Dixie Forever: A Timeline

Discussion in 'Alternate History Discussion: Before 1900' started by JJohnson, Nov 9, 2018.

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What is Missouri's fate and the new capitol location?

Poll closed Feb 6, 2019.
  1. Missouri- Union

    8 vote(s)
    24.2%
  2. Missouri - Confederate

    12 vote(s)
    36.4%
  3. Missouri - split on Missouri River

    10 vote(s)
    30.3%
  4. Missouri - split on River, then straight line above Jefferson City (more even split)

    2 vote(s)
    6.1%
  5. Capital - Blue Square 1

    1 vote(s)
    3.0%
  6. Capital - Blue Square 2

    1 vote(s)
    3.0%
  7. Capital - Blue Square 3

    2 vote(s)
    6.1%
  8. Capital - Diamond 4

    5 vote(s)
    15.2%
  9. Capital - Diamond 5

    5 vote(s)
    15.2%
  10. Other - (explained in post); but not Richmond.

    3 vote(s)
    9.1%
Multiple votes are allowed.
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  1. JJohnson Banned

    Joined:
    Jul 9, 2008
    Location:
    Europe
    I redid the representation by using a pre-made Google Sheets apportionment calculator from 1870-1910 for each state, so we can go with these figures for the House membership.

    First, statehood:
    1861: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky (confirmed 1865), Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri (confirmed 1866), North Carolina, Rio Grande, South California, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia
    1862: Oklahoma
    1875: New Mexico
    1879: Cuba
    1886: Arizona
    1890: Durango, Jefferson, Sonora
    1893: Hawaii
    1896: Puerto Rico
    1897: Santo Domingo
    Territories remaining at this point in time: Alaska, Mariana Islands, the Washington Islands

    Flags:
    1861 - 7, 13, 15 stars
    [​IMG] [​IMG] stars and bars 15.png
    1862 - 16 stars
    CS First National 16 Stars.jpg
    1875 - 17 stars
    Confederate 17 star flag.png
    1879 - 18 stars
    Third National 18 star.png
    1886 - 19 stars
    Third National 19 star.png
    1890 - 22 stars
    Third National 22 star.png
    1893 - 23 stars
    Third National 23 star.png
    1896 - 24 stars
    Third National 24 star.png
    1897 - 25 stars
    Third National 25 star.png

    Representation
    1861, 1870, 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910:
    Alabama 9, 20, 19, 22, 23, 24
    Arizona X, X, X, 2, 2, 2
    Arkansas 4, 10, 12, 16, 18, 18
    Cuba X, X, 23, 23, 29, 23
    Durango X, X, X, 4, 5, 5
    Florida 2, 4, 4, 6, 7, 9
    Georgia 10, 24, 24, 28, 28, 30
    Hawaii X, X, X, X, 2, 2
    Jefferson X, X, X, 3, 3, 5
    Kentucky 12, 26, 25, 28, 28, 26
    Louisiana 6, 17, 15, 21, 17, 19
    Mississippi 7, 18, 17, 18, 20, 20
    Missouri 7, 36, 33, 37, 34, 38
    New Mexico X, X, 2, 3, 2, 4
    North Carolina 10, 23, 22, 26, 25, 25
    Oklahoma X/1, 2, 2, 4, 5, 8
    Puerto Rico X, X, X, X, 12, 13
    Rio Grande 3, 8, 8, 11, 12, 14
    Santo Domingo X, X, X, X, 6, 7
    Sonora X, X, X, 3, 4, 3
    South California 4, 8, 7, 10, 13, 14
    South Carolina 6, 16, 15, 17, 17, 17
    Tennessee 11, 25, 24, 25, 26, 25
    Texas 6, 18, 25, 28, 38, 44
    Virginia 16, 26, 23, 24, 24, 24

    House:
    1861 - 113; most reps: Virginia
    1870 - 281; most reps: Missouri
    1880 - 300; most reps: Missouri
    1890 - 359; most reps: Missouri
    1900 - 400; most reps: Texas
    1910 - 419; most reps: Texas

    Senate:
    1870: 32
    1880: 36
    1890: 44
    1900: 50
    1910: 50

    Note: reduction in representatives between censuses doesn't necessarily mean a reduction in state population; it can be a change in priority of a state getting the next representative in the formula.
    Note: X means it wasn't a state yet, so it didn't get any representatives; territories all got a non-voting delegate to the House.

    I've been off-board mostly because I've been studying a script for my new job that will hopefully be able to provide enough money for a new computer that isn't missing its A-key and can switch browser tabs in less than 5 minutes.
     
    Last edited: Mar 1, 2019
  2. Zoidberg12 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
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    Location:
    New Jersey, U.S.A.
    Heres a map of the world in 1912, on the eve of the Great War.

    upload_2019-3-15_17-30-30.png
     
    Last edited: Mar 15, 2019
  3. Threadmarks: Chapter 41: Opening Salvo

    JJohnson Banned

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    Opening Salvo

    The war began in Europe in earnest soon after the diplomatic wrangling of June and July. Austria-Hungary invaded Serbia, but was defeated in the Battle of Cer and the Battle of Kolubara. Their attacks were thrown back with heavy losses, dashing the Austro-Hungarian hopes of a swift victory. As a result, Austria-Hungary had to keep a sizable force on the Serbian front, weakening its efforts against the French ally, Russia. With Serbia's two victories, France was emboldened to attack Germany and their armies expected the Germans to be defeated much like the Austro-Hungarians.

    France's plan for the war was to quickly assume control of Germany's coal fields and Alsace-Lorraine, which it sought to re-annex to France, resolving a thorn in its side since the war in 1871. To do this, the French swept into Belgium and Luxembourg in the north, taking Aachen, Simmerath, Schleiden, and Blankenheim in short order, and soon advancing just past Euskirchen, Düren, Jülich, and Wegberg. The southern attack led the French to take Straßburg, Pirmasens, Homburg, St Wendel and Nohfelden, Trier, Wittlich, Daun, and completing their frontier with their northern army counterparts.

    The initial French advance in the West was very successful. By the end of August, German casualties had exceeded 260,000, including 27,000 killed on August 21 at the Battle of Eupen. The French gave their field commanders leeway by giving broad strategic instructions, allowing them to carry out with considerable freedom in the front. The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) had been forced into retreat back to Cologne. In September, from the 5th to the 12th the First Battle of Kaiserslautern, the British and the Germans were finally able to exploit a gap in the French army which allowed them to halt the French advance and push the French back about 25 miles, but still well within the German border.

    Universities

    The University of Nashville has long been a draw in the Confederate States due to the tireless recruitment efforts of former General Bushrod Johnson. In Memphis, former General N. Bedford Forrest helped found the University of Memphis, as he wanted to improve the lot of the freedmen in the Confederacy. Using his earnings from slave trading and after the war, his on memoirs of the war and railroad dealings, Forrest established a university with several colleges - agriculture, medicine and nursing, business, education, and science and engineering. The first enrollment in his college was a low 200 persons, but soon, opening the school to women as well, the second year (1879) was 490 persons enrolled. Economic opportunities for freedmen around Memphis improved, and without the effects of Reconstruction, families strengthened and their churches flourished. Private colleges elsewhere sprang up, as did public universities. The University of Missouri opened a new campus in St Louis, with a heavy focus in science, technology, and engineering, along with medicine in 1881.

