Chaos TL: A world without Genghis Khan's conquests

Discussion in 'Finished Timelines and Scenarios' started by Max Sinister, Aug 28, 2007.

  1. Max Sinister Retired Myriad Club Member Gone Fishin'

    Jan 15, 2004
    The Chaos TL
    [thread=32411]Discussion thread here[/thread]

    For the beginning an overview: Where and when Genghis (and his successors) changed history IOTL.

    1205-09: Tangutes / Hsi-Hsia
    1207: Southern Siberia
    1209: Uighurs
    1212: Kara-Kitai
    1211-15: Northern China
    1220: Iraqi Seljuks, slight influence on Georgia/Armenia
    1219-25: Choresm
    1223: Battle of Kalka - slight influence on Russian princedoms
    1227: Hsi-Hsia destroyed
    1231: Influence on Korea under the Goryeo Dynasty
    1233/34: Strong influence on Northern China
    1237: Volga Hungarians, Volga Bulgars defeated
    1236-40: Strong influence on Russia except Novgorod
    1239: Armenia
    since ~1240: Small changes (well, compared to the results of a Mongolian conquest) spread through Europe and Northern Africa.
    1240/46: Influence on Tibet
    1241/42: All of Eastern Europe - Teutonic Order, Drang nach Osten [1], Poland, Silesia, Moravia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria is influenced.
    1243: Rum-Seljuks
    1253: Kingdom of Dali in SW China
    1255: Remains of Kerman-Seljuks
    1256: Strong influence on Korea; Assassins destroyed
    1258: Strong influence on Caliphate of Baghdad
    1260-: Slight influence on Sultanate of Delhi and Egypt, strong influence on Syria
    (1258) 1268-79: Southern China
    1274/81: No attack on Japan, no "divine wind" necessary
    1283: Khmer Empire
    1284/85 and 1287/88: Vietnam
    1287: Pagan Empire in Burma
    1290: No Expedition to Java
    1337-52: No / delayed Black Death; influences all of Europe, Asia and Northern Africa.
    1398 (OK, probably indirect changes will happen earlier here): Sultanate of Delhi

    America, Australia, and parts of Africa south of Sahara will stay unchanged until they're discovered by travelers from other continents. But I won't tell when that's going to happen.

    [post=533587]Read a story here...[/post]


    Note my experiment with the font colors: Red is for events that happened IOTL but not here, blue is for events that happened IOTL and ITTL, and black is for all events which happen differently ITTL.

    Ogadai against Jalal-ad-Din

    1200: Temujin dies by an accident. Since his four sons (Jochi, Chagatai, Ogadai, and Tolui) are still too young (they're between 10 and 15 years old now), he has no clear successor. Enemies of Temujin, like his former friend and blood brother Jamukha Gurkhan, some of the clans and people he defeated and some people who're simply ambitious try to use the situation, and the people Temujin already united fall apart. Some of Temujin's "Dogs of war" (Subodai, Chilaun, Jelme and Borchu) and his family are still willing to fight to preserve his heritage, but for the beginning his dream has suffered a setback. The following years are filled by infighting between the various steppe tribes and people, with too many battles and changing alliances to mention them.

    (as OTL) Sultan Ala ad-Din Tekish of Choresm dies and is succeeded by his son, Ala ad-Din Muhammad.

    1205: Ogadai, the most talented and charismatic of Temujin's sons, is old enough to fight by himself for his father's dream, but he still needs the support of his elder brothers and the supporters of his father. He'll never be able to be a ruler as strong as his father.

    (as OTL) Muhammad has conquered all of Great Seljuk and declared himself Shah.

    1207: Jochi (who is suspected that Temujin isn't really his father) is killed by his brother(?) Chagatai.

    1210: After Chagatai dies in a fight, Ogadai finally becomes the accepted Khan of the Mongols. Now he can continue the suspended work of his father to unite the steppe people. He'll take longer for that than his father and won't be 100% successful, though.

