for the F1, especially if Dassault uses the fly by wire system that they tried to sell the Egyptians in 75.

That would have some pretty interesting long term effects as the MN would be the first service to go uni platform, which could have repercussions for American procurement especially the decision to go with the F/A 18 as their only carrier aircraft in the nineties. Another possible user for the F1 would be the Spanish as they were contemplating just what they wanted out of their carrier. Its entirely possible that they would decide to go with a British colossus instead of the route they took with the F1 serving as an air defense fighter while the Spanish carrier flew Trackers as their main combatant. If the F1 proves to be better then the A4, yet still capable of flying off smaller carriers you could see the Brazilians, Argentine's, and Australians all expressing an interest in the design. On top of that you have the Indian Navy, which i would imagine would dearly love to replace the Supermarine Attackers in its inventory with an F1 derivative.

All of which would also have a knock on effect for the deal of the century. You might end up with the F1m53 wining that competition if there is additional work put into the design by Dassault as a result of their work on the M version of that fighter. So you might see European powers choosing to go with a French fighter rather then the F16... which puts the 2000 in an interesting position. With the F1 being ubiquitous then it would make more sense to follow up on the 4000 as a fighter rather then the 2000 while upgrading the hell out of the F1 fleet. That would probably save the french enough money for the 4000 to reach production status...

None of which is directly relevant to this TL, except for establishing the precedent that the French and Chileans can work together on projects, which might have some implications after the war as the eagle would be reaching an age where it would need to be replaced, or at least the replacement would need to be contemplated right at the same time as the french would be considering replacing the Clems :D Of course i need to actually write my way up to that point.
 
Nixon would technically not push. However he would sell Surplus older F-4 from Vietnam to the Brits for a pinch, and the Brits would refit them into the F-4K standard, or a new variant, something that combined WITH the offer of a Refitted Eagle Carrier, would sweeten the deal and make the Chilean buy the "Full Package", what would put the British in a better position for the likely buys of other Naval units to follow after the Eagle.

He would be also contemplating things in sort of giving an opening to McDonnell Douglas into the South American Market. Think that right now the Navy and Air Force are going to go into a reduction period, and getting the Chileans to buy F-4K or even M-variants through the British, what would imply a contract of support for the units would leave Nicky in a good guy position in the eyes of the company. This also allows the USAF to regain back some money for the older units, and keep the most modern units active.

Finally i'm thinking , and projecting myself into the thinking line of the time. While the Buccaneers or Etendard/Mirage are not bad choices, if the FACH gets the option of cheaper F-4K/M, they WILL BUY it without thinking it twice. At this point the F-4 its the most proven design of its time, and has a extensive record of winning against MIG Fighters, a heavy point to consider in retrospective considering Peru getting Soviet Material compared to the others. Add, that the Buccaneer it has a piss poor max Ceiling, barely 12 KM, being basically a low height attacker focused against Soviet Cruisers in nuclear war, compared to the 18 KM of the F-4 for ALL types of warfare,perfect for operation in the Andes heights, a likely site of aerial combat. Furthermore, the other potential candidate, the Mirage 3, while reaches 17 KM of height, carries the VERY fatal weakness that isn't outfitted for Air Refuelling, something that the sheer distances in Chile would make a critical priority.

Finally, its the matter of following common sense, that if you have a Naval Air Wing in addition to the FACH Fighter Wing, you ideally would try to have ONE type of Fighter in order to simplify and reduce costs in the chain of supplies, weapon Loads and repair parts. The FACH and the Navy would ironically gang up in this, as the British would certainly be VERY interested in the very Sizeable contract numbers what would imply the Refitting of older F-4 from Vietnam into refurbished K and M variants to sell Chile, as their Aerial Industry had been suffering from the cancellation of multiple projects and prototypes in this period, and this would inject resources into the industry.
 
Nixon would technically not push. However he would sell Surplus older F-4 from Vietnam to the Brits for a pinch, and the Brits would refit them into the F-4K standard, or a new variant, something that combined WITH the offer of a Refitted Eagle Carrier, would sweeten the deal and make the Chilean buy the "Full Package", what would put the British in a better position for the likely buys of other Naval units to follow after the Eagle.

He would be also contemplating things in sort of giving an opening to McDonnell Douglas into the South American Market. Think that right now the Navy and Air Force are going to go into a reduction period, and getting the Chileans to buy F-4K or even M-variants through the British, what would imply a contract of support for the units would leave Nicky in a good guy position in the eyes of the company. This also allows the USAF to regain back some money for the older units, and keep the most modern units active.

Finally i'm thinking , and projecting myself into the thinking line of the time. While the Buccaneers or Etendard/Mirage are not bad choices, if the FACH gets the option of cheaper F-4K/M, they WILL BUY it without thinking it twice. At this point the F-4 its the most proven design of its time, and has a extensive record of winning against MIG Fighters, a heavy point to consider in retrospective considering Peru getting Soviet Material compared to the others. Add, that the Buccaneer it has a piss poor max Ceiling, barely 12 KM, being basically a low height attacker focused against Soviet Cruisers in nuclear war, compared to the 18 KM of the F-4 for ALL types of warfare,perfect for operation in the Andes heights, a likely site of aerial combat. Furthermore, the other potential candidate, the Mirage 3, while reaches 17 KM of height, carries the VERY fatal weakness that isn't outfitted for Air Refuelling, something that the sheer distances in Chile would make a critical priority.

Finally, its the matter of following common sense, that if you have a Naval Air Wing in addition to the FACH Fighter Wing, you ideally would try to have ONE type of Fighter in order to simplify and reduce costs in the chain of supplies, weapon Loads and repair parts. The FACH and the Navy would ironically gang up in this, as the British would certainly be VERY interested in the very Sizeable contract numbers what would imply the Refitting of older F-4 from Vietnam into refurbished K and M variants to sell Chile, as their Aerial Industry had been suffering from the cancellation of multiple projects and prototypes in this period, and this would inject resources into the industry.

While I agree with you that the FACH would love to get their grubby little mitts on the F-4, and having a platform that is cross compatible between the FACH and Naval air is a good thing, getting the F-4 has issues. The F-4K was a major redesign, 6 inches wider with new intakes and other assorted changes needed in order to accommodate the Speys, so any reconstruction is going to be the equivalent of a complete rebuild which would probably make it cheaper to just keep the F-4K line going for a little bit longer. I don’t doubt that level of rebuilding could be done, but the expense would render it uneconomical. On top of that the F-4’s for the FACH would have to be the F-4M rather then the superior C, D, or E model. Not to knock the Brit bird, but the internal cannons of the American birds, along with their superior high altitude performance, would make them the preferred option. If you go with that then you lose the parts commonality which makes them attractive in the first place, not for the FACH which would be fine either way, but for the Navy which needs that parts commonality to keep its expenses down. Simply put you’re looking at 8-16 fighters for the navy, which doesn’t get you an economy of scale, and having them all being fighters which require parts outside of the usual logistics system makes operating them even more expensive then it already is.



