Dixie Forever: A Timeline

Discussion in 'Alternate History Discussion: Before 1900' started by JJohnson, Nov 9, 2018.

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What is Missouri's fate and the new capitol location?

Poll closed Feb 6, 2019.
  1. Missouri- Union

    8 vote(s)
    24.2%
  2. Missouri - Confederate

    12 vote(s)
    36.4%
  3. Missouri - split on Missouri River

    10 vote(s)
    30.3%
  4. Missouri - split on River, then straight line above Jefferson City (more even split)

    2 vote(s)
    6.1%
  5. Capital - Blue Square 1

    1 vote(s)
    3.0%
  6. Capital - Blue Square 2

    1 vote(s)
    3.0%
  7. Capital - Blue Square 3

    2 vote(s)
    6.1%
  8. Capital - Diamond 4

    5 vote(s)
    15.2%
  9. Capital - Diamond 5

    5 vote(s)
    15.2%
  10. Other - (explained in post); but not Richmond.

    3 vote(s)
    9.1%
Multiple votes are allowed.
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  1. Ace Venom Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Jan 6, 2004
    Since the Allied forces entered Constantinople, does King Constantine I of Greece get crowned Emperor of the Greeks by Patriarch Germanus V in the Hagia Sophia? I could imagine that being supported by Berlin.
     
    Last edited: Mar 12, 2019
    JJohnson and Confederate Liberal like this.
  2. Threadmarks: Chapter 46: Winning the Peace if Possible

    JJohnson Banned

    Joined:
    Jul 9, 2008
    Location:
    Europe
    Armistice

    On the 11th of November, 1915, the French signed an armistice in a railcar near Versailles outside Paris. However, due to massive press censorship, the French people were shocked and surprised at their loss, and believed some kind of conspiracy must have been involved. The lowly sergeant, de Gaulle, was particularly surprised and believed it some kind of betrayal.

    Treaty of Berlin

    Karol Józef I arrived in Berlin, placed in command of the declared Kingdom of Poland by the Germans, but being surprisingly well received by the Polish people.

    Americans, Confederates, British, Germans, Italians, Turks, Greeks, French all met in Berlin to negotiate the new order of affairs in the world. Reparations was the watchword, as were the territories of France, including those of mainland France itself.

    St Pierre et Miquelon was decided to revert to Canada as part of Quebec very early on in the negotiations. Polynesia would merge with the Washington Islands to form the Territory of Polynesia, though there was debate on the status of New Caledonia, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique.

    A side deal while President Wilson was busy discussing his 14 points and sounding important was that the Confederates would assume the Bahamas, Bermuda, and British Virgin Islands in exchange for forgiving $60 million in British war debt plus giving a very favorable deal for the rest of it, wherein the British had 80 years to pay at a 2% interest rate. The United States, looking to expand their own holdings after finding out about this side deal, managed to negotiate for the Marshall Islands from Germany, and the Cook Islands from the United Kingdom, including Niue, for modest reductions in their interest rates and roughly $40 million in debt reduction between the two of them. The Bostonian who negotiated for the United States, David Henderson, left a sour impression on the British and Germans afterward, with his continual laughing at his own jokes, which neither found funny but him, and his apparent lack of personal hygiene (his hair often looked unclean and greasy). He did manage to secure a division of Guiana into Guiana and Amapa, securing Amapa for the United States, though many in the Senate didn't even want anything in the Caribbean, as they considered it a Confederate Lake, not worthy of their concern.

    In Europe, Dunkirk was ceded to Belgium as a reparation from the invasion. Germany initially sought the entirety of Lorraine, but eventually agreed to the Ivory Coast, French Congo, and Gabon, and reparations in the amount of 20 billion francs in gold, ships, food, securities, commodities, and other forms. They secured the occupation of French coalfields for 10 years and half of all coal output profit would go to Germany to pay its reparations, the other half to the other allied powers. The United Kingdom agreed to take Dahomey, Senegal, Chad, Oubangui-Chari, Niger, Guinea, Upper Volta, and Madagascar.

    The United States took over France's cessions in China, notably Shanghai.

    Territorial Acquisitions:
    Canada: St Pierre et Miquelon
    CSA: French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Yucatan, Danish Virgin Islands; Bermuda, Bahamas, British Virgin Islands; Guadeloupe, Martinique, Guiana, Clipperton Island
    USA: Wallis and Futuna, St Barts; Cook Islands; Amapa
    Netherlands: St Martin
    Monaco: Menton, Roquebrune
    Italy: Nice
    Belgium: Dunkirk
    Germany: French Scattered and Antarctic Islands, Gabon, Congo, Ivory Coast, Mayotte, Reunion
    UK: Madagascar, Dahomey, Senegal, Chad, Oubangui-Chari, Niger, Guinea, Upper Volta

    The Ottoman Empire was likewise partitioned by the Allies, appalled and shocked at the images of genocide and the utter lack of care by the Ottomans, who didn't appear fazed by the horror, and even commented that the Allied powers probably faked the images.

    Greece: Cyprus (with British base rights for 99 years to monitor the Ottomans); European Turkey, Northern Epirus; Aegean Turkey (OTL: Mugla, Aydin, Manisa, Balikesir, Bursa, Bilecik, Sakarya and west); Trebizond (OTL: the vilayet not in Armenia)
    Armenia: as here
    Kurdistan: as here plus Syrian/Iraq Kurdistan not in Assyria or elsewise
    Azerbaijan: gained Persian Azerbaijan
    British Mandate of Palestine (OTL)
    Lower Syria (OTL Lebanon and 10-14)
    Upper Syria (remainder of Syria not in LS or Kurdistan)
    Assyria: green area here



    Reactions to Peace

    Germany
    [​IMG]
    Celebrations in front of the Reichstag

    The signing of the treaty was met with roars of approval, singing, and dancing from a crowd outside the Reichstag. In Berlin proper, people rejoiced at the official end of the war, the return of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany, and that France had agreed to pay reparations. The jubilant public attitude soon gave way to politics; right-wing politicians believed it too lenient, since they didn't gain any of France's coal fields and only partly dismantled her empire; left-wing politicians believed it too harsh. General Ludendorff remarked, "this (treaty) is not peace. It is an armistice for twenty years."

    In Alsace-Lorraine, many French-speakers would either assimilate into speaking German, stop speaking French with their children, Germanize their names, or move into France. Many Alsatians hoping to return to France after more than 40 years simply moved to France.

    Greece
    Patriarch Germanus V of the Orthodox Church crowned Constantine I as King of Greece in the Hagia Sophia, less than two weeks after the Greeks had taken control of the city of Constantinople, and rapidly removed almost all evidence of Turkish occupation for the last 400 years, having reconsecrated the church as the main church of Greece.

    [​IMG] [​IMG]
    Patriarch Germanus V and King Constantine I of Greece
    [​IMG]
    Hagia Sophia, location of the coronation

    France

    On the 28th of April, the French delegation under the leadership of the Foreign Minister Aristide Briand arrived in Berlin. On May 5, when faced with the conditions dictated to them by the victors, including the 'War Guilt Clause,' Briand replied to Wilson, Benning, and Lloyd George, "We know the full brunt of hate that confronts us here. You demand from us to confess we were the only guilty party of war; such a confession in my mouth would be a lie."

    Since France wasn't allowed to take part in the negotiations, the French government issued a protest against what it considered to be unfair demands, a "violation of honor,' and soon afterwards, withdrew from the proceedings.

    Frenchmen of all political shades denounced the treaty, particularly the treaty that blamed France for starting the war, as an insult to the nation's honor. They referred to the treaty as "le dictat," since its terms were presented to France on a take-it-or-leave-it basis. France's first democratically elected head of government in some time, President Armand Fallières, resigned rather than sign the treaty.

    [​IMG]
    President Armand Fallières

    In his impassioned speech before the French National Assembly on March 17, 1917, he called the treaty a 'murderous plan' and exclaimed, "Which hand, trying to put us in chains like these, would not wither? The treaty is unacceptable!"

    After his resignation, a new coalition government was formed under President Raymond Poincaré, who knew France was in an impossible situation, with over $100 billion francs demanded in reparations. He shared his countrymen's disgust with the treaty, but was sober enough to consider that the government was not in any position to reject it; the allies were right outside Paris if they failed to sign. With this in mind, he asked the French Marshal if the army could offer any meaningful resistance, to which he was told the army could not even on a limited scale resume the war. When told this he signed the treaty, and the assembly voted 322 to 131 with 5 abstentions to sign the treaty. The foreign minister and the president arrived in Berlin to sign the treaty on behalf of France, signing June 21, 1917, and by the new Senate by a vote of 112 to 80.

    [​IMG]
    One of many demonstrations against the treaty in the streets of Paris.
    Nationalists, conservatives, and ex-military leaders all condemned the treaty. Politicians of the Lyon Republic who supported the treaty, such as socialists, communists, and even Jews were viewed with suspicion as people of questionable loyalty. Anti-semitism, which had been on the decline since the Dreyfus Affair had been resolved about a decade prior, was on the rise again. Rumors began that the Jews had not supported the war and played a role in selling France out to her enemies. People who appeared to benefit from a weakened France and the new French Third Republic were on the receiving end of slander and gossip that they had "stabbed France in the back." Further, people who instigated unrest and strikes on the home front in critical military industries or opposed French nationalism and the restoration of Alsace-Lorraine were believed to have been factors contributing to France's defeat.

    The theories floating around were given credence by the widely reported facts of the surrender of France in November 1916, where their armies had halted the Confederate and American advance, as well as the British and German advance to the east. The failure of the war was blamed on strikes in the arms industries at the critical moment in the offensive, leaving soldiers with inadequate supplies. Strikes were regarded as having been instigated by traitors, in particular, the Jews, by nationalists.

    United Kingdom

    Delegates from the British Government and the Commonwealth had mixed feelings on the resulting treaty. Some saw the policy of grabbing French colonies as greedy and vindictive; others thought they were too lenient with the French. Lloyd George and his private secretary Philip Kerr believed in the treaty, and were worried about Europe being kept in a constant state of turmoil and anxiety if Germany were left alone to enforce the treaty. One delegate, Richard Hammond wrote, "are we making a good peace?" while General Jan Smuts (from the South African delegation), wrote to Lloyd George, telling him the treaty was unstable, and didn't want the French to sign "at the point of the bayonet," lest they create another Napoleon to trample across Europe. He continued, writing that promises of "a new international order and a fairer, better world are not written in this treaty."

    Despite this, the treaty got widespread approval from the public, but this changed as French complaints mounted.

    Italy

    Reaction in Italy was negative. While they gained recognition of Tunisia and Libya, no other colonial gains were made, and Corsica, Savoy, Trentino, the Littoral, or Dalmatia were acquired. Nice was gained, but Monaco gained a good portion of the territory, muddling the gain.

    Confederate States

    The Confederates were overall happy with the treaty, having achieved what they wanted out of it. They got rid of a colonial power in their hemisphere, and increased their own territory. While the British still owed them and they lost out on some debt repayment, the Confederate delegation felt they more than made out better in the end. The only downside some saw was that they didn't take additional territory from Mexico down to the 21.5° or 21° parallel. Many in the Senate wanted the additional territory to act as a buffer against a future Mexican attack, and many of them in Rio Grande, Sonora, Jefferson, and Durango were determined to get that land some day.

    The Confederate Senate ratified the main body of the treaty, while rejecting the League of Nations addendum in Appendix 1 of the treaty, believing it to be only a European body, since they're the ones who started the war.

    Parades were held in the streets of the capital district, Davis, along with Richmond, Atlanta, Nashville, Austin, San Diego, Havana, San Juan, and other cities.

    [​IMG]
    Parade in Tallahassee, FL

    [​IMG]
    Memorial Service shortly after the end of the war in Oakwood National Cemetery, Richmond, VA.



    United States

    After the Berlin conference, Democrat President Woodrow Wilson exclaimed "at last the world knows America as the savior of the world!" (This despite the Confederates having essentially bankrolled the allies for weapons and oil 60/40 with the US, and having had to fight two fronts, while the US fought one. But as a typical Yankee, the Confederates thought, he thought much more highly of himself than he ought).

    The Republicans in the Senate, led by Henry Cabot Lodge, while controlling the Senate, couldn't make the two-thirds majority needed to pass the treaty.

    A discontent block of 13-19 'Irreconcilables,' (mostly Republicans but representing either Irish or German Democrats), fiercely opposed the treaty, their constituents wanting a much harsher peace on the French. They feared some provisions, like the League of Nations being able to make war without a vote of the US Congress. While Wilson went on a speaking tour of the nation to refute the group, he had a serious stroke, limiting his ability to do much of anything. It came close on the 20th of November, to pass with reservations, but Wilson rejected this compromise and ended chances for US ratification. Wilson's successor was able to sign the treaty with reservations; meaning the US would agree to all but the League of Nations addendum.

    Austria-Hungary
    [​IMG]
    Victory Parade in Vienna after the news of the war and the troops returned from the front

    While the Austrians were ecstatic over their victory, their multi-ethnic nation was beginning to strain and fracture. The Czechs and Slovaks wanted not just to be part of the empire, they wanted their own nation; Wilson's fourteen points had gotten to them. Romania wanted its Transylvanian brethren to join them. Italians in Trentino wanted to be part of Italy, and South Slavs wanted their own nation together. By 1919, Austria-Hungary had managed to federate its territory; German West Hungary was added to Austria's territory, including Ödenburg, Wieselburg, Preßburg, St Gotthard, and a few other German-speaking villages, Trentino was given autonomy from South Tyrol in Austria, with the Littoral as Italian Austria within Austria. Karniola and some of Styria were merged with Fiume to form a Slovenian Austria, excluding Marburg an der Drau for Styria itself, and Gottschee which was an autonomous region for Germans. Hungary added some territory from Slovakia (OTL First Vienna Award), while the South Slavic area was federated into its own territory as was Czechoslovakia, aside from two enclaves of Austria. This arrangement however, would not last. This would be one of the first tests of the League of Nations.

    Social Outcomes

    Both in the United States and Confederate States, victory made both nations intensely proud and patriotic. Flags for both nations were widespread, hanging from houses, indicating their support for the war effort. In Louisiana, Flags were especially conspicuous and French-speakers volunteered for the army to act as translators. Almost no one was as patriotic in their support than Louisianans. On the other hand, southwestern Confederates, and even those in the Caribbean who spoke Spanish and had Spanish names felt a lot of social pressure and suspicion. Many existing Spanish-language newspapers scuttled or transferred over to English; the Spanish-speakers translated their names to something more English-sounding (Antonio Lopez became Anthony Wolfson, for example), stopped teaching their children Spanish or speaking to them in Spanish, or even, in a number of cases, moved to a Protestant church. The feeling of being somehow tied to Mexico was bad enough for Confederates that Spanish use declined even more sharply from this point.

    Annexation

    May 31, 1917, the Confederate States formally accepted annexation of the Yucatan Republic for 5 years as a territory, and then with statehood thereafter.
    [​IMG]
    Flag of Yucatan

    British Honduras annexed the division of Peten from Guatemala, for the British to better protect its colony. The United Kingdom also annexed the Providencia Islands, calling them Providence Islands.