    1212 (as OTL): Shah Muhammad defeats the Gur-Khan Kutluk and conquers the lands of the Kara Kitai, to whom the Choresmians once had to pay tribute.

    1213: Ogadai defeats the Merkites. Now he plans to fight the Tatars who once killed his father's father, but the attacking Keraites force him to postpone the plan. To make things worse for him, the subjugated people often rebel because he makes them introduce the Mongols' Code of Law.

    1216: Keraites defeated by Ogadai. Now he's ready to fight the Tatars.

    1217/18 (as OTL): Shah Muhammad plans to attack the Caliphate of Baghdad, but too many of his soldiers die in a blizzard in the mountains, so he has to postpone the attack.

    1221: After many bloody fights, the remaining Tatars join his horde.

    1222: Shah Muhammad dies, is succeeded by his son Jalal-ad-Din. (OOC: There's not too much known about him; IOTL, he managed to save himself by jumping from a dangerously high place into a river after having lost against the Mongols; even Genghis is said to have been impressed by his courage, so I'm giving him the benefit of doubt and make him a courageous warrior ITTL.) Jalal-ad-Din reigns a great empire, consisting of today's Iran and all the -stans. However, this also means he has to care for various groups trying to rebel against him. Being a good warrior, he eventually succeeds and keeps the empire together.

    1225: Naimans defeated.

    1227: Uighurs defeated. Ogadai notes that they use writing, which the Mongols don't know yet. He thinks it would be a good idea to use this new knowledge.

    Since 1229: Ogadai starts writing down the Yassa, the old and new Laws of the Mongols.

    1230: Jalal-ad-Din has consolidated his empire.

    1230-32: Ogadai leads the united steppe people against the Tangutes / Hsi-Hsia. Their country is overrun, many of their villages burnt down and their people enslaved. The Mongols don't have the necessary technics to storm their cities, though. OTOH, they manage to capture the secret of gunpowder. Ogadai wants to take the cities by besieging them, but after two years the other Mongols think they have a) spent enough time here and b) there's not enough left to loot for the effort. So Ogadai leaves the country for a high tribute (mostly camels). The Hsi-Hsia empire has suffered extremely under the occupation, and won't recover from it.

    1233: Jalal-ad-Din demands formal recognition from the caliph in Baghdad. When the caliph Al-Mustansir rejects his claim, the Shah proclaims one of his nobles caliph and marches towards Baghdad to depose the caliph.

    1234: Kara-Kitai defeated by Mongols. Ogadai now reigns the biggest (if sparely populated) empire on the planet.

    1235-38: Various campaigns in Southern Siberia against the Kirghiz and Tuvans.

    1236: Choresmians take Baghdad, topple the old Abbasid caliph. Al-Mustansir is imprisoned, some of his relatives flee to Egypt and the lands of the Rum-Seljuks.

    1239: Choresm Shah Jalal-ad-Din marries his daughter Khadiya to his puppet Caliph.

    1240: After a governor of the Choresm Shah insults Ogadai by killing his diplomats, he decides to attack Choresm. In the battle near the city of Otrar, Ogadai and Jalal-ad-Din meet each other. The attack of the Mongols is successful at first, but the courageous Shah manages to collect his men and prevents a catastrophy. The situation at other frontiers is also indecisive.

    1241: Ogadai dies. His son Guyuk (not the same-named from OTL) is the designed successor, but some of his family members won't accept him, and some of the allied non-Mongol people (Tatars, Kara-Kitai, Naimans, Merkites) wish for more independency. Jalal-ad-Din can use the situation for a counter-attack and drives the Mongols back behind Lake Balchash. He also manages to get the secret of gunpowder, which will become important in the future. The steppe people once again fall apart, not to be united at least for decades, waiting for another strong leader.