Unless you go with a single platform navy, which was against the prevailing doctrine and thinking of the time. The Chileans are going to be hesitant to break with existing carrier doctrine while they are developing carrier capacity, which means they need a strike craft and a defensive fighter at minimum. No one who was a serious carrier operator at that time was single platform. The French had a mix of Entendards and F-8’s, the Brits the F-4 and Bucc, and the Americans had a bewildering array of air frames operating from their carriers. The lack of a single platform carrier was present with the minor carrier operators as well the Brazilians who used their carrier for S2’s had A4’s as defensive birds. The Argentines were actively looking for a second air frame to put on their own carrier, as a way to move their carrier into being a true strike carrier.



Nixon’s best bet in terms of getting American platforms into the Chilean supply line is actually going to be pushing the Tracker, Tracer, Trader line. All of which are out of date and being replaced so can be transferred to the Chileans with little if any comment, pushing the Eagle into being a true fleet carrier rather then just being a strike carrier, and you can bet that the FACH will jump on the Tracers as cheap way to mitigate their numerical disadvantage. Having an AWACs bird is going to be a major force multiplier even if it is an older one which is outdated. Especially with the threat of bombers looming in their mind. The Peruvian’s and the Argentines had a pretty respectable force of Canberra’s at this point in time, it’s why the FACH went with the Hunter.



As to the British air industry, without greater government support then they got IOTL they aren’t going to any more successful. The minor number of F-4’s that the Chileans would be buying isn’t going to change anything for them, and the expense would mean that the Chileans would need to cut their orders for escort vessels. As it stands now my notes have the Condell class order increased to six, the Oberon order completed at its original rate rather than being cut in half (4 subs as opposed to the 2 which were delivered), and an Argentine style deal being worked out for a pair of Type -42 destroyers (although the -42 built at ASMAR might present issues). While I’m sure that her majesties government would love to have the additional air orders they are going to move to protect their ship building industry first, no matter what the American’s say. With the Eagle being refitted in British yards on top of those orders, it’s going to make them rather wary of increasing the Chilean debt.



That point brings me to my second issue with Phantoms, numbers. Operating a twin engine fighter is more expensive than a single engine fighter, and the FACH is at a numerical disadvantage when you look at their opponent’s. IOTL Argentina between the FAA and CANA had around 200 combat aircraft available. Most might have been ground attack air craft, but they had the advantage in numbers and no one can say the Argentine pilots were bad or that their maintenance practices were shit. They showed well enough in the Falklands that they were a decent air force. The FAP had around 170 combat air craft, 42 of which were bombers, with 30 some odd air frames that were retired in 77 and could be brought back into service for any war in 78 and another 19 air frames that were on order from the USSR and could be rushed to fill out their TOE in case of a war. Compare that with the FACH’s historical inventory of 115 combat air craft, 44 of which were A-37B Dragonflys, with another ~53 being Hawker Hunters. That’s a numerical imbalance of 3 to 1.



If the FACH goes with F-4’s they’re probably looking at a number that’s comparable to their F-5 purchase IOTL so around 18. With a secondary purchase of F-5’s to bulk up their numbers. Not being under a military technology embargo and not having their economy wrecked by Allande and Nixon they could very well do that. Unfortunately they would lose the very thing they are going for with such a purchase though, the unified platform wouldn’t be nearly as unified as they would like, and they would need a second type of fighter in order to keep their numbers up. As far as I can determine the economics of the situation are against the F-4’s, which is a pity because I would love to have a justification for using them. With the Copper price crash that came after the Vietnam war the situation gets even worse. Nixon can transfer ex-army ground equipment to the Chileans for penny’s on the dollar and be justified as disposing of surplus, but new built or rebuilt fighters front line fighters? Not so much. F-5’s, those are a possibility, but as good as they are for what they are, they are a very limited platform.



On the other hand they could go with a Mirage F-1m53/-1M mix, which would give them a larger number of more capable platforms for the same amount of money with less spent on support. The F-1M would have had something like 90% parts commonality with the F-1m53, making it a very attractive choice. Especially since France is less parsimonious with their licenses, which is how South Africa developed their own Air industry to deal with fast jets. There are benefits to be had for going with the less capable F-1, especially when selling it to the politicians. Developing a native air industry and the jobs which come along with it will be a major selling point, and one that is doable if the Chileans work with the South Africans and Israelis, which is another point in favor of the F-1. The South Africans already had a license for the F-1 at this point in time and were working on developing their industry to manufacture it. They could be induced to work with the Chileans in order to get the Chilean air industry off the ground, especially as they were beginning to become a pariah state. As it says in the tags I'm going for a bit of a Chile wank, so any longer term advantage I can see I'm inclined to take, and the South Africans seem to offer the best opportunity to boot strap Chilean air industry up into a functional industry rather then it being none existent as it was in that time period.



Your point about the Buccaneer is a very good one, but that limited flight ceiling is going to be a selling point for the navy. With the number of Canberra’s they are facing across the Andes both in Peru and Argentina there is going to be an enormous amount of pressure to have a bomber that can strike back, if the navy has that bomber then they are going to lose it pretty quickly to the FACH in the likely event of a war, which would neuter their carrier. If they have Buccaneers then they would need to use their carrier offensively in order to strike back and it would be a naval operation. I had considered using the A-6 as a strike aircraft but the 700 meter ceiling advantage is balanced out by the Buccs 500 lb payload advantage, and again you run into the American licensing and political issues. Additionally the A-6 is a much newer bird, and the US would be hesitant to sell it. Given that the Navy was the most aggressive of the Chilean services at this time they are going to want to be able to press any attack and press hard, the Buccaneer gives them that capability and an excuse.



There also is the issue of in-flight refueling, as Chile has a lot of ground to cover they are going to want to have a very good system in place, and while the F-4 could make it work with buddy pods the Buccaneer has something like a 3000 Kg lift advantage meaning more fuel. It also has a 60km combat radius advantage, which might not sound like much but again extends the range that the navy will have, and given the limited number of strike craft that the Eagle can put up every little bit will help. When your air group ranges from a peace time compliment of 31 fixed wing air craft to ~45 war time then you are going to look for every little edge you can get. Mind you I think that the Chileans can do a little bit better in terms of the air wing by eliminating the Sea Kings and using Alouette III’s as their SAR birds its still only an advantage of 6-8 combat craft. That number is also a bit suspect at the Tracker’s and Traders are bigger space hogs then the Gannett or Alize so that space might be needed in order to house them rather then to increase the strike craft numbers.
 