    The world was much changed in 1918, with some hope but some trepidation.
     
    Last edited: Mar 14, 2019
  3. Threadmarks: Chapter 46.5: The Union and Confederate Progressives

    JJohnson Banned

    Joined:
    Jul 9, 2008
    Location:
    Europe
    USA

    Beginning with Lincoln's War (as it was often called in the North), the United States had levied an income tax on its citizens in fits and starts, but this was finally struck down from the Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act in the Supreme Court case Pollock vs. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. For several years, Congress didn't attempt another income tax, but due to a coalition of bankers having wanted and manipulated several panics, most notably in 1907, the Congress finally sent an income tax amendment to the states, passing in 1913, along with the Federal Reserve Act, creating the United States' third national bank, but one privately owned by a coalition of bankers.

    16th:
    The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration.
    ------

    This amendment was proposed in the 62nd US Congress in 1912. The US Senate investigate three Senate elections from 1857 to 1900 over charges of corruption, and in 1900, William Clark had his election voided when it was concluded he bought votes in the Montana legislature. Another issue was electoral deadlocks causing states to allow their Senate seats to remain vacant for two years. Delaware had one seat vacant from 1899 to 1903, the longest yet; 46 other elections were deadlocked across 20 states between 1891 to 1905. Picking Senators always seemed to be a state legislative issue, with some states instituting 'advisory elections' for that purpose, functioning in effect as general elections, allowing legislative campaigns to focus on local issues.

    The American William Jennings Bryan, a perpetual presidential candidate in his time, called for popular election of senators, following in the footsteps of Henry R Storrs in 1826, and Andrew Johnson in 1868. During the 1860s there was a major Congressional dispute on the issue during and after the war, with the House and Senate both vetoing the appointment of John Stockton to the Senate due to being approved by a plurality, not a majority, of the New Jersey legislature. Congress passed a bill in 1866 requiring senators to be elected by a majority of a state legislature. By the 1890s, support for direct election had increased, and reformers worked on multiple fronts, including the Populist Party in 1892 for national awareness, and in the states, such as Oregon, in 1908, directly electing its senators. Reformers noted ten of the 33 US states had 'advisory referenda' which acted like general elections in effect.

    The reform was considered by its opponents to threaten the rights and independence of the states, which were intended to have their own branch of Congress to which they would send their "ambassadors." The original method was intended to protect against the swallowing up of states into a national, rather than federal, government, reducing them to mere provinces exercising 'privileges' rather than 'rights' of sovereign states. It was designed to avoid the populism of the House, so they could "take a more detached view of issues coming before Congress," allowing state legislatures to retain the right to "instruct" their senators on how to vote for or against proposals, thus giving the states both direct and indirect representation in the federal government. This was thought to help defeat the problem of the federal government being subject to 'special interests.' The hope was to offer greater stability and abler deliberation than in the House, while allowing the 'better men' of society to deliberate, emulating the British House of Lords.

    The measure was ratified between 1912 and 1913.

    17th:
    The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

    When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

    -----------------------
    18th (1916):
    1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all the territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
    2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
    3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

    Influenced for decades by the temperance movement which believed that a ban on the sale of alcohol would ameliorate poverty and other societal issues. The Anti-Saloon League began leading a campaign to ban the sale of alcohol on a state level. They led speeches, advertisements, and public demonstrations, claiming that banning the sale of alcohol would get rid of poverty and social issues, such as violence and immoral behavior, make families happier, reduce industrial mistakes, and the world would be an overall better place. Joining the ASL was the Women's Christian Temperance Union, which tried banning the sale, manufacture, and distribution of alcoholic beverages. Some women, such as Carrie Nation, became a household name in the US due to her violent actions in vandalizing saloon properties.

    Many states had already enacted statewide prohibition but not consumption of alcohol in the home. But that wasn't enough for the temperance movement. Northern churches, long since split from Southern churches, were affected by the progressivism and appeals to centralized authority, despite many Americans' natural tendencies to distrust central power, even in the North. As opposed to the South, northern evangelical Protestants began lobbying for national prohibition, beginning in 1893 in Ohio.

    Republicans, Democrats, Progressives, and Independents voted in favor of the amendment in the House and Senate; the two older parties, the Republicans and Democrats, acting more to try to diffuse the Progressive and Independent Parties, to increase their own power and eliminate two political rival parties. Since prohibition had already been implemented in many states, it passed quickly by 1916, a year after its proposal. While it did not ban consumption of alcohol, it did make it difficult to obtain alcoholic beverages legally, since it prohibited the sale, manufacture, or distribution of them within US Territory. If caught selling, making, or distributing, a person could be arrested.

    Soon after the passage of this amendment and the Volstead Act, saloons across the border with the Confederacy had a remarkable increase in business, helping lead to the defeat of a similar amendment in the Confederacy.
    ---------------------------
    19th (1918):
    The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.

    Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation

    While originally proposed in 1878 by Senator Aaron Sargent, it was submitted to the states 41 years later in 1919. It was ratified a year later. Most of the eastern US states had very limited suffrage for women until ratification. Maryland, West Virginia, Pennsylvania had no suffrage; Delaware, New Jersey, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire had only school, bond, or tax suffrage; western states like Northern California, Columbia, Oregon, Washington, and others had full suffrage. Some states had only presidential or primary suffrage.

    Beginning with the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 in New York, suffrage bills made little headway before Lincoln's War, but gained renewed vigor with the expansion of rights to former slaves in the decades afterwards. Settlement of the west allowed the issue to be brought up continually at a state level, becoming law in Wyoming Territory, Utah, and Washington Territory, but failing in many other places. Two competing organizations, the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) and National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA), attempted getting the vote through the court, but when several Supreme Court decisions failed in the 1870s and 1880s, these groups shifted to advocating for a constitutional amendment.

    It was proposed by Republican North California Senator Richard Johnson, who was a dedicated suffrage advocate and had met Susan Anthony on a train right in the 1870s. For thirty years, no action was taken on the measure, however, until the 1910s when a flurry of successes occurred from the west, moving eastward, coinciding with the successes of the Progressive and Socialist Parties, and the election of Woodrow Wilson. The amendment failed in 1914, but was reconsidered in 1917, as there was considerable desire amongst politicians of both parties to have it enacted before the 1918 elections. It passed the House by 31 extra votes, and failed the Senate twice before finally passing 48-18 in the Senate in May of 1918.



    CSA


    During secession, Confederates in northern Alabama, eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia, western North Carolina, and western Virginia were somewhat Unionist, with pockets of it in other states. These would form the basis of the progressive movement in the Confederacy. The Confederate progressives created the Progressive Party, which had similar hopes of reform, but different policy objectives than in the US.

    The Confederate progressives were concerned with unequal wages, the status of women and blacks, vote integrity, conservation, internal improvements, and reforming government.

    From the 1890s to 1920s, Progressivism would make leaps and cause several new amendments to the Confederate Constitution. In reaction to the passage of the US 16th and 17th amendments, to try to prevent an income tax from becoming law and to prevent the states from losing their representation, the Confederates passed their numerous amendments:

    4th (1913):
    Congress shall pass no law taxing the wages or other income, from whatever source, of citizens of the Confederate States.
    Passed in reaction to the US 16th amendment, to protect peoples' hard earned money. Coupled with a constitutional provision preventing a central bank, the Confederate States' monetary history would now take a much different path from that of the United States.

    5th (1914):
    1. No amendment shall change the method of selection of Senators to direct election by the people in the several states. State legislatures shall elect Senators by a majority of their members in accordance with state law.
    2. No person who shall be a candidate for Senate from any state shall attempt to gain office through exchange of any thing of value, be it money, property, votes, or favorable legislation or through the commission of any crime.
    3. The people of the several states shall have the right to recall a senator or representative from office by petition in accordance with state law, 60 days after a general election shall have taken place, or 150 days prior to an election, if such person is recalled by a majority of those voting. Any senator or representative removed by petition shall no longer be eligible for that office and immediately vacate the office if successfully recalled on the date of certification of that vote; any senator or representative not removed from office shall not face petition again until an election shall have intervened. Only citizens of a state shall vote within a recall election, which shall occur within two weeks of a petition being certified by the appropriate state authority, having twenty percent of the number of legally cast votes in the most recent Presidential election as signatures to require such recall election.
    3. No citizen shall serve more than 18 years in either the Senate, House, or both. Upon ratification, any person whose length of service shall exceed 18 years shall be ineligible to continue in the Congress past the next election.
    Passed in reaction to the US 17th amendment, preventing direct election but allowing recall elections of corrupt politicians and term limiting them to remove long-served politicians to act as a check on the legislature. This also prevents an issue found with some Senators who were found or accused of having bribed, perjured, or stolen to gain office. By the original Confederate Constitution, vacancies in the Senate were filled by the states' governors, avoiding the issues with long vacancies the US faced.

    6th (1914):
    No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.
    The original second amendment to the US Constitution, here passed to put some accountability in place.

    7th (1915):
    1. Citizens of the Confederate States shall present a photographic identification card or book, issued by their state of residence, in order to vote in any election, in accordance with state law.
    2. States shall remove any deceased person, foreign national, or citizen no longer residing in the state at least 6 months before an election, from the official voter rolls, in accordance with state law.

    Passed as a result of a series of scandals in Kentucky, Mississippi, and Alabama concerning voter fraud in a series of elections where state representatives won with more than 100% of the vote.

    Widespread news and outrage at the results of the 1914 election during the war, wherein about two dozen Representatives were found to have been involved in stuffing ballot boxes and paying people to fill out ballots in the names of dead people, and paying foreign nationals who hadn't gained citizenship to vote. This amendment was intended to ensure the integrity of the vote, while attempting to retain the power within the states to continue to regulate the state franchise. The Confederate Congress passed a joint resolution with the veiled message that the states needed to clean up their voting or the Congress would act again. This was one of the chief aims of the Confederate Progressive movement.
    ---------------------------
    8th (1918):
    1. The right to vote shall not be denied or abridged on account of gender.
    2. When any state shall attempt to restrict the right of any citizen or groups of citizens from voting on the basis of gender, race, color, or previous condition of servitude, that state's representation in the House of Representatives shall be reduced accordingly by those which the state attempted to restrict from voting.
    3. Congress shall enforce this by applicable law.
    Passed as a result of the women's suffrage movement, widespread in both the US and CS.

    The passage of women's suffrage in the Confederacy took longer than in the United States, as many Confederate States, notably Tennessee, Alabama, Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina, Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia, and Virginia, voted against the amendment, but the states of Oklahoma, Arizona, New Mexico, Kentucky, California, Missouri, Arkansas, Texas, South California, and Sonora passed the amendment when it was proposed in 1915. 10/25 states was not the 2/3 necessary (17 states) to ratify, and after the initial success, Tennessee (11), Rio Grande (12), Jefferson (13), Durango (14) passed the amendment in 1916, followed by Hawaii (15) in 1917, and finally Santo Domingo (16) and Puerto Rico (17) in 1918, enabling it into law across the Confederacy, roughly a year before the same in the United States.

    Many states who had rejected the amendment protested, and some members even publicly declared they should secede and form a new Confederacy, but their protests were ineffective, and in the fall 1918 elections, with women newly enfranchised, and many blacks enfranchised for the first time in decades, a large number of Democrats who had expressed those opinions were voted out of office in the states' and federal legislatures. The largest number of votes ever cast in the Confederacy occurred this year, as many state legislatures who opposed the measure were not in session when it passed, and the Confederate Supreme Court heard three cases - Sanford vs. Virginia, Carter vs. South Carolina, and Kelly vs. Tennessee - about women and blacks voting. For the first time, the Supreme Court struck down the Tennessee law prohibiting women from voting as inconsistent with the new amendment. Both Virginia and South Carolina had laws that managed to disenfranchise black citizens, while grandfathering in white citizens, which the court found denied equal protection of the law, and were inconsistent with this and the third amendment to the Constitution. A number of white citizens protested in the streets when this was announced in the month before the election, and there was violence against black citizens attempting to vote, to the detriment of those states where it happened. However, there were a large number of veterans from the Great War, surviving veterans of the Spanish-Confederate War, and of the War for Southern Independence, all of whom spoke powerfully and forcefully for black votes - their lives had been saved many times over by black soldiers, who fought as bravely or more bravely, than many white soldiers - and for women votes - acting as nurses, secretaries, and filling various non-combat roles they freed up men to fight on the front lines, and filling jobs in factories for the first time in their lives and planting victory gardens to provide food for the troops, Confederate women of any color were essential to winning the war. By 1920, and the next census, the states which tried to restrict the vote to blacks and women in the east found they didn't have enough votes in their legislatures to enable any such legislation, as they would risk losing a lot of votes in the House if they were to try to do so. It wasn't without a lot of protest and heated arguments, but the right to vote was thus extended to women, and ensured to blacks.
    --------------------
    9th (1918):
    Congress shall have the authority to tax tobacco, liquors, other alcoholic beverages, or other intoxicating substances transported across state lines, or imported into the Confederate States in accordance with law. Commerce occurring solely within a state shall be outside the authority of Congress to tax or regulate. States shall have the power to tax tobacco, liquors, or other intoxicating substances and regulate them in accordance with state law.

    Not prohibiting liquor or tobacco, but allowing Congress to tax it for revenue purposes. The second sentence was added to ensure later Congresses wouldn't attempt to tax business activity happening solely within a single state.

    This was passed in 1918 mostly as a reaction to US Prohibition. While there was a number of pro-prohibition leagues in various states, roughly in the same counties that were pro-Union in the 1860s, the prohibition movement in the Confederacy was much weaker than in the US, and it was in fact Kentucky, Virginia, Missouri, Tennessee, and North Carolina which proposed the amendment to allow federal taxation of alcohol crossing state lines, but at the same time, expressly forbidding interference with commerce solely occurring within the states, to protect the states' rights against the federal government in the South.