    In New Mexico, the state's first university is opened in 1882:
    [​IMG]
    Hodgin Hall, first building of the University of New Mexico

    In San Juan Bay in 1891, the University of Puerto Rico is opened, offering classes in both English and Spanish (OTL location - west of where Avenida John Kennedy is). Education in Puerto Rico began to increasingly offer English-language instruction. Likewise in Cuba, the plantation owners increasingly began using English and so did the capital in Havana. By 1910, business in Havana was often a mix of English and Spanish, depending on the shops and restaurants, and courts and government services were both English and Spanish.

    Language Use in the Confederate States

    Since joining the Confederacy, a number of English speakers have moved to Puerto Rico; where in 1879 it was nearly 100% Spanish-speaking, due to the economical air-cooling of Floridian John Gorrie, and the de-humidifying of Albert Williams of Louisiana, more Confederates from the mainland were willing to move to the Caribbean; in 1889, Puerto Rico was roughly 92% Spanish-speaking, and by 1899, it was 87%. Cuban use of Spanish had declined decade over decade from 100% to 94% to 86%, and by 1910, 83% Spanish-speaking. Puerto Rico as of 1910 was 79% Spanish-speaking; both islands are slowly becoming English-speaking due to being in an English-speaking country and the need to integrate with the numerous fellow Confederates who are moving onto the islands and rapidly developing their economies; to move ahead, people in the three island states need to learn and speak English; more and more, schools taught English as a requirement, then began offering optional English-instruction courses, and by 1905, all three instructed students part of the day in Spanish and part of the day in English. Power plants, factories, shipping, naval bases, and new home construction of nice homes in Cuba, Santo Domingo, and Puerto Rico make them all appear more integrated with the mainland Confederacy. Even new immigrants from Europe go to the islands, especially those from colder climes of northern Europe, looking for warmer places to settle. The prestige language of the three island states was becoming English for anyone wanting to move ahead.

    Springfield neighborhood Jacksonville.png
    New-style homes built in Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Santo Domingo from about 1905-1935 outside the old cities.

    New restaurants develop new dishes, including one, 'Café Berlin' which sells churizo bratwurst, where you can get a Löwenbräu and some Bavarian sweet mustard, while also getting a mofongo with pulled pork in it. New beers, like the boqueron, were developed which followed the German purity law, and became a typically Puerto Rican beer, enjoyed across the Caribbean and in southern Florida.

    Notable in Puerto Rico, San Juan, the capital city, had a 'new city' area across the bay from the old city, which itself was on an island. The locals called it 'Guaynabo' but the people moving in called it 'New San Juan.'
    puerto rico guaynabo city.png
    On the small peninsula north of New San Juan and along the northern-facing shore, hundreds of new homes like shown above were built with local materials and local oil-based paints to protect from sun, humidity, rain, and other environmental elements facing homes in the Caribbean. Electric lines were laid as well as air conditioning and de-humidifier units were installed to keep occupants cool and comfortable.


    Football

    Beginning in the 1860s, various colleges in the United States played a game very similar to rugby. Several used rules based on the more soccer-like British Football Association rules, while Harvard continued its traditional 'carrying game' rules. In Montreal, McGill University used rugby-based rules. In 1874, Harvard and McGill organized three games based on each others' rules, and Harvard's players took a liking to McGill's rugby-style rules, and then began playing several other US colleges, and some CS colleges, namely the University of Nashville, Georgia Institute of Technology, UGA, and UoR.

    It was William McCray, who had traveled north to attend Yale, who founded Confederate Football in 1876, having spent a year in the North, and observed the Harvard-Yale games, which had adopted the rugby rules. He returned south to the Confederacy and got together with his cousin, Ashley McCray, who with his brother Andrew, both of whom had several Scottish and Irish friends in the Richmond area, and they all began playing this form of football. After a few weekends, the Scottish and Irish players convinced the McCrays to change the scoring to be more like Gaelic Football, which they were used to doing; an H-shaped goal was used, and kicking the ball under the goal post was 3 points, above was 1 point, and like the northern game, a try (touchdown) was 4 points. Soon, in 1877, the University of Richmond played the University of Virginia, and the game was attended by over 500 people, ending in a 28 to 23 defeat for UVA, and a rematch a fortnight later, where UVA defeated Richmond 24 to 15.


    [​IMG]
    Confederate Football goalposts and scores

    By 1891, just over 15 years after the game began being played in the Confederate States, there were over 80 colleges playing the game, including the Virginia State University, a black college started in 1871 to educate freedmen in the Old Dominion. A notable game was when VSU defeated UoR 29 to 12; Richmond refused to play VSU for two decades afterward.

    In 1891, the first US-CS football game was played; due to the differences in rules and scoring, a compromise game was played at UVA in Richmond between the Richmond Football Association and the Allegheny Athletic Association, with William "Pudge" Heffelfinger being paid $500 to play the game. Confederate scoring was used with the northern rules. The Union team played much better given their knowledge of the rules and led through much of the game, however in the end, the Confederate team won by 3 points in the final score; the southerners started singing "Dixie" after the final points were scored. Two months later, the Yale team defeated the Richmond team 21 to 16, to the wild cheers of the Americans who came down to the Confederacy to watch the game; they all started singing their version of the "Battle Cry of Freedom" as soon as their team scored the final goal to win. Soon, at least 8 games a year were played between the two countries, the winners varying enough that both the Americans and the Confederates won a few each year. It began to be customary to sing one or the other version of "Battle Cry of Freedom" depending on who won the game, and to play the national anthem of either country, depending on where it was being held.

    Soon the game began to spread across colleges, and some amateur football clubs sprang up in both countries. In 1907, both the Americans and Confederates agreed to adopt the forward pass, allowing the quarterback to throw the ball forward over the line of scrimmage to a receiver. A 100-yard field was standardized, but added a 10-yard end zone on either end of the field. The three-downs expanded to four and went from 5 yards to 10 yards, and allowed 11 players on the field at a time, down from 15 in the North and 13 in the South.

    Executive Energy

    Confederate President Jackson decided to visit each state in the Confederacy before his term was up. In 1910, he went from Davis to Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo, Cuba, then back to Alabama, and Mississippi. He was the first President to have legislation mailed to him while away from Davis, and the Supreme Court verified that it was still legal for him to sign legislation, regardless of his location. Under Frazer's and Longstreet's terms, the Confederacy saw widespread electrification and indoor plumbing come about in most cities, but rural homes, where the majority of the Confederate population still lived, were still behind. Jackson urged states to take steps to bring electricity to rural homes; by the Constitution there was no power for him to spend money on such a project, but his speech on the subject, including his line about bringing "the light of electricity into our homes so that we can bring the light of knowledge out into our towns and cities" when we read our Bibles or other books, given in New Orleans, encouraged many states to improve their efforts. Davis, the capital district, under Congress's control by the Constitution, was required to bring electric lighting and indoor plumbing to every building and home in the capital district before 1916, and finished successfully in 1914.

    In 1912, Europe had plunged into war, and Jackson was set to keep the Confederacy out of the war. The subject of war was a Congressional purview, and in Jackson's view, so was neutrality. He made no proclamation of neutrality because that wasn't the President's power in the Constitution. So the President, when the United Kingdom asked for the Confederates to help provide munitions and other war materials, remembered their help during their own War for Southern Independence, and Congress did pass a bill allowing trade of war materials with the UK, Austria-Hungary, and Germany, called "An Act to Provide War Material to Friendly Nations." While the bill maintained Confederate neutrality, it allowed arms trade to Europe and for the British, Germans, and Austro-Hungarians to delay paying until after the war, giving essentially gold i.o.u.s in the form of British, German, and Austro-Hungarian gold certificates to be redeemed within two years of a treaty of peace ending the war in Europe.