    [post=535366]Read a story here...[/post]


    East Asia 1200-1300:

    1201/04?: Muslims start attacking Bengal, conquering it during the next decades, ending the Sena dynasty.

    1203: Khmer ruler Jayavarman VIII occupies Champa (South Vietnam) and makes it a Khmer province.

    1206: General Aibak takes power in the Sultanate of Delhi.

    1211 / 2908, Yin Metal Sheep (Chinese Calendar): Khitan chief Yelü Liuge doesn't revolt in Liaodong, and the general (and IOTL later warlord) Puxian Wannu doesn't have to fight him.

    1213 (2910, Yin Water Chicken): Northern Chinese (Jin) emperor Wányán Yongjì isn't killed, continues to reign twenty more years.

    1214/15 (2911, Yang Wood Dog / 2912, Yin Wood Pig): Jin don't move their capital to Kaifeng, as they did IOTL.

    1216: Chola Empire in South India falls apart, later to be replaced by the Pandyan Empire.

    1220: Champa regains independence.

    1221: End of the Kediri kingdom in East Java, becomes part of Singhasari.

    1223: Start of Japanese piracy.

    1230s: Song don't cooperate with Mongols, don't win Kaifeng, Luoyang.

    1232: The royal court of Goryeo stays in Songdo.
    In Japan, Joei Code (militarized Code of Law) is introduced.

    1234 (2931, Yang Wood Horse): Goryeo creates the world's first metal-based movable type printing press.

    Jurchen / Jin Empire doesn't fall.

    1235 (2932, Yin Wood Sheep): Wányán Yongjì dies, is replaced by Wányán Shouxù.

    1236: Raziah / Raziyyat becomes the first female sultan in Delhi, until she is toppled and killed in 1240.

    1238: Two Thai chieftains, Pho Khun Pha Muang and Pho Khun Bang Klang Hao, declare their independence from the Khmer Empire and establish a Thai-ruled kingdom.

    1243-99: Jayavarman VIII in Kambuja (Cambodia). Being Hindu and radically anti-Buddhist, he is said/estimated to have destroyed 10,000 Buddha statues.

    1244 (2941, Yang Wood Dragon): Jin empire demands from Hsi-Hsia to pay them tribute. When the Tangutes (who have suffered under Ogedei's attacks only a few years ago) decline, the Jin decide to make war.

    1247 (2944, Yin Fire Sheep): War between Jin and Tangutes begins.

    1249: Choe-U (the man behind the throne of Goryeo) dies, to be replaced by his son Choi Hang.

    [post=546905]Read a story here...[/post]

    1250s: Various border clashes between Choresm and the Sultanate of Delhi.

    1251-68: Jatavarman Sundara in Pandyan (South India). He invades Ceylon successfully.

    1253 (2950, Yin Water Ox): Kingdom of Dali in SW China survives.

    1256 (2953, Yang Fire Dragon): Hsi-Hsia are incorporated into Jin China again.
    No Mongol conquest of Korea.

    1258 (2955, Yang Earth Horse): No Mongol attack against Szechuan as OTL.
    The mighty Choi family continues to be the power behind the throne of Goryeo.

    1259: Lanna kingdom in northern Thailand founded.

    1263 (2960, Yin Water Pig): Reforms by Chancellor Jia Sidao in Song China begin. He plans to take land from all the owner of latifundiae bigger than 1/4 sq km, which the state will pay. The surplus land is supposed to become property of the state, to make up for the needed tax money. No wonder there's much resistance, which he counters with all kinds of intrigues.

    1267 (2964, Yin Fire Rabbit): Some Mongols under the relatively mighty Khan Khaishan harass Jin China, without being a real danger.

    1268-79: No Mongol conquest of Southern China.

    1274 (2971, Yang Wood Dog): Song Emperor Duzong dies of natural causes. The new Emperor Gongdi is only five years old!