    The states of Missouri, Kentucky, and Virginia especially experienced a sizable increase in business at various bars and saloons near the border with the United States, colloquially called the 'Liquor Visa' visit. Alexandria (the portion remaining in Virginia since 1865), McLean, Leesburg, Furnace Mountain, Berryville, Winchester, Wilde Acres, Monterey, Warm Springs, Covington, Rich Creek, Rocky Gap, Stony Ridge, Bearwallow, Glen Lyn, Pearisburg, and Narrows in Virginia; Freeburn, Clifford, Louisa, Prichard, Ashland, Raceland, Wurtland, Greenup, Fullerton, Vanceburg, Maysville, Augusta, Silver Grove, Covington, Bellevue, Carrollton, Madison, Prospect, Louisville, Brandenburg, Hawesville, Rockport, Owensboro, Henderson, Confederatetown (OTL: Uniontown), Paducah (across from Metropolis), Wickliffe in Kentucky; Cape Girardeau, Festus, Barnhart, Imperial, Arnold, Oakville, Mehlville, St Louis, Clarksville, Louisiana, Ashburn, Saverton, Hannibal, Taylor (across from Quincy), Canton, Alexandria (across from Warsaw and south of Keokuk, Iowa), St Francisville, Brock, Lancaster, Coatsville, Chariton, Mendota, Unionville, Powersville, Cleopatra, Mercer, Saline, Andover, Hatfield, Irena and Lee City (OTL Grant City), Sheridan, Hopkins, Clearmont, Westboro, Bremen (south of Hamburg, IA), Phelps City, Fortescue, Nodaway, St Joseph, Platte City, Kansas City, Belton, Drexel, Amoret, Deerfield, Mindenmines, Asbury, Duquesne in Missouri; Picher, Lenapah, Nowata, Blackwell, Alva in Oklahoma, and other cities in Arizona, New Mexico, and South California all experienced growth in business and thus tax revenues, allowing the Confederate states and Confederate government to reduce their debts from the war incredibly quickly in comparison to the United States, but the need for more police to protect from drunken Americans did cause an uptick in cost in border states, since Americans would tend to imbibe more than native Confederates, since alcohol was harder to come by and their visit was for a limited time.
    ----------------------

    10th (1918):
    Congress shall have the authority to recommend land from the several states to be set aside for the purpose of establishing national parks, and to maintain it for the people of the Confederate States, and owned by the states; or to recommend to the states such land as shall constitute a national park, which shall be so maintained.
    Created to help preserve natural landmarks from development, but for states to retain ownership thereof, just under the maintenance of the national government. An outgrowth of the conservation movement

    ------------------------
    11th (1918):
    1. All non-military debts contracted by the Congress shall be retired within 20 years.
    2. Congress shall pass a balanced budget each year on or before October 1. In the event of a declared war, the Congress shall have the authority not to be required to balance the budget, but any debts contracted to fund the war effort must be retired within 25 years.
    3. If no budget is passed on or before October 1, no member of Congress shall be paid until a budget is passed and signed into law.
    This was written due to the length of time taken to retire debts from the War of Southern Independence, and to prevent Congress from deficit spending outside of a declared war.


    12th (1918):
    Congress shall make no law regulating wages or prices. This was passed in reaction to price controls and wage controls in the US.

    13th (1919):
    Congress shall make no law authorizing the government to own radio stations or other media or to create programming for that or other media.
    Created in reaction to the US's Committee on Public Information, a propaganda bureau of the national government

    14th (1920):
    1. Congress shall have the power to break up any monopoly or trust or other arrangement operating across state lines or cooperating across state lines in the following instances: (1) which shall have the effect of restraining new business or individuals into market; (2) restraining trade of businesses or individuals existing or entering into market or restraining the rights of individuals or businesses otherwise being exercised; (3) controlling or conspiring to control prices or supply of any good or service
    2. The States shall possess the same power within their borders as in section 1
    3. Congress shall make no law authorizing any monopoly of any good or service across the Confederate States of America.

    Based on the two court challenges to the anti-trust act, this made those powers constitutional.

    15th (1920):
    Congress shall make no law funding education in any form, neither primary schools, nor colleges or universities.

    Passed in response to progressive calls for national action on education in eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia, and northern Alabama, this would prevent nationalized control and centralization of education, while allowing each state their own power to control and direct education as they saw fit. Most education in the Confederacy was religiously provided up to this point with many churches operating schools on a subscription basis, and colleges focused on degrees that were practical and economical, without wasting time and money on esoteric, useless courses. Soon, schools began adding new courses and states began requiring education till 16, removing children from the workforce for much of the day, increasing wages of other workers as a result. Education soon began having professionalized teachers and began changing from one-room schools to multi-room, multi-grade levels and began grading with letters rather than a simple pass/fail. Schools in the Confederacy were mostly retained under county-wide control outside of most major cities, and children retained their traditional values in the Confederacy since teachers were required to be local.

    At this time, philanthropists, such as Bushrod Johnson II, began funding schools, libraries, city gyms, and other public works to improve education and literacy across the Confederacy. By 1916, the number of millionaires in the Confederacy had grown to around 12,000, and they spent their money on improving their communities, aside from their own sizable houses. The Confederate Red Cross was created, advocating more professionalism in medicine and licensing, and the Confederate Association for the Advancement of Colored People (founded in 1871) changed its focus from suffrage to improving the social status of black Confederates through education and the economy. Many states passed laws in the 1910-1919 providing for primary elections, which reduced the power of bosses and political machines, cleaning up the perception of back-room deals.
    ---------------------------------
    As a result of the number of pensions by soldiers injured in the war, Congress passed the 16th amendment as well:

    16th (1920):
    Congress shall have the power to provide pensions for soldiers honorably discharged either partially or completely disabled or under other causes, their widows and orphans, in accordance with law.

    Congress shall make no law authorizing pensions for disability, old age, or other causes. The States shall have this power reserved to them.

    This was passed to prevent Arizonan citizens from paying for a Virginian pensioner, and ensuring the states had their own power to create pensions if necessary, as a number of women and men progressives were asking for pensions for their old age and widowhood in certain states.

    17th (1921):
    The States shall have the power to create interstate compacts for the purpose of internal improvements which cross state lines.

    This amendment formalized what had been going on already with railroads, but this would make sure it was not impeded by the federal Congress. This amendment would reserve the improvements of automobile roads to the states, many of which would go on to fund them with tolls, which would expire when the road was paid off. But the Confederates passed a law making cargo trucks crossing state lines much more expensive than using railroads, both to help keep railroads afloat, and to prevent the heavier trucks from wearing out the roads due to their weight. For the Confederacy, the railroads would remain a viable and important transportation option for longer distances.

    Farming in the Confederacy largely remained family-based, as opposed to large corporations as in the United States, and remained using traditional methods, including crop rotation, natural fertilizers, and even natural pesticides, such as just putting soapy water on leaves; composting continued to be widely used even in suburbs, which still grew quite a bit of their own produce. Farms mechanized, as in the US, freeing up labor to move into the cities and seek higher education, fueling the rise in the Confederate middle classes in various states. Churches were modernized in many areas, as were old one-room schools, especially in rural black areas. In the US, progressives focused on enforcing racial segregation, viewing integration as a problem to be solved, rather than a goal to be achieved. In the CS, segregation had never had much of any support in trains, public accommodations, or elsewhere, as the change over the last 50 years of integration had been slow, voluntary, and allowed people to adjust to the changes from abolition. Black families were very strong as was their faith, and with similar beliefs and family conditions, blacks and whites in the South were much better able to handle the social changes being made. While the US instituted 'Jim Crow,' the South was adjusting to the improved financials of its black citizens, though mixed marriages was still frowned upon, having friends of various races was not.

    Food production across the Confederacy got a clean-up with various states passing clean food and drug laws. Families' lives improved with growing electrification, indoor plumbing, and garbage pickup, allowing innovations like vacuums, washers, refrigerators, and dishwashers to begin to trickle out to the masses. A notable law, the Clean Drug Act, was passed, requiring any drug or vaccine produced for distribution nationally had to have a published, third-party double-blind test with a control group and a test group, followed for at least ten years for vaccines or an appropriate time for other drugs, to determine whether or not the drug really worked; they were also required to have third party verification of their cleanliness and being free from impurities or toxic substances. With this, the CS would eventually ban the use of aluminum, mercury, or formaldehyde in their vaccines.

    Parks were built across the Confederacy, in imitation of both Savannah and New York, to encourage free, open spaces for those stuck in cities (only about 10-20% of any state's population). Movie theaters were self-regulated with a rating system for films (A, all audiences; K for kids; T for teens and above; M for mature content). Eugenics made little to no headway in the south in regard to abortion, but the Planned Parenthood organization gained traction in the US, while poorer Confederates would cross to the US for an abortion, as it was still illegal in the Confederacy. People called 'retarded' or criminals or other undesirables in the US were sterilized to prevent their 'unfitness' from being passed on, while in the Confederacy, birth control was strongly opposed by Catholics and Protestants.

    Children seemed to be maturing faster with improved nutrition, and some believing the tradition of girls consuming increased amounts of fenugreek contributing to their improved maturing, as it were. Improved sanitation became instrumental in fighting diseases, as plumbing piped waste out of the homes, and public sewers the same from the streets. Horses were giving way to cars, but it would take some time for many states to pass clean air laws to clean up factories' smokestacks. The Confederate Congress also passed a Clean Water Act requiring states to clean up the waterways, which were beginning to get choked with pollution, killing off fish people once used to eat, making people sick. It would take some time, but Confederate waterways would begin to get much cleaner within the next 15 years and fish populations would begin to rebound.

    Congress also reformed the Rescue Service and Revenue Cutters into a Confederate Coast Guard, charging them with coastal defense, revenue enforcement, and rescue services. They would retain the same uniforms and ranks as the Confederate Navy but would operate locally rather than internationally.
    Confederate Coast Guard - 13 stars.png
    Coast Guard Flag with 13 stars

    In 1919, the Coast Guard flag was changed to the national seal surrounded by 25 stars to represent its mission to defend all 25 states of the Confederacy.
     
    Last edited: Mar 14, 2019
  4. JJohnson Banned

    Joined:
    Jul 9, 2008
    Location:
    Europe
    North America as of 1920

    North America 1920.png

    US Territories:
    American Guiana, Marshall Islands, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Cook Islands, Wallis and Futuna, St Barts, Barbuda
    States: 33

    CS Territories:
    Alaska, Yucatan, Bahamas, Bermuda, Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Guiana, New Caledonia, Polynesia, Mariana Islands
    States: 25

    Budget:
    1865: $ 455,010,755.73
    1870: $ 121,366,819.68
    1880: $ 180,418,470.92 (elevated due to the Spanish-Confederate War)
    1890: $ 130,418,980.22 (military spending reduction after war's end)
    1900: $ 146,194,255.48
    1910: $ 184,184,367.22 (military modernization programs)
    1920: $1,426,864,918.94 (military expenditures due to the war, pensions, de-escalations).
    1921: $1,108,988,424.11
    1922: $ 965,435,691.43
    1923: $ 744,184,226.51
    1924: $ 588,217,773.23

    Rather than continue the high levels of spending, Confederates were very eager to resume their peacetime stance. Peace had been earned, and the people spoke to their states, who directed their legislatures, which directed the Senators. Spending would taper off, with only military pensions and war debt to be paid, which would be helpfully paid by trade and tariffs.
     
    Last edited: Mar 15, 2019
  5. Ace Venom Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Jan 6, 2004
    This is interesting in the fact that Colombia was able to escape the war without many consequences. The British look to have kept the Archipelago of San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina. Prohibition is an interesting touch here. It looks like Prohibition will be even less effective here. Bootleggers are sure to take advantage of this. How are Confederate relations with Haiti?
     
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  6. CountofDooku Emperor of Amra

    Joined:
    Oct 16, 2016
    Location:
    Empire of Amra
    Great and interesting TL so far, I will follow it.
     
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  7. Threadmarks: Chapter 47: The Roaring 20s!

    JJohnson Banned

    Joined:
    Jul 9, 2008
    Location:
    Europe
    Confederate States

    The Confederate States held a number of victory parades after the war, and finally the black Confederate veterans were broadly able to vote without many difficulties (though there were some), achieving a long-held dream of many black Confederates. At this point the Confederate Progressive Party began losing power, having achieved a number of its objectives, while the remnants became the Confederate Republican Party, absorbing much of the conservationist movement, and the populist movement. The Democrat party began shifting somewhat leftward, remaining a rural party for farmers, but concerning itself with labor as well, yet it would remain much to the right of its northern counterpart. Both main parties in the Confederacy would remain socially conservative and fiscally conservative, differing mainly on certain key issues and focusing on various constituencies; neither would even begin to tend towards socialist policies for at least another 15 years. In the south, the Confederate Republican Party would tend to be the party of women and minorities, having absorbed them from the Populists and Progressives, but the Democrats would gain maybe 10-20% of their vote over the next 30 years.

    Socially the country was in a celebratory mood, having won a foreign war and brought home its soldiers quickly, and won a number of new territories, the Confederates had gained a greater sense of not just a State identity but a Confederate identity. People from Virginia worked with people from Georgia or Rio Grande for the first time in the trenches, and shared experiences drew them together. Travel between states took off, with many people taking trains, and many who could afford it taking cars. This was the beginning of the second romantic period of rail travel, with dining cars, sleeping cars, and touring cars (two levels with wide windows to see the landscape and mountains) bringing people across the Confederacy, and new tunnels leading through mountains where necessary. Widespread patriotism meant a huge number of Confederate flags were waving in yards around the Confederate States, especially amongst veterans and their families and friends, especially in Louisiana where French-speaking Louisianans didn't want to be associated with the French.

    German became more widespread in the southwest, in the Caribbean states, and in the Gulf states. Confederate German had at this point become noticeably different from continental German:
    *use of the past tense instead of present perfect in conversation for all verbs in imitation of English
    *use of genitive 'es' in 'dieses Königs' rather than 'diesen Königs'
    *use of the strong subjunctive rather than composed subjunctive (sänge instead of würde singen) in conversation and writing, but composed subjunctive for weak verbs
    *use of trilled R rather than a French-style uvular R
    *much more common use of genitive than dative formations (Auto meines Bruders or Meines Bruders Auto, not Auto von meinem Bruder)
    *new adjectives for states and their citizens (virginisch / Virginier/Virginierin for Virginian; texanisch / Texaner/in for Texan; floridisch / Floridier/in for Floridian, südcarolinisch - Süd-Carolinier/in, and so forth)
    *use of imperial measurements (Meile, Fuß, Zoll, Yard for mile, foot, inch, yard)

    German immigration formed a good number of immigrants into the Confederacy during the 1920s, as did English, Scottish, Irish, Welsh, Dutch, Belgian, Luxembourgish, Austro-Hungarian, Scandinavian, Russian, Polish, Greek, Romanian, and from the rest of the British Empire itself in some numbers. Pierogis, bratwurst (now held in buns), new beers, wines, mediterranean dishes, and other new foods began to be found around the Confederacy. New brands joined established brands like Coke and Pepsi, such as Dixie Fried Chicken, found in Louisiana until the 1940s, Rebel Burger (similar to OTL Burger King), Hofbräu, Südbräu (southern brewery), Boriken (based in Puerto Rico, with mallorcas, asopao, mafongos, etc), and others.



    Soldiers came home and there was a baby boom and a travel boom. Hotels sprang up across the Confederacy, railroads reduced fares due to the increased business, and many Confederates would now begin to explore their new territories. A southward move, bringing with them air conditioning, dehumidifiers, electricity, roads, railroads, indoor plumbing, sewer systems, and much new infrastructure in many new places, integrating and speeding statehood for those new territories. As of 1920, the Confederacy had 45,790,234 people in it based on immigration and natural increase. The immigration quota for the 20s became 3,205,316 persons. Confederates continued having 4-6 children per family, as they were still much more rural than the US, while the US would begin having fewer children.

