Congress of Panama


The Congress of Panama (often referred to as the Amphictyonic Congress in remembrance of the Amphictyonic League of Ancient Greece) was a congress organized by Simón Bolívar in 1826 so that Latin American countries could become closer and develop a unified policy towards Spain. Held in Panama City from 22 June to 15 July of that year, the meeting proposed creating a league of American republics, with a common military, a mutual defense pact, and a supranational parliamentary assembly. It was attended by representatives of Gran Colombia (comprising the modern-day nations of Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela), Peru, the United Provinces of Central America (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica), and Mexico. However, the grandly titled "Treaty of Union, League, and Perpetual Confederation" that emerged from the Congress was ultimately only ratified by Gran Colombia, and Bolívar's dream soon foundered irretrievably with civil war in that nation, the disintegration of Central America, and the emergence of national rather than continental outlooks in the newly independent American republics.

The Congress of Panama also had political ramifications in the United States. President John Quincy Adams and Secretary of State Henry Clay wanted the U.S. to attend the Congress,which had only been invited due to pressure on Bolivar but, as much of Latin America had outlawed slavery, politicians from the Southern United States held up the mission by not approving funds or confirming the delegates. In the event, of the two U.S. delegates, one (Richard C. Anderson) died en route to Panama, and the other (John Sergeant) only arrived after the Congress had concluded its discussions. Thus Great Britain, who was there only as an observer, managed to acquire many good trade deals with Latin American countries.
What if the U.S. envoys had arrived successfully, or better yet, the U.S. had set a full delegation to it?