    US Population

    The United States population grew at a slightly lower rate after the war, but they certainly let in a larger number of immigrants to provide a labor pool for their factories. This kept wages down but also increased the power of unions in arguing for greater wages for their workers. The economic slowdown post-war did affect the desire of immigrants to come to the United States, but they still came.

    1860: 20,322,945
    1870: 23,700,209
    1880: 29,491,138
    1890: 38,935,331
    1900: 52,949,476
    1910: 63,507,796

    Most immigrants for the last 50 years from the United Kingdom went to their various dominions (Rhodesia, Canada, South Africa, Patagonia, Kenya, Australia, New Zealand) or the Confederate States, while most Europeans (Germans, French, Dutch, etc) went roughly equally to various colonies as well as the US and CS. The CS specifically targeted those with specialized knowledge, i.e. medicine, engineering, physics, chemistry, mechanization, agriculture, and military disciplines.
     
    Last edited: Mar 6, 2019
  4. StealthyMarat In the heavy thoughts. Gone Fishin'

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    Poltava, Ukraine
    US population should be 65.000.000 - 70.000.000 IMHO.
     
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  5. JJohnson Banned

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    I can change the numbers, but I was trying to use the numbers to calculate the new House numbers for the north also.
     
  6. StealthyMarat In the heavy thoughts. Gone Fishin'

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    Poltava, Ukraine
    Thanks.
     
  7. Ace Venom Well-Known Member

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    Jan 6, 2004
    I was wondering when American football would make an appearance.
     
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  8. JJohnson Banned

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    My wife was surprised I was researching football's history since I never watch the sport. She watches nearly every game she can.
     
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  9. Threadmarks: Chapter 42: War is Here

    JJohnson Banned

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    First Year of War

    1912 war map.png

    Alliances as of 1912

    Between the coast and the lower Rhine was an eastward bulge in the trench line, named the Münster salient for the captured German town at the maximum point of advance. The German plan for 1913 was to attack the salient on both flanks to cut it off. The German Third Army attacked near Dortmund from December 20, 1912 to March 17, 1913, but the British were not able to attack at the same time to take advantage of the distraction. On March 10, 1913, the British Army, as part of a larger offensive in the Rhine region, fought the Battle of Wiesbaden to capture the Main and the ridge nearby along a nearly 2 mile front, using four divisions. Preceded by a surprise bombardment for over 40 minutes, the initial assault made rapid progress and the town itself was surprisingly captured in only 6 hours. The advance then slowed due to supply and communications difficulties. The French brought up their reserves and counter-attacked, forestalling the British and German attempt to advance past Wiesbaden. Since the British had used about 1/3 of their supply of artillery ammunition, General Sir John French blamed the failure on the shortage of ammunition, despite the early success.

    Soon it became obvious to the British and the Germans, that they would need to supplement their home war supplies with foreign materials, making the United States and Confederate States the main suppliers of the two powers. Neither American nation thought to join the war effort, but they would happily make money off of what they viewed as a European War.

    War Supplies


    President Jackson asked and received from the Congress a proclamation of neutrality in the European war, as the Confederates were calling it. In 1913, the war was drawing on longer than many initially believed, and by April, the United Kingdom and the German Empire approached both the United States and the Confederate States to purchase war materials. Giving a better overall deal than the United States, the Confederates soon began supplying the bulk of their overseas war materials to the British and Germans against the French by late 1913. The Confederate Treasury got receipt of foreign gold, buoying the value of the Confederate Dollar and improving the Confederate trade balance. By 1914, however, the British and the Germans could no longer transport gold, as the French had managed to attack their convoys with a new underwater ship, the submarine, and the Confederates took I.O.U.s from both powers under the condition that they would be repaid once the war was over.


    Mexico's Rumbling

    [​IMG]
    President Porfirio Diaz, with over seven terms to his name

    Over in Mexico, since the failure of the revolution by Benito Juarez, Porfirio Diaz reigned over the nation. His most remarkable project was the Palacio Legislativo Federal, a new capitol building for Mexico.

    [​IMG]
    Illustration of the new Mexican Capitol Building
    [​IMG]
    Interior of the Mexican Capitol Building

    While Porfirio ruled for seven terms, later being called the Porfiriato, Mexico advanced immeasurably. The peso was valued at 3.2 pesos per Confederate Dollar. He maintained control via patronage much like that which was initiated in Lincoln's, Hancock's, and Grant's terms in office. While he was authoritarian, he did maintain the façade of elections, winning by implausibly high margins. He oversaw the tenfold increase in railways, steam-powered locomotives, and telegraph lines across the country. Much of this was funded by foreign capital, including Confederate and American capital. In 1878 the US recognized the Diaz regime and Grant visited Mexico, and soon after, President G.W.C. Lee visited as well.

    Most of the improvements benefited Diaz's friends, and judges were bribed to give land to his friends by having the land declared vacant. People opposing this were killed or captured and sold as slaves to plantations.

    [​IMG]
    Palacio de Bellas Artes

    While reelected in 1910, he was forced into exile in Paris due to election fraud. A series of coups resulted in General Victoriano Huerta assuming power in 1913, and being quickly recognized by France, currently in the middle of a war in Europe and needing allies. France sought military supplies from Mexico, and signed and agreement in December 1913 in secret where Mexico would supply military equipment to France and France would support their government with trade. By March of 1914, however this agreement was modified, as France was facing issues with the war going on, and its enemies, Germany and the United Kingdom, being supplied by the Confederates and the United States. France would support the Mexicans in regaining as much of their northern territory from the Confederates as they wanted, provided they gave France most-favored-nation status afterwards.

    The Advances of War

    While all powers fighting in the war had signed the Hague Conventions in 1899 and 1907, prohibiting the use of chemical weapons in warfare. In 1913, there were some small-scale attempts by both the French and Germans in the use of tear gases, which weren't strictly prohibited by the early treaties, but were also ineffective. The first use of more lethal chemical weapons was against the Germans near the German town of Limburg.

    Despite the French plans to maintain the stalemate with the Germans and British, Robert Nivelle, in charge of the third army, planned an offensive near Münster. The second Battle of Münster was fought in April 1913, intended to divert attention from the offensives on the eastern front, and to disrupt German-British planning. After a two-day bombardment, the French released a cloud of 172 long tons of chlorine gas onto the battlefield. Though primarily a powerful irritant, it can asphyxiate in high enough concentrations or prolonged exposure.

    Being heavier than air, it crept across the no man's land and drifted into the German trenches. The green-yellow cloud started killing some defenders and those in the rear fled in panic, creating an undefended 3.7-mile gap in the Allied line. The French were unprepared for the level of their success and lacked the sufficient reserves to exploit the opening. Canadian troops on the right, drew back their left flank and halted the French advance. The gas attack was repeated two days later, and caused a roughly 3 mile withdrawal of the German-British line but the opportunity had been lost.

    Aerial Warfare

    While the Confederates didn't see the martial impact initially, the British and Germans did. Specialized airplanes for aerial combat were introduced in 1913. They were already used for scouting and on April 1, German pilot Reinhardt Schmidtchen became the first to shoot down an enemy aircraft by using a machine-gun which shot forward through the propeller blades. Initially done by reinforcing the blades to deflect the bullets, soon the Dutch engineer Anthony Fokker created the interrupter gear, which synchronized the machine gun with the propeller so that it would fire in the intervals when the blades of the propeller are out of the line of fire. This advance was quickly pushed into service with the Fokker E.I. (monoplane). The French were able to shoot down one of these improved planes in July and soon copied the advance and the Confederate-purchased aluminum frame and skin. Soon both sides had aerial fighters with improved weapons, engines, airframes, and materials to the end of the war.

