Children of the Plains of Abraham

Introduction
Introduction
“It made of them great nations,”
Children of the Plains of Abraham

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A View of the Attack on Quebec[1]
The 13th of September 1759, New France, the night before a British army crossed the Saint Lawrence River and landed at L’Anse-au-Foulon. Thrice the British landing party tempted fate, and thrice fate allowed them to continue. When they were spotted by the French sentry the British were able to impersonate supply ships that were unexpectedly delayed. When a French officer left for his patrol of the shore, he found that his horse had been stolen. And when a messenger from a captured camp arrived to warn the French, the general’s aide turned him away thinking he was mad. The British were free to fortify their position just outside of the city of Québec.

The next morning, the Marquis of Montcalm was shocked at this news, especially since the Marquis of Vaudreuil had pointed out that L’Anse-au-Foulon was vulnerable, even though the Marquis of Montcalm assured him that it was impossible for the British to take the cove. The Marquis of Montcalm had two options before him, he could engage the British before they had a chance to fully fortify their position, or wait until the Count of Bougainville arrived with another column of French troops. The Marquis of Montcalm readied himself to give the order to attack as soon as possible.
***​
Endnotes
1. OTL: A view of the taking of Quebec

Citations
Smith, Hervey. A view of the taking of Quebec. 1797, Library of the Canadian Department of National Defense, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PlainsOfAbraham2007.jpg. Accessed 26 January 2020.​
 
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Time for new timeline! I've been working on this for quite sometime actually and it is finally time to start posting some. As told by the introduction the POD is the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, though the actual POD won't appear until the next post. This timeline will contain quite a few graphics so when my current notes run dry it will take me a bit to make the new graphics before I continue updating.

Just a few bookkeeping notes:
  • Footnotes are in-universe notes
  • Endnotes (for lack of better name) are out-of-universe notes
  • Graphics are in-universe modern recreations so the actual image/object could contain quite a few variations
  • Unless otherwise stated languages are in-universe modern equivalents (while I would love to keep track of all the language shifts throughout the timeline, that would require a bit more time than I have)

I hope you all enjoy, and please let me know what you think!
 
1-1: The Battle of the Plains of Abraham
Part I: The French & Indian War
Chapter 1: The Battle of the Plains of Abraham

“We do, sir, we give way everywhere.”
A British soldier answering General Wolfe’s Lasts Words
Despite making all the preparations to attack the British immediately, the Marquis of Montcalm hesitated until late morning[2]. When he finally did order his troops to engage, the British had finished entrenching themselves. The French militia and Amerindian warriors stayed in the trees harassing the British flanks. While the Marquis of Montcalm led his French regulars towards the center of the British line. Initially, both sides held their fire for a few minutes. The French were the first to fire, letting off two volleys, but both were too early and they made little impact. Then the British fired their volley and advanced. As they advanced the British fired a second volley shaking French morale as they struggled to return fire. During the British advance General Wolfe, who had positioned himself behind the 28th Foot Regiment, he was struck by two musket balls, the second mortally wounded him. The British troops’ hearts sank as they saw their general fall, but it did not cause them to break. But as soon as they collected themselves, the Count of Bougainville and his column arrived and engaged the British in the rear of their lines. Despite the Marquis of Montcalm’s troops wavering, fire from two angles in the front and rear caused the weakened leadership of the shaken British troops to withdraw to L’Anse-au-Foulon as they were outflanked. During the withdraw, various portions of the British army began to flee. As the British routed, a canister shot struck the Marquis of Montcalm from his horse. With the battle won, the Marquis of Montcalm was carried back to Québec where he would die the next morning.

Winter was soon to come; a thick ice pack forced the British fleet from the Saint Lawrence River and a they would not be able to mount another offensive to try and take Québec until spring. The Duke of Lévis was appointed the Marquis of Montcalm’s replacement as commander-in-chief, and General Murray was tasked with continue the British offensive. The Duke of Lévis was much more open to suggestions from the Marquis of Vaudreuil. And he attempted to incorporate the strengths of the New French militia and Amerindian warriors into his plans making them much more adaptable to the combat needs of North America than his predecessor’s.

The winter had been particularly harsh especially on the British, this forced them to fall back from enemy territory to winter their troops. In late April, Gen. Murray led another invasion force to the city of Québec, he set his forces to blockade the city as he did not have enough men for a full-scale assault. The city’s reserves had also been depleted because of the winter so it did not take long for Duke of Lévis to attack Gen. Murray’s blockade. The Battle of Sainte-Foy was the bloodiest battle in the American theatre. As the Duke of Lévis had left a significant portion of his troops in the city to guard it the British eventually pushed the French back and won the battle. However, the British lost too many men in the battle to maintain the blockade and left before the French could re-organize and begin a second battle.

