Dom Pedro II of Brazil had two sons and two daughters. Both of his sons tragically died as infants, while one of his daughters died at 24. The loss of his children caused him great grief and more pessimistic at the prospects of Brazil’s monarchy as he did not think Brazil would respond well to a Queen calling the shots. What if his children had much greater health and all survived well into adulthood? Does the Monarchy survive? How might the development of Brazil change if their monarchy does infact survive? And would Pedro II have been likely to govern differently if he had a son?