Different Shades of Socialism - an alternate Cold War

Spanish Civil War

The unexpected appearance of the third way of socialism did occur in Spain during the late 1930s. Short - ten months' long civil war between rebellious reactionaries of the Spanish Armed Forces and the leftist government of the Spanish Republic ended as it began - with a treachery of the parts of military that toppled fascist usurpers and caused internal infighting between the Spanish national syndicalists and German-supported fascists. On April 1937, Republican forces stood triumphant over the brown forces of capitalism. However, it was not enough to destroy last vestiges of capitalism. May of 1937, a month of change within the political and economical life of the Iberian Peninsula brought yet another, more peaceful revolution that had ended the anarcho-syndicalism struggle in Spain - Catalonia and other smaller regions dominated by the anarchists of CNT (Confederación Nacional del Trabajo) successfully resisted Soviet attempts to establish the Leninisque dictatorship of proletariat, taking over the government. Within next few months - until the end of the year, syndicalist communes slowly overcame conservative opposition and took over the country. An alliance of CNT-FAI, Libertarian Youth and Workers' Party of Marxist Unification had expelled their Stalinist enemies and started to organize the true proletarian society on the Iberian Peninsula.

Antonio de Oliveira Salazar, President of the Council of Ministers of Portugal was a very troubled man. His anti-liberal, anti-socialist, anti-communist and anti-anarchist nationalist regime found itself in a very precarious situation after the May Days of 1937. He knew that he could rely on the support of the most anti-communist forces in Europe, however, they were concentrated in a Germany, which was in turn hostile to the birthplace of capitalism - Great Britain and even the United States as both countries watched in horror as the center of Europe descended into black shade of fascism. If he wanted to rely on the old Entente powers, it could have been difficult too - all of these countries experienced or were experiencing growing unrest of the left-wing activist. One of them, France under socialist-communist government of the Popular Front even supported Republican side of the Spanish Civil War. United Kingdom was in disarray after abdication of king Edward - man regarded as a more hostile to socialism than his successor George. Further militarization of Portuguese society have led Salazar to seek Fascist aid - Benito Mussolini was more than pleased to stop socialist expansion in the Mediterranean Sea, regarded as the Italian sphere of influence. While initially hostile to the "pagan Ceasarism", Emídio Santana with his plot to assassinate the Prime Minister was one of the events that had changed Salazar and transformed him from authoritarian nationalist into a Fascist.

Joseph Stalin was not a man easy to please. Not at all - especially following the bloody aftermath of the Spanish Civil War that had convinced Stalin of the anti-Soviet alliance of Western Powers. Abomination of Earth - the Fascists were everywhere. Italy was the first to fall. Next was Germany. Now, the Spanish Republic - state ripe for socialism fell to the social fascist forces. Not even they deluded their workers of freedom - they had expelled the true and only followers of Marx and Lenin. However, Spain was less relevant in the fight of world proletariat. Here, in the Soviet Union, Fascists had made their move to corrupt and discredit the Red Army of Workers' Peasants' and Soldiers'. But the worst of them were the closest friends of Stalin - Semyon Budyonny, who had sabotaged war effort of the armed forces by trying to favour outdated cavalry over newest tank designs. Grigory Kulik's military expertise remained on the levels of the early war of the Russian Revolution. Mikhail Tukhachevsky - that little Napoleonchik, who Stalin regarded as a traitor was in fact innocent victim of the neo-Tsarist conspiracy at the highest levels of military forces. Saved at the last days of his imprisonment he was released and given the post of the People's Commissar of Defence. Previous occupant,. Kliment Voroshilov ended, together with Nikolai Yezhov in the court, during the Case of the Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization. Deep Operation Doctrine will export the Revolution to the other countries when it will be possible. Until then, the Icebreaker had to be pressed against social fascist countries of France and the Great Britain.