While the British army was forced withdraw, the navy was able to maintain their blockade of the St. Lawrence River. Captain Vauquelin led a task force to break the blockade. Capt. Vauquelin met the blockade near the village of Neuville, he commanded more vessels than the British, but he lacked a ship of the line to counter the HMS Vanguard. Most of the French vessels were lost, the few that managed to escape would later be scuttled as they were too damaged to be repaired. But Capt. Vauquelin succeed in weakening the blockade enough for a few supply ships to run the blockade before the British were able to reinforce it.

After the Battle of Sainte-Foy, the French began to refortify their position by constructing a new fort to protect the city of Québec from further attacks. Work began on Fort Montcalm[A] on Isle d’Orléans to prevent further invasions over the St. Lawrence River. However, before the fort could be completed the British attacked. The French held off the British for several days but with support from the British navy the fort was destroyed. Many feared another attack on the city but it did not come. The British forces hoped to mount a surprise attack on the fort and did not have the supplies for a third battle at Québec.
***​
Footnotes
a. the Marquis of Vaudreuil protested this name, however the Duke of Lévis attempted to use the Marquis of Montcalm’s death as a rallying cry for the defense of Québec​
b. Fort Montcalm was almost completed it only needs a few minor additions: more cannons, and more men etc.​

Endnotes
2. The timeline’s POD​
 
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A maintained French Canada is always one of my favorite ideas I want to see explored. I really do need to read a good history of Quebec and the Maritimes someday (Yes, I know the Maritimes fell before this, so it's not entirely related. I just find the region interesting and would love to know more about it :) )
 
1-2: The Ohio Front
Chapter 2: The Ohio Front
“The friend of my enemy is friend.”
Children of the Plains of Abraham

While France did manage to send some supplies and regular troops to New France, it was not enough. Not only did the British navy make sending large amounts of supplies difficult but the French war plan placed more importance upon the European theatre. It was clear to the Duke of Lévis and the Marquis of Vaudreuil that they could not maintain the status quo. They had to knock the British off balance and focus their attention away from Québec. The two men formulated a plan, the Duke of Lévis would maintain the French regulars and most of the militia and continue to fortify and defend their position. While the Marquis of Vaundreuil would take the rest of the militia and the allied Amerindian warriors secretly into the occupied Ohio County and attempt to convince the Amerindians there that attacking British supply lines were in their best interest. The goal of this plan was not to gain victory in the American theatre but to force a perpetual stalemate until the European theatre ended.

Once in the Ohio Country, the Marquis of Vaundreuil met with an Odawa chief named Pontiac[a] who was already attempting to rally men to fight against the British. Pontiac was not overly enthusiastic about working with Europeans, but the French had always been the lesser of two evils. The alternative was uncontested British control in the region, Pontiac and the Marquis of Vaundreuil easily reached an agreement to work together. There was, however, one issue. The Marquis of Vaundreuil promised French aid and supplies to those who helped them, the catch was that to get the aid the participating tribes had to work together as an organized force. The Marquis of Vaudreuil knew that this condition would be contentious and difficult as it was not how the Amerindians were used to conducting warfare. But he also knew that a disorganized force had little chance of succeeding any goal against the British.

Luckily, the Amerindian tribes did not want financial support, France did not have the monetary resources to give them. Manufactured goods, weapons, and a promise of protection was enough for most. At first, most tribes would not agree to follow a central organization, but eventually most came to follow Pontiac as war chief with the Marquis of Vaudreuil working as an adviser and liaison to the French. It would be the small initial successes that Pontiac’s warriors would have in their raids that would draw more tribes under his leadership. Communication between the tribes was difficult and led to several problems with organizing battles and ambushes.

The raids did little physical damage to the British force; however, they would be considered a success. Attacks on the supply routes meant that British forces had to maintain almost constant access to the navy when operating in New France. And because many raids were conducted behind the front line the British colonials demanded more protection. Shortly after Pontiac and the Marquis of Vaundreuil began their raids on British behind the lines, Major General Baron of Amherst decided that the British were no longer going to negotiate with “Indian Terms”. The periodic gifts that the Amerindians saw as integral to treaties ceased, even those given to the Iroquois. Maj. Gen Amherst also made use of a plan intended to attack the Amerindian population through use of disease. Under his orders blankets were taken from a small pox hospital and were traded to Delaware and Shawnee villages. As a result, a small pox epidemic broke out in those two tribes decimating their population.

While the Iroquois were officially allied with the British, many Seneca fought separately for the French. These Seneca did not join Pontiac’s forces as they were already fighting the British and it was feared that if members of one of the Iroquois nations did join it would keep other tribes from joining. The Marquis of Vaudreuil would work on a separate deal with these Seneca; war chief Cornplanter[c] would lead any warriors from the Iroquois against the British coordinating with Pontiac indirectly through the Marquis of Vaudreuil and his aids. Meanwhile, Cornplanter’s uncle, Guyasuta[d], would travel between the different Iroquois nations recruiting more warriors for their cause. The six nations would officially stay allied to the British despite Guyasuta’s attempts to sway them, most fear retribution from the British if they did change sides. But there were many individuals from each nation willing to join. Many felt that when the Baron of Amherst ceased the gifts, he ended the alliance, yet he still expected the Iroquois to still supply warriors to the war. They were also insulted by the British’s apparent lack of being able to distinguish between members of the Iroquois and other Amerindians.

The Marquis of Vaudreuil, Pontiac, and Cornplanter’s actions did succeed in placing Québec out of reach, but it did not ensure that New France was safe. British forces still traveled in the occupied zones, and there was still the threat of the British navy. The Duke of Lévis tried to focus his efforts on defense but he could not avoid all engagements so he tried to spread the British thin making them fight everywhere from Newfoundland to Ohio. When the French did engage the British in skirmishes it was usually a loss.
***​
Footnotes
a. Obwandiyag​
b. Meaning that they would treat the Amerindian tribes as Europeans countries when negotiating, more so than they already did (i.e. no more gift-giving, treaty renewals, etc.)​
c. gaiänt’wakê, John Abeel III​
d. kayahsotaˀ​
 
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1-3: Tragedy of Hanover
Chapter 3: Tragedy of Hanover
“It was the darkest hour for the House of Hanover.”
Biographical Collection of the Hanoverians

William Pitt the Elder, the prime minister of Great Britain, had developed a war plan. The first part of his plan was to divert as many troops and resources as possible to the North American theatre. With the focus of the British war effort focused there they would be able to finally capture all New France and close the theatre for good. Then the British would be free to focus solely on the European continent. While the British were focusing on North America Britain’s capable German allies would hold the line against the French forces keeping them from gaining any more ground but not taking any ground for themselves.

Up until now, William Pitt the Elder’s plan had not been implemented. The fear of losing Hanover to the French again was too great to allow the diversion on troops the plan required. But the loss of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, continual New French and Amerindian raids into British America, and the belief that the French army on the continent had spent itself began to change some minds. William Pitt was allowed to conduct his plan and British forces were taken from the European continent and diverted to North America.

Even though the diversion of troops was unknown to the French, the Prince of Soubise launched a last-ditch effort to capture the city of Hanover. The redirection of British troops and supplies weakened the allied lines on continental Europe and the German allied forces had not been able to reorganize yet. At the Battle of Wilhelmsthal, the French were able to open the way towards Hanover and scatter the armies of the allied German states. After a lengthy and costly siege, the French were able to retake Hanover and immediate began to refortify the city.

As soon as the German armies reformed, they placed the city back under siege. By that time though the city’s defenses had been rebuilt. French diplomats immediately began to trying to engage diplomacy with the British and Prussians. While Britain sent word to recall the troops that had just left.
***​
 
1-4: The Treaty of Paris, 1763
Chapter 4: The Treaty of Paris, 1763
“Pourquoi, pour les quelques arpents de neige ?”[a]
Volaire​

It was not hard to get the countries to the negotiating table; no nation had the financial capacity to continue the war for too much longer. Britain, France, Spain, and Portugal would meet in Paris, in 1763 to discuss terms. Agreeing on terms though was another matter. France would not agree to anything that did not involve trading Hannover for their captured India territory. The British would try to stall the treaty until Hannover could be retaken but that was proving to take too long. In the end, the treaty did close with the trade. Several other nations would discuss their own terms at separate treaties.

The main goal of the Treaty of Paris was to return Europe to its balance of power. Outside of Europe was a separate story, Britain made large territorial gains in North America. The main terms of the Treaty of Paris outside of Europe can be summarized as:
  • Re-organization of the possession of several Caribbean Islands,
  • Britain would gain Florida, eastern Louisiana, and the Ohio Country,
  • Britain would demilitarize British Honduras and allow the practice of Catholicism,
  • France regains lost territory in India.
British colonists in the thirteen North American colonies would see the treaty differently than their European counterparts. For them the war was about removing the French and Amerindian threats. With France maintaining control of Canada and western Louisiana, their threat was still present. Also, as the colonists moved into the newly incorporated eastern Louisianan territory, they displaced the Amerindians. In response, Amerindians increased their unorganized raids on civilian targets.

The Duke of Lévis and the Marquis of Vaudreuil had held on to Canada by a string. Many Canadians were just glad the war had ended, fears of an invasion from the south would continue but the people would be able to sleep for now. Amerindians still within French controlled territory were compelled to stop raids on British territory or lose the protection promised by the Marquis of Vaudreuil. Those in the newly gained British territory would still lose French protection. Chief Pontiac would continue to resist the British, but his resistance would be disorganized and much less effective.
***​
Figures
1589386443004.png

1. Map After the Treaty of Paris, 1763

Seven Years' War
Date:May 17, 1756–February 15 1763
Location:Europe, North America, South America, Africa, Asia
Result:Anglo-Prusso-Portuguese victory
Treaty of Saint Petersburg
Treaty of Hamburg
13th Treaty of Paris
Treaty of Hubertusburg
Territorial Changes:status quo in Europe
Transfer of colonial possessions between Great Britain, France, Spain, Portugal.
France ceded its possessions east of the Mississippi River except Canada, New Orleans, and the island of Grenada, to Great Britain.
Spain cedes Florida to Great Britain.
Four “neutral” Caribbean Islands divided between Great Britain (St. Vincent, Tobago, and Dominica), and France (St. Luce).
Belligerents
Great Britain
• Ireland
• British America
• British East India Company
Hanover
Iroquois
Prussia
Portugal (from 1762)
• Brazil
• Portuguese India
Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Hesse-Kessel
Schaumburg-Lippe
France
• New France
• French India
Abenaki
Holy Roman Empire
• Austria
• Saxony
Russia (until 1762)
Spain
• New Spain
• Peru
Sweden
Mughal
Bengal
Commanders & Leaders
George II (until 1760)
George III (from 1760)
William Pitt the Elder,1st Earl of Chatham
Frederick II
Louis XV
Duke of Choiseul
Marquis of Vaudreuil
Maria Theresa
Wenzel Anton von Kauitz
Elizabeth (until 1763)
Peter III (1762)
Charles III

Footnotes
a. fra: “Why, for a few acres of snow?​

Citations
James the AH Fan. 1776 The American Revolution. “The NextGen OTL Worlda Series.” alternatehistory.com, XenForo Ltd., 16 November 2019. https://www.alternatehistory.com/forum/threads/the-nextgen-otl-worlda-series.436046/page-49. Accessed 27 January 2020. Modified by Trackah.

***

The infobox for the war is in the spoiler.

Part one has ended, part two will start soon. What do you guys think so far?

(edit: removed spoiler for infobox, if the infobox become a hassle later and people want them back I will return them)
 
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What do you guys think so far?
Great TL so far! I like your writing and the length of the updates. The map and quotes are a nice touch.
With France maintaining control of Canada and western Louisiana, their threat was still present. Also, as the colonists moved into the newly incorporated eastern Louisianan territory, they displaced the Amerindians. In response, Amerindians increased their unorganized raids on civilian targets.
I can see another war coming up in the coming decades, probably when war in Europe starts again.
 
What do you guys think so far?
Like it! Such a late POD allows for interesting ideas, especially given that a part of Louisiana has become British.
I'm kind of fantasizing about a plains indian alliance with France akin to the one they had against the Haudenosaunee. Clearly, Louisiana needs all help they can get against the demographic wave that at some point will hit them, even assuming there is no further war brewing.
Speaking of the Haudenosaunee, what is happening to them? Their lands are severely underpopulated and it would seem quite logical to have the British colonists make incursions into their lands, especially since the Mohawk river valley is the single best way through the Appalachians.
 
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Like it! Such a late POD allows for interesting ideas, especially given that a part of Louisiana has become British.
I'm kind of fantasizing about a plains indian alliance with France akin to the one they had against the Haudenosaunee. Clearly, Louisiana needs all help they can get against the demographic wave that at some point will hit them, even assuming there is no further war brewing.
Speaking of the Haudenosaunee, what is happening to them? Their lands are severely underpopulated and it would seem quite logical to have the British colonists make incursions into their lands, especially since the Mohawk river valley is the single best way through the Appalachians.
Don't Worry the Haudenosaunee will be addressed latter in the timeline, I made sure their land was labeled on the map because of that.
 
