Dixieland: The Country of Tomorrow, Everyday (yet another Confederate TL)

You know, I have a feeling that a fairly big number of those wounded would have died of their injuries in this era. I mean, medicine is certainly better than in the civil war but it's still not great. No antibiotics in those days and there will be a shortage of nurses and surgeons for sure. At least the British would have had a large pool of trained field doctors after the recent wars. Interestingly, you have a situation with Clara Barton and Florence Nightingale living on opposite sides during a war.
 
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The CSA is going to compete for only a trivial fraction of those immigrants. It's just not going to be as labor-hungry as the USA; the CSA has a labor shortage relative to Europe just like the rest of North America, but also a capital shortage and a less welcoming society and set of institutions.

Mexico, same-same.

Canada might get some, but it's pretty marginal territory with a late 19th century agricultural/industrial toolkit. The USA isn't going to be short too many of those immigrants.
 
Chapter 84 - Mountains to Our Backs
Mountains to Our Backs
The Russian offensive, having largely secured the Armenian Highlands, took two directions - the first through Eastern Anatolia and the second towards Kurdistan. Both of these were treated as existential threats to the Ottoman Empire, with Anglo-Italian-British forces trying to hold Eastern Anatolia and Anglo-Ottoman-Kurdish forces trying to hold Kurdistan. After their stunning success, Russian forces moved quickly to follow up.

The advance onto the Anatolian plateau was generally very unsuccessful. Anglo-Italian machine gun emplacements and the full force of the Ottoman Empire made the first hour of the Russian offensive one of the bloodiest hours in Russian history, with almost no territory gained. The attack was almost immediately called off after 5,000 Russian troops were gunned down in the first 50 minutes of offensive. From that point on, smaller Russian detachments would instead try to outmaneuver Celestial forces, but this also failed because the size of the Ottoman Army meant that Ottoman troops could tie down Russian detachments before Anglo-Italian forces, with their superior artillery and machine gun equipment, could set up a defense that the Russian detachment would be unable to penetrate. In addition, a humanitarian crisis was quickly developing in Armenia - the notoriously bad condition of Anglo-Ottoman concentration camps sparked terror among Greeks and Armenians, who fled en masse into the Russian occupation zone. In general, Armenian militias were very loathe to advance outside of Western Armenia, believing that this would jeopardize their ability to receive those refugees.

In Kurdistan, there was far more room for the Russians to maneuver and fewer British troops (and no Italian support). However, several incidents of reprisal massacres by Russo-Armenian troops sparked outrage among the local Kurdish population, which quickly organized into highly motivated militias. Kurdish support for the Ottoman forces, once somewhat periphery, distinctly rapidly expanded as many of them found faced with a common enemy. Whereupon the Anglo-Ottoman forces saw their defense of Western Armenia heavily compromised by Armenian guerillas, Kurdish guerrillas inflicted almost identical havoc among advancing Russian troops. Despite minor territorial gains and several inconclusive skirmishes that largely went in favor of the Russians, the supply situation of the Russian Army was horrifically overstretched. Unlike in Eastern Anatolia, most of the casualties taken by both sides were relatively comparable and more a result of disease and desertion than actual combat. Nevertheless, with Anatolia a harder nut to crack, the Russians continued piling more supplies into the advance towards Kurdistan. Regardless, progress was slow and painful.

In Constantinople itself, the Sultan Abdulhamid took the war as an excuse to further centralize Ottoman power, as the plight of the Kurds played directly into his Pan-Islamist ideology. Having gained the endorsement of normally anti-Ottoman Arab ulema in Mesopotamia, the paranoid Sultan was in a far better position to weed out cadets and military officers who were seen as politically unreliable/radical. As a result, the Committee of Union and Progress split nastily over how deeply to cooperate with the Sultan during the war with Russia and under deep repression from the Sultan, the CUP eventually shut its doors down. However, Abdulhamid was unable to persecute many of the Ottoman Empire's more moderate liberals who weren't in the military, especially those with close ties to the British. As a result, the Sultan was forced to unhapily and grudgingly tolerate the presence of pro-British liberals, such as Kamil Pasha and Ali Kemal, especially because it was believed that persecuting them would threaten Ottoman access to British credit.
 
You know, I have a feeling that a fairly big number of those wounded would have died of their injuries in this era. I mean, medicine is certainly better than in the civil war but it's still not great. No antibiotics in those days and there will be a shortage of nurses and surgeons for sure. At least the British would have had a large pool of trained field doctors after the recent wars. Interestingly, you have a situation with Clara Barton and Florence Nightingale living on opposite sides during a war.
I think it depends on the severity of wounds. A lot of wounds are just "a tiny piece of shrapnel flew and hit my shoulder, but I can still use my arm." Or something like someone tripping while hoisting ammo and twisting their ankle lol.

Is Lincoln still kicking at this point in time by any chance? Wonder what he would make of the current state of things.
Honestly, he probably died very shortly after his presidency. He was never a super healthy person and he had an incredibly stressful job for a long time.

How much smaller is the American population due to the sheer number of immigrants that went to stayed home or Canada/Mexico/CSA?
I honestly have no idea and I'd have to do the math.

The CSA is going to compete for only a trivial fraction of those immigrants. It's just not going to be as labor-hungry as the USA; the CSA has a labor shortage relative to Europe just like the rest of North America, but also a capital shortage and a less welcoming society and set of institutions.

Mexico, same-same.

Canada might get some, but it's pretty marginal territory with a late 19th century agricultural/industrial toolkit. The USA isn't going to be short too many of those immigrants.
For the CSA, it's probably most highly skilled immigrants that fill a very specific niche. Thinking of doctors, academics, lawyers, shopkeepers, businesspeople, etc. etc. Because yeah, it's not a very labour hungry economy. High in influence, but low in numbers. It's been said that the CSA gets an unusual amount of Jewish immigrants because antisemitism is actually fairly weak in the CSA compared to the rest of the Western world.
 
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How much smaller is the American population due to the sheer number of immigrants that went to stayed home or Canada/Mexico/CSA?
I found this chart. http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/immigration/pdfs/by_region/region_table.pdf

The Blaine laws were introduced in 1889, so most of that OTL 1880-1889 immigration does happen. Between 1889-1930, about 19 million people move to the United States. Due to Catholic immigrants and now Canadian and British immigrants avoiding the USA, that butterflies out 3.7 million people from Austria-Hungary, about 500,000 Germans (assume half are Catholic), 4.4 million Anglo-Canadians, 4.3 million Italians, 2-3 million from the Russian Empire (since they're disproportinately Jewish/Polish/Ukrainian Catholic/etc.). In short, what immigrants we are getting are mostly Scandinavian. So instead of 19 million immigrants, we're looking at 3-4 million immigrants to the US between 1880-1920.

OTL 1920 USA had 105.5 million people. So subtract 15.5m fewer immigrants. Take out 2.5m blacks who migrated to the North during the Great Migration, then roughly 27.5m people in the US South. Then probably add some extra since I'm sure I'm inflating a lot of the numbers and I bet higher wages/cheaper rents/whatever boost birth rates a bit. So my best guess is that OTL USA is going to have somewhere around 60-70 million people in 1920, something comparable to OTL Imperial Germany. That being said, the USA also probably has the highest GDP per capita in the world (which it basically had OTL if you didn't count the South).
 
So Russia is bogging down and it could get really nasty for them if the supply situation doesn't improve. Along with the Chinese front, a solid reversal could change a lot.
 
Chapter 85 - The Fall of Vladivostok
The Fall of Vladivostok
The most decisive battle in East Asia was the Qing siege of Vladivostok, itself once a Qing outpost before the Treaty of Aigun. Qing troops were fairly poorly supplied, but the Manchu soldiers in particular had a familiarity with operating in taiga conditions, allowing them to largely live off the land. It became obvious that Vladivostok would have to be relieved by force, an option that the Russians didn't have because of how long it would take to trudge an army across Siberia. Instead, a daring plan was proposed by a cavalry officer, one of the highest-ranking officers who had survived the catastrophic advance on Harbin, Aleksei Brusilov. The Royal Navy would presumably be on its way soon to reinforce the Qing Navy, but at the time, the Russian Navy was still superior in the region. Under the cover of night, the entire Russian Army in Vladivostok evacuated on the Russian Pacific Fleet, often cramped like sardines.

Sailing down, their target was not a retreat further into Siberia. Instead, they sailed south, landing in Gangneung, in the East of the Joseon Kingdom. Landing against Joseon opposition, they were soon aided by Donghak rebel forces that moved south to encircle the Joseon Army. Although the Donghak rebels were strongest in Southwest Korea, it was decided to march down south into Gyeongsang, where a previous Donghak revolt had taken place in 1871, before marching into Southwest Korea and then into Seoul. Much to the dismay of the Seoul government, the Joseon Army, encircled by Russian and Donghak forces quickly collapsed, with many of its soldiers joining the Donghak (the most loyal soldiers often committed suicide rather than commit treason against their King). In particular, the Donghak rebels had no problem with the Joseon monarchy and sought to preserve it. However, they also wanted the entire Min Family either executed or exiled, including King Gojong's wife, the Queen Myeongseong. This was obviously not going to be ever accepted by Gojong.