Sail Mohamed, an Algerian political thinker and anarchist celebrated victory of the CNT-FAI in Barcelona, the capital city of Spanish anarchism. For him, inequality seen previously in the French colonial empire had ceased to exist in a new Spain. No one was a master or a slave. There was no wage slavery - every worker was equal and received as much compensation for his labor as he worked. Spanish, French, Algerians, blacks and Slavs all worked together for the brighter future. Such equality would be ideal for his country, torn by colonialism and invasions from European countries. Fascism would not save his country. Stalinism would be a betrayal of workers. Liberal democracy, as seen in France and other countries of Europe and America would be a wage slavery and domination of the rich. Only anarcho-syndicalism would save Algeria and every oppressed people on Earth.

With a one year of delay, People's Olympiad was organized in Barcelona, between July 19 to 26, 1937 with athletes coming from the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the Netherlands, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and French Algeria.
Is Paris Burning?

Dietrich von Choltitz, signing an order to destroy Paris.

August 29, 1945.

- Is Paris burning? General, is Paris burning?
- Yes sir. The city is in flames.

August 29 of 1945 - the fateful day when the descendants of Teutonic barbarians destroyed the capital city of European culture. During the last week after defeat of the Gaullist-Communist uprising in the city, the German military commander Dietrich von Choltitz - a man known for his brutality during war on the Eastern Front - gave various orders for the destruction of the most iconic places of the French capital. Eiffel Tower was destroyed as a symbol of 19th century French decadence, Louvre was razed to the ground, the most fanatical SS officers, personally selected by Heinrich Himmler burned and devastated Notre Dame Cathedral, Arc de Triomphe and other relics of a previous French regimes. Warsaw, capital city of Poland could be easily forgotten with its immerse destruction but not Paris - a city which had a far longer history, spanning for thousands of years. On August 30, 1945 Henri Rol-Tanguy of the communist Resistance and George Orwell of the Second Tank Brigade of the 1st Barcelona Army of the Spanish Union entered the rubble and started to take prisoners of the Germans remaining in the city. Dietrich von Choltitz, unwilling to commit suicide or fall into communist hands, surrendered to General Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Somewhere beneath Atlantic Sea, Charles de Gaulle's corpse was laying together with his airplane.

Southern territories, previously under administration of the Vichy government were liberated by the People's Revolutionary Armed Forces of Spain. Military commanders - often veterans of the Spanish Civil War, were creating local administration in form of the anarcho-syndicalist communes modeled after their Spanish counterparts of CNT. Communes organized life on their territories, often by collectivization of agriculture, socialisation of local industry, dealing with the collaborators and German prisoners - a fact that often caused frictions with the other Allied forces liberating France. From Pyrenees to Paris, alliance of black and red was taking power. Lack of the symbol of French bravery and resistance to occupiers, Charles de Gaulle weakened support for the cause of Western Allies. Refusal of Eisenhower to liberate Paris influenced initial postwar politics, alienating support for the American-styled capitalism and liberal democracy. The socialist, communist and syndicalist politicians formed the Provisional Government. Rule of the Provisional Government under Henri Rol-Tanguy was confirmed in the first postwar legislative election, on October 21, 1945 when the Popular Front of National Liberation won 44% of votes and 303 seats out of 520 - most of them in wartorn Paris and the regions controlled by the syndicalist communes.

Out of 2,800,000 Parisians before beginning of the World War II, only 1,400,000 of them survived the final battle of Paris. Twisted mind of Adolf Hitler designed a project to finally solve the franco-german hostility by destruction of the most of cultural heritage sites. Cathedral of Notre Dame, sarcophagus of Napoleon, Emperor of the French, Cathedral of Rheims and even palace complex at Versailles were destroyed by the bombs, artillery shells or bulldozers. Eiffel Tower, the most famous site in Paris was taken down by the SS troops. Ten thousands civilians, with a priority given for artists, politicians and others were executed following the initial defeat of the uprising. After end of the war, French were calling for a bloody revenge against the hated Prussian militarists and their collaborators. Protectorat de la Sarre was directly annexed into the Fourth French Republic, it's inhabitants were given the choice to either relinquish their German identities and become French or be expelled from their homes. The French occupational zone was subjected to mass deindustrialization, while German Prisoners of War, regardless of their ranks, were forced to perform slave labor during the reconstruction of French cities. Especially the French occupational zone of West Berlin suffered during initial years - during severe winter of 1945/46, the French authorities refused to provide Germans with food, water and coal, causing widespread deaths, malnutrition and radicalization of local population. After the long protests of 1946, French military forces destroyed the Berlin Victory Column and started expulsion of Germans from Sarre and Rhineland.
System of Spanish Anarchism.