2-1: An Armed Truce
Part II: Interbellum[a] Conflict
Chapter 1: An Armed Truce[3]

“The king had many ‘secrets’ spread a crossed the globe.”
Louis the Beloved

Even though France had lost the Ohio Territory and had to inform the Amerindians there it could not provide protection for them anymore, it did not lose contact with those Amerindians. Louis XV would send an agent of the Secret du Roi (French secret service) to continue dialogue with the Amerindians, especially Pontiac and Cornplanter in hopes that they would continue to raid the British colonies. As the French could no longer promise protection many of the Amerindians stopped supporting the raids. Those who did continue did mostly out of animosity towards the British, which there was no shortage of due to Maj. Gen. Amherst’s policies.

Pontiac’s raiders were more disorganized than during the Seven Years’ War. As these raids often target more civilian targets, men swarmed to the British colonial militias, and new groups form with the exclusive goal of terrorizing and enacting vigilantism upon the Amerindians regardless of their affiliation. To make matters in the British North American colonies worse, the colonials knew the French were supplying Pontiac and his war bands but there was never enough contemporary evidence. The colonists continued to request more troops to protect from a French invasion. A request the British ignored in the short term as they knew the French could not afford another war so soon. This, of course, led many colonials to distrust the government in Britain. Some even went as far as to blame the British government for ended the war too early and not conquering all French America.

Amerindian raids were not the only source of unrest in the British colonies. The war cost the Kingdom of Great Britain a great deal of financial strain. To help pay for the war debt the British Parliament agreed to levy taxes on certain goods in the North American colonies. The colonies, who had long been left alone in these matters, were incensed, and claim that their rights have been violated. To reduce Amerindian raids George III issued a proclamation restricting the settlement of British colonists beyond the Appalachian Mountains. The proclamation did work. With less incursions on their land by British colonists many Amerindians felt they had no more need to attack. The colonists, however, where not happy. Many felt that expanding to Mississippi River was their right.

North America was not the only area that the French supported proxy conflicts against the British. Support of the Mughal Empire continued as another agent of the Secret du Roi was sent to India, but with much less success. France was not the only nation to try proxy conflicts. Britain attempted to incite revolts in French America. However, British attempts mostly failed. Some historians blame this on the natives having more autonomy in French controlled territory and so had less reason to revolt. More likely though is, the British treated the natives more subservient to the British “vassals” while the French at least pretended to treated them as allies when in negotiations.
***​
While New France had been severely weakened by the war, it still held two important trade commodities. The fur trade continued much as it did before the war. While the loss of the Ohio Valley did limit the area in which French fur trappers could operate there was still plenty of furs left to gather in the Louisiana Territory. The other major commodity was cod. The area around Newfoundland was rich in cod fishing, and while France lost its territorial holdings on the island it still maintained fishing rights from Cape Bonavista to Point Riche, known as the French Shore.

French fishermen, especially Bretons, would set up temporary fishing settlements on the mainland in New France. The island of St. Pierre and Miquelon were closer but they were too small to support the often-competitive settlements and already inhabited. Overtime these fishing settlements grew and began to host year-round populations becoming permanent villages. While the cod did sell well in European markets the destination for the majority of the catch was the French Caribbean where it was used to fuel the sugar plantations there.
***​

Footnotes
a. lat: interwar period​
b. fra: King's Secret​

Endnotes
ATL term for "cold war", coined during this time period​
***​
Special thanks to @Ibn Chaldun for reminding me about the cod trade in his timeline, so that it could make an appearance here as well!
 
Interesting TL. Yes, who gets N. Orleans? Because without NO the rest of Louisiana isn't viable. I actually think that the French might sell it totally or give it to the Spanish, if they don't keep NO.
 
I assume the eastern border now to be Lake Pontchartrain, what keeps NO and makes Louisiana much more viable.

Be careful with the fur though. The southern pelts generally had worse quality than the northern ones (because well, temperatures are lower in the north). So Im not sure this alone makes this Louisiana viable ecenomically, given how the fur trade was declining overall already.

What you might look into for Louisian exports is bison leather. I do not know the specific economic benchmarks on that however and neither when historically it's exploitation began.
But that could get you in conflict with the natives, I figure.
 
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