    Spring Offensive (1913)

    [​IMG]
    Ruins at Recklinghausen after recapture by Germany

    The final offensive by the Allies was the Second Battle of Coblenz, to try to recapture a front on the Rhine and advance into the Rhineland plain and split the French in two. The German Second Army attacked on May 8 after a six-day bombardment and advanced 3 miles to capture the city. French reinforcements counterattacked and pushed the Germans back towards their starting points because German reserves had been held back, and the success of the attack came as a surprise. By May 15, the advance had been stopped, though fighting continued until June 18. In May, the Germans found a French document describing a new system of defense, a front line of thinly manned outposts, reinforced by a series of strong-points, then a sheltered reserve. If a slope were available, troops were deployed along the rear for protection. This defense-in-depth, like the defenses of San Juan, Puerto Rico from the Spanish forts would find favor in the German High Command and become invaluable in saving thousands of lives.

    During autumn of 1913, the "Breguet Scourge" began having an effect on the battlefront as the German recon aircraft were nearly driven from the skies. The recon planes were used to direct gunnery and photograph enemy fortifications but now the Allies were nearly blinded by the French fighters. Newer airplanes would soon be developed to overcome this and by 1915 German and British airplanes would begin to peel back the French air dominance.
     
  10. Ace Venom Well-Known Member

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    I'm a bit curious as to how the war is going in Africa, Asia, and the Americas.
     
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  11. TrashMan Member

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    Jun 1, 2018
    How is the situation for Japan in this timeline? Did they ever ally with the United Kingdom like OTL or is it something completely different?
     
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  12. Lalli Well-Known Member

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    Feb 28, 2010
    How is going in Eastern Front? And what Italians and Ottomans are going to do?
     
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  13. Threadmarks: Chapter 43: The Great War Strains the Allied Powers

    JJohnson Banned

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    The War in Africa

    The colonies of the various European powers were also dragged into the war beginning in 1913. Being the largest population centers for Europeans, the colonies of Kenya, Rhodesia, South Africa, Namibia, Tanzania, Kamerun, and Togoland were key bases from which they launched their African campaigns. The first two targets in 1912 were Dahomey and Ivory Coast.

    At Djabatu and Tchetti, the British and Germans launched a feint designed to draw the attention of the French colonial authorities in Dahomey, while using their ships to attack Porto Novo, landing troops October 3rd after shelling the town from the safety of their ships for three days. After another fourteen hours of combat, a joint British-German force took Porto Novo, and the French authorities surrendered the colony. Per agreement, the British would maintain control of Dahomey until war's end.

    Once the situation died down in Dahomey and control was established, the German and British colonial forces from Togoland, Ghana, Nigeria, and Kamerun launched a land attack on the Ivory Coast to reach Yamoussoukro, while a sea attack was mounted to take Abidjan, the economic capital. Ivory Coast was one of three French colonies with a sizable French population, encouraged by Napoleon IV. The French never were as successful at settler colonies as the British and the Germans. It took from December to January to reach Yamoussoukro, and on January 19, 1913, the Battle of Abidjan was fought two days before the Battle of Yamoussoukro on the 21st. Abidjan was attacked by land and sea, over the course of three days before it fell to the Allied attack. Yamoussoukro fell on the 29th, encountering much French resistance. Fighting in the interior would still occur over the course of the year before Ivory Coast could be considered 'pacified.' The Germans were tasked with maintaining control of the country for the duration of the war; they brought in locals from Kamerun, both from the highly westernized West Province (from Duala and Victoria), and from the interior, some of which caused issues being in charge of the local Ivoirians, before being replaced.




    List
    Spain's colonies: Spanish Morocco (including Tangiers); Western Sahara; Spanish Guinea
    France's colonies: numerous; incl. Dahomey, Ivory Coast, Algeria, French Congo, Gabon, Madagascar, etc.
    Britain's colonies: Kenya, South Africa, Rhodesia, Sudan, Gold Coast, etc.
    Germany's colonies: Tanzania, Namibia, Kamerun, Togoland
    Portugal's colonies: Angola, Mozambique

    Italy Enters the War

    Italy had been friendly with Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire since 1878 and Kaiser Friedrich III assuming the throne, and his son as Heinrich I. While Italy had its own designs on Austro-Hungarian territory, the Allies offered Italy more African territory and Corsica for their support, with the option after victory of discussing the Austrian Littoral and the Italian-speaking parts of Tyrol (and that only after Austria-Hungary was defeated at Lemberg, Galicia in December with a joint Russian and Bulgarian attack in early December). The offer was formalized in the Treaty of London, and Italy declared war on France, Russia, Serbia, and the Ottoman Empire on December 22, 1913.


    The Ottoman Empire Enters the War

    Late in 1913, the French were wanting to ease the struggle they were facing on their eastern front in Germany. Since 1912, the French in Europe had suffered a little over 190,000 casualties in the trench warfare being fought to subdue their enemy, Germany, and finally restore their territory with the resumption of Alsace-Lorraine, and possibly annexing more territory between there and the Rhine river, viewed by quite a few in France as their natural border with Germany.

    Several envoys were sent to the Ottoman Empire to try to get them to enter the war, and finally, on November 3, 1913, the Ottomans officially entered the war on the side of France and Russia. For this, the French promised them Greece and Macedonia, plus Egypt and the African Gulf Coast between Africa and Arabia, plus the building of a railway that Germany promised but never delivered. While the Ottomans wanted Bulgaria and Romania, they did agree, at least on paper, to allow those to remain in Russia's sphere of influence. The Ottomans shipped troops into Europe through their hold on Constantinople (Istanbul) and from Cyprus, looking to open up a front in the south of Austria-Hungary to force the Austro-Hungarians to remove troops from the front lines against both Russia and France. The tactic worked, and the Austro-Hungarians were forced to thin their lines and conscript more men to fight on the front.

    The first Battle of Mehadia in December (1 to 3) was the Ottomans' first battle in Europe, and the top brass in both Germany and Austria-Hungary were worried it would be another attempt of the Turks to conquer Vienna again (as the newspapers reported) and conquer Europe.

    A side effect of this was the entry of Greece on the side of the United Kingdom, Germany, and Austria-Hungary, offering them the use of Greek territory to plan attacks into the Ottoman Empire, but demanding Constantinople and the Aegean Coast, plus Cyprus, in exchange for their support. The United Kingdom got the Greeks to agree to basing rights in Cyprus, so they accepted the terms. The Greek contributions were useful, mostly through the use of their small country to launch attacks into the Ottoman Empire.

    The War in Asia

    France attempted to use Indian nationalism and pan-Islamism to its advantage, attempting to instigate uprisings in Indian, and even sending a mission into Afghanistan urging it to enter the war on the side of the Entente. Contrary to the British fears of a revolt in India, the outbreak of the war saw an unprecedented outpouring of loyalty and goodwill towards Britain. Indian political leaders from the Indian National Congress and other groups were eager to support the British war effort, since they believed that strong support for the war effort would further the cause of Indian home rule. The Indian Army actually outnumbered the British Army at the beginning of the war; about 1.3 million soldiers and laborers of Indian heritage served in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, while the central government and the princely states sent large supplies of food, money, and ammunition. Overall, about 140,000 men served on the western front, and nearly 700,000 in the Middle East.

    Once the war ended, Britain would begin the transition to self-government in India, starting with reorganization of states and guiding the Indians towards infrastructure improvements including sanitation, electricity, and water treatment, vastly improving the conditions across the sub-continent.