Qing forces, marching into an evacuated Vladivostok, celebrated their victory but then realized that the situation in Korea was totally collapsing. An attempt to march south towards Hamhung was incredibly unsuccessful, as the Qing "invasion" sparked a rebellion in the province, one of the provinces with the weakest Donghak presence, whereupon peasants quickly rallied to the Donghak cause. With the Qing Army bogged down in Northeast Korea, it was decided to desperately end all offensive maneuvers against Russian Manchuria and send all reinforcements down south to help Joseon forces in Western Korea.

This was a triumph for Brusilov - Brusilov's primary aim was just to advance as quickly and rapidly in hopes of diverting Qing attention from any further advances into Russia. Unlike some officers who sought to "expand" the Empire in order to gain prestige for themselves, Brusilov had no aims. Aiming to win the war over all other concerns, Brusilov officially signed a document (as a representative for Imperial Russia), recognizing the 69-year old Choe Sihyeong as a national leader on par with the Prime Minister of Russia. (Coincidentally, Russia had no Prime Minister at the time - Prime Minister Nikolai von Bunge had died and Tsar Alexandar III had yet to appoint a successor - he quickly appointed Sergey Sazonov to replace him). This angered Brusilov's enemies in Moscow because it foreclosed any attempt to annex Korea, but this helped build popular support for Russo-Donghak forces, including from Imperial Japan, which quickly recognized the new government and immediately began sending supplies and volunteers.
 
Brusilov may have realized that he had no chance if he stood and fought, but I'd bet the people of Vladivostok feel a little betrayed that he left them to the mercy of the Qing armies. Because there should be at least 25,000 Russians still in Vladivostok and Primorsky.

By the way, will cracks appear in the sort of quasi alliance with Japan? I say this because if Korea breaks free, the dynamics here are suddenly different and the Qing are not such an immediate problem. I'd think that at some point, Russian, Japanese and even French interests would start to collide. Japan's got to play ball for now but it is still kind of boxed in by Russia and France on the North and South sides and it did kind of want Sakhalin...
 
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Brusilov may have realized that he had no chance if he stood and fought, but I'd bet the people of Vladivostok feel a little betrayed that he left them to the mercy of the Qing armies. Because there should be at least 25,000 Russians still in Vladivostok and Primorsky.

By the way, will cracks appear in the sort of quasi alliance with Japan? I say this because if Korea breaks free, the dynamics here are suddenly different and the Qing are not such an immediate problem. I'd think that at some point, Russian, Japanese and even French interests would start to collide. Japan's got to play ball for now but it is still kind of boxed in by Russia and France on the North and South sides and it did kind of want Sakhalin...
Eh, there really isn't violence against civilians typically though when a city is peacefully occupied. It's when a city is assaulted and it falls...

and yeah, Japan is an interesting position and I think I should do an update soon-ish, probably after the war.
 
Chapter 86 - The American Autumn Offensive
The American Autumn Offensive
The Americans followed up their "victory" at the Battle of Toledo with a large offensive into Canada itself. One target was expected, the other less expected. The British had a general sense that the Americans wouldn't try to attack from Michigan since the British Army was concentrated there and the natural barriers of the region would make it too difficult for the Americans to try. The next major jewel of Canada was the large city of Montreal, and as expected, the Americans advanced from New Hampshire into Quebec.

Overly optimistic American planning naturally assumed the Quebecoise would welcome the Americans as liberators and indeed, American war planners sketched out the possibility of an independent Quebec. The results were...less than optimal. The Americans had remarkably few French speakers at hand and while the Anglo-Canadians were disliked for being hostile to Roman Catholicism, the Americans were viewed as even more hostile. Quebecoise rallied to the Union Jack against the American invaders. The fall of 1896 had hit and temperatures were dropping, forcing the Americans to speed up, something that became difficult when Quebecoise militias, many of them skilled at trapping and hunting, began harassing American supply caravans. The Americans were rushing not only due to the winter, but because President Holmes understood that a presidential election would be held in November of 1896. The leading National Democratic candidate, Grover Cleveland, had become famed for his defense of Buffalo and was running on an antiwar ticket. In addition, the leading Republican candidate, John Hay, also called for a negotiated peace settlement.