All valid points, although i REALLY doubt that an Alessandri advised by American Image experts would make any deal with South Africa, as Chile here isn't also a pariah unlike OTL, and making deals with them would repercute negatively in their reputation with the US and the British, a big NO.....it's far more likely that Chile would make deals with Israel, as this big contract would certainly be welcomed by the IAF and would repair the damaged relationship between the nations after the Rauff incident....
 
All valid points, although i REALLY doubt that an Alessandri advised by American Image experts would make any deal with South Africa, as Chile here isn't also a pariah unlike OTL, and making deals with them would repercute negatively in their reputation with the US and the British, a big NO.....it's far more likely that Chile would make deals with Israel, as this big contract would certainly be welcomed by the IAF and would repair the damaged relationship between the nations after the Rauff incident....
The Isrealis are why i was thinking of South Africa, especially since repairing the Rauff incident will be relatively easy for Alessandri given that he's launching a crusade against foreign money in the political system. Rauff received a substantial payment from the west german government to act as an intelligence agent, something that would give Alessandri an excuse to deport him. Especially as the internal optics would make him look better as a fair minded champion of justice if he hits people on the right and left side of the political spectrum. Given how much money Allande took, thats going to cause issues, and Alessandri will be looking for ways to mitigate the political damage. If said deportation flight just so happens to land at Ben Gurrion international... well it was the first plane they could get to accept him, mea culpa. I do think that South Africa will present issues down the road, but at this point in time with Chile looking to stir the pot in Africa it would make sense for them to have a pretty cordial relationship with the South Africans while keeping it as sub rosa as possible, especially with Zambia looming large in the Chileans minds because of their copper mines and the upcoming completion of the Chinese built railway which will allow them to get their copper to market easier and cheaper. Given that they are going to be aware of the winding down of the Vietnam war, the Chileans aren't going to look with favor on that project as it combined with the draw down in demand would crater the price of copper. The main repercussion that working with the South Africans will have will be with Britain, as the US was heavily involved with the South Africans because of Angola, and involved with the Rhodesians as well.

The Chileans acting as the US's long spoon for those relationships would be understood, at least until after the 77 embargo comes down, and even then it would be explainable up until the mid eighties, and its a relationship which could be cultivated in exchange for the US looking the other way when ITT gets smacked with a clue by four for their electoral maleficence. US intelligence officers and politicians would be inclined to publicly chide Chile for the relationship while taking advantage of it behind the scenes, and giving their own operations a level of cover which wasn't present IOTL. It's also a move that allows Chile to go from a small power to middle power status, at least perception wise, at that time the middle powers aligned with the united states were Isreal, South Africa, Taiwan, and Iran all of which cooperated with each other in order to keep their foreign policy true to their interests rather then just being an extension of the US's. That said any contact would have to be publicly done through a third party, Botswana would be an acceptable partner especially as Chilean banks could be used to funnel funds from Isreal for 'agricultural experimentation and improvement' through Botswana to South Africa, and American funds to both South Africa and Rhodesia. Considering that desertification was beginning to become a problem for that country they would be inclined to aqueous as long as some of those funds actually went to their stated destination. Not to mention that developing a thriving banking sector earlier then they have IOTL would be a long term benefit for Botswana, and Chile. Given Botswana's political stability, they could very well become the financial capital of southern africa pushing those Chilean banks which were involved in the project to prominence internationally. If there is a large Chilean investment in Botswana it would be understandable if a company or two of special forces were deployed there as a safeguard considering the border wars going on and the fact that Botswana lacked a military. That would allow the Chileans to funnel training and supplies to Americas chosen rebel groups, execute their own agenda, and serve as a deterrent to the rebel groups who based there and caused the Rhodesian/South African invasion and cross border raids of OTL.

At least thats my think right now, I'm not completely wedded to the idea, but it seems to hang together. Evidence to the contrary, or poking holes in my assumptions would be appreciated. I've read a fair bit about Africa, but I'm not that confident in my read of the situation internationally there, especially since most of my reading has included a fair bit about what the US was doing in the region, rather then what they said they were doing in the region.
 
1971 overview
Not dead, just been a hellacious couple of months personally. I'm obviously not giving up this project, although i cannot unfortunately promise anything like regular updates.


George Alessandri won the presidential election but he felt that he lacked a true mandate. He won a plurality of the vote, but he had failed to get a majority. It was a failing he felt that he could rectify at least in form, along with helping his own long time pet issue of reducing inflation. Among the first actions he took was to introduce a constitutional amendment which mandated run-off elections at the presidential level. It was a move which pleased both the center and the right of the political spectrum while infuriating the left as it was accepted wisdom that under this new system the UP coalition would have no presidential prospects.

While he was infuriating the left Alessandri moved as quickly as possible to tackle inflation at the same time. His reasoning being that he was going to fight the left on this issue anyways, so he would let them divide their efforts fighting him on multiple fronts rather than allowing them the time to recover from his political assaults. It was an effective strategy, especially given the dislocations that the UP coalition was going through as a result of the elections and its failures. Alessandri was able to set up a constitutionally mandated independent reserve board in charge of interest rates and charged with keeping inflation under control. While it was not initially completely successful the reserve board would prove to be one of Alessandri’s most important legacies.

These initial strikes against the left were helped by the way that the UP coalition began to disintegrate. The Radical party, with the addition of several socialist deputies, bolted from UP. Mario Polestro, and his brother, led the group of Socialist defectors. All were machine politicians who felt that the Socialists and their new focus on ideological purity no longer held a place for them. The Radicals were more than happy to take in the defectors, using them as a public sign of strength and parlaying their defection into two cabinet positions.

Alessandri had the last laugh on that though. He named Adriana Olguin as Minister of Justice, with explicit instructions to clean the foreign money out of the Chilean political process. While Olguin was without question a Radical she was also a firm indication to the women of Chile that Alessandri was going to fulfill his promises to them. By naming such a figure to the Ministry of Justice he made an implicit promise that he would be cleaning up the government. He also named Maria Teresa del Canto to be his minister of education, a second radical and a second women. Given the position of women within the party structure, and more importantly public perception, Alessandri fulfilled his promise to the Radicals without allowing their party leadership to have any real say in his government. It was a masterful political move, one that would prove to be fortuitous as the Ministry of Justice went after Allende and the UP for accepting soviet money with a will.

The UP wasn’t the only party to face internal strife in the early days of the Alessandri presidency. The Christian Democrats were also undergoing convulsions. Tomic and his leftist allies found themselves in a very awkward position as Jose Ignacio Palma and Patricio Aylwin lead a virtual parliamentary coupe. Jose Ignacio Palma represented the technocratic wing of the Christian democrats, and was able to work well with the Alessandri administration and especially Willaim Thayer the new secretary of labor. Aylwin on the other hand represent the right wing of the Christian Democrats, who had been infuriated by the campaign Tomic had run. He was less welcome by the Alessandri administration but that initial hesitance on the part of the administration would thaw over time.

The divides in the Christian Democrat party benefited Alessandri’s agenda as the right and center of the party could be courted without speaking to any of those figures who Alessandri felt had slandered him in the past. Being able to court various factions of the Christian Democrats allowed for a workable effective majority in the chamber of deputies and the senate. Even if those parties which explicitly supported the Administration were not in the majority.

Of course despite his successes Alessandri did not get everything his way. Palestro and his newly minted radical friends managed to secure for their districts the majority of the urban redevelopment money that he had hoped to spread widely. They wisely maneuvered through the political process and were promised the subsidized housing towers in their districts, meaning that they were very secure in terms of electability. They were also able to convince those contractors who were bidding on the towers and housing blocks that hiring locals would be looked upon favorably during the selection process and their districts saw a sharp jump in the number of employed heads of households. Those construction jobs would turn out to have staying power and would serve as an engine of social mobility. Those who landed said construction jobs were often able to get their families out of the lower class and into the lower middle class at worst, well into the middle class at best.

In addition to the urban renewal projects that Alessandri launched, there was a steady drum beat of announcements about development in the Norte Chico region. Alessandri and his administration were determined to be seen correcting the problems of the previous administration at the earliest possible time. This lead to the Army deploying engineers to survey possible water pipe routes from the coast up to the highlands, as well as an intensive study of just what would be required to implement such a system. In addition noises were made about a trio of desalination plants and a nuclear reactor to power them. While little initial progress was made, studies were launched and ground was surveyed very publically. Although the idea of piping water to the highlands would eventually be abandoned the idea of having the coastal cities served by desalination plants in times of drought and the idea of nuclear power were implemented in the long run.

Despite Alessandri’s best efforts he wasn’t able to reduce the agricultural land redistribution as much has he had wanted too. He did manage to slow governmental appropriation a fair bit and rewrite the compensation model but nothing he could do would completely pacify the campenisto’s and their demands for land. It would remain a struggle throughout his presidency to balance land redistribution with driving the engines of economic progress. He was able to convince more than a few of the technocratic wing of the Christian Democrats to support him in trying to attract foreign investment and modernization in the harvesting and fruit packing industries. That would have long term consequences as the export potential of Chilean fruits and produce was drastically increased thanks to Alessandri’s foresight.

Alessandri would remain skeptical of the jobs that his opposition had forced him to create until the day he died. It seemed very much like a continuation of the Radicals approach to job creation which he had seen fail to drive the economy for his entire adult life. As such he tried mightily to attract foreign investment, and industry. Mostly through quietly offering tax breaks and favorable deals to various international corporations, although it was to his credit that those industries he tried to entice into Chile were all focused on export, rather than continuing the Radical idea of import substitution. His vision would allow Chile to begin to build a manufacturing sector which would be the envy of Latin America, although that was to be years down the road. He was moderately successful over the course of his presidency, but the ground work for his biggest success was laid within days of his assentation to office.

ASMAR, with the full support of the government, made a major purchase of heavy industrial equipment from the bankrupt New York Shipbuilding Corporation. With the industrial equipment and dry docking supply’s ASMAR was able to expand its shipyards, as well as offer surplus equipment to other shipbuilding companies in order to lure them into partnership. The government fully supported this effort offering tax incentives and subsidizing land purchased for the purpose of building factories and shipyards in Chile. Despite the economic benefits the purchase was arraigned for one reason and one reason only, securing the dry docking and industrial equipment needed to service a ship the size of the Kitty Hawk. The Navy having been promised a carrier, was bound and determined that they would be able to service and support said carrier.

Despite the military rational for the purchase it would be the economic implications of the purchase which would have longer lasting effects. Two companies would take the Chileans up on their offer, Haijin heavy industries, a developing company in Korea, and Sumitomo Heavy Industries of Japan. Though negotiations would go through to 73 when the partnership was signed, and the first ground would not be broken on the proposed shipyards until 74, with the shipyards fully opening only in 81 the effect on the Chilean shipbuilding industry was enormous. Especially the Partnership between the three companies to produce propellers.

Despite Chile never building more than 3 percent of the hulls constructed in a year the subcontracting and parts manufacturing plants built during the Japanese shipbuilding boom of the eighties means that Chile produces between five and six percent of all maritime construction in the world. A figure which has remained steady even after the decline of the Japanese shipbuilding industry as the Korean shipbuilding industry took advantage of the excellent pipeline for components that the Japanese had built, along with the build quality which the Japanese had insisted on. All of this was started by President Alessandri, giving his legacy a shine which it otherwise would not have had.

In addition to the straight economic benefits ASMAR was also able to parley Alessandri’s turn to Israel and Asia into military contracts by obtaining a license to building the Sa’ar 4 missile boat. Islamic countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, and Iran were offered the Israeli designed ship from an acceptable source. Thailand, The Philippines, and Shri Lanka were also approached to see if orders could be found. ASMAR in partnership with the Israeli defense establishment had begun to turn Chile into an arms exporter.

The contacts with the Israelis were not limited to ASMAR, and as the two nations drew closer several joint projects were launched and Israeli ex pats became something of a feature in the Chilean defense industry. The most immediately obvious sign of this growing cooperation was the introduction of the next generation assault rifle by FAMAE, the Israeli designed GAL. Although it would not be deployed for some time the testing of the rifle, and FAMAE’s retooling of its production line began much earlier than most thought. Procurement of a new assault rifle was hardly the only military procurement which began, Alessandri and his advisors were determined that the next time they faced down Argentina they would not have what was clearly a losing hand.