The Reconstruction period: (1937-1942)

Communes elects delegates of their occupations to the Trade Union Congress. Trade Union Congress elects the Executive Committee that supervise gatherings of the TUC and executes decisions taken by them. Trade Union Congress has a right to direct various Unions to performs some tasks - for example, the Union of Builders can be tasked with the reconstruction of hospital destroyed in the war, the Union of Electricians can be tasked with the maximization of the production of power, while the Union of Shoemakers can be tasked with a production of more shoes for the territories destroyed by the war. Only policemen, seen before the war as a tool of capitalist oppression are not directly elected - instead, they are formed by the local communes to deal with law-breakers.

A rather silent period of the Spanish history included the activities of the Counterrevolutionary State Committee. Unfortunately, the archives Committee of the Defense of Revolution were destroyed in the great fire of 1945. We know about some excesses, but most of them are regarded as exaggerated propaganda by the Fascist Portugese government.

The World War II (1942-1945)

Following the border clashes between Franco-German fascists and the border guards of the Basque communes that were occurring since 1940, Trade Union Congress created the Executive Committee of People's Liberation Front, tasked with the creation of a new army for the republic. On 1942, veterans of the International Brigades, local militias and graduates of the People's Defence Academies began a march towards the liberation of the oppressed people of Western Europe. (with the Committee of the Defense of Revolution behind their backs).

Some of the industries were placed under the People's Commitee of Mobilization and delegated towards the war production. For the duration of war, their trade unions were presented by the said Committee to achieve maximal efficiency in a red crusade against Fascism.

George Orwell (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950) - commander of the Second Tank Brigade of the 1st Barcelona Army of the Spanish Union since 1941 to 1945. Author of various book criticizing Hitlerist and Stalinist totalitarianism, betrayal of the October Revolution in Russia. OPne of the military commanders that participated in the liberation of Paris. Ironically, some of his writings were distributed as part of the American ideological warfare against the Soviet Union during the Cold War.

Karol Świerczewski (10 February 1897 – 28 March 1947) - military commander of the Spanish Union, chairman of the Polish Commune in Barcelona. He wasexecuted by the Stalinist regime of Poland following his return to the postwar Poland.

Shapour Bakhtiar (26 June 1914 – 6 August 1991) - first President of Iran, creator of the Accelerationist Syndicalism, founder of the modern Iranian republicanism and syndicalism.

Jack Jones (29 March 1913 – 21 April 2009) - British Prime Minister, trade unionist and the General Secretary of the Transport and General Workers' Union.

Asim Vokshi (1909–1991) - Albanian revolutionary leader following the fall of Enver Hoxha.

Subhas Chandra Bose (23 January 1897 – 18 August 1979) - founder of the Socialist Republic of India. His Indian Legion was trained by the Spanish republican forces before and during the World War II. Following death of Mahatma Gandhi by the hands of British authorities, he became the leader of Indian independence movement. During early days of his socialist activism, he gained support from both the Indian nationalists, the Soviet Union and the Western syndicalists, creating broader, anti-imperialist movement. Founder of the Indian Syndicalism.

Antoine de Saint-Exupery (29 June 1900 – 31 July 1989) - French aristocrat, Spanish revolutionary, syndicalist politician, Minister of Aviation, Chairman of the Syndicalist Internationale and the Prime Minister of France.

Oliver Law (October 23, 1900 – July 9, 1967) - leader of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States, a syndicalist. His assassination sparked the revolts of 1968 across the United States and, by extension, a political-economical crisis in the Atlantic Community.
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Italian road to socialism

"Remember Il Migliore!" - battle cry of the Italian communists.