    1274/81: No Mongol attack on Japan, no "divine wind" necessary. Consequences are difficult to estimate - Buddhism, especially Zen Buddhism, stays a bit weaker.

    1275: Choi Hang of Goryeo dies, putting his son Choi Ui (not the same as OTL) in power behind the throne.

    1277 (2974, Yin Fire Ox): The ruler of Pagan, Narathihapate feels confident in his ability to defeat the Chinese and advances into OTL today's provinces Guizhou / Guangxi. Although theoretically much weaker, he manages to make a lot of trouble for Song China. Rebellions of latifundia owners in the provinces complicate the situation even further.

    1279: End of Chola Empire, taken over by Pandyas.

    1280 (2977, Yang Metal Dragon): Jia Sidao toppled as chancellor and killed afterwards. The new government decides to make peace and cedes Pagan some areas along the border, to avoid paying tribute, which they could barely afford. They send the message through all provinces that Jia Sidao's planned reforms are off - and that all those who rebelled have to be killed for their disobedience against the state, which is against Confucianism. The property of the rebels is confiscated and sold, which helps the state for some years.

    1283: Khmer Empire doesn't have to pay tribute to the Mongols.
    King Ramkhamhaeng the Great of Sukhothai (Thailand) invents the Thai alphabet.

    1284/85 and 1287/88: Vietnam not attacked by Mongols under Kublai.

    1287: Pagan (that's the name, not the religion!) Empire in Burma not conquered by Mongols under Kublai.

    1290, September 27th (2987, Yang Metal Tiger): Earthquake in Chihli (Province Hopeh), 150,000 people killed. (Even more than IOTL, since the Mongols didn't kill half of North China's population.)

    1290: Singhasari drives Srivijaya out of Java.
    Slave dynasty in the Delhi Sultanate overthrown by the Khilji.

    ~1290: No Expedition of Kublai Khan's navy to Java.
    Pasai in Northern Sumatra converts to Islam.

    1291: Veera Ballala III comes to power in Hoysala (South India).

    1292: Lanna annexes Mon kingdom of Haripunchai in NW Thailand.

    1292/99: No Mongols before Delhi.

    1293: Jayakatwang, a rebel from Kediri, usurps and kills Kertanagara, king of Srivijaya. Kertarajasa or Prince (Raden) Wijaya fights him.

    13th century generally: Philippines experience cultural influence of Majapahit.

    [post=568999]More about the declining Song here...[/post]


    Western Europe 1200-1300:

    1209-29: France eradicates the Albigensians.

    1214: Battle of Bouvines, France wins; Angevine Empire ends

    1215: Magna Charta in England.
    4th Lateran council. Teachings of Cathars and Waldensians condemned, Jews are forced to wear the infamous special hats.

    1216: Order of the Dominicans founded.

    1217: Civil War in Norway between the Baglers and Birkebeiners ends.

    1220-30: German Customary Law written down in the so-called Sachsenspiegel.

    1221: Bonaventura (Franciscans) born.

    1223: Franciscans acknowledged by the pope.

    1225/26: Thomas of Aquin born.

    1226: France becomes hereditary monarchy.

    1227: Denmark loses Northern Germany in the Battle of Bornhöved. German poet Walther von der Vogelweide dies.

    1229-35: Aragon conquers the Baleares.

    1230: Castille united with Leon by Hernando III the Holy. He conquers Cordoba, Murcia, Jaen, Sevilla; Moslems reduced to Granada.

    1231: Papal Inquisition created.

    1233/34: The bishop of Bremen calls for a "crusade" against the peasants of Stedingerland, which they lose.

    1237: Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich II defeats the Lombard army at Cortenuovo.

    1241: Friedrich II occupies the Papal states. In the same year, his enemy Gregor IX dies. After the short papacy of Coelestin IV there's a time of two years when there's no pope.

    1246: The French side line Anjou founded. In the same year, they get the Provence.