Perhaps the most innovative of the procurement decisions made in the early days of the Alessandri presidency had very little civilian input. The FACH, acting almost completely on its own, managed to work out a four way deal with Britain, Kuwait, and the United States. By purchasing BAE Lightning’s from Kuwait at a very low price, due mostly to the emirates seeming inability to maintain its own systems. The interceptors were quickly becoming something of a national embarrassment, and by flogging them off to an acceptable source the Kuwaiti monarchy managed to save a considerable amount of face. The condition of the plains did necessitate having them refurbished by BAE, which did not add appreciably to the cost or time. It also allowed the FACH to begin the acquisition of the British Shorts Belfast stock at the behest of the CIA through their British connections. Those Belfast’s would be used to transport F-5A’s from Iran to South Vietnam in 72 as part of Operation Enhance Plus, thereby freeing up United states assets for more important tasking’s as well as building concrete diplomatic and military ties to the Iranian regime and South Vietnam for minimal effort on the Chileans part. It was a masterwork of complicated dealing, which directly led to the sacking of three generals in the FACH when Alessandri found out about the program. There was talk of transferring the Belfast’s to the navy, but in the end it was allowed to stand, although discussion’s about the purchase of new fighters was looked on with extreme disfavor in La Monda for the next couple of years. Despite said disfavor the purchase of Israeli AAM’s and licensing for said AAM’s was looked at quite closely throughout the year, with the idea of establishing a native missile and air industry gaining strong political support. It would not come to fruition until later, but the seed had been planted and was beginning to grow.

Unlike the FACH the army read the political situation correctly, and therefor proceeded with a modicum of caution. While there were needs a plenty to fill when they contemplated the possibility of war with Argentina, they made their request into something which could be parlayed into a diplomatic victory for the President. The Israeli’s had recently had a deal to sell 350 AMX-13 light tanks to Singapore fall through when the French government had undercut their bid. The army differentially offered the idea of picking up the Singaporean order at a discount to replace the majority of its existing tank stock and to replace all of the Sherman’s still in service. It was an idea which was adopted readily and the negotiations commenced with somewhat indecent speed.

The most important exploration of purchasing was done in England by the Navy. Purchase orders for the Leander broad beam frigates which would be known as the Condell class was expanded from four to six, and the Chilean navy began to work with British ship builders to modify the type 42 design into a form more suitable to Chilean needs, and to suite the sea conditions in which they would be used with an eye towards the south Atlantic. That modification would become known as the Batch III Type 42 in British service, and represented a clearly superior end product then the initial run of Type 42’s, the extra 50 feet of length not only increased the sea worthiness of the design but also made the accommodations much more acceptable. Not to mention the expanded missile magazines would render the ships effective for longer than their series mates. Still while these moves were important, and profitable for British industry, they were not the main focus of the Chilean acquisition efforts.

A carrier was required by the Chilean navy, which was the consensus and much like the ‘we want eight and we won’t wait’ campaign in Britain prior to world war one it was also a popular demand. Alessandri had no intention of going against such a popular project, although he didn’t intend to over stretch the budget. The initial inquiries launched by the Chileans were for the Centaur, unfortunately the Spanish had also expressed an interest in that ship and a small bidding war was the result which the Chileans decisively lost. By December of 1970 the Centaur was towed into Devonport to be upgraded to and improved Hermes standard for Spanish service. The Chileans next turned their attention to the Hermes, only to be informed that she was being transferred to the RAN following the discovery that the Melbourne - Frank E Evans collision had caused major structural damage to the Melbourne, as rebuilding the bow of that ship for a second time was going to be a more intensive project then the initial survey in Singapore had suggested leading the RAN to deem the project uneconomical and search for an immediately available replacement.

Inquiries in America about the purchase of an Essex class vessel had also run into a brick wall. The Chilean navy had already been leery of their ability to man and operate an Essex class carrier, which was the reason they had tried to go British, but an additional problem was presented to the Chilean ambitions in the form of American strategic policy. The US government, Nixon and Kissinger in particular, had no desire to see any more destabilization of the southern cone then was already present. Not even the active soviet presence in Peru managed to sway them. There was a belief that introducing another carrier to the southern cone would touch off an arms race which could lead to the fall of not only the Chilean government but also the Argentine and Brazilian government’s as they overspent in an attempt to keep up with their neighbors. By way of compensation the Chilean navy was transferred multiple S2 Trackers, WF1B Tracers, and C-1 Traders with an unusually generous end user license which allowed for those air craft to be sold after upgrading.

In France the naval delegation also met with considerable success. Dassualt aviation having heard about the transfers of both the Hermes and Centaur, as well as the upcoming competition for the Entendard replacement for the Marine National, was working on two prototypes for naval use. The Mirage F2M two seat interceptor which was the naval version of the F2 that had been cancelled in 66 was reworked to accept the M53 engine, its avionics suite modernized and upgraded, and the prototype navalized. Dassault would have a prototype flying in 73, ready for naval testing. Running parallel to that project was the F1M project, which again would be ready for testing in 73, which drew extensively from the F1m53 project for the NATO future light fighter competition. Dassault was banking on an expanded naval aviation market, as the Spanish, Australians, and Chileans had all expressed interest along with the Marine National. The Chileans declined to present a firm order, but their interest was represented by tentative orders placed for both craft. The foreign interest resulted in the abandonment of the Super Entendard project, with its resources and personnel being folded into the development of the F series naval fighters.

As 1970 closed the Chilean Admiralty was in the unusual position of having almost everything ready for a carrier, except for the carrier itself. It was fully expected that this was going to turn into a massive scandal, as the Chilean tax payers discovered the amount of money spent on a unit that wasn’t going to come into being. Especially since there was a dearth of carriers which could be considered for sale on the world market. Fortunately for the Chileans Whitehall came to their rescue. The RN was being moved firmly out of the carrier game, and it was felt that the cost to refit the Eagle was excessive, as such quiet noises were made to the Chileans about the possibility of buying the Eagle as is, with a possible SLEP refit, sometime in 72. The Chileans grasped the opportunity as if it were a life preserver and they were a drowning man. The Eagle would not only fulfill their needs, but the refits and modernizations needed would not be overly costly.

Whitehall’s accommodation of the Chilean desire for a carrier has been speculated to be linked to when the British ambassador to Uruguay was kidnapped by the Tupamaro guerrillas. MI-6 brought perennial presidential hopeful Salvatore Allendes connection to the movement to the Chilean Justice Departments attention in the hopes that they could use him as a go between in negotiating for the release of their ambassador. This revelation caused panic as Allende and his foreign connections were thought to be a domestic dirty secret, no one wanted to admit it internationally and it being known meant that the investigation which was already ongoing took on new urgency. Chilean intelligence reached out to the Uruguayan military, as one of Allendes aids was a ministry of justice plant they believed could be used as the go between when the negotiations were conducted. A second string was added to the bow when clearance for the British to deploy the famed SAS on Uruguayan soil was received.