Assassination of Palmiro Togliatti, the Vicepremier of Italian Republic had shocked the world. The ugly head of Fascism, under form of Antonio Pallante killed the politician that had promised to bring a new future for the war torn peninsula. However, the attack were coordinated against all brands of socialism - just few hours after the assassination, the Free Italians movement under Junio Valerio Borghese started the second March on Rome. Borghese gathered 12,000 former Italian soldiers equipped with the American weapons, aided by the countless of militias gathered from the southern Italy and attempted to "cleanse the ancient city out of socialism, liberals and degenerates". Upon hearing the news, communes of north-west Italy started to form their own military organizations, the People's Army to defend the Republic. Military forces were divided between two camps - part of them, loyal to the elected and internationally recognized government of Pietro Nenni vowed to defend the Republic, even if they disagreed with socialism, communism or syndicalism. However, the most extreme right-wingers supported the rebellion. Most of soldiers were caught unaware of the coup and joined whoever their commanding officers supported.

Day later, on August 21, 1949 a joint resolution of France and the Soviet Union in the United Nations General Assembly was accepted by the majority of nations to condemn violence of the Italian rebellion. United States' delegate protested, claiming that it was an internal affair of Italians. Historians argue that he would win over the rest of the delegates if not the capture of American officers commanding the rebels by the Italian Armed Forces. A day later, French, Yugoslavian and Spanish forces started to enforce the police action to stabilize the situation, ironically clashing with the American forces remaining on the peninsula after World War II. The march of Rome ended, when the Italian army, supported by the anarchist militias defended the capital city and captured Borghese alive. Within next two months, whole country was firmly under the command of the central government (or communes on territories liberated by the Spanish or the French).

Elections of 1950 were pretty much chaotic - right-wing militias were hunted down by the socialist militias. Far right-wing politicians were hunted down by the police for supporting the rebellion, while local agrarians and anarchists were forming their own communes and refusing to comply with the governmental orders. On May 1, 1950 the delegates for the Second Constitutional Assembly were chosen - Front of National Liberation, composed from the communist resistance fighters, PCI and PSI gained 38% of seats, the Italian General Confederation of Labour won 30% of seats while rest were placed into the hands of the Christian Democracy. The adopted constitution pledged the Italian government to protect national independence from foreign incursions, increase the workers' participation in economy and the politics through the gradual introduction of industrial democracy, place the key industries under the Executive Committee of the Labour Union Congress' supervision and create the society of equals free of fascist oppression and the wage slavery.

Cold War has begun over the red star of Italian socialism.
You should have called this 50 Shades of Red. :p

Both Italian and French communists hol imporant position in the postwar societies of both countries. Here, lesser purges and no abadonment of the Deep Battle doctrine (Soviets stwiched two times military doctrine during 1937-1941 period) and lesser chaos on the front causes stronger position of the Soviet Union after 1945. I imagined that with lesser amount of land lost to the occupiers (basically Baltic region and parts acquired in 1939 from Poland), Soviets would loose less men, equipment and the industry. So, left-wing ideologies should be more popular ATL than OTL.
European Community

Flag of the European Community.

European Community, an organization intended to foster the internationalism of European countries was inaugurated on May 1, 1950 in Paris between France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Yugoslavia and Wallonia. From those countries, France had a government headed by the Communist Party of France, aided with the far-left syndicalist communes of southern France that presided over increasingly workers-controlled economy in the south and remnants of the capitalist system in the west. Italy was governed by the alliance of the Communist Party of Italy and the Italian General Confederation of Labour, Spain was under near-complete syndicalist-anarchist control of communes, with Portugal that was liberated from the Fascist government during the World War II and experimenting with a Spanish-style of government. Yugoslavia was governed in the lines of Socialist Centralism by the Marshal Josip Broz Tito, while Wallonia had communist-led ruling coalition was was nationalizing the most important parts of industry. Associate members, a position reserved for the non-European socialist countries at the time of formation were: Socialist Republic of India, Democratic Republic of Vietnam annd the countries congregated inn the Union of African States - an pan-national organization formed by the communist and nationalist groups of those countries to perform transition from the French colonialism to independence. 1955 saw the enlargement of the Community, when four countries joined: the People's Republic of Austria, Socialist Republic of Wurttemberg, Socialist Republic of Baden and Socialist Republic of Rhineland, while the Republic of Congo became an associate member.