    (OK, until here it's the same as OTL, but I wanted to make a list in preparation for what comes later.)

    1247-64: Hessian-Thuringian war of succession. Sophie of Brabant (who's supported by the Teutonic Knights) makes sure that Hesse stays independent and goes to her son Heinrich "the Child". ITTL he even gets a slightly bigger share, at the expense of Thuringia.

    1250: Friedrich II dies.
    Birger Jarl ruler in Sweden.
    Portugal conquers the Algarve.
    In Florence, the people elect for the first time the 36 caporali di popolo, a political counterweight to the nobles.

    1252: Pope Innocence IV allows the inquisition to use torture to get confessions.

    1253: Genoa acquires Safi in Morocco.

    1254: In the German princedom of Nassau, Count Otto I is killed after getting in trouble with the Teutonic knights. His brother Walram II gets all of Nassau.

    1254-1273: Interregnum in the HRE.

    1255: Bavaria divided: Lower Bavaria goes to Heinrich XIII, Upper Bavaria and the Palatinate to Ludwig II.

    1256: Holy Roman king Wilhelm of Holland dies. Portugal's capital moved to Lissabon.

    1257: Alfonso of Castille and Richard of Cornwall elected Holy Roman kings.

    1258-65: Uprisings of the barons in England. The king has to accept the Oxford Provisions.

    1259: First German trading alliance (Lübeck, Hamburg, Rostock, Wismar), which will later develop into the Hanseatic League.
    England loses all possessions in France but Guyenne.

    1260: Saxony divided into the lines of Saxony-Wittenberg and Saxony-Lauenburg.

    After the Mamluks took some cities in Palestine, a new crusade is planned. But since Charles of Anjou has other plans, it has to be postponed. At first, France has to recover from the war with England; then, the pope gives Charles of Anjou the kingdom of Naples, which is more important...

    1261/62/64: Greenland, Iceland become Norwegian.

    1266: Scotland buys the Hebrides and Man from Norway. Charles of Anjou comes to power in Naples-Sicily after defeating and killing regent Manfred.
    King Henryk of Poland dies, to be succeeded by his son (also called Henryk).

    1268: Childless duke Ulrich III of Carinthia and Carniole makes a secret contract with Otakar Przemysl, that the latter one will inherit his lands after his death (which comes next year). Konradin, last descendant of Friedrich II, killed by Charles of Anjou.

    1270: French start Seventh crusade against Tunis (Palestine was planned, but Charles thinks Tunis is better - it's certainly closer to his new lands in Italy), which ends in a defeat and king Louis IX's death.

    ~1270: First portolan charts (maps for sea travel).

    1271: French kings inherit Toulouse. Gregor X elected pope.

    1273: After the death of HRE king Richard and the forced abdication of Alfonso the HRE has to elect a new king. Among the candidates are the French king Philippe III and Otakar Przemysl of Moravia and Carinthia. ITTL, he isn't absent from the election and can influence it better. The other princes also consider him less dangerous since his nephew reigns independent from him. Since his nephew, the elector of Bohemia, votes for him, the Upper Bavarian duke Ludwig II and the three archbishops support him too, he is elected king Ottokar I of the HRE.

    1274: Summa Theologiae written by Thomas Aquinas. Catholic Second Council of Lyon.

    1275: King Ottokar leads the Empire against Hungary, defeats the new king and gets Styria back for the HRE. Styria is divided: Western Styria becomes part of Austria (thus connecting the Przemysls' possessions), the rest (two thirds) become (Upper) Bavarian.

    1276: Philippe III of France fights Castille for reasons of succession, without success.

    1276 or 1290: Marsilius of Padua born.

    1282: Sicilian vespers. All French on the island killed, Sicily becomes part of Aragon.
    Magna Charta in Denmark.

    1284: Wales annexed by England.
    Genoa defeats Pisa, acquires Corsica, Elba and Sardinia.