    Japan entered the war on the side of the Allies in early 1914,

    Pacific Islands (1800s)

    In the Pacific, the United States, made sighting of the island Bird Island (Minami Torishima) in 1864. The Morning Star planted the US flag, but due to the issue of the War of the Rebellion, the United States allowed their claim to lapse. Ten years later, the US again sighted the island, and made claim to it in 1874, landing 47 colonists from Columbia and Oregon to settle the island.

    After the Confederates claimed Hawaii, the US also began to look for other Pacific Islands to acquire, and so they claimed Wake Island in 1895. The Northern Leeward Islands of Hawaii were part of the Confederate State of Hawaii, so the use of Midway Island was denied to the United States.

    Confederate Hawaii Flag.png
    Hawaiian Flag, 13 stars representing the 13 islands of Hawaii (Hawaii, Maui, Moloka'i, O'ahu, Kaua'i, Ni'ihau, Nihoa, Necker, Gardner, Laysan, Lisianski, Midway, Kure; the reef of Pearl and Hermes and French Frigate Shoals are not counted as islands, but atolls)

    The War in the Americas (1913-1914)

    The Americas were mostly unaffected by the war in 1912 and 1913; Canada, the United States, and the Confederate States were not under attack by France, Russia, or the Ottomans. Canadians served in the war as part of the British Empire, but the United States and Confederate States contented themselves to supplying arms and vehicles to the allied powers and making money off the conflict.

    South of the Confederate States, however General Victoriano Huerta was busy building support for a potential invasion of the Confederate States as well as Yucatan. There was even a planned invasion of the Panama Canal Zone, a US Territory, to attempt to disrupt US and CS trade. For most of 1914, however, Mexico would bide its time and pick the right time to strike.

    allied powers strain to pay the US and Confederates; GB agrees to give the CS the Bahamas, British Virgin Islands, and Bermuda in exchange for canceling their war debts. The Confederates agree. The US, not to be outdone, agrees to take over Barbuda, Antigua, Grenada, and Barbados, gaining a foothold into the Caribbean, something they hadn't been able to do since the Confederacy blocked their moves into Cuba or Puerto Rico. CS buy the Danish VI also, uniting both Virgin Islands into 1 territory.

    The War in 1914-1915

    Neither the French nor the British/German alliance were able to deliver a decisive blow for the next two years (1914 and 1915). The British Empire and Germany suffered more overall casualties than France, due to strategic and tactical stances chosen by the sides. Strategically, while the French only mounted one major offensive, the Allies made several attempts to break through the French lines. The French continued to draw from Algeria to make up manpower deficits as needed.

    In February 1914, the French attacked German defensive positions at the Battle of Offenburg, lasting until December 1914. The French made initial gains, before the Germans counter-attacked, returning the situation to near their starting point. Casualties were greater for the Germans, but the French bled heavily as well, with anywhere from 700,000 to 975,000 casualties between the two combatants. Offenburg became a symbol of German determination and self-sacrifice.

    The Battle of Kolmar (Alsace-Lorraine) was an Anglo-German offensive from July to November 1914. The opening day of the offensive (July 1, 1914) was the bloodiest day in the history of the British Army, suffering 51,066 casualties, including 17,412 dead. The entire Alsace-Lorraine offensive cost the British Army some 350,000 casualties. The Germans suffered another estimated 160,000 casualties, and the French an estimated 400,000. Gun fire wasn't the only factor taking lives. Diseases emerged in the trenches, becoming a major killer on both sides. The living conditions on the front made countless diseases and infections prominent, such as trench foot, shell shock, blindness/burns from mustard gas, lice, trench fever, body lice (cooties), and even the Spanish flu.

    To maintain morale, wartime censors minimized early reports of diseases and mortality in German, the UK, and France. Papers were free to report the epidemic's effects in neutral Spain, creating the false impression of Spain being hardest hit, giving rise to the nickname "Spanish Flu."

    Protracted action at Mühlhausen and Altkirch throughout 1916 combined with the bloodletting at Straßburg, brought the exhausted German army almost to the brink of collapse. Futile attempts using frontal assaults came at a high price for both the British and the Germans and led to widespread German Army mutinies, after the costly Hagenau Offensive of April-May 1915. The concurrent British Battle of Oldenburg was more limited in scope, more successful, and ultimately of little strategic value. A smaller part of the Oldenburg offensive, the capture of Hunte River by the Canadian Corps, became highly significant to that country; the idea that Canada's national identity was born out of that battle is an opinion widely held in military and general histories of Canada.

    The last large-scale offensive of this period was a British attack (with German support) at Greven (July - November 1915). This offensive opened with great promise for the Allies, before bogging down in the mud of October. Casualties were roughly equal, though the numbers were disputed, at around 150,000 per side.

    The years of trench warfare on the western front achieved no major exchanges of territory, and as a result, were often thought of as static and unchanging. However, throughout this period, British, French, and German tactics constantly evolved to meet new battlefield challenges.

    The Eastern Front in Europe

    Russian plans for the start of the war called for a simultaneous invasion of Galicia, East Prussia, and Posen. Although Russia's initial advance into Galicia was largely successful, it was driven back from East Prussia by Hindenburg and Ludendorff at the battles of Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes in August and September 1912. Russia's less developed industrial base and ineffective military leadership were instrumental in the events that unfolded. The Russians did make some successful strikes into Posen and Silesia; Breslau and the city of Posen both were shelled by the Russians during 1913, and they only retreated in mid 1914 from those provinces of Prussia. But they had retreated from Galicia in mid 1914, and in May 1915 the Allies achieved a remarkable breakthrough on Poland's southern frontiers with their Gorlice-Tarnow Offensive. On August 6, Warsaw was captured in a month-long battle between the Germans and Russians, and the Russians were forced to withdraw from Poland. At this moment, the German plan to declare an independent Poland was initiated, with a German-determined monarch placed on the throne of Poland. Without consulting with the Austro-Hungarians, the Germans promised Galicia to the Polish in exchange for their help in pushing the eastern front out of Germany.

    Poland in 1919.png
    Poland by Negotiation: Secret negotiation in 1915 by Polish Nationalists resulted in this map of 4 zones the Polish wanted for their newly established kingdom; the German zone, Polish zone, Belarussian zone, and Galician zone. The Germans refused to yield any portion of Silesia, Posen, or West Prussia to the Polish, but agreed to support both the green zone, and the yellow zone if the Polish would enter the war on the German side. By mid 1915, an independent Poland was declared, with the green and tan zones, with Galicia to be yielded on victory with Polish help.

    Despite Russia's successes in the June 1915 Brusilov Offensive in eastern Galicia, it was undermined by the reluctance of the other Russian Generals to commit their forces to support the victory after the embarrassing victory of the Germans at Warsaw with Polish help, making the Russians somewhat second-guessing of their ability to prosecute the war. Russia was also thrown for a loop by Romania's entry on the Allied side, cutting off Bulgaria from Russian aid as well. Romania scored victories at Mărăști, Mărășești and Oituz in 1915. Russia's military fortunes caused growing unrest at home. The autocratic tsar remained at the front, while his empress, Alexandra's increasingly incompetent rule drew protests and resulted in the murder of her advisor, Rasputin in 1915. She immediately sent her children to neutral Switzerland for their safety, where they found refuge.

    In March of 1915, demonstrations in Petrograd culminated in the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, and the appointment of a weak provisional government, which shared power with the Petrograd Soviet socialists. This arrangement led to confusion and chaos both at the front and at home. The Russian army became increasingly ineffective.

    Following the abdication of the Tsar, Vladimir Lenin was ushered into Russia with the help of the German government, desperate to ease the strain in the east, from Switzerland on April 16, 1915. Discontent and weakness in the provisional government led to a rise in the popularity of the Bolshevik Party, which was led by Lenin. They demanded an immediate end to the war. The November Revolution of 1915 was followed by an armistice and negotiations with Germany. At first, the Bolsheviks refused German terms, but when the German troops began marching out of Poland and into western Russia, the new government agreed to the Treaty of Lviv in March 3, 1916. The treaty ceded various territories, including the requested Polish border, the old Duchy of Finland border, Ukraine, and the Baltic Provinces as independent nations. Shifting the front far to the east, this was a huge success for the British and Germans but the need to occupy and to secure this territory also may have contributed to the failure of the Spring Offensive.

    With the adoption of this treaty, the French-Russian alliance no longer existed. The Allies did lead a small-scale invasion of Russia, partly to support the 'Whites' as opposed to the 'Reds' (Soviets) in the Russian Civil War. The aid weakened the reds and extended the civil war but didn't last too long.

    The Allied powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, the United Kingdom, as well as Greece and Poland (on paper)) needed help to break the stalemate of the war and would soon have it due to France and Mexico.
     
  14. Threadmarks: Chapter 44: The Union and Confederates Enter the War

    JJohnson Banned

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    Europe
    Ireland Attacked

    During mid to late 1915, the Irish coast suffered a series of submarine attacks by the French, utilizing their advances in submarines; the British Royal Navy managed to fight off the French in the naval Battle of Cobh, sinking five submarines and three of her battleships, losing two cruisers and suffering severe damage on two battleships of the seven defending Ireland. The small republican movement, which had been demanding more homerule and independence, lost much of its support after the show of British willingness to lay down their lives for the Irish. Having already had much of their home rule granted in the late 19th century, Ireland's independence movement wasn't very strong in any event.

    Europe in 1915-1916

    The British naval blockade began to have a serious impact on France. In response, in February 1915, the French General Staff convinced their Prime Minister to declare unrestricted submarine warfare, intending to starve Britain out of the war. Given the closeness of France and Britain, they believed they could effectively carry this out and cost the British over 600,000 tons of lost shipping a month. The French knew it would probably be enough to cause both the Confederates and United States into the war, but they figured that they could convince Mexico to begin their attack, knocking out the Confederates from making any serious dent, and force the British to sue for peace within 5-6 months, before the US intervention could begin to make any impact.

    The Americans and Confederates had introduced a convoy system and were working together with their respective navies. Common codes, signals, encryption, all of it ensured that their convoys would operate smoothly in supplying the British and Germans. This reduced the submarine threat, and saved Britain from starvation, while French industrial output fell, and the two American nations entered the war far earlier than France anticipated.

    In May of 1915, during the Kaiserslautern Offensive, the French 2nd Colonial Division, veterans of several other battles, refused orders, arriving drunk and without weapons. Their officers lacked the means to punish an entire division, so they didn't implement harsh measures. French Army mutinies spread further, with 20,000 deserting; however appeals to patriotism, duty, and revanchism against the Germans, along with mass arrests and trials, 'encouraged' soldiers to return to defend their trenches to continue the fight against Germany. General Robert Nivelle was replaced by General Philippe Petain.

    France's victory at Essen led the Allies to convene the Lübeck Conference, where they formed the Supreme War Council to coordinate their planning. Prior to this, the British and German armies had separate commands. In December 1915, an armistice was signed with Russia, though negotiations dragged on into 1916.

    Czech troops fought on the German and Austro-Hungarian side, hoping to aid their quest for an independent Czech state, perhaps even with Slovakia joining them.

    The Union and the Confederates Enter the War

    During 1915 the French warned the Americans and the Confederates about their providing arms and military supplies to the British, and stated that they would begin submarine warfare against them both, believing that the US and CS would never fight on the same side in a war. Both nations had in fact grown much less hostile to each other and their rapprochement, through trade and various sporting pastimes had done much to lessen the bitter feelings between the two sides. Even the 50th anniversary of Gettysburg had just transpired, with old foes clasping hands, hugging, and crying together.

    So when the French sunk the cargo vessel SS Andrew Jackson, crewed by 125 Confederates, and carrying 58 US citizens as well, due to an attack by a submarine in December 1, 1915, President Jackson asked the Confederate Congress for a declaration of war against France, and the US President, Woodrow Wilson, asked the US Congress for a declaration of war as well. It would later be found the ship was definitely carrying weapons, not just food and humanitarian supplies as originally claimed in the press of the era. Curious also was the lack of a protective convoy around the ship to protect from submarine attack, but that was glossed over in the press coverage in Richmond, Davis, DC, and New York.

    On December 5, 1915, the Union and Confederates entered the Great War on the side of the United Kingdom and Germany, much earlier than France anticipated.

    On December 13, Mexico declared war on the Confederate States, and began their invasion through the south and through Yucatan, with the help of Guatemala.

    On the 19th, a Mexican flotilla sailed for the Panama Canal to stop the trade through the channel. Colombia toyed with entering the war on Mexico's side to try to regain Panama, and perhaps control of the canal, doing so on the 21st of December. On the 29th of December, the British Navy sailed ten ships from Jamaica, and captured the Providence Islands from Colombia, intent on using them as a base of operations to spring forward to the canal to free it from Mexico with US and CS aid.
     
  15. Lalli Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Feb 28, 2010
    This is not going well to Mexico.

    And Austria-Hungary might feel itself quiet betrayed.
     
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  16. Ace Venom Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Jan 6, 2004
    I would imagine that the UK would have seized Saint Pierre and Miquelon early in the war due to their proximity to Newfoundland very early in the war unless the Monroe Doctrine somehow deterred them from acting. If not, the gloves are off now.
     
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  17. Underboss_3 Escalator Temporarily Stairs

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    Lafayette, Louisiana
    Dang it, the update ended as it was really starting to get intense.
     
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  18. Greenhorn Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Aug 25, 2018
    I'm thinking France probably loses, and if they do and go fascist, I wonder how Mexico and Quebec would play into that.
     
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  19. Zoidberg12 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Nov 7, 2012
    Location:
    New Jersey, U.S.A.
    Awesome new updates. I've really been enjoying reading about this alternate version of the Great War.

    My prediction is that the United States will get the French colonies in the Caribbean. The Confederate States already has a lot of land in the Caribbean, so I couldn't see them necessarily wanting anymore land.
     
  20. Threadmarks: Chapter 45: The War Comes to a Close

    JJohnson Banned

    Joined:
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    Location:
    Europe
    South of the Border

    The Mexican Army had been preparing, and the Confederate border was not as protected as the US border, a situation left over from the War for Southern Independence, which in the last 50 years had actually become less necessary. Mexico launched their offensive on Tampico across the Panuco River using artillery carried on railways. From Melchor Ocampo, a land assault was launched against Saltillo and Monterrey, the capital of the Confederate State of Rio Grande. A Mexican force of twelve thousand marched for Monterrey, including artillery and trucks to supply the troops.

    Similar forces launched from Morteros and Miguel Auza for Torreon, and Sombrerete for Durango, the capital of the Confederate State of Durango. Another force of 12,000 marched from Acaponeta to Rosario, on the way to Mazatlan, intent on cutting off Confederate shipping into the southwest. The very inadequate border wall the Confederates used was incomplete in some parts or rusted out in others, and it wasn't terribly difficult for the Mexican army to march across the border to their targets.

    In January, on the 3th through 9th, a series of battles across Durango, Jefferson, and Rio Grande were fought between the Rio Grande Home Guard, Jefferson Home Guard, and Durango Home Guard - at Tula, Tampico, Rosario, Durango, Villa Union, San Juan de Guadeloupe, Torreon, Matamoros, and Saltillo. For the first four days, the Confederates were overwhelmed and had to retreat several miles before successfully pushing the Mexicans back; but they were still in Confederate territory.

    In the capital district, President Jackson got a declaration of war against Mexico, and he called for volunteers for the war in Europe, the Pacific, and to Mexico. For the next two months, over 200,000 men signed up; women signed up as well to serve in non-combat roles, and the Confederate Army, with the precedent of two women captains during the War for Southern Independence, allowed the creation of the Women's Nurse Corps to help free up men for combat at home and abroad. The Navy's ships prepared to sail for the Pacific, and new sailors signed up. The Confederacy was now going to war. By February, the Confederacy had enough sailors to send into the Pacific.

    The Joffre Telegram, sent in December from France to Mexico, was read on the floor of the Confederate Congress, as well as that of the US Congress; combined with the submarine warfare of the French, the threat of Mexico seeking its former northern territories, past Texas and up to North California, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado, was enough for both nations to enter the fight.

    Yucatan

    The independent nation of Yucatan, long a Confederate trading partner, had progressed somewhat since independence, but nowhere near as much as Rio Grande, Durango, or other parts of Mexico that had joined the Confederacy. Mexico invaded the small nation in hopes of restoring it to the United Mexican States, in March, hoping its invasion might be able to draw off some Confederate forces from being able to stop their drive north in the mainland. At the same time, Guatemala attacked British Honduras, helping its somewhat-allied-partner, Mexico, by occupying the British force there, small as it was. The government in Yucatan petitioned the Confederate government for aid and assistance; with the declaration of war, the Confederates from Cuba, Puerto Rico, Florida, Louisiana, and Santo Domingo who were ready to ship went to Yucatan. Landing in late April on the 23rd, Confederates began fighting their way to the Yucatan capital to try to free the capital, Merida, from the Mexican army.

    Panama

    Fourteen Mexican ships sailed south, attempting their cut of trade at the Panama Canal Zone, along the Pacific, and ten on the Atlantic. That was essentially the only task for the Mexican Navy, aside from coastal protection during the war, with the rest of the fighting being prosecuted by the army.

    Buying Islands

    The Danes had been wanting to unload their Virgin Islands for some time, and the Confederates finally bought them in 1915 for $20 million.

    Black Americans (1870s-1900s)

    While black Confederates did not have the greatest economic opportunity for much of the 19th century, they didn't have it as bad as those in the United States, with state-based racial discrimination and Loyal Leagues in the United States. Once that tamped down by the 1880s, though, a number of black Confederates chose to move north to places like Chicago, Detroit, Columbus, and Pittsburgh to work in factories, and they actually earned more money, leading to an increase in black migration north. Around 450,000 black Confederates moved north before the United States immigration service closed down Confederate immigration north for the next thirty years, not that it was all that much.

    March into the Pacific (1916)

    From February 26th to March 5th, the Confederates sailed from Hawaii, San Diego, the Washington Islands, and from Guam.

    Facing a small contingent in Noumea, New Caledonia, the Confederates fought two days, March 6th to 8th, before ending the bombardment of the capital of the French colony, and raising the Confederate flag on the island, leaving a contingent of 800 Marines to keep order on the island; aiding them was a German cruiser and two British cruisers, which then sailed the edge of the island to ensure their control of the islands. At the same time, from Jefferson Village on the island of Nuku Hiva in the Confederate Territory of the Washington Islands, another contingent sailed to capture Papeete, the capital of the French colony of Polynesia. The capital had some French military there, but a force of 780 Confederates, 120 Germans and 210 British marines were able to take control of the island between March 9th and 10th in the Battle of Papeete.

    A British-German force sailed to take French Indochina, sparking off a five-month fight all along the coast to attempt to pacify the region and remove it from the fight.

    Pacifying the Atlantic (1916)

    From the bases in Florida (Tampa), Santiago de Cuba, and San Juan, the Confederates sent their forces, in conjunction with the British forces from Jamaica, British Honduras, and the Bahamas, and sailed first for Guadeloupe. The 11th to the 14th, the combined force fought four battles, though one concluded without return fire (Grand-Bourg on Marie Galante island). Saint-Jacques, Grande Anse, and Basse-Terre were soon taken by March 20th with an occupying force; Martinique fell on the 26th. St Martin was conquered by a combined Dutch-British force, which occupied the portion of the island ruled by France.

    Canadian forces, mostly from Quebec, sailed to the French possessions of St Pierre et Miquelon on February 6th, and with barely a whimper of notice, placed the Canadian flag on the two islands and took them for Canada. There were only roughly 3900 people on the islands and they made no resistance to the Canadians.

    The last piece to pacify was French Guiana, for which the Confederates and British made the heaviest contribution to its pacification. Four separate battles were fought through March and April, with the last battle being at Cayenne, the capital of maybe 9,400 people. The Battle of Cayenne, lasting from April 9th to the 13th, resulted in 491 French casualties and 844 combined Confederate/British casualties, but in the end, the allied powers were able to push the French to surrender there.

    Brazil's contribution on the side of the allies was not enough for it to regain Amapa, which it had ceded to French during the Acre War a decade prior for France's contribution to settling the dispute between Bolivia and Brazil.

    France's Atlantic and Pacific territories were pacified within three months of the US and CS entry into the war, allowing the western hemisphere to concentrate on Europe and on Mexico.

    Ramp Up

    In the Confederate States, from December to March, around 190,000 men had volunteered and trained up for the army, navy, and marines. The United States, under Wilson, also brought up

    CS WW1 uniform 2.png
    Confederate WW1 Uniform (credit here)

    Black and white Confederates, long having served together since both the War for Southern Independence and the Spanish-Confederate War, served in an integrated armed force, and shipped off for Europe. In 1915, the Confederate Navy tested a new type of craft, using the CSS Birmingham, and successfully demonstrated the launch and recovery of a fixed-wing craft on its constructed flat top. Two more ships, holding a total of twelve airplanes, sailed with the rest of the naval armada, for Europe. The United States had two test craft, the USS Chicago and the USS Detroit, bearing flat tops as well, testing the Confederate aluminum airplanes for their own naval forces. Sailing in mid-April, the convoys were able to fend off three separate submarine attacks and managed to arrive in late April off the coast of Ireland.

    Confederate Presidents
    During the 1915 election season, President Jackson's Vice President Robert E. Benning ran for election continuing the preparations for war, and to prosecute the war the Confederacy had entered. Due to an outpouring of patriotism, he managed to win 430-116.
    [​IMG]

    Landing in Europe

    Confederate military forces refused to be broken up to be used as filler for the British and the Germans, and landed at Dunkirk, pouring their forces out, using their airplanes to clear resistance while their marines landed on the shores, clearing away what resistance they encountered. The lack of French aircraft for recon blinded them, and they were not prepared for the combined United States and Confederate States attack at Dunkirk. Over 300,000 troops landed on the shores of the European continent.

    [​IMG]
    Confederate General John Pershing
    [​IMG]
    United States General Leonard Wood

    Commanding generals Leonard Wood and John Pershing each decided that rather than submit one or the other to the other's command, they would both decide on a path to Paris to try to lessen the pressure on the British and Germans. The Confederates would travel west through Amiens, while the United States would travel east through St. Quentin. Both nations had legally instituted a draft, and were now capable of sending a total of 10,000 men a day to France.