    From 1915, with the assassination of the Haitian President (Vilbrun Guillaume Sam) and the running of the border with Santo Domingo and deaths of a number of Confederates, the Confederate Marines, who often avoided messing in the Latin American countries, occupied the capital, Port-au-Prince with a congressional declaration of war. For the next ten years, the Confederates built a border wall with Haiti to prevent further issues, while at the same time, Haiti's infrastructure, education, and politics were cleaned up. Many Louisianans and Santo Domingans were paid to come to Haiti, as were a number of missionaries. Many dilapidated buildings were demolished and new, more modern buildings with plumbing and electricity, were built up, with Haiti being required to pay the CS back for its expenditures by bonds. The use of Louisianan French, over Haitian Creole, began to be seen as a prestige version of French, the Haitians being educated by Louisianans speaking French. While Haiti's debt increased, its people improved their livelihoods so much that they were able to repay the Confederate expenditure in 30 years. Gold, copper, bauxite, marble, and calcium carbonate were mined to repay the Confederates. Some in the Congress wanted to annex Haiti too, but this proposal made no headway given the amount of land already needed to absorb and people to assimilate. Over the ten year occupation of Haiti, many were converted from voodoo to Christianity; schools and churches were built and literacy made huge advances. But even with this, the Confederate Marines and others were eager to return home; they weren't meant to be 'meals on wheels' but to 'break things and kill people' as Sgt. Kevin Frus, one of the NCOs on the ground, grumbled to his superior officer.

    The border with Mexico gained a border wall twelve-feet high, with watch stations and barbed wire, hopefully to prevent another invasion from Mexico. Instead of bringing Mexicans in to the Confederacy for seasonal agricultural labor, Confederates relied on mechanization or Confederates from the Pacific Islands, people from China or Japan, or Confederates from the Caribbean. Spanish in the southwest declined, as did the use of Spanish names for people and places, which were often given more 'Confederate'-sounding names. Cuba, Santo Domingo, and Puerto Rico continued declining in Spanish use, despite their distance from Mexico, more out of their desire to assimilate and be seen as 'Confederate' rather than 'Spanish.' A number of Catholic churches were converted over to Protestant churches in this effort.

    The Danish and British Virgin Islands were combined into the Territory of the Virgin Islands.
    State Flag - Virgin Islands 1.png
    Flag of the Virgin Islands Territory

    Tuxedos, evening dress, and morning dress became settled fashion by 1922 for men, and Confederate women, already curvier than those in the north, chose to emphasize their curves rather than hide them like Yankee flappers did. Women's hairstyles, rather than short waves, tended towards shoulder-length waves, or low-off-sides buns with long bangs tucked behind an ear. Men still had mustaches, just smaller, and slicked back hair. Since 1915, women began shaving their legs and armpits, as swimsuits and hemlines began revealing their legs; men's swimsuits were similar to women's, showing off their muscles, while women were showing their toned legs and arms. New dresses for women in the south, rather than flapper-style, were form fitting on the torso, and just to the hips, then became loose underneath, and revealed the ankles for the first time, shocking parents. Smoking began to be widespread in the form of cigarettes, and cigars from Cuban tobacco, the best in the western hemisphere. Beaches and swimming for fun began to take off, leading to widespread development of Confederate beaches, of which there were many. Certain beaches, notably Cape St. Luke (South California), Jacksonville, Daytona, Miami, Tampa, San Juan, Santiago de Cuba, amongst others, became more established and built-up with houses, restaurants, and hotels built near the water. Jacksonville even built Beach and Atlantic Boulevards to allow quicker access from the city to the beach, as well as a railroad line, and the city street cars, which were on rail, would eventually travel out to the beach, down to the city of South Jacksonville, San Jose, and even south to Mandarin.

    It was now, during the 20s, when the custom of men wearing morning dress for weddings during the day, and tuxedos at night, was established. White tie was the most formal, while black tie was semi-formal. Hereon, morning dress would be the dress code for Confederate Presidential Inaugurations, treated with much more anticipation and reverence in the south, considering they only happened every 6 years. The tradition of a debutante, introducing girls 16-18 to society, regained prominence, and floriography (sending messages by choice of flower) regained popularity amongst young men.

    Southern music, in the form of jazz, swing, blues, and soon, big band music began to take shape, evolving and taking on new subgenres, with the new phonographs enabling people to listen at home, while dinner and dancing became widely popular. In Jacksonville, the George Washington Hotel was one such establishment with dinner and a show, including dancing with a live 40-piece band. Cinemas, known in the west and southwest as Kinos (being the German word for them) and movie theaters in the east, soon added sound on film in 1923, with technology by Kelly De Forest that reproduced sound as light patterns on the outside of the film itself, with the film Dixieland, a jazz piece with a famous musician, Al Stuart. Primitive by today's standards, film companies in both the CS and US soon invested in the technology, soon to be superseded by kinophone technology (OTL vitaphone) invented by Gerry Steinholz, a German immigrant to Jacksonville.

    Immigrants brought with them instruments like the nyckelharpa and hurdy-gurdy, which blended into a unique blend of folk music unique to the South, with songs featuring call and repeat, harmony and counter-harmony, and other unique innovations (see Faun for an example, but imagine it sounds like that blended with Bobby Horton's CSA/USA songs). Rural areas especially enjoyed the new southern folk genre, as the instruments were easy to play and already sounded familiar.

    The boom in sound film led to the nascent film industry recording practically everyone in the Confederacy - veterans from the War for Southern Independence giving the rebel yell, telling their war stories, veterans from the Spanish-Confederate War and the Great War, former presidents and senators, sons of veterans from the first war, musicians, bands, and more. Movies like 'Birth of a Nation' (telling the story of the War for Southern Independence, and framing the Spanish-Confederate War as the one which confirmed the Confederacy as a unique and special nation), 'The Old West,' 'Texas Ranger,' 'Arizona Ranger,' 'Lone Ranger,' 'Lone Rebel,' and more told tales of heroes beating the bad guy and saving the girl, often alone against all odds; the bad guy typically took the form of a Yankee who looked very much like Woodrow Wilson, coming down to the South and trying to tell everyone how to live their lives and how much better he is than everyone for believing his beliefs. The first and famous villain in such films was named 'Bryan Amerling' from Indiana, by New York. A notable drop in the use of the name 'Bryan' or 'Brian' in the South occurred after this. Movie companies in Jacksonville, Los Angeles, Macon, San Antonio, Monterrey (Rio Grande), Stuart City (OTL Hermosillo), and Rocky Point (Puerto Penasco) in Arizona all began turning films out, often with regional distribution until movie theaters stopped being owned by movie companies in 1926. Then national theater chains began to talk root and bought films from many different places, allowing audiences to see a much wider range of films and experiences. Comedies, musicals, dramas, action movies, and more were developed, and the first science fiction film, Metropolis, was filmed by German Fritz Lang, a 153-minute epic and pioneer of science fiction. A Confederate adaptation called Let Us Alone, told of a future world where the Yankees reabsorbed the South and a century later people were again fighting for their independence after rediscovering a Confederate battle flag; an epic of science fiction itself at 127 minutes, it began a series of 'what if' movies about the Yankees reconquering the South every few years, such as How Few Remain, Civil War, By Force of Arms, and If the North had won the War. After each of these movies came out, Confederates became more resolute and gladder that they weren't part of the US any more, seeing how they North probably would've treated them - tearing down their monuments, banning their flags, cursing their heroes, and remembering the warning of General Patrick Cleburne had the US won their war. Pirate movies, westerns, movies about sailing the Pacific and finding adventure overseas were made along with a number of romances and dramas.

    New books were written, including about the Great War, such as Third in a Row, showing how a young Confederate private, based on a man named Private Elias Nesmith III, saved the Allied effort in France at Beauvais, like his grandfather had in the War for Southern Independence. Novelists like Ryan Parker, Rebecca Scott, Bryce Williams, and others told a number of tales, including the first popular children's books with Bobby Bunny and his animal pals.

    Confederate money celebrated the victory with four different silver dollars, commemorating the Confederate Independence (1921), Spanish-Confederate War (1920), the Great War (1919), and Victory (1918) (the Treasury names for each of the four coins in the series). The first coin had the same front as the 1861 gold $20 coin, while the back had an outline of the 1861 Confederacy on it, and then the outline of the other states and territories joined since then, with '60 years of southern independence' and 'Deo Vindice' on that side. The SCW coin had an image of Havana, which the Confederates bombarded from its harbor, with the back featuring Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guam. The GW coin featured Liberty, the torch in her hand, facing east towards Europe, flag as her cape, with a shield and sword in hand; the coast of Europe visible on the right side of the coin. The Victory coin featured standing liberty facing west, sword pointed down into the ground, pommel in her hand, shield resting on her leg, the coast of the Confederate States visible on the left, symbolizing bringing the troops home from war.

    The half dollar featured Washington's head, with Robert E Lee next to it, as revered as he was, similar to this coin. In 1913, and again in 1923, the Gettysburg half-dollar was minted, as was the US coin to celebrate the 50th and 60th anniversary, with the few remaining surviving combatants.

    President Benning, whose term began in 1916, was quite popular after the successful end of the war, and the successful return of Confederate troops to Confederate shores, but was assassinated in 1920 on May 17th by a disturbed socialist from Yugoslavia bearing a rifle he stole from a soldier's home. A furor and uproar began, and the Confederates realized their own constitution didn't have the same succession provisions as the US did. The Confederate Vice President, James Stuart III, grandson of the cavalry general, was sworn in as President, and three new amendments were quickly passed:

    18th: same as below for the US 20th
    19th: same as below for the US 21st, but on January 19th, Lee's Birthday.
    20th:
    1. The President shall have the power to detain and to remove from the Confederate States, any such person or persons of foreign birth which may present a danger to the public safety, as he shall determine by applicable law, to be removed to his country of origin.

    2. The States shall have the power, in accordance with law, to empower their law enforcement officials to detain and remove any person of foreign birth as may present a danger to the public safety of the citizens of that state, to be removed to his country of origin.

    3. Congress shall have the power to enforce section 1 by applicable law. The several States shall have the power to enforce section 2 by applicable law.


    There was a question as to whether President Benning had the authority to remove persons from the CS who would present a danger to the people, but this amendment removed that doubt, and due to the experience during the Great War, senators in Durango, Rio Grande, and Jefferson demanded the same power for the states as well so they could hopefully preempt the President from needing to remove a person and hopefully prevent another assassination. A large number of people from Eastern Europe suspected of socialist and communist leanings were removed from the Confederacy for Europe, and many Mexicans who committed crimes (or suspected of committing crimes) were removed. Many people in the Confederacy began their growing distrust of socialism and communism, both being associated with criminality, murder, treason, and disloyalty; schools began teaching the 'evils of socialism,' and how anti-Confederate they were. Churches began preaching how socialism and communism violated the Ten Commandments - 1, 2, 6, 8, 10 (no other gods, the god of socialism being the State; no idols, the idol being the State; no killing others; no stealing others' money even to give it to someone else; no coveting, as socialists covet what others have).

    Jeb Stuart III.png
    President J.E.B. Stuart III

    [​IMG]
    President Benning's Funeral Procession in Hawaii, bearing the state flag before it was exchanged for the national flag

    While President Benning was lying in state, Mrs. Wilson, President Wilson's wife, and Vice President Thomas Marshall, visited to pay their respects to the Confederate President. President Stuart, who continued the tradition started by Vice President Benjamin, had worked closely with the Senate, actively working in the chamber, unlike in the United States, and continued friendly relations with the Senate when he became President. Rodger Willoughby became Vice President, chosen in accordance with the new amendments to the Confederate constitution. President Stuart kept most of Benning's cabinet in place and continued much of his policies, drawing down the troops and paying down Confederate war debts with tariffs, new gold, silver, and copper deposits, and working on integrating the territories into the Confederacy as states.

    Hank Rodgers wrote a 'Pledge of Allegiance' for the Confederate States, similar to that of Eugene Debs in the United States:

    I pledge allegiance
    to the flag
    of the Confederate States of America
    and to the Republic of Sovereign States
    for which it stands
    one Confederation
    under God
    with liberty and justice for all.


    His intention being to ensure children across the Confederacy learn patriotism for their country. In contrast to the US, which at this point held hands over their hearts and then performed a Roman salute, the Confederates simply held their hands over their hearts. By 1925, most school rooms were doing the pledge to start the day.

    United States

    Wilson's presidency ended in a stroke, with widespread rumors his wife had run his administration secretly, causing widespread outrage amongst many in the Republican party, as she had never been elected, and the Vice President should have taken over; however, there was no provision in the Constitution for presidential disability, resulting in the 20th amendment:

    20th (1920):
    1. In the case of the removal of the President from Office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers of the said office, the Vice President shall become the President.
    2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.
    3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.
    4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

    Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.


    One of the final acts in the progressive era was the 21st amendment, reducing the lame duck period of many members of Congress and that of the President, taking effect in 1923 and covering a few rare cases not covered in the 20th amendment:

    21st:
    1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3rd day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.
    2. The Congress shall assemble at lest once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3rd day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.
    3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.
    4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.
    5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.
    6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.


    Americans were celebratory with their victory and eager to return to peace time. President Harding was elected on a 'return to normalcy' in 1920, and demobilization of the troops. His administration managed much of the return to normalcy, ending much of the so-called 'war socialism' of Wilson, with his propaganda bureau (Committee on Public Information), sedition act which criminalized disagreeing with the government's policies, the American Protective League (spied on citizens and conducted arbitrary arrests), freed protesters, dissidents, pardoned members of labor unions, repealed the acts which criminalized free speech, and

    The US released the Peace Dollar, celebrating the end of the war and created the new, smaller-sized dollar to help save money and print more dollars with the same amount of paper.

    General Motors arose to compete with Ford down in the Confederacy, catching up to Ford's mass production techniques and releasing new styles and colors, forcing Ford to innovate with new models as well.

    Movies with sound became a new technology that entranced the people. Films like The Jazz Singer with Ricky Lewis, along with old west films taking place in Nevada, Utah, and Colorado during the late 19th century were very popular. Some 'what if' movies like Bring the Jubilee, Gettysburg, Guns of the North, came out over the years, showing how the North could've won the War of the Rebellion, with a US twice as powerful, or a south that piecemeal got reabsorbed into the US, a US-CS fight during the Great War where the Germans were on the other side also, and other such fantasies. The first successful color film, On with the Show! was created, and by 1933, a large number of movies were released in color.

    Music in the north included Jazz and swing, especially in the midwest, being close to Kentucky, and blues (detailing black troubles in the US in segregated towns, but sometimes also being witty and comical). In New York, Broadway became popular for new artists, musicians, composers, and writers could create new pieces together. It was a place where creativity and even decadence thrived.

    Art began to diverge between north and south, with the north taking on more surrealist techniques and art deco in architecture. Books written in the era gained widespread popularity, like the Great Garfield, Albany, To the Lighthouse, the Dark Sea, and more. Some literature tells tales of the Great War, and how Americans were superior to and contributed more to the victory of the Allies than the Confederates, and told of how backwards and regressive they are, and how poorly they treat their blacks. Books in the north tended to emphasize how great and modern the north was, and a trend began where they subtly spoke of how glad they were to have shed the regressive south. A duality began to take place, where people would be glad to have shed the south over 60 years prior, but at the same time, believing they and their culture were superior and should have won the war.

    ------
    upload_2019-3-14_16-31-21.png
    Wow!
     
    Last edited: Mar 15, 2019
  8. Greenhorn Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Aug 25, 2018
    My guess is that de Gaulle is going to be doing some...big things in the future?
     
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  9. JJohnson Banned

    Joined:
    Jul 9, 2008
    Location:
    Europe
    Oh, indeed he shall.
     
  10. Zoidberg12 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Nov 7, 2012
    Location:
    New Jersey, U.S.A.
    Heres a map of the world in 1917, one year after the end of the Great War and the year of the signing of the Treaty of Berlin. Some of the map is speculation, so if anything is wrong, please let me know.

    upload_2019-3-15_17-34-31.png
     
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  11. CountofDooku Emperor of Amra

    Joined:
    Oct 16, 2016
    Location:
    Empire of Amra
    A great map for a great TL: :D
     
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  12. racevedo88 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Nov 8, 2010
    As mr. Olvida from Harry Potter said “ he did great things, great but terrible”
     
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  13. Ace Venom Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Jan 6, 2004
    He does seem like the sort of person who would be a Mussolini like figure in this timeline.
     
  14. Threadmarks: Chapter 48: Europe on the One Hand...and on the Other Hand

    JJohnson Banned

    Joined:
    Jul 9, 2008
    Location:
    Europe
    Canada

    As its southern neighbors, Canada adopted a postal code system, with 5 numbers, and no letters. Railways were built, stitching the widespread nation together, and Canadians felt a distinct pride in being Canadian, and their slow move towards independence from the United Kingdom.

    United Kingdom

    A grateful nation welcomed its heroes home and celebrated the nation's victory in the war, and realized its new issues with the empire. Ireland was a bastion now of British pride, waving Union Flags all over given the rescue from French attack in the war. Britain needed to figure out how to provide for its veterans. Its first bill was a Veteran Colonial Adjustment Act; the bill paid passage for a veteran and his family to any dominion (Australia, New Zealand, Patagonia, South Africa, Kenya, Rhodesia, Canada, with emphasis on Rhodesia, Patagonia, Kenya, and South Africa) if he stayed there for 10 years and improved the land, plus agreed to build housing for the veterans. Of the 289,000 veterans, approximately 98,000 decided to move overseas for a new challenge, taking wives, girlfriends, children, and sometimes even parents, siblings, and friends with them.

    Rhodesia, Kenya, South Africa, Patagonia, and Madagascar began to develop even more rapidly with a new influx of settlers. Roads, plumbing, electricity, more modern-style houses, businesses, and local brands all began showing up in the various dominions. British developed a primitive central heating and air cooling system that was adaptable to both Patagonia and Africa, and sold quite well in Australia and New Zealand. It included dehumidifier functionality as of 1922, where the drip pan would allow people to collect condensed water from the air for drinking, especially useful in Africa and Australia. It made life much more bearable in the winters of Patagonia, and summers of Africa and Australia. Edgar William Howard, a British scientist, developed a condenser that would help collect water from the air for use in Australia, which spread to the rest of the British Empire, making public water utilities much less subject to drought, along with the desalination plants, easing water shortages and helping public hygiene immensely.

    Engineers in Australia began building several large desalination plants and pipes for the massive project of refilling the Lake Eyre Basin, with the hope of solving the problem of lack of water in Australia. The project was planned in 1909, and begun in 1920. Clean fresh water began pumping into Lake Eyre by 1921, and plants and fish began to be planted in and around the refreshed lake, which gradually grew to an inland sea when the Australians finished the project.

    Sudan was an Anglo-Egyptian territory, but was split into a Christian South Sudan and Muslim Sudan to ease tensions in 1923. South Sudan (OTL South Sudan) would begin building ties to Kenya, British Central Africa, and the rest of colonized Africa.

    News of the assassination of President Benning prompted Parliament to ban socialists and communists from coming into the United Kingdom or the British Empire, and banned Das Kapital from publishing anywhere in the empire.

    On the Juba River, in Kenya, a Somalian uprising forced a minor 'war' with the locals; Kenya successfully defended its territory from invasion, and removed the Somalis to Italian Somaliland. The Luo tribe also participated in a minor uprising against the British settlers, resulting in about 183 Luo deaths. Other Kenyan tribes, in comparison, assimilated into the British society forming in their land, adopting English, Christianity, and British clothes, manners, and even names. Likewise in South Africa and Rhodesia, with the vast increase in British settlers, the outnumbered Africans either assimilated, or left for Dutch-Belgian Congo or the Portuguese colonies.

    The General Post Office began experimenting with postal codes to sort mail more efficiently. It adopted a unique system bearing a two-letter country designation (IR, WA, EN, SC for the countries of the UK, with Crown Dependencies getting their own as well, MX, JE, GU, etc) preceded by a two-letter county designation and a four-digit routing number to determine the postal area. Theoretically, London would be LN0000 through 'LN9999, EN' in this system. It would not become mandatory until 1928, however.

    Germany

    Germany adjusted its border between Kamerun and its Congo colony to be the straight line extending from Spanish Equatorial Guinea eastward. While Germany gained the islands around Madagascar, the island itself was British property. German scientists created weather stations on the Scattered Islands (Verstreuten Indischen Inseln), most notably Tromelin Island. French and local supporters of the French located on Reunion and Mayotte were removed to French West Africa to make room for German settlers. With nearly 2 million veterans, Germany adopted a similar policy of its British colleagues and paid them to settle abroad to bring civilization to the world. Tanganyika, Kamerun, Togoland, Ivory Coast, Mayotte, Reunion, Bismark Archipelago, Caroline Islands, Congo, Gabon, Namibia, all received German settlers, not to mention those who went to the US, Canada, CS, and the rest of the British Empire. Namibia, Mayotte, Reunion, Tanganyika, Kamerun, Congo, and Togoland were all by 1930 nearly as German as Germany was.

    Kaiser Heinrich I enjoyed immense popularity and victory parades in Berlin showed huge turnout to watch. Germany's veterans were welcomed home as heroes. Loyalty of Prussian Poles was noted by Heinrich, though many Poles moved to newly independent Poland. Despite the dream of a number of Polish to have so-called "Polish Corridor" to the sea, including Danzig, much of West Prussia, and most of Posen and Silesia, that was not to be. Germans living in Poland began moving into these portions of Germany while Polish desiring to be in Poland freely moved into their reconstituted country.
    [​IMG][​IMG]
    Empress Elisabeth Viktoria and Emperor Heinrich I of Germany

    While some in Germany, notably west of the Rhine, and in southern Bavaria, Württemberg, and Baden had been swayed by the new philosophy of fascism, it generally didn't find many adherents in Germany. Many Germans were happy with their government and the benefits it provided, and weren't about to change things up. Kaiser Heinrich did request a new law, though, in 1919, requiring all men over 21 to own a rifle or handgun. Given the three wars with France already, and the necessity of facing a possible invasion from the east, all Germans, he said, should be armed and trained in the use of those arms.

    Austria-Hungary

    While Austria-Hungary had made it out of the war in one piece, it wouldn't last that way. In 1919, Czech soldiers who had been working with the allies had grown restless with wanting independence, and soon began petitioning the League of Nations, of which Austria-Hungary was a member, for entry as Czechoslovakia. Socialists and communists began agitating and causing minor unrest. Soon the situation boiled over and in September 1919, Austria-Hungary was in a full-blown civil war between its various ethnicities. German, Czech, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Romanian, and south Slav were all fighting each other, and the violence would threaten to spill into Germany, Italy, perhaps even Greece and Ukraine. The civil war continued into 1920, when the League of Nations, headquartered in Luxembourg City, finally stepped in, with Germany, Poland, the Netherlands, Spain, Greece, and Italy bringing Austria-Hungary to the negotiating table and forcing the emperor, Franz Josef, to partition his empire. Negotiations took two weeks before he finally agreed to split his empire.

    Italy would gain Trentino, leaving Tyrol/South Tyrol in Austria; the Littoral would be Italian. Three Ladin communities, Cortina d'Ampezzo/Hayden, Livinallongo del Col di Lana/Buchenstein, and Colle Santa Lucia/Verseil, were to remain in South Tyrol and with Austria.
    Yugoslavia would be created and merge with Serbia into one slavic nation with Slovenia as a member, containing Carniola, Fiume, and some of South Styria (but not Marburg an der Drau)
    Hungary would include the portion of Slovakia that was majority Hungarian, plus a land connection to Szeklerland (OTL First/Second Vienna Award but nothing else)
    Austria would retain Teschen Silesia, Sudetenland, German Bohemia, South Bohemia and South Moravia (attached to Upper and Lower Austria), Vierburgenland (which included Preßburg, Ödenburg/Sopron, Wieselburg, St Gotthard, and a few minor villages), Tyrol, Vorarlberg, Salzburg, Styria, and Carinthia. Some Austrians would celebrate this moment with a new flag, bearing a St Andrews Cross with 13 white stars for the 13 states in Austria, despite the official flag being a red, white, red striped flag. The Austrian city enclaves remained with Austria.
    Czechoslovakia would contain the Czech and Slovak lands not in Austria or Hungary, including Carpathian Ruthenia. While they demanded more land, they were financially compensated for the lost land and would soon have generally positive diplomatic relations with Hungary, Germany, and Austria.
    Poland would gain all of Galicia and join the League of Nations on equal footing with the rest of Europe.
    Romania would gain all land not remaining in Hungary, in exchange for some debt forgiveness and joining the League of Nations.
    Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia would also join the League of Nations (Austria-Hungary had kept them out of the LoN) on equal footing. Belarus and Ukraine would follow.

    The negotiations were formalized November 1, 1920, when Austria-Hungary formally ceased to exist, and was replaced with the new nations of Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia; Poland, Italy, and Romania all gained land in the deal, and the League of Nations grew in stature as a viable diplomatic force for peace in Europe, and hopefully the world.

    With the failure of Austria-Hungary, a lonely sergeant, a failed artist, attempted a coup in a beerhall in Vienna, but was shot in the crowd. His name is lost to history. Other Austrians, however, began to fall under the sway of fascism and its promise for restored Austrian glory. By 1924, the Austrian National Socialist Workers' Party was a minority party in the Parliament. The new, smaller Austria faced a deep fiscal crisis in 1920-1922, but a newly reformed currency, the Schilling, to replace the Krone. It was divided into 100 Pfennig, with coins of 1 Schilling, 2 Schilling, and 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 Pfennig. Banknotes of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000 Schilling were created at a rate of 10,000 Krone to 1 Schilling. The Ladin and Slovenian communities were granted linguistic rights in the new Austria, to the consternation of the growing fascist party.

    Poland

    While the Polish King was celebrating his gain of Galicia, he also demonstrated his independence from Germany with placing Józef Piłsudski as Minister of Military Affairs. Piłsudski was of the opinion of making Poland a 'union of nations,' including the Baltic States, Belarus, Ukraine, and even the former western territories if possible. Constrasted to this was Roman Dmowski, who wanted an ethnically homogeneous Polish nation. Soon Pilsudski would become Chief of State, the equivalent to Prime Minister in 1929.
    [​IMG]
    Karl Josef I, Polish King, very distant relation to Stanislaw II, the last Polish King


    [​IMG]
    Józef Piłsudski, Chief of State


    Spain

    Spain was essentially neutral in the Great War, but fell to a dictatorship in 1923 under General Miguel Primo de Rivera, who was aided by General Fransisco Franco. While nominally still a kingdom, the General held the power. Rivera sought to revive flagging Spanish fortunes and their lack of gain in the war by sending troops into Spanish Morocco, merging Tangier into the zone. The Tangier population of less than 50,000 people had no chance against the well-armed Spanish soldiers and were either rounded up and executed or expelled from the area. Spanish Morocco within two years would become completely Spanish.

    [​IMG]
    Morocco, in five counties, a new Spanish province

    France

    Second Lieutenant Charles de Gaulle, who served under Colonel Philippe Petain, awoke in the hospital in 1917 with news of France's capitulation to the Germans, finally coming out of the blindness caused by mustard gas. He was aghast and disgusted. France couldn't fall! The land of Napoleon and Charlemagne was the light of civilization, not those barbarians across the Rhine! Something, someone must have cause France to fail...but not France. Some enemy within. And de Gaulle found it in the rising antisemitism that had once diminished after the Dreyfus Affair. He disguised his bitterness but kept it inside. Charles met with his former commander and was tasked with reporting back to the army about some various political parties causing trouble around Paris, originating in Valence. He was to go and report back. The French Workers' Party (Parti Ouvrier Francais, POF), founded in 1880, was aiming to abolish capitolism and replace it with a socialist society, and they were advocating the overthrow of the Lyons Republic (aka Third Republic of France).

    Meeting in Marianne Hall in Lyons, de Gaulle met with the party and he actually found that he liked what they were saying. George Vacher de Lapuge was present, speaking about eugenics and the French race, and said some antisemitic things that blamed the French Jews for the loss in the Great War. Hubert Lagardelle began shifting his syndicalist tendencies to line up more with Mussolini's party in Italy in his speech that night, sharing his new views on socialism and how in France it was not the class which was most important, but the nation itself, and the French people owed their allegiance to the state, not their class. In the second meeting, he spoke up, getting heckled out of the hall to his embarrassment. The next meeting he shouted down the hecklers in a fit of anger and rage, gesticulating his passion about Marianne (described as a pure woman, grabbed and pawed at by the world) and the French people (led astray by the League of Nations and the British and Germans), his desire to advance France past the failed ideologies of the past and the lack of desire on some to modernize the military, which he included both Joffre and some French Jews. He came up with a phrase, describing his Croix de Guerre had to become a cross of fire to burn away the chaff and impurities choking the life out of France.

    He officially joined the party on October 19, 1919 as the 55th member.

    France itself after Versailles faced a serious economic crisis as a result of lost pre-war industry, loss of supplies of raw materials and foodstuffs due to the continental blockade, loss of colonies, and worsening debt balances, all exacerbated by the exorbitant issue of promissory notes raising money to pay for the war. Military-industrial activity had almost ceased, although controlled demobilization kept unemployment at around 1 million. In part, the economic losses can also be attributed to the Allied blockade of France until the Treaty of Berlin.

    The Allies permitted only low levels of imports that most French could not afford. After four years of war and near famine, many French workers were exhausted, physically impaired, and discouraged. Millions were disenchanted with the monarch and hoping for a new era. Meanwhile, the currency depreciated, and would continue to do so following the German invasion of Lorraine, intent on gathering coal and other natural resources to repay some of their expenditures during the war.

    The French peace delegation in Germany signed the Treaty of Berlin, accepting mass reductions of the French military, the prospect of substantial war reparations payments to the allies, and the controversial 'War Guilt Clause.' Explaining the rise of extreme nationalist movements in France shortly after the war, American historian Richard Patrick pointed to the 'national disgrace' that was "felt throughout France at the humiliating terms imposed by the victorious Allies and reflected in the Berlin Treaty...with its confiscation of colonies and territories in the east of France and even more so its 'guilt clause'." Charles de Gaulle would repeatedly blame the republic and its democracy for accepting the oppressive terms of the treaty, aiding his rise to power along with Petain. The country's first President, Alexandre Deschanel signed the new French constitution into law on August 8, 1917.

    [​IMG]
    President Alexandre Deschanel

    The new post-war France was stripped of almost all its colonies, lost Dunkirk and Nice in Europe as well. Alsace-Lorraine remained in Germany, and around 1/3 of the French-speaking Alsatians left for France. Those who left and those who bordered the state were outraged at the continued insult to France that the loss of Alsace-Lorraine represented.

    In the first 4 years following the Great War, the situation for French civilians remained dire. Severe food shortages improved little to none until 1921. Many French civilians expected life to return to normal after the removal of the naval blockade in 1917, but the struggles continued into the 1920s, while the rest of Europe seemed to prosper, leading to the perception it was done on the backs of the French people. Through the war, French officials made rash decisions to combat the growing national hunger, most of which were highly unsuccessful. Wine grapes were distributed instead of used for wine, leading many in other nations to begin building up their own wine industry to make up the shortfall, and a nationwide pig slaughter in 1913 took place to distribute to the people and soldiers, done partly to help decrease the use of potatoes and turnips for feed, to turn those items for human consumption. In 1920, meat consumption still had not increased since the war era. The continuity of pain introduced the Lyon authority in a negative light, making public opinion largely negative towards it, being one of the main sources behind its failure.

    The actual amount of reparations France would be forced to pay was not the 132 billion francs decided in the London Schedule of 1919, but rather the 50 billion francs ($8,638,679,652.79 in 1917 USD) in the A and B Bonds The 'C bonds' were entirely fictional - a statement designed to make the public think France, which had now started 3 European wars, would be forced to pay much more. The actual payout from 1919 to 1929 was 20 billion francs, worth about $3.4 billion. Much of the cash came from loans from New York and Richmond bankers, while the rest was goods such as coal, wine, industrial equipment, or even chemicals. The reparations were fixed in 1921 to what the French could pay, not the basis of Allied claims. The public rhetoric in 1917 of France paying for all the damages and all the veterans' benefits was irrelevant for the total, but did determine how the recipients spent their share. France owed reparations mainly to Germany, Britain, Italy, Belgium, and the Netherlands. The CS and US each received $100 million CSD/USD.

    In the early post-war years, inflation was growing at an alarming rate, but the government just printed more currency to pay debts. By 1923, the Third Republic claimed it could no longer afford the reparations payments required by the Berlin Treaty, and the government defaulted on some payments. In response, the German and Belgian troops occupied the Lorraine region, one of the most productive regions of France at the time, and took control of most mining and manufacturing companies in 1923. Strikes were called and passive resistance was encouraged. The strikes lasted 8 months, further damaging the economy and society.

    Inflation of the franc; # of francs to equal $1 CSD
    1917: 5.79
    1918: 5.19
    1919: 14.87
    1920: 51.81
    1921: 78.75
    1922: 565.70
    1923: 4,551,718.65 (4 million francs)
    1924: 3,742,933,767,210.22 (3 trillion francs)
    [​IMG]
    One-million franc notes being used as note paper in 1923

    The strike prevented some goods from being produced, but one industrialist, Édouard Renault (born 1874), was able to create a vast empire out of the bankrupted companies. Because production costs in France were falling almost hourly, the prices for French products were unbeatable. Renault made sure he was paid in Confederate Dollars, which meant that by mid-1923, his industrial empire was worth more than the entire French economy. By year's end, over 200 factories were working full-time to produce paper for the spiraling banknote production. Renault's empire collapsed when the government-sponsored inflation was stopped in November 1923. In 1917 a loaf of bread was 1 franc; by 1923, that same loaf was 100 billion francs.

    Since striking workers were paid benefits by the state, much additional currency was printed, fueling a period of hyperinflation. The 1920s French inflation started when France had no goods to trade. The government printed money to deal with the crisis; this mean payments within France were made with worthless paper money, and helped formerly great industrialists to pay back their own loans. this alos led to pay raises for workers and for businessmen who wanted to profit from the inflation. The circulation of money vastly increased, and soon, banknotes were being overprinted with three additional zeroes, and every French town printed its own promissory notes; many banks and industrial firms followed suit.

    The value of the franc papier declined from 5.19f per dollar in 1913 to 4.55 million per dollar in 1923. This led to further criticism of the Third Republic. On November 15, 1923, a new currency, the franc retraite, at a rate of one trillion (1,000,000,000,000) franc papier for one franc retraite, a severe redenomination. At this point, the franc retraite was 3.72 per CSD, with a new symbol, ƒ, a lowercase 'f' with two horizontal marks instead of one. Once this was achieved and the old francs began to be returned for the new francs, the Lorraine region was returned to France under the Straßburg Treaties, which fixed the borders of Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, and France.

    Greece

    Greece was ecstatic with its newfound land acquisitions - Europe, the Aegean, and the Trebizond territory on the Black sea. They built border walls to keep the occasional Turkish attack way, and began reconsecrating all the ancient churches that had since been turned into mosques, and moved all government offices into Constantinople, with the legislature finishing construction in 1926. The British and the Germans heavily invested in Greece, at this point to help keep the Soviet Union at bay, modernizing infrastructure in Greece and training their government officials in modern and efficient governing. Their 'aid' would help Greece avoid tax and budget issues that had been plaguing the country for decades and begin to have much easier and efficient time collecting taxes and providing government services. The issue of Koine or Katharevousa Greek occupied some of the time of the government, while the various dialects of the language - Pontic in Trebizond, Demotic in the Aegean, Cappadocian in the inner Aegean bordering Turkey, Southeastern in the Aegean islands, Northern in Europe, and Athenian in southern European Greece. Some efforts at compromise between Katharevousa and Koine came about in the 20s, notably purging Turkish words for native Greek words (considering the Turks' Greek genocide), and restoration of genitive/dative distinctions.

    A new legislative building in Constantinople took the place of the former Blue Mosque:
    [​IMG]
    A rectangular reflecting pool was added in 1997 in front of the capitol building of Greece

    The Prime Minister of Greece was given one of the many palaces in Constantinople to use as a residence:
    [​IMG]

    In 1924, King Constantine I died of a heart attack, and his son was crowned George II. His wife, Viktoria of Prussia, daughter of Kaiser Heinrich I, would prove very popular on the social scene in the 1920s, and Greece would soon enter a small golden age with George II at the helm.

    [​IMG] [​IMG]
    King George II of Greece and Queen Viktoria, 2 years his junior

    There was a near attempt at a coup in 1923 under Constantine I, but the presence of a contingent of British and German troops, who were working with the Greek Army on training maneuvers near Constantinople, successfully put the rebellion down. The Treaty of Constantinople (1924) provided free passage through the straits for European trade and military vessels, and promised not to let Russia through the straits. When the USSR found out, they protested to the League of Nations, but the LoN was not very receptive.


    Italy

    Italy had grown in size, but some Italians were as yet unhappy with the gains, notably Benito Mussolini, a socialist who began to drift into the new form of socialism developed by Giovanni Gentile, called fascism. Mussolini had grown disenchanted with socialism as its class-basis for revolution never happened in Italy; people rallied around their nation in his experience. Gentile's new form of socialism explained this and made the nation state the basis of the philosophy - everything within the state, nothing without the state. Fascism began to grow in Italy, promising new prosperity that seemed to escape Italy after the Great War, and soon began to find adherents in France, Spain, Austria, Germany, and elsewhere. By 1921, the party was in the Italian legislature as a strong party and by 1922, ruled the legislature with Mussolini at its head. The National Fascist Party succeeded after the Revolutionary Fascist Party, and ruled Italy throughout the 1920s.

    Belgium

    Belgium had to face several factors after the war. Assimilating Dunkirk, another Dutch-speaking area, and the accusations of collaboration by a number of Walloon with the French occupation, threatened the coexistence of the Walloon/Dutch communities of Belgium. Rebuilding the nation took precedence, repairing the outward signs of war, while trying to ignore the inner scars on the part of many. Walloons who stood with Belgium became more outwardly patriotic, and even took efforts to speak Dutch where possible so none could question their loyalty, while collaborators were soon jailed, or fled to France. Belgium as a nation seemed to have a form of national PTSD, and seemed not to know how to handle it. Some left for the Dutch-Belgian Congo; others left for the British or German Empires, and still others to the US or CS.

    Netherlands

    The Netherlands was glad to be out of the war; now it had to rebuild from the semi-occupation from France. War veterans having fought in the war were given help as needed, and many wanted to leave Europe, and take their families with them. A number went to South Africa, then Patagonia, Surinaam, the Dutch Antilles, and the now entirely Dutch Sint Maarten, whose 3500 French citizens were removed to French West Africa. Around five thousand veterans and their families were requested to move to the island to take control of the other side of the island and ensure order was maintained, with passage paid; four thousand left to go to the island; the other thousand decided to move to Surinaam.
    Sint Maarten Flag half size.png
    Flag of Sint Maarten

    The colony of Surinaam, with around 100,000 persons in 1920, gained another 30,000 people over a four-year period from 1918-1922, attracted by the fresh start, the presence of electricity and air conditioning and dehumidifying technology, and the chance to leave the stress of being on a continent near France, now having started two wars involving the Netherlands. In 1924, a new legislature was built for Surinaam to allow more local control of the colony's affairs.
    [​IMG]
    Surinaam's National Assembly, a bicameral legislature
    [​IMG]
    Residence of Governor General of Surinaam, the monarch's representative

    The discovery of gold brought an influx of Dutch to the colony, which brought in a greater demand for more infrastructure, building up the coastal and inland cities (really towns) of the colony. By 1930, the colony was a stable, prosperous segment of Dutch society; here the Indian and black members of society were not segregated, but unfortunately did not enjoy full equality with their neighbors.

    Russia

    The Russian SFSR began consolidating its power in its territory, and by 1922, had absorbed Belarus, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia into its territory, creating the USSR. In 1923, the Volga German SSR was created, attracting many of Germany's communists to emigrate to see their belief in communism practiced, as they had by and large given up the hope of Germany going communist.
    [​IMG]
    Volga SSR

    Hoping to build its own fortunes and legitimacy, the USSR created the Jewish Oblast in the far east, shipping Russian Jews to the land as a theoretical homeland for them, where many would speak Yiddish as opposed to Russian, to communicate with each other. In addition, several other autonomous SSRs would be created around the Volga SSR, creating a French, Spanish, Italian, and Hungarian SSR (on that map, green top-right is French, purple top-left is Hungarian, and the purple is split Spanish/Italian), intended for communists from those countries to come to the USSR, build up its industry, and show the superiority of communism as opposed to socialism or fascism, all three of which were considered variations of left-wing philosophy in Europe at the time, differing only in the degree of state control over public and private property.

    Unlike the Volga SSR, the other SSRs would never see large-scale communist immigration from Europe; mere thousands left their homelands, but many of those would be the leading intellectuals of European communism, leaving to join their idealistic impression of what communism could achieve.

    Confederate States

    The Confederate National Park System came into being in 1923, when park rangers from South California, Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona met in April from the 6th to the 13th. Soon, they met with several other interested parties from the eastern Confederate States, and initiated the first designations for National Parks:

    Great Smoky Mountains (TN/NC)
    Carlsbad Caverns (NM)
    Grand Canyon (AZ)
    Everglades (FL)
    Hot Springs (AR)
    Yucca National Park (SoCal) (OTL: Joshua Tree National Park)
    Guadeloupe Mountains National Park (TX)
    Shenandoah National Park (VA)
    Volcano National Park (HI)
    Sequoia National Park (SoCal)
    Mount Benning National Park (AK) (OTL: Mount McKinley)

    Following the United States' lead, the Confederates created a two-letter abbreviation for each state and territory to make it easier to direct mail across the nation. Puerto Rico (PR), Cuba (CB), Yucatan (YN), Guiana (GN), Tennessee (TN), Florida (FL), Hawaii (HA), Virgin Islands (VI), Bahamas (BH), Bermuda (BM), Arkansas (AR), Alabama (AL), Alaska (AK), etc. A four-digit postal code is also created, with the first designating a region, second two a county, and last a post office. By 1927, this was updated to a five digit code to allow more post office designations.

    Regions:
    1: VA, NC, SC
    2: KY, TN, MO
    3: GA, FL, AL
    4: MS, LA, AR
    5: TX, OK, NM, AZ
    6: CA, SN, JF, DR, RG (South California, Sonora, Jefferson, Durango, Rio Grande)
    7: YN, CU, SD, PR (Yucatan, Cuba, Santo Domingo, Puerto Rico)
    8: MR, GD, BH, BM, VI, GU (Martinique, Guadeloupe, Bahamas, Bermuda, Virgin Islands, Guiana)
    9: AK, HA, NL, PN, MI (Alaska, Hawaii, New Caledonia, Polynesia, Mariana Islands)
    0: Government Buildings or Army Bases

    Dentists begin advertising the benefits of iodine for the body, and soon, across the Confederacy iodized salt, iodent toothpaste, and iodine in bread. Soon, IQs increase 15 points amongst the general population; the US soon follows suit.
    iodinetoothpaste2.jpg

    In contrast to the United States, the eugenics movement gained very little traction in the Confederacy, as its advocacy on abortion and sterilization clashed with the much stronger Christian faith in the South. Some proponents changed their eugenics advocacy to simpler advocacy for standards of beauty, which included blonde or red hair, blue/gray and green eyes, fair skin, delicate eyebrows and 'curvy' figures.

    Around this point in time, the Confederate clothing maker William DuPont from Richmond developed and advancement on the brassier developed by Mary Jacob in New York, USA. He developed a system of sizes with bands in inches and cups in letters from A through G. His cousin, Andrew Isaacson (second cousin), developed a standardized pant size for men with waist/leg measurement in inches, and for women in waist/hip and leg measurement. For dresses, Isaacson halved the measurement to look smaller to women. Popularized shortly after being created in 1924, these advances soon became standard and then mandatory by 1932 in the CS, and soon, the US. A lawsuit in 1930 by several women, who found one size wasn't the same between bra, dress, or pant manufacturers for false advertising brought the issue to the Supreme Court, which ruled that it fell under the standards of weights and measurements clause of the Confederate Constitution. At that point, all women's clothing for all manufacturers would have to be the same size or risk lawsuit. A 24/36/26 from Levi would be the same as a 24/36/26 from Straussmann.

    United States

    American conservationists also began designating lands as national parks. In contrast to the Confederates' parks, where the land remained property of the state, just cooperatively managed by the federal government, in the US the land became property of the federal government.

    Yellowstone National Park (WY)
    Yosemite National Park (NC)
    Mount Rainier (WA)
    Crater Lake (OR)
    Wind Cave (SD)
    Mesa Verde (CO)
    Glacier (MT)
    Rocky Mountain (CO)
    Lassen Volcanic (NC)
    Acadia National Park (ME)

    At this time the US begins creating two-letter state abbreviations, and a 5-digit postal code to route the mail.

    1: ME, VT, NH (Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire)
    2: MA, CT, RI (Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island)
    3: PA, NY, NJ (Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey)
    4: WV, MD, DE (West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware)
    5: WI, IL, IN, OH, MI (Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan)
    6: ND, SD, MN, IO (North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa)
    7: WY, CO, NB, KA (Wyoming, Colorado, Nebraska, Kansas)
    8: ID, NV, MT, UT (Idaho, Nevada, Montana, Utah)
    9: CL, WA, OR, NC (Columbia, Washington, Oregon, North California)
    0: Army Bases and Government Buildings

    In the United States, eugenics grew in its sway, resulting in widespread policies of sterilization of mentally retarded people, insane, and others who didn't fall in the "normal" range of acceptable behaviors. It also focused US immigration on persons originating in Europe, aside from France, which also included Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Rhodesia, Kenya, Namibia, Tanganyika, Canada, and a few other dominions and countries, while excluding eastern Europe. The progressive movement in the United States was the originator of the eugenics movement, aiming at improving and preserving the genetic quality of the American people. Selective breeding became in vogue in the upper classes, focusing on desirable traits, which did not include brown or hazel eyes or black or brown hair. Eugenics was not limited to white Americans. Black Americans such as W.E.B. du Bois, born in Massachusetts, believed that "only fit blacks should procreate to eradicate the race's heritage of moral iniquity" (direct quote). In the United States, the Carnegie Institution, Rockefeller Foundation, and the Sheridan Institute (named in honor of the heroic cavalry hero of the War of the Rebellion) all funded eugenics movements. Theodore Henderson, whose father worked with Woodrow Wilson, worked with the Sheridan Institute to develop a mass index of family pedigrees, and concluded that whose who were unfit came from economically and socially poor backgrounds. Margaret Sanger was a leading member of the eugenics movement, advocating abortions and sterilizations of 'undesirable' members of society. Henderson favored immigration restriction and sterilization as primary methods. Ethan von Amerling, another leading eugenicist, favored segregation in a famous book, The True Loyal League of the Union. Henderson and the others formed the Eugenics Record Office, which later became the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.

    [​IMG]
    Eugenics poster in New York City in the early 1920s

    There was even an American Breeders Association, established in 1906 by Rodger von Amerling, specifically to "investigate and report on heredity in the human race, and emphasize the value of superior blood and the menace to society of inferior blood." Members included Ryan Keelan, Benjamin Bulthuis, Edward Seamus O'Neill, and other prominent socialites.

    Outside of this trend, the Americans continued to flaunt Prohibition, with day-visas into the Confederacy, which often lasted only a few hours, but the charge for that, plus the tax on alcohol in the Confederacy allowed the states on the border with the Union to pay down their portions of the war debt and provide pensions for their soldiers. Along the border there were no 'speakeasies' since alcohol was easily accessible, but on the US side of the border, prostitution became a problem, and somewhat on the Confederate side also, as Confederate women were 'curvier' than the women from the US.

    South Africa

    Moving into South Africa, numbers of Dutch kept the local Afrikaans Nederlands speakers from developing a new dialect or even a new language. Dutch continued to be taught, and the new Dutch some aghast at the poor Dutch of the Afrikaner there, founded the African Dutch Language Society. They did take things a little far in their zeal, however. The ADLS made the following suggestions:

    *revival of du, dijn, dij as the second person singular; jij, uwer, u in the plural
    *revival of die/des/den (m), die/der/die (f), dat/des/dat (n); die/der/den/die (pl) articles
    *revival of verb endings: e, es, et; en, et, en (sg/pl)
    *revival of strong/weak adjective endings
    *restoration of strong verbs that became mixed or weak
    *restoration of weak nouns and distinguishing them from strong nouns
    *pronouncing the 'n' on word endings

    The group 'translated' the Bible into their 'New African Dutch' and in 1922, got the provinces with a Dutch majority to make this form of Dutch official, artificial as it was. For the next few years, children in schools would be taught this form of Dutch, and eventually would become the official form of Dutch for South Africa, which would sound...odd and old fashioned to European Dutch. Jan Tulbagh led the movement, which was actually quite successful.

    Newly moving British and Europeans began challenging the existing laws on racial discrimination in South Africa, causing friction with the existing settlers who had tried to take 90% of the land for them, while only being maybe 65% of the population at this point. The issue of race, being brought up especially by the Indian Mahatma Gandhi, was brought to a head in 1923, when existing settlers engaged in a series of protests in Cape Town, Pretoria, Johannesburg, and other cities around the dominion, nearly turning into armed rebellion. The British Army, with a number of veterans already in the dominion, was able to put down the rebellion over the course of three months, with a number of people jailed, executed, or exiled for their parts in the semi-rebellion. Jan Smuts, who originally backed some form of segregation, switched to back the empire in a deal to retain some electoral power. The Dominion of South Africa Reorganization Act of 1923 was passed in the UK Parliament strictly outlawing racial discrimination and segregation in hiring, voting, schools, or businesses, and provided for a gradual integration of existing South African blacks, starting with those who served honorably during the Great War, around 28,000 persons. They were required to pass either English or New African Dutch proficiency, a British and South African history test, and convert to some Christian denomination and take a British name. Once done and taking an oath of loyalty to the crown and to South Africa, they were granted the right to vote. Under orders from the British Parliament, the population of 6.9 million, of which 4,502,812 were white, 1,039,110 were black, 831,288 were Indian, and 554,192 were of other Asian heritage, began the process of real integration, likely avoiding future problems with race.

    Based on its experience in South Africa, Rhodesia and Kenya would soon have the same law passed for them also; all three dominions' immigration would still remain heavily British and European, however, but each of them would begin legal 'gradual integration' for native Africans which assimilate to British society, and would continue deporting Africans who did not assimilate to Swaziland, Lesotho, or Mozambique.

    Time Zones

    By 1903, various nations of the world had some form of railway time, dividing their nations into various zones of time. In 1911, a coalition of nations, namely the US, CS, UK, France, Germany, Japan, and several others came together to decide on a unified standard for time. They eventually created 24 one-hour time zones for the planet.

    In the CS, the time zones were:

    Caribbean (-4): Puerto Rico, Bermuda, Virgin Islands, Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique
    Atlantic (-5): Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida (east of the Chattahoochee River/Apalachicola River), Bahamas, Cuba
    Central (-6): Florida (western part), Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri
    Western (-7): Texas, Oklahoma, Arizona, New Mexico, Sonora, Jefferson, Rio Grande, Durango, Yucatan
    Pacific (-8): South California
    Yukon (-9): eastern Alaska panhandle
    Hawaii/Alaska (-10): Hawaii, Alaska, Polynesia
    (+10): Mariana Islands
    (+11): New Caledonia

    In the US:
    Brazil (-3): Amapa territory
    Caribbean (-4): St Barts, Barbados
    Eastern (-5): Pennsylvania, West Virginia and east
    Central: Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa
    Mountain: Dakotas to Montana
    Pacific: North California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Columbia

    In Europe:
    Iceland (-1): Iceland, Portugal
    GMT (0): UK, Spain, France, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Belgium
    Central European Time (+1): Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Italy, Yugoslavia, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland
    Eastern European Time (+2): Greece, Romania, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia; part of Russia including Murmansk and Moscow
    (+3): purple here

    In Africa:
    South Africa: split between +1 and +2 (northern and western cape GMT; the rest is +2)
    Dutch-Belgian Congo: split as in OTL
    (-2) Liberia, Sierra Leone
    (+0) Togoland, Ivory Coast, Gold Coast, Dahomey
    (+1) Kamerun, Namibia, German Congo
    (+2) Rhodesia, Kenya, Tanganyika

    Map:
    Great job, I really appreciate it! It's really nice of you to do this for this timeline. I would make a few small changes:
    -Kamerun, straight line border with Equatorial Guinea
    -San Andreas and Providencia became British territory
    -Guam and Mariana Islands are one CS territory, while the Caroline Islands are German territory
    -Austria had German Bohemia, Sudetenland, and Teschen as states, though I don't think those can be shown well at that resolution
    -Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Belarus, Poland, and Ukraine aren't occupied or otherwise by Germany, and are independent in 1917.
     
    Last edited: Mar 16, 2019
  15. Threadmarks: Chapter 49: Asia's Progress

    JJohnson Banned

    Joined:
    Jul 9, 2008
    Location:
    Europe
    India

    The British dominion began a slow march towards independence. From the old factories, European enclaves, Europeans managed to profit handsomely from trade in India, from tea to many other items.

    Pondichéry, Karikal and Yanaon on the Coromandel Coast, Mahé on the Malabar Coast and Chandernagor in Bengal, formerly French, were now British sovereign territory as of 1916, and all French citizens were expelled to France, replaced with British merchants and administrators. The Indian National Congress, in exchange, got several reforms, the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms.

    The reforms created a gradual indianization of the system of government, depending on how successful they were at keeping law and order and protecting rights of citizens. The Central government's powers would include: defense, foreign affairs, railways and roads, telephone and telegraph, foreign trade, and so on. Provincial powers would include: health, sanitation, education, public works, irrigation, law and order, jail, police, justice, and so on. In any case of conflict, the Governor-General would have final say where the power would be. Reserved powers of the State would include finance, police, revenue, book publication, patents, etc., while unreserved powers would be health, sanitation, and local self-government. The failure of the proposed Rowlatt Act, which would have allowed indefinite detention, incarceration without trial, and judicial review likely helped tamp down the more extreme nationalist calls for independence. In its place the Cumberland Act, named for Sir Benedict Cumberland, who grew up in India and was widely respected by native Indians, detailed a restoration of the common law system in India, repealing the Defense of India Act of 1913, with Indian judges, barristers, and lawyers being trained according to British standards, and those which do are fully empowered to practice law within India as they pleased.

    The Indian rupee was decimalized and backed by silver and gold, depending on the banknote, and coins would have some content of silver or copper in them; silver and gold would be exported, however, to the advantage of the pound, restoring the purchasing power of the British Pound, and improving that of the Indian rupee.

    Western India experienced an issue with growing Muslim nationalism, causing issues in the west with British rule. Growing use of immunizations caused mortality to fall dramatically beginning in 1920. New universities opening around India, in Delhi, Ponducherry, and many other towns, began training new engineers, doctors, chemists, and scientists in valuable, highly skilled sectors valuable to a modern industrial society.

    Mandatory Palestine
    [​IMG]
    Map of Mandatory Palestine

    Since the Jewish diaspora near Roman times, many Jews have hoped to return to "Zion," or the "Land of Israel," though the amount of effort to be spent towards that effort was disputed. That hope became an important theme of the Jewish belief system. After the expulsion from Spain in 1492, some communities settled in Ottoman Palestine. During the 16th century, Jewish communities settled and set down roots in Jerusalem, Tiberias, Safed, and Hebron, four holy cities. In 1697, Rabbi Yehuda Hachasid led a group of 1500 Jews to Jerusalem. In the 2nd half of the 18th century, Eastern European opponents of Hasidism, called the Perushim, settled in Ottoman Palestine.

    The first wave of the modern Jewish migration to Ottoman Palestine, called the 'First Aliyah,' began in 1881 as the Jews fled pogroms in Eastern Europe. Though the Zionist movement already existed in practice, Austro-Hungarian journalist Theodor Herzl is credited with founding political Zionism, a movement to found a Jewish state in the Land of Israel, this offering a solution to the 'Jewish question' of the European states, along the lines of the goals of other national projects of the time period. In 1896, Herzl published 'Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State), offering his vision of a future Jewish State; the following year he presided over the First Zionist Congress.

    The Second Aliyah, from 1904-14, began after the Kishinev pogrom bringing around 40,000 Jews to Ottoman Palestine, with 3/4 staying there. The first and second waves of migrants were mainly Orthodox Jews, though the second wave included some socialist groups which established the kibbutz movement. During the Great War, near the end, the British Foreign Secretary, Arthur Balfour sent the Balfour Declaration to Baron Rothschild, a leader of the British Jewish community, stating Britain intended to create a Jewish 'national home' in the Palestinian Mandate. One of the cities founded during the Second Aliyah, Tel Aviv, was deliberately intended to be a new clean and modern city like the European cities the Jews left behind. It was designed with straight, grid streets, with plenty of parks and modern electricity, plumbing, sewage treatment, air conditioning, desalination, and modern architecture.
    [​IMG]
    Tel Aviv 1913
    [​IMG]
    Tel Aviv, 1926

    In 1916, the Jewish Legion, a group of mainly Zionist volunteers, assisted in the British conquest of Palestine. Arab opposition to British rule and Jewish immigration led to the 1918 Palestine riots, and the formation of a Jewish militia called the Haganah ("The Defense" in Hebrew). In 1920, the League of Nations granted Britain a mandate over Palestine. The population at this point in time was about 15% Jewish, and predominantly Arab and Muslim, with Arab Christians being about 9.5% of the population.

    The third (1919-23) and fourth (1924-29) Aliyahs brought in another 125,000 Jews to Palestine, settling heavily in Jerusalem and the surrounding area. During the 1920s, increased anti-semitism in France caused another 65,000 French Jews to come to Palestine, bringing with them a rich heritage, including wine-making, bread-making, baking, poetry, art, and other great skills. Through the 1920s, Christians would also come to Mandatory Palestine, bringing the population of the time up; the Arab Christians and other denominations would begin working together with the Jews for their collective security, with the Christians settling in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, and other new cities being built, becoming key and influential members of the new society being built.

    Arabia

    From their time of exile in Kuwait City, the members of the House of Saud were caught in turmoil with Persia and the Ottoman Empire during the Great War, and before in 1901, when Ibn Saud died in the eastern quarter of Kuwait City. By 1917 and the end of the war, the Saud family was no more. The Rashid family would go on to unify the Arabian peninsula into Rashidi Arabia, with the capital at Ha'il by 1925, and had wiped out the adherents of wahhabism, a radical sect of Islam that demanded adherence to 7th century standards of life. The Rashid family, in contrast, brought modernization into Arabia, recognizing the stagnation their cultures had experienced, blaming it partly on the Ottoman Turks. Rashidi Arabia soon allied itself with the British and western Europe especially, looking to modernize. Soon they would have the means to do so when oil would be discovered. The Rashidis allowed Asir to remain independent as an ally, rather than annex them into Arabia at this point. Likewise, the Kingdom of Hejaz remained independent for now.



    [​IMG]
    Flag of Hejaz

    rashid flag.png
    Rashidi Arabia Flag

    The Hejaz flag would be very similar to that of Rashidi Arabia, just with the black and white stripes switched, and the moon/star in the red field.

    Iran/Persia

    The British occupied Persia during the course of the Great War, which is part of the reason that Russia was unable to threaten the British via the Middle East, and also part of the reason Azerbaijan was increased as it was, so that the Turks would be kept in check as would the Russians. During a coup in 1925, Reza Khan became the new monarch, known as Reza Shah.

    [​IMG]

    Reza Shah would be a controversial figure. He forced detribalization and sedentarization, secularization of state, and modernization of law and infrastructure.
    [​IMG]
    Military parade during Reza Shah's coronation in 1926

    Reza Shah sought a policy of "European-style educational institutions, Westernized women active outside the home, and modern economic structures with state factories, communication networks, investment banks, and department stores." As a modernist, from 1925 to 1933, he was instrumental in implementing construction of railways, a modern judiciary and educational system, and the imposition of changes in traditional attire, and traditional and religious customs and mores. The University of Tehran was founded, bringing western-style education to the land.

    During his 18 years of rule, the Trans-Iranian Railway was built, along with a 17-fold increase in the number of modern industrial plants, and an increase in the miles of highway from 2,000 to 14,000.
    [​IMG]
    Reza Shah opening a railway station

    Reza Shah was ruler during the Women's Awakening (1936-1941), which sought to eliminate the chador from Iranian working society, with supporters stating it impeded physical exercise and the ability of women to enter society and contribute to the progress of the nation. The Mullahs and the religious establishment objected, but in the end, the Shah won out, and new laws, such as the Marriage Law (1931) were passed, and a number of laws from the Second Congress of Eastern Women in Tehran (1932) were promulgated.