    1285: Aragonese crusade as revenge for Sicilian vespers, with no success.

    1286: The "maid of Norway" doesn't drown, arrives in Scotland.
    Rudolf of Habsburg elected new king.

    1287: Great flood swallows lots of lands in the Netherlands, creating the Zuider Zee, which makes it possible for Amsterdam to become an important harbor later.

    1288: Gotland becomes Swedish.

    1290: Jews evicted from England.

    In Scotland, the young queen (nine years) dies. King Edward I of England interferes for the succession, Balliol becomes new king.

    1291: Rudolf of Habsburg dies. His lands in SW Germany are divided between his sons Albrecht (same as OTL) and Rudolf (not the same as OTL) - quite dangerous, since the lands of the Habsburgs are already smaller, but the younger son insisted that he gets his share.
    The Upper Bavarian duke Ludwig II (Ludwig IV as king) is elected Roman king.
    The first three cantons of Switzerland make an anti-Habsburg alliance.
    Tarifa conquered by Castille.

    1294: Pope Coelestin V, a former eremite, elected, but resigns in the same year. His successor Boniface is quite the opposite of him.
    The Habsburgs try to annex the Swiss Confederation, but are defeated at Morgarten, and the king (who's been in competition with the Meinhardiner in Tyrol, relatives of the Habsburgs) rather supports the Swiss.

    1295: Roman king Ludwig dies (one year later than OTL). Ascanian Otto IV of Brandenburg becomes new king of the HRE.

    1296: Auld Alliance between France and Scotland (everything happens one year later than OTL).

    1297: King Philippe IV the Fair attacks Flanders. War between England and Scotland begins.

    1298: Scottish uprisings under William Wallace.

    And BTW, the Americas and Oceania are unchanged too. Important events there:

    1200: Cuzco founded

    1200+: Younger culture of Totonaks around Cempoala.

    1221: A revolt in Chichen Itza. Maya decide to build a new capital, Mayapan.

    1250: Tenochca migrate to the valley of Mexico.

    1250: Founding of the Arioi cult at the island of Raiatea, Polynesia.

    1250-1300: Discovery of bronze in the Andes.

    1299: Cocoxtli, ruler of Culhuacan, allows the Mexica / Aztecs to settle in Tizapan.

    -1300: Maori come to New Zealand.

    ~1300: Possible second wave of immigrants to Hawaii, from Tahiti.

    [post=556901]Read the story here...[/post]


    The Middle East (incl. Byzantium, the Caucasus and Egypt) 1200-1300

    1204 (as OTL): Fourth Crusade. Byzantine Empire conquered, Constantinople plundered, Latin Empire founded, which gets one quarter of the lands of the old Empire. Other parts go to Venice or Genoa or become independent. One of the new states is the Empire of Nikaia, which ruler Theodor Laskaris wants to throw out the invaders.

    1208 (as OTL): Theodoros Laskaris, ruler of Nikaia, crowned official Byzantine emperor by the patriarch.

    1213 (as OTL): Queen Tamara of Georgia dies. During her reign, capital punishment and dismemberment were abolished.

    1223: (Armenia desn't secede from Georgia. No Battle on the river Kalka. Kipchaks / Kumans / Polovtzy still rule the steppes in Southern Russia.)

    1224 (as OTL): Kingdom Thessaloniki conquered by Epirus.

    1225 (as OTL): Latin Empire cedes almost all of Asia Minor and some islands in the Aegean Sea to Nikaia.
    Rum-Seljuks conquer Crimea.

    1226 (as OTL): Rasulide dynasty takes over in Yemen.

    Early 13th century: (OTL Mamluk sultan Baibars isn't captured by the Mongols, stays Kipchak.)

    1227 (as OTL): Theodore of Epirus and Thessalonica drives the Nikaian garrison out of Adrianople and annexes much of Thrace. Bulgaria and Nikaia ally against him, defeating and capturing him and dividing his lands in 1230.