On August 12 Chilean operative located the people’s prison in which Geoffrey Jackson and ten other hostages were held. Three days later while the Uruguayan army launched a frontal assault on the Tupamaro’s an SAS squadron snuck in the back of the people’s prison and freed the hostages. The operation was widely hailed as a prime example of international cooperation, and gain Chile diplomatic points with England. As this was just before the possibility of the Eagles sale was raised it is widely considered to be part and parcel of the deal struck for the Chileans to acquire their carrier.

While all of this diplomatic maneuvering was going on in back rooms close to home Alessandri had turned his foreign policy firmly towards Asia by the end of the year, with the first draft of corps men, nurses, doctors, and airmen being sent to establish themselves in South Vietnam. It was a commitment that he felt needed to be made to reassure the American’s especially given how nervous they were about an arms race breaking out in the southern cone. That commitment would never grow to be over five hundred men, but the effects would be important in the long term. It was the first deployment of Chilean forces on the international scene, and while small it was effective. Chilean technician’s, in Vietnam to keep the Belfast’s running as they eventually shuttled F5A’s from Iran to Vietnam, became respected by their American comrades as professional and highly skilled. The corps men were deployed in penny packets, going from village to village and dispensing medical services much like their Philippine colleagues. They gained a reputation for being inventive with their limited resources, and being competent, as well as gaining Chile a humanitarian reputation with the peasantry of South Vietnam and the international press. The military doctors and nurses were the least commented on part of the deployment, and yet their experience’s in Vietnam resulted in a slew of reforms that revolutionized military and trauma medicine in Chile.

The military was actually the smallest contributor to the Vietnam project. Chilean banks were a larger force as they began to build bridges with their South Vietnamese competitors. By partnering with Vietnamese banks they allowed a flow of capital out of the country, something that was to become painfully apparent after the United States pulled out. Additionally their presence in South Vietnam allowed those officers and magnates who were inclined to look for long term wealth generation for their money to invest with confidence in the future. After all while the future of South Vietnam might be in question no one doubted that Chile would be around long term. South Vietnamese capital began to prime the Chilean economic pump, giving Alessandri a growing economy.

These cautious first moves by Chilean banks were followed up rapidly with an exploration of the possibilities presented by Africa. Botswanan banks were invited to partner with Chilean banks to begin building the financial sector of that country and to facilitate the sub Rosa movement of American and Israeli capital into South Africa and Rhodesia. It was a move which would never have been possible without support from the CIA and the world development bank, but armed with the assurances which Chilean bankers received from those institutions they began to expand and build economic bridges. It was a partnership which would benefit Botswana in the long run, but the trials and tribulations of operating in Africa would continue to bedevil the Chilean political establishment for years to come.

Of course South Vietnam was not the only country with which the Chileans sought to trade with. South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Australia, and New Zealand were all approached with the intention of beginning to negotiate trade treaties. The initial efforts did not yield much, but they laid the foundation for what was to come. These cautious initial approaches also gave Chilean companies openings into foreign markets and began to orient them towards export markets. The first to feel the effects of this move was the fruit industry, as Chilean fruit began to penetrate the Taiwanese and Korea markets, putting more money into the modernization efforts being undertaken for the industry. Suddenly the Chileans were not just confined to the United States market, but could see a wider world market and they were determined to take advantage of it.

The most surprising result of the Alessandri reorientation came out of Israel. Israel, while a major partner in the defense field, never was an importer of Chilean goods. Leading many to discount its importance in the Chilean economy, a view which fails to take into account the effect of Israeli vintners on the Chilean wine industry. The Israeli winery Carmel acquired its new Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc grape stock from Chile after their initial efforts to acquire new stock was blocked repeatedly by the French Government. Contact with the Israeli vintners and their ideas about wines ended up sparking off a major revolution in the aging and storage of wines in Chile. Raulli Beachwood barrels began to lose their popularity in favor of stainless steel and Oak, a process that would take years, and culminate with Chilean wines being considered among the best in the world. Although the traditional Raulli Beachwood aged wines would remain a delicacy they would never be a major export item. This revolution on vining would have a major positive long term effect on Chilean trade.

All in all Alessandri’s first year in office was a modest success, he had managed to get political reforms enacted and he had managed to begin growing the economy. Of course his success and the fragmented nature of the left would begin to give him problems in the next year as the political left began to recover from the blows that it had taken. He had also inadvertently added a new element to the rich poor divide by introducing a divide between the urban poor and the rural poor. Alessandri’s programs were decidedly to the benefit of the urban poor, and it was noticed, and he was funding them by slashing the land redistribution programs and those programs which had benefited the rural poor. Additionally his decision to involve Chile in the Vietnam conflict was not popular, opening up a secondary line of political attack to the center and left. His decision to cooperate with the CIA in its Africa adventures would also present long term political problems for him and his successors.
 
AMX-30....hmmm....Considering the Chilean Luck, odds are that they are going to end up with a Tank Regiment in Training exchange in Israel getting embroiled in the middle of the Yom Kippur War and gleefully getting into the middle of the furball.

It would be an ironic way in which the Chilean Army would gain the core of a Tank Brigade with actual REAL warfare experience and specially against Soviet Made tanks, which made the bulk of the Arab countries's armies and also made the bulk of the Peruvian Army's tanks.
 

Archibald

Banned
This is a great TL so far. The Mirage F2 last flew in 1971, it was heavier and bigger than any Mirage F1.
I think a Mirage F1M with a M53 would be better (as already mentionned).
A decade ago I wrote a detailed TL about the Mirage F1-M53.
My plan was to pull a Rafale - have the F1-M53 replace the bulk of the French combat aircraft force, including the Aéronavale Crusaders, making the Super Etendard unnecessary (and the Mirage 2000 stillborn).
I don't think it is enough to prevent the F-16 from snatching the "Deal of the century" in June 1975.

What I discovered is that the Belgian government in 1973, very nearly got a contract to Dassault for the F1-M53. But the government fell, and they waited a little more, and went for the F-16 instead, following the Netherlands.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmond_Leburton
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leo_Tindemans

Leburton wanted the Mirage, but Tindemans decided otherwise. Had Leburton government lasted a little longer...

The POD would be Belgium goes for the F1-M53 before the YF-16 flies in January 1974. With Belgium secured, Dassault starts developing the aircraft, then the French Navy shows interest, and everybody else falls into place. The Armée de l'Air would convert its order of Atar Mirage F1 into M53s and get a mixed fleet, before pulling a Rafale to save cost. All the Mirage IIIs, Mirage V, Jaguars and finally, the Atar Mirage F1, would be sold to export customers. Also the Aéronavale Crusaders.

And then Chile would steps in, buying F1-M53s for both FACH and its Navy.