As time passed, more and more integrated institutions appeared. On 1950, European Broadcasting Union was born, adopting a SECAM television standard seven years later in all member states. On May 25, 1957 the foreign ministers of member states signed the Treaty of Rome, promising to enact the customs union between the states, a single market for goods, labour, services, and capital across the EC's member states. The same year, an Euroatom was born. On March 15, 1958 the European Space Agency was born to develop the peaceful means of a joint space exploration undertaken by the all member states of the Community. On May 1, 1959 the European Community opened its first nuclear power planet, located in Bagnols-sur-Cèze operated by the Bellevile Commune of Energy Production. On October 11, 1963 EC detonated its first nuclear device, nicknamed by the US intelligence agencies as the Tanguy-1. On 1972, when the triumph of Anarchosyndicalism has been completed, the Eurozone was established, creating the Eurovoucher Zone where standarized vouchers replaced the old monetary systems. Four years later, the European Parliament convened foor the first time, being elected directly by the regional trade unions congresses. With 193 million citizens, even more inhabitants of the associated states, the European Community and her allies became a major leader of the Cold War, balancing it between the Soviet Union, China and the United States of America.
In the immortal words of Lou Reed, "how do you think it feels, when all you can say is 'if only'?"

Great thread concept, keep it coming please.
I would like to see how decolonization is handled, especially in South Asia.
Especially in Africa, for me! I'm guessing some kind of fudge which doesn't fully overcome the colour bar of the colonial era, even while promising full equality - and thus laying some landmines for the future.
I like to know how bose turn India in to a socialist state.

Basically, the mid-1930s' visit of Subhas Chandra Bose included anarchosyndicalist Spain, where he witnessed the fighting done by the International Brigades and communes of Barcelona against Fascist rebels. Gandhi is assassinated in 1938, leaving Subhas Chandra Bose as a President of the Indian National Congress for longer than OTL. Calcutta mass protest, arrest by the British authorities and a hunger strike forces him out of India - he travels to Moscow, where Joseph Stalin is more amenable to the idea of socialist India and grants him support. Quit India Movement is more popular than OTL and leads to the stronger disruption of British war efforts. This, coupled with a worse Bengal famine and stronger Soviet position following the war grants Bose more popularity than OTL. In our times he was one of the most popular politicians in India. Here, he would be seen as national hero, comparable with Mahatma Gandhi.

Is India united or partitioned?

India is not partitioned.

Especially in Africa, for me! I'm guessing some kind of fudge which doesn't fully overcome the colour bar of the colonial era, even while promising full equality - and thus laying some landmines for the future.

French communists are putting local communes in power in their colonial possessions which are linked with the European Community as associate members - a sort of an economic alliance with increasing independence. Most of African states in colonial France would be ruled by the local population by 1960s.
Basically, the mid-1930s' visit of Subhas Chandra Bose included anarchosyndicalist Spain, where he witnessed the fighting done by the International Brigades and communes of Barcelona against Fascist rebels. Gandhi is assassinated in 1938, leaving Subhas Chandra Bose as a President of the Indian National Congress for longer than OTL. Calcutta mass protest, arrest by the British authorities and a hunger strike forces him out of India - he travels to Moscow, where Joseph Stalin is more amenable to the idea of socialist India and grants him support. Quit India Movement is more popular than OTL and leads to the stronger disruption of British war efforts. This, coupled with a worse Bengal famine and stronger Soviet position following the war grants Bose more popularity than OTL. In our times he was one of the most popular politicians in India. Here, he would be seen as national hero, comparable with Mahatma Gandhi.
Unpartitioned Communist India, seems like a an impossibility come true, I even made a DBWI thread about it, if you want to take any ideas
I don’t know if the Việt Minh will begin the war of independence ittl or not.

ATL communist government of France will be more willing to cooperate with communist Vietnamese than OTL Gaullist regime. After all, with loss of Paris, French have more important things to spend money on than to run after guerillas in the jungles.