In their hurry, the Americans neglected to bringing a lot of the heavier equipment, including artillery and boats. Although the American army was able to reach the St. Lawrence River, even managing to chase out wildly outnumbered Anglo-Canadian troops in fierce house-to-house firefights in the cities of Brossard and Boucherville, they really didn't have the capability to cross into Montreal proper. This was considered acceptable by the Americans, because the goal wasn't to necessarily seize Montreal (viewed as impossible given the time constraints and difficulty in supplying a large, artillery-based army), but rather to simply place an army across the river from Montreal capable of interdicting Anglo-Canadian commerce. As a result, the Americans came surprisingly prepared for the winter. Although the Americans suffered bad losses in Brossard and Boucherville, the majority of losses on both sides would simply be disease. Holmes figured peace would come soon, and this would give the Americans leverage.

Unfortunately for the Americans, it was not the blockade of Montreal that shined across world headlines. Instead, it was another daring American strike. The bulk of the Royal Navy busy patrolling the Atlantic or seizing Hawaii (much to the horror but also respect of the British, when the British closed onto Honolulu, rather than surrender, most of the Marines fled into the mountains of Hawaii to fight an insurgency). On the other hand, the British were relieved because this meant there would be no assault on Honolulu itself, sparing the city of civilian casualties. However, this meant that the Royal Navy stayed in Hawaii, allowing the Americans to sail up the West Coast towards their primary target. Cut off from the Trans-Pacific Railroad, the Canadian city of Vancouver had only a fairly undersupplied garrison. Members of the California, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho State Militia landed via a shocking amphibious assault near on Vancouver itself, skirting all of the Anglo-Canadian defenses placed between Seattle and Vancouver. The American troops quickly moved up, crushing any Anglo-Canadian attempt to resist. American ships blew apart the naval defenses of Vancouver (a relatively new city), much to the shock of the Anglo-Canadians, who consistently underestimated American gunnery. Unable to easily travel between the islands of Vancouver, the Canadian garrison quickly ordered a surrender.

However, not even the shocking loss of Vancouver would be the news. Vancouver was a relatively small town, having only around 20,000 residents. However, a large proportion of them, around 4,000 (half from America), were actually Chinese laborers. Members of the California State Militia, egged on by California Governor Denis Kearny and citing the massacre of Americans in Qing China itself, went looting and searching for revenge in Chinatown, which caused many local Chinese gangsters to fight back. The violence quickly expanded into a massacre, as militiamen indiscriminately murdered civilians. The Canadians didn't care very much either way, but the British second-in-command of the garrison in Vancouver, a young very well-connected man who demanded to be put near the front-line but wasn't because of his politically powerful father, the young officer Winston Churchill, reacted with outrage, viewing this as a total breach of the British surrender. Churchill, although holding many racist attitudes, found the conduct profoundly dishonorable. Churchill then immediately revoked his surrender, ordering his subordinates to continue resisting the Americans and help any civilians escape. Some listened. Interestingly, the British were unable to actually reach Chinatown, so almost all of the escaping Chinese were aided by members of the Squamish tribe, who were skilled in canoeing and helped them escape via canoes.

An American squad sent to accept the surrender of British troops had not been told the battle was still on and they were indeed shot and killed by British troops when they came to receive the British surrender. News quickly spread throughout that British troops had plotted with "oriental gangsters and triads" to fake-surrender in order to murder American troops. Tragically, this led a gang of Americans to break into where the already-surrendered Anglo-Canadian troops and lynch most of them, causing the rest of the British Army to side with Churchill's order. The city of Vancouver broke into chaos as nobody was sure if the battle was still going on - something not aided when Churchill's men went on the offensive, even killing much of the American high command in a daring ambush! Several British POWs escaped in the chaos, disguising themselves as civilians, causing several American militiamen to conclude that many British civilians were actually British soldiers in disguise. An apocryphal order (not given, but rumor spread that it was given) for the Americans to arrest all Canadian men over 18 (or 16 or 14 depending on the rumor spreading). This caused many of the Canadians to violently resist, which only sparked the Americans to treat all male civilians as enemy combatants.

After a few days, horrified members of the American navy landed on shore to restore order. The city of Vancouver had almost entirely burned down. An estimated 10,000 people had died in the "Rape of Vancouver." The rest of the British garrison, including Churchill himself, were now safely in custody, but much of the city was still in flames. The Battle of Vancouver was surprisingly the last major battle of the American Front in First World War, but it would leave a remarkably bad taste in everyone's mouths.
 
Oof, this doesn't sound as if it'll go down well in the history of either nations. Not going to be pleasant relations at all after this and I hope the mention of it being the last battle of this front on this war isn't a hint that there'll be other battles on other fronts in further wars. It's going to be really messy else.
 
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