The Mirage F1-M53 was to be the low-end for a much bigger aircraft, the Avion de Combat Futur.

This big beast



When the Mirage F1-M53 lost the Deal of the century, it died, and the ACF was cancelled in December 1975. Dassault re-invented the lost twins with a delta wing, creating the Mirage 2000 and Mirage 4000. They won't exists ITTL.

The Chilean Aeronavale could buy second-hand Crusaders from the Aéronavale. They were in good shape, having been in service for less than a decade.
 
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Archibald

Banned
I saw once that the Spanish navy wanted a Clemenceau-class carrier (before buying the Dédalo in 1967) but I can't find any reference.
 
AMX-30....hmmm....Considering the Chilean Luck, odds are that they are going to end up with a Tank Regiment in Training exchange in Israel getting embroiled in the middle of the Yom Kippur War and gleefully getting into the middle of the furball.

It would be an ironic way in which the Chilean Army would gain the core of a Tank Brigade with actual REAL warfare experience and specially against Soviet Made tanks, which made the bulk of the Arab countries's armies and also made the bulk of the Peruvian Army's tanks.
Tanks are going to be a real issue down the road, my initial intention was to go with OTL's AMX-30's, unfortunately i don't think that will work out in the long run as a write this out. Buying AMX-30's from the French on top of the other fiscal commitments that the Chileans will have seems a bit ambitious. A fact which will also throw my secondary idea of the Chieftain, purchased on recommendation from the Israelis similar to what happened with the Shah, out the window. That said i do believe that once the Peruvians start talking about their brand new T-55's then the Chileans are going to freak out...

As it stands the AMX-13's will be able to deal with the Sherman's they will be facing with little difficulties, especially if the Chileans are better trained and have access to the anti tank missiles which the french fell in love with. Given the numbers that should hold, as a balance of power, right up until the Peruvians begin to import MBT in the form of the T-55. That's going to concern the Americans which might prompt them to supply some M60A1's, depending on how relations are at that point in time. Unfortunately for that idea i can't see a resurgent Chile with regional ambitions being looked upon favorably in Washington, and a couple of the ideas i have been thinking about to keep the Chilean economy turning over would be pure poison in the minds of the Carter administration... especially the easiest and most obvious action to reduce the severity and impact of the 75-76 copper crash. Having said a whole lot of nothing, its an issue which is probably going to continue to bedevil my planning right up until i get to 76 or 77 at the earliest.

This is a great TL so far. The Mirage F2 last flew in 1971, it was heavier and bigger than any Mirage F1.
I think a Mirage F1M with a M53 would be better (as already mentionned).
A decade ago I wrote a detailed TL about the Mirage F1-M53.
My plan was to pull a Rafale - have the F1-M53 replace the bulk of the French combat aircraft force, including the Aéronavale Crusaders, making the Super Etendard unnecessary (and the Mirage 2000 stillborn).
I don't think it is enough to prevent the F-16 from snatching the "Deal of the century" in June 1975.

What I discovered is that the Belgian government in 1973, very nearly got a contract to Dassault for the F1-M53. But the government fell, and they waited a little more, and went for the F-16 instead, following the Netherlands.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmond_Leburton
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leo_Tindemans

Leburton wanted the Mirage, but Tindemans decided otherwise. Had Leburton government lasted a little longer...

The POD would be Belgium goes for the F1-M53 before the YF-16 flies in January 1974. With Belgium secured, Dassault starts developing the aircraft, then the French Navy shows interest, and everybody else falls into place. The Armée de l'Air would convert its order of Atar Mirage F1 into M53s and get a mixed fleet, before pulling a Rafale to save cost. All the Mirage IIIs, Mirage V, Jaguars and finally, the Atar Mirage F1, would be sold to export customers. Also the Aéronavale Crusaders.

And then Chile would steps in, buying F1-M53s for both FACH and its Navy.

The Mirage F1-M53 was to be the low-end for a much bigger aircraft, the Avion de Combat Futur.

This big beast



When the Mirage F1-M53 lost the Deal of the century, it died, and the ACF was cancelled in December 1975. Dassault re-invented the lost twins with a delta wing, creating the Mirage 2000 and Mirage 4000. They won't exists ITTL.

The Chilean Aeronavale could buy second-hand Crusaders from the Aéronavale. They were in good shape, having been in service for less than a decade.
ITTL the French actually have a pretty good shot at the deal of the century, mostly because work on the F-1M53M is starting a year before it did IOTL, additionally the F1E (my copy of french secret projects lists this as the designation given to the F-1M53 design which the French tried to interest other countries) tender is going out earlier and the Australians at the very least are going to be more interested in it as the F-1M. Additional carriers strike carriers means that the french are going to be pressing hard to get a viable naval fighter out of this and thats going to help speed up the development of the F-1.

I wasn't aware of that little tidbit with the Belgian goverment, but with the F1 being seen as a viable fighter earlier i think i have an excuse to have them be one of the first customers for the fighter. That's also going to have an effect of the deal of the century... Thanks for bringing it to my attention.

I saw once that the Spanish navy wanted a Clemenceau-class carrier (before buying the Dédalo in 1967) but I can't find any reference.
If you do find that reference let me know, i went with the Centaur because she could easily slide into a duel role ship (commando carrier, sea control ship, and strike carrier just vary the aircraft loaded). Plus her compliment wasn't that mush larger then the Dedalo (1390 vs 1112) while offering a much more capable platform. plus it would cost less to purchase her then to buy or build a brand new Clem. as there is no way the french would sell one of their carriers without replacement.
 

Archibald

Banned
Stick with the Centaurs, they are good. Compared to a Phantom a Mirage F1 has a couple of advantages, first it is smaller and lighter, and it was born as a STOL aircraft with a high wing and lots of flaps.
It should be able to land on a Centaur pretty easily, even more if the Centaur is upgraded to HMS Hermes standard.

The Mirage F1 could carry a very diverse load of weapons even with the old Atar. The most awesome Mirage F1s ever build were the Iraqis (EQ-4, EQ-5 and EQ-6), they were armed to the teeth with Exocets, Super 530F, ECM pods, laser pods guided munitions, Durandals, large fuel tanks, aerial refueling. They even managed to kill a handful of F-14s.
Compared to the Atar 9, the M53 has 4000 pounds more thrust and it really helped performance. Saddam would really appreciate it (Iraq bought 110 F1s and was ready to buy more when GW1 started, to Dassault dismay).
 