    From April's landing through June, the United States fought progressively at Bethune, Lievin, Arras, Cambrai, and St Quentin, while the Confederates fought progressively through Calais, Bolougne-Sur-Mer, Etaples, Abbeville, and Amiens. Each battle was fiercely fought, however the combined industrial power of the United States and Confederate States, with their newly designed tanks and armored cars capable of crossing barbed wire and trenches, their improved and shared artillery, their shared rifle style and caliber, meant they could logistically use each others' weapons, vastly reducing costs to prosecute the war, and allowing both to maintain their supply lines well into France.

    A certain French sergeant, Charles de Gaulle, was blinded by a mustard gas attack during the attack at Abbeville and sent to the rear hospitals for recuperation.

    Both sides got within 75 miles of the capital, Paris, and set up their artillery. The Confederate Stuart Railway Gun, and the Union Sheridan Railway Gun, named for two famous cavalry generals, began shelling the capital in late June. Civilians began evacuating the city. French began retreating from the front lines to try to stave off the attack, causing the British and the Germans to advance from the east.

    Beginning the Hundred Days' Offensive, the British and Germans created a 15-mile gap near Cologne, and pushed through with over 400 tanks and 120,000 men, rolling up the French to the north and the south, as they began retreating, fighting the entire way back. Notable are the Haarlem Hellfighters, a group of mixed Dutch and Irish immigrants to New York, and the Dixie Mudslingers from Mississippi and Louisiana in this fighting, two of ten divisions sent to push the French back from Germany. An orange/white/green Confederate battle flag was gifted to the Hellfighters when the two reached Saarbrücken, and is still part of the division emblem well into the 1950s. A black/red/white battle flag was gifted to the German Second Division by the Confederates once they freed Straßburg.

    The Confederates and United States had to halt their advance due to the reinforcement from the units coming from the front, leading to the belief in the general staff that they could defeat them. The Allies halted at Metz and Nancy, having pushed the French out of Germany, but meeting stiff resistance there.

    Meanwhile, France was falling apart at home. Anti-war marches became frequent and morale in the army fell. Industrial output was half the 1911 levels.

    After the first day of the Allied Hundred Days' Offensive, General Joffre offered his resignation to Emperor Napoleon IV, saying: "We cannot win the war any more, but we must not lose it either." Napoleon IV rejected his resignation on August 11, saying, "I see that we must strike a balance. We have nearly reached the limit of our powers of resistance. The war must be ended."

    Starting August 8th, the French General Staff decided to retreat to the Chaumont Line, a line from Dijon-Chaumont-St Dizier-Reims-Soissons-Beauvais-Vernon. For the next four weeks, over 100,000 French prisoners were taken, and the General Staff knew the end was near and began to look for a satisfactory end. The Americans and Confederates were bringing in 10,000 troops a day and were supplying over 85% of Allied oil, while the French were running out of oil and fuel for their vehicles. The Germans had regained control of their coalfields, and soon the French coalfields. The French did put the Germans on the run in certain sections of the line, giving a public perception that they were on the verge of winning the war.

    The British mining and blockading of the French ports had been incredibly effective in causing hardship for the French, cutting off vital civilian and military supplies

    When Serbia signed a separate peace on the 29th of September, General Joffre had something of a breakdown. Mexico was defeated solely by the actions of the Confederates while the Americans took Colombia's troops out of the Canal Zone in October, and the British defeated Guatemala. Yucatan was freed from Mexico's grip on the 3rd of October; fearful of Mexican retribution later, the native Yucatanians petitioned the CS for entry into the Confederacy.

    News of France's impending military defeat spread throughout the French armed forces. The threat of mutiny was in the air. Amiral Boue de Lapeyrere tried to launch one last attempt to restore the 'valor' of the French Navy, but with the sailors' revolt in October, the naval ports of Normandy, Provence, and Brittany launched no ships and it spread throughout the whole country. Units of the French Navy refused to set sail for a last large-scale operation for a war they believed as good as lost. Within days, a republic was proclaimed on November 9, and shortly thereafter, Napoleon IV abdicated, fleeing the country with his wife. France surrendered soon thereafter.

    In southern France, the French Revolution of 1916-1917 began at the end of October 1916.

    With the faltering military and widespread loss of confidence in the French emperor, leading to his abdication and fleeing the country, France moved towards surrender. Baron Haussmann, one of Napoleon IV's advisors, took charge of a new government on the 4th of October as Prime Minister of France to negotiate with the allies. Negotiations with President Benning and President Wilson began immediately, in the hope that there would be better terms offered than with the British and Germans. Wilson demanded a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary control over the French military, while Benning demanded a constitutional republic with parliamentary control over the French military. There was no resistance when Social Democrat Francois Avery declared the French Third Republic on the 9th of November. The Emperor, barons, and other royalty were all removed from power, most fleeing the country to avoid the fate of the last set of royals, with Napoleon IV fleeing to exile in the Netherlands. Imperial France was dead; a new France was born as the Lyons Republic.

    Mexico surrendered on October 30 with the arrival of Confederate artillery, aircraft, and troops within fifty miles of Mexico City.

    By November 11, 1916, all was quiet on the western front for the first time in five years.

    Fall of the Ottomans

    The Ottomans repelled the British, German, and Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs) in Gallipoli. In Mesopotamia, however, the British defenders regrouped and captured Baghdad in 1915. The Ottomans attempted wide-scale ethnic cleansing of the Greek, Armenian, and Assyrian peoples in their territories during the war.

    Following a victory at the Suez, the Egyptian Expeditionary Force advanced across Sinai, pushing the Ottomans back at the Battle of Magdhaba in December, and the Battle of Rafa at the border between Egyptian Sinai and Ottoman Palestine in January 1915.

    Enver Pasha, supreme commander of the Ottoman Forces, was ambitious, and dreamed of re-conquering central Asia and the areas lost in Europe, but he was a poor commander. He launched an offensive in December 1914 with 100,000 troops coming out of Constantinople, insisting on a frontal attack against mountainous Greek, British, and German positions in winter, losing 86% of his force in the battle.

    The Ottomans invaded Persia in December of 1914 to try to cut off British and German petroleum reserves. The campaign lasted until 1916, and ended in failure for the Ottomans and their allies. The Russian withdrawal from the war in 1915 led to Armenian and Assyrian forces gaining allied recognition, and relaying the details of the Ottoman genocides; however they were cut off from supply lines and forced to flee towards British lines in Mesopotamia soon after that.

    Greeks, after entering the war, drove the Turks out of Trebizond and much of Thrace in a string of victories, soon forcing the Ottomans back to Constantinople itself. The Arab Revolt, instigated by an Arab bureau of the British Foreign Office, started in June 1914, with the Battle of Mecca, led by Sherif Hussein of Mecca, and ended with the Ottoman surrender of Damascus. The Ottoman commander of Medina, Fakhri Pasha, held out for two years till January 1917.

    The allied forces suffered 575,000 casualties against the Ottomans, while the Ottomans suffered 735,000 casualties. After the success of the Allies at Megiddo, Jerusalem, Constantinople, Trebizond, and Ankara in October 1916, the Ottomans surrendered. Evidence of their genocides abounded, sickening the allied powers, who photographed the evidence and forced the Turks to view their handiwork, including civilians. Unfortunately, a number of them believed it was completely acceptable to have done this, which only hardened the Allies against them, leading several to want to break up the Ottoman Empire all the more.

    Now the question was, what to do with the Entente?

    France's territories overseas were occupied; much of the Ottoman Empire was as well.

    New Caledonia, French Polynesia, Wallis and Futuna; French Guiana, St Pierre et Miquelon, St. Martin, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Madagascar, Reunion, Mauritius, French Scattered and Antarctic Islands, Indochina, and its African colonies were all on the table in the eyes of the Allied powers.
     
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