    Christians and Jews were given new rights and protections in law. Reza Shah was the first Iranian monarch in 1400 years to pay respect to the Jews by praying in the synagogue when he visited the Jewish community in Isfahan. This boosted the self-esteem of Iranian Jews, and made Reza Shah their second-most respected Iranian leader since Cyrus the Great. Reza Shah's reforms opened new occupations to Jews, and allowed them to leave the ghettos, and likewise the Christians as well. He also forbade photographing aspects of Iran he considered backwards, such as camels, and banned clerical dress and chadors in favor of Western dress.

    Iran began to join the modern world; relations opened up with not only the United Kingdom, but also Germany, Spain, Italy, Canada, Australia, the United States, the Confederate States, and other parts of the modern world. New foods and drinks were exchanged, and new technologies entered Iran. Electricity, plumbing, waste control, cars, trucks, railroads, air conditioning, and even dehumidifiers, condensers, and desalination to bring water into the drier parts of the country.

    While he was credited with great modernization, the Parliament was not entirely democratically chosen. Reza Shah interfered with their elections, and with the ministers who helped run his government until 1946.

    Afghanistan

    In 1919, after the 3rd Anglo-Afghan War, the Treaty of Rawalpindi was signed, making King Amanullah Khan the sovereign of Afghanistan, now a fully independent state. He ended the country's traditional isolation and established diplomatic relations with the international community, and following a 1927-28 tour of Europe and Turkey, introduced several reforms intended to modernize his nation much like Iran had begun. The key force behind those reforms was Mahmud Tarzi, and ardent supporter of women's education. Mahmud fought for Article 68 of the 1923 Afghanistan constitution, making elementary education compulsory. Slavery was also abolished the same year.

    [​IMG]
    King Amanullah Khan and Queen Soraya Tarzi, visiting Berlin in 1928, on the way to see Kaiser Heinrich I
    Some of his reforms were put in place, such as the abolition of the burqa and opening a number of co-educational schools, but these also quickly alienated many tribal and religious leaders. With aid from both Iran and British India, Khan successfully captured and killed Habibullah Kalakani and a number of other hard-liners in a two-year civil war.

    Once the war ended, and confirmed finished by both Iranian and British authorities, Afghanistan's Prime Minister Prince Mohammed Nadir Shah, Khan's cousin, continued the reforms and modernizations but at a slower pace. Hardliners became fewer and harder to find as education improved (and Khan's control of the courts of justice), as did infrastructure, linking the nation more closely to both British India and Iran, and with them, the outside world.

    Korea

    Since 1910, Korea has been occupied by Japan. Non-violent resistance takes place during this time.

    China

    During the 1800s, China was huge.
    [​IMG]
    Map of China

    China once included Inner Mongolia and Manchuria, measuring 3,704,426 mi2, 1.47 times the size of the 1920 Confederacy (2,517,025.06 mi2). The Qing Dynasty ruled China from 1644 to 1912, the rulers of which came from Manchuria, their homeland. Like many foreign invaders of China, the Manchus adopted the traditional Chinese customs, though they moved the capital of China north to Beiping (Beijing in 1928), not far from their homeland. But not all of China was firmly under their rule; Kiautschou Bay was sovereign German territory as Hong Kong was sovereign British Territory, and various concessions in Shanghai, Tianjin, Hankou, Shamien Island, and a few other places.

    Unfortunately the Chinese considered these Europeans Imperialists, and thought they were unfairly disadvantaged by past "unequal treaties," which led to the Boxer Rebellion in the early 1900s. In contrast, the Chinese did view the Christian missionaries as friends, helping hands, and quite valuable teachers in fields such as science, medicine, industry, and even philosophy. Many of the Christian missionaries, Catholic and Protestant, had come from the Confederate States, the people of which were still a dedicated Christian people, as opposed to their northern neighbors and western Europe, which were experiencing a slow decline in church attendance for the past 50 years.

    The Republic of China was declared in 1912, with the 6-year-old Chinese emperor named Puyi abdicating after a guarantee of a home and income. For a while, it appeared as if the man named Sun-Yat-sen would become the President of a democratic Republic of China, with a bicameral legislature, but a military coup would soon destroy the government.

    [​IMG]
    Sun-Yat-sen

    What would follow for the next 35 years would be military and political turmoil for the next 35 years, including a brief restoration of the Qing Dynasty.

    Sun-Yat-sen was a doctor and a Christian, born in Guandong province in 1865, and had attended a Christian school in the Kingdom of Hawaii where he learned English. He lived there with his older brother, who owned a 12,000-acre cattle ranch. He made a visit to the mainland once and met several Confederates during the summer in South California before returning to school. Once finished, he studied medicine back in China at Guangzhou Boji Hospital under a presbyterian missionary John Kerr, from the US. Sun Yat-sen earned his medical degree and license in British Hong Kong. In 1884, he was baptized by Charles Hager, a Swiss-Confederate from South California. While he was educated as a doctor, he would spend much of his adult life as an advocate for political revolutions and raising money overseas to help finance them.

    -------------------------------------
    [​IMG]
    Chiang Kai-Shek

    In the mid-1920s, the Chinese Nationalists were a formidable force, and June 5th, 1926, Chiang Kai-Shek was named the senior leader of the Nationalist Revolutionary Army, the military arm of the Chinese Nationalist Army. Chiang moved the capital to Nanjing, being more centrally located, just upstream from Shanghai, on the Yangtze River. It was from here Chiang Kai-Shek would gain political and military control of the Nationalist Party and most of China. Chiang himself was born in Zhejian province in 1887, attended the Baoding Military Academy in 1906, and even went to the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in 1907, serving in the Japanese Army from 1909 to 1911, leaving service in 1911 upon hearing of the Chinese Revolution back home, where he became a founding member of the Kuomintang, known in English as the Chinese Nationalist Party.

    His first wife, Mao Fumei, gave birth to his son, Chiang Ching-kuo, who would learn at his father's footsteps. He divorced and remarried, with his fourth wife being Soong Mei-ling.
    [​IMG]
    Soong Mei-ling

    Soong Mei-ling studied with her sister in New Jersey before moving to Macon, Georgia, CSA. Her father, Soong Jiashu, nicknamed "Charlie Soong," he was a Methodist missionary and a very wealthy and influential Shanghai merchant who supported Sun Yat-sen's revolutionary efforts. Jiashu had five other children.

    Mei-ling spoke fluent English, and in Macon studied at the Wesleyan Female Institute, a Methodist School. She started school in Georgia at 9 years of age, eventually gaining her college degree in 1917, at the end of the Great War. Mei-ling's English was flawless, and she even had a Georgian accent she'd keep for the rest of her life whenever she spoke English. She returned to China, and met Chiang Kai-shek three years later. Her mother, however forbade her to marry the older man who was also a Buddhist, but Kai-shek eventually divorced his third wife, agreed to study the Bible, and learn to become a Christian. At this, her mother withdrew her objection and the two were married in 1927 on November 30, remaining married for 46 years till his death in 1974. Mei-ling herself would live until 2003.

    On the other end of the groups vying for control of China were the communists, in the CPC (Communist Party of China). This group's origins were in the May 4th Movement of Beijing students in 1919, among whom the Marxist and Anarchist ideologies had gained favor. They modelled their views on Lenin's idea of a monopolistic 'vanguard party,' called 'democratic centralism.' Over in Russia, from 1917 to 1922, the communists were fighting for control before declaring themselves the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922.

    In 1923, Sun-Yat-sen formed an alliance of the nationalists and communists to unite together under a strong central government. Two years later, in 1925, Mao Zedong, a young 32-year-old communist, took command of the combined party's Office of Propaganda. Chiang was worried however, believing the Soviets would try to manipulate things in China so that the Chinese Communists would take control of the country. Luckily, Chiang took control of the National Revolutionary Army in 1926 and began purging the communists from the alliance. It wouldn't be long before the two parties would again be fighting each other to bring China under their control.

    Mao was born in 1893 and was once a Buddhist, but left the faith as a teenager. He came from Hunan, and served as a rebel soldier during the 1911/12 Chinese Revolution for half a year. He hated the physical labor (like Karl Marx) on his father's form and moved from job to job, reading books and thinking about Chinese politics to come. When he was 21, he went to school to become a teacher, attending the Normal School in Changsha from 1914-1919.

    --------------------
    [​IMG]
    Seat of Government, 1927

    While in Nanjing, Chiang Kai-shek's political philosophy evolved from favoring a strong central government to one of strong local governments under a limited national government. He had been influenced by Mei-ling and various Confederate missionaries and businessmen serving in China. Beginning in 1920, Soong Mei-ling loved spending time in the city, getting to talk to all the foreigners and influential people who came in on business. Her southern-accented English charmed them, disarming them, and she influenced them and they influenced her, and through her, Chiang.

    The question and the fear was if China could move past the war-lords and tribes, could they even dare become a decentralized confederation with the provinces retaining the most power? Could the people of China be persuaded in a generation or two to move from the autocratic Qing Dynasty to something like the US or the CS? The question weighed on Mei-ling and Kai-shek for some time. Perhaps mass media - books, newspapers, radio - could help persuade them? Mei-ling's experience with the Confederates showed her a diverse people - Virginians, Texans, Georgians - united by a common language and experience, could theoretically come together. China was much more uniform than the Confederates, and with a civilization much older and wiser, surely they could defeat the communists, who would probably try to turn China into a centralized nation like the USSR was.

    A slow but steady growing opinion amongst some nationalists, in opposition to the communists, for a confederation of provinces with a limited central government. That way, a group like the communists couldn't easily take control, if the power were decentralized, rather than all in one place. And to a growing number in the Nationalist Party, the communists were becoming the main problem and issue.
    --------------------------------
    Soon Tse-ven, another Chinese visitor to the Confederacy, served as an ambassador in 1926.
    [​IMG]
    Soong Tse-ven

    His sister, Mei-ling, was well familiar with the Confederacy, having attended school in Macon. Tse-Ven got his education at St. John's University in Shanghai, and got his bachelor's degree at the University of the South in 1915 in Sewanee, Tennessee, majoring in economics. For a time, he worked in international banking in Atlanta, visiting the CSX (Confederate Stock Exchange) there as part of his classes to earn his Master's degree at Emory College in Georgia. When he returned to China, he worked for several businesses, and most recently (as of the 1920s), helped Sun Yat-sen develop the finances for his Canton government. Like the rest of his family, Tse-Ven followed the Methodist faith, so he was quite able to help persuade the Confederates in Davis, close to his alma maters, to support a strong alliance with China and its government under Chiang Kai-shek. President Stuart himself was quite taken with Tse-Ven, considering the Chinese ambassador a good friend, and enjoying meeting his sister, Mei-ling. As the 20s developed, the prosperity even approached China, helping the nationalists use the incoming funds to modernize their country, while the world gained Chinese goods, including 'china.'

    It was during this time that in the 1920s the Confederates would allow more Chinese and Koreans into the country, provided they were Christians.

    During the 1920s, luckily, Japan had stayed out of China, but not for much longer.

    Confederate Radio

    Beginning in 1921, the US and the Confederates agreed to assign broadcast call signs to their radio stations with W for eastern US stations, C for eastern Confederate stations; K for western US stations, and T for western Confederate stations (for Trans-Mississippi).
     
    Last edited: Mar 17, 2019
  16. Ace Venom Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Jan 6, 2004
    The attention to butterflies in this world was a good idea. China being influenced by a less centralized nation could prevent China from becoming communist. The destruction of Wahhabism will have major butterflies.
     
    Zoidberg12, CountofDooku and JJohnson like this.
  17. JJohnson Banned

    Joined:
    Jul 9, 2008
    Location:
    Europe
    Thanks for reading! And yes, the loss of wahhabism will be big in a few decades. China might have some troubles coming up but perhaps it'll turn out better for them.
     
  18. Lalli Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Feb 28, 2010
    If Israel is still founded ITTL hopefully things goes smoother than in OTL. At least there is not Wahhabist but some Arab nationalist might cause problems.
     
  19. Not Henry G. Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Dec 31, 2013
    The whole "Prelude to Gettysburg" is taken word by word from one of the stories in the "Dixie Victorious" anthology.

     
  20. Threadmarks: Chapter 49.5: Confederate State Areas and Flag

    JJohnson Banned

    Joined:
    Jul 9, 2008
    Location:
    Europe
    List of Confederate States and Territories by Area (Territories italicized):
    Total: 2,517,025.6 mi2 / 6,519,073.61 km2

    Alaska 665,384.04
    Texas 268,596.46
    South California 137,526.00
    New Mexico 129,690.30*
    Arizona 127,512.30*
    Rio Grande 114,286.00
    Jefferson 87,440.00**
    Durango 70,134.00
    Oklahoma 69,898.87
    Missouri 69,706.99
    Florida 65,757.70
    Georgia 59,425.15
    Sonora 55,727.00**
    North Carolina 53,819.16
    Arkansas 53,178.55
    Alabama 52,420.07
    Louisiana 52,378.13
    Yucatan 50,671.00
    Mississippi 48,431.78
    Virginia 42,774.93
    Cuba 42,426.00
    Tennessee 42,144.25
    Kentucky 40,407.80
    Guiana 32,253.00
    South Carolina 32,020.49
    Santo Domingo 18,792.00
    Hawaii 10,934.83*
    New Caledonia 7,172.00
    Bahamas 5,358.00
    Puerto Rico 5,324.84
    Mariana Islands 2,546.19
    Polynesia 1,609.00
    Guadeloupe 629.00
    Martinique 436.00
    Virgin Islands 192.73
    Bermuda 20.50

    *This state/territory is larger than OTL's equivalent
    **This state/territory is smaller than OTL's equivalent

    List of United States and Territories by Area (Territories italicized):
    Total: 1,951,574.99 mi2 / 5,054,557.23 km2

    Montana 147,039.71
    Nevada 110,571.82
    Columbia 107,955.00
    Colorado 104,093.67
    Oregon 98,378.54
    Wyoming 97,813.01
    Michigan 96,713.51
    Minnesota 86,935.83
    Utah 84,896.88
    Idaho 83,568.95
    North California 82,296.32
    Kansas 82,278.36
    Nebraska 77,347.81
    South Dakota 77,115.68
    Washington 71,297.95
    North Dakota 70,698.32
    Illinois 57,913.55
    Iowa 56,272.81
    Amapa 55,141.02
    New York 54,554.98
    Pennsylvania 46,054.35
    Ohio 44,825.58
    Indiana 36,419.55
    Maine 35,379.74
    West Virginia 24,230.04
    Maryland 12,405.93
    Massachusetts 10,554.39
    Vermont 9,616.36
    New Hampshire 9,349.16
    New Jersey 8,722.58
    Connecticut 5,543.41
    Delaware 2,488.72
    Rhode Island 1,544.89
    Panama Canal Zone 552.90
    Gilbert and Ellice Islands 431.53
    Barbados 169.00
    DC 100.00
    Cook Islands 91.40
    American Samoa 77.00
    Marshall Islands 70.05
    Wallis and Futuna 54.99
    St Barts 9.70
     
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