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In respect The tanks. How probable of possible is that Germany sell leopard 1 to Chile? I ask because if anything the chilean army is germanophilic and a leopard 1 is The army wet dream. But i dont know how muchos or little this tank can disrupt the balance of power
 
In respect The tanks. How probable of possible is that Germany sell leopard 1 to Chile? I ask because if anything the chilean army is germanophilic and a leopard 1 is The army wet dream. But i dont know how muchos or little this tank can disrupt the balance of power
Very, by the time that the Chileans will be looking for a MBT its going to be 75 or 76, which means the Chieftains engine issues and the AMX-30's transmission issues will be known. With this also being after the Yum Kippur war the heavy armor on the Chieftain will be less of a selling point and the Leopard 1 will be up to the A4 configuration. The will be additional incentive in that the Leopard offers a family of vehicles which will improve the logistics issues which the Chileans will face. They aren't going to want to end up in the Peruvian position of their logistics being a mess because of the number of different systems which they employ. The possible draw backs to the Leopard are going to be political not operational, which is also going to be an issue with the M-60. the AMX might end up winning out just because the French arm a whole lot less picky about who they sell their military equipment to then just about anyone else.

As of now in the TL the army has Sherman's (being retired), AMX-13's, M-41 Bull Dogs as tanks with their mechanization being provided by the M113. Adding a MBT and shifting the M-41's to the marines will simplify the logistical challenges that the army faces. The marines on the other hand use the LVPT-5 and the Mowag Roland APC, which will be changing as soon as the navy can... especially with the Argentine marines getting their grubby mitts on the LVPT-7.

So the end result will be the Chilean Army working with their MBT and the AMX-13 as support, with M113's providing mechanization while the Marines use M-41's as their tank with a mix of AMX-10p's and M113's to provide mechanization. Of course tanks aren't really a priority for the Chileans at this point in time, the majority of the fighting that Chile is going to be doing is going to be in the high Andes so artillery is their priority atm, especially since the AMX-13, while still a light tank, will murder any Sherman's it comes across as well as being maneuverable enough and small enough to avoid taking the kind of ATGM fire that a MBT would draw. Fortunately that gives me time to work out just which MBT the Chileans will go for.
 
I've been trying but its slow going and I need to recover the hd that most of my work was stored on. I haven't had a lot of time bc rl has been a touch hectic and my laptop decided to self destruct on me right around the hols. I finally got a new computer but still haven't had the time to see what I can salvage if anything off the old one.
 
I've been trying but its slow going and I need to recover the hd that most of my work was stored on. I haven't had a lot of time bc rl has been a touch hectic and my laptop decided to self destruct on me right around the hols. I finally got a new computer but still haven't had the time to see what I can salvage if anything off the old one.
Oh damn :(
 
2.1
Having finally succeeded in recovering my files, and then dealing with my RL housing issues it looks like I will have time to write again. Rejoice, and all that jazz. I should be able to update this at a steady rate, even if its not going to be as fast as I want it to be. without further ado on to the TL:


I have been asked many times to speak of my last year in the senate and as president of that august body and I have always declined. While I have dedicated my life to public service this particular era, or more accurately the ending of the era, is rather painful for me to remember. When one thinks about it one must take in mind the times, and what was occurring around us. Most who talk about the Agriculture Bill and my fall from grace think it was just about the bill, but they would be wrong. To truly understand the issues you need to go back and look at the economics of the situation.


Let me be blunt here, development in the Latin world has a long and storied history of being a disaster. Every time the Latin world attempts to rise above its roots it has been battered down, with one shining exception. By the early seventies the luster of import substitution industrialization had worn off and the problems of land reform were beginning to be felt. For land reform the issue was one that was complicated by capital issues, and latent classism. Alessandri sought to side step the issues that had developed with earlier attempts to complete land reform by using a mixed free market response. He sought to allow the campesino to buy the land and to have enough money left over so that they could properly capitalize their farms. It was an ambitious scheme and market the first true departure from the stifling mold that Latin development had been put into.


The second part of his plan was to involve the ultra-rich, those who had owned the land, in developing export led industrialization. After all these people had the money to buy the appropriate machinery to make our industry truly competitive on the international market. They were also well educated and thoroughly westernized. By giving them an option to increase their wealth Alessandri hoped to engage them in building the economy. After all if they were getting richer then surely they would hire more people and lift the poor into a comfortable middle class existence.


This change in policy coupled with educational reform and investment in education, a policy that I am happy to say that I precipitated, were the plan for the future. It was a good plan, and as history has shown us it worked, but politically it had problems. Alessandri and I were well aware that we were going to be slaughtering more than a few of the lefts political sacred cows, how could we not be aware? Hadn’t the socialists and communists repeatedly told the poor that if they just had the land then things would be better? Hadn’t the Syndics been mocked for being a week attempt to move Chile towards a modern collectivist economy? Of course the assault from the left could be expected no matter what we did. Everyone knew that the left had no interest in true engagement, just in authoritarian domination under Marxist Leninism. Allende had already privately abandoned his Chilean way to socialism, making his stance and ambitions all too clear for anyone with eyes to see.


The problems that I encountered which were the most damaging to me personally, even if I managed to contain them to the back rooms of the chamber of deputies and not allow them to be aired publicly, came from the right. Alessandri was already under fire for his repudiation of many of the policies that he had begun in his first term as president as well as the repudiation of the Fries era reforms. Instead of going with right wing orthodoxy as was expected he had swung at the center. Public private ventures, government encouragement of industries, tax incentives. All solid plans, and all outside of the comfort zone of the right. He was also dismantling the much cherished belief in import substitution, a sacred cow of the right.


There was a reason why we spent the first year of his administration building a super majority and marginalizing the socialist/communist alliance. Politically both parties were heavily mobilized even if they consistently failed at the ballet box. We felt that without a super majority both parties would feel free to call out the gutter trash and thugs they relied on to intimidate the remained of the chamber of deputies as they had in years past. We had reasoned that if we had a super majority the politicians would stand firm, after all they would represent a clearly defined will of the people. So it was to be as when the agriculture bill was tabled for the first time the socialist communist alliance took to the streets in important rage.


I will admit that I had made a mistake in my calculations. I had forgotten just how invested in import substitution the political class was. It had been the theory for twenty years, with no voices of dissent aside from the communists. When Alessandri and I put up an alternative I had expected debate, reasoned argument, and eventual acceptance. What I got was a political explosion within the coalition as the streets were filled with the scum of the earth….


Memoirs of public service, Luis Pareto González, pub. 2002.
 
Just found this excellent timeline. Great story.

I am wondering of the decision to grab Eagle. It has twice the complement of the Centaur class. I understand the desire for the F4 Phantom. However, is Chile able to afford the cost of this twin engined brute. The combination of Eagle and Phantom is vastly more expensive than alternatives.
 
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