    1230s: (The Choresmians under Jalal-ad-Din who fled from the Mongols don't confuse the Middle East.)

    1239-42 (as OTL): Kay Khusrau II has to quell an upspring led by the popular preacher Baba Ishaq.

    1240 (as OTL): Latin Empire meanwhile almost reduced to the capital.

    1242: (Armenia not conquered by Mongols.)

    1243: (Mongols don't attack Rum-Seljuks.)

    1244 (as OTL): Jerusalem conquered by sultan as-Salih of Egypt. This was expectable, since the city lacked the hinterland for a better defense. Only difference to OTL: He uses Mamluk soldiers for the attack instead of hired Choresmians. The city is damaged less than IOTL.

    1245: Nikaia makes a peace treaty with the Rum-Seljuks (as OTL)
    ; but since the latter aren't threatened by the Mongols, Nikaia has to pay a tribute.

    1246: Little countries of the Zangids conquered by Choresm.
    Bulgaria defends better than OTL against Nikaia, keeps most of the conquered (former Byzantine) areas, has to cede only Adrianople and Athos and help Nikaia against the Latin Empire.

    1248-54 (as OTL): Sixth Crusade against Egypt stays without success.

    1250 (as OTL): Mamluks under Aybak take power in Egypt. At the moment, he shares power with the widow of the last Ayyubid sultan, Shajar ad-Durr.

    [post=541337]Read a story here...[/post]
    1252: Choresm tries to attack the rich kingdom of Ormus, but is surprisingly defeated by the strong fleet of the latter.

    1253 (as OTL): Nikaia attacks Epirus / Thessalia. After hard fights they conquer Thessaloniki.

    1254 (as OTL): After the death of Ioannis III Vatatzes, Michael VIII Palaiologos comes to power in Nikaia by a coup.

    1255: Shah Jalal-ad-Din of Choresm dies. Some areas of his empire (Kara-Kitai, Afghanistan) try to break away. Kara-Kitai manage to stay independent, but Afghanistan is pacified in the following years and stays in the fold.

    1256: Assassins not destroyed. They continue to play a more or less important role in the Middle East.
    Being Ismailites, the Sunni Muslims are their worst enemies.

    1257 (as OTL): Shajar ad-Durr murdered after she has Aybak murdered. Qutuz becomes new sultan of Egypt.

    1260: (Baibars I does not become ruler of Egypt.)
    Mamluks attack Crusader states, conquer Gaza, Askalon and Jaffa (earlier than OTL).

    1261: Nikaia attacks Morea, hurts the allied states of Sicily and Epirus (similar as IOTL), but can't establish itself permanently in Mistra, which falls back to the crusaders in the same decade.

    1262: Ayyubid sidelines still reigning in Syria who fear the raising power of the Mamluks and Rum-Seljuks appeal to the Choresm Shah (and power behind the Caliph, we remember) for protection. Thus, Choresm's sphere of influence now borders the Mediterranean.

    1263: France under Louis IX plans a crusade as retail for the lost cities in Palestine, but Charles of Anjou is busy in Italy.

    1265: Rum-Seljuks attack Nikaia, threaten the capital. This time they're content to get some areas (i.e. they don't want the whole empire). Genoa gets the Aegean islands of Lesbos, Chios and Samos, which Nikaia can't defend alone.

    1268: The little crusader states of Antiochia and Tripolis (in Lebanon, not in Libya) conquered by Syrian and Choresmian troops.

    1270: Seventh Crusade. France attacks Tunesia, without success.

    1272: Charles of Anjou conquers the area of Albania.

    1273: Baldwin II dies. His son Philip of Courtenay becomes last Latin Emperor.

    1276: Finally, Constantinople's conquered by Nikaia (some defenders changed sides, after receiving a big bribe).
    The Latin Emperor flees to Athens. He becomes dependent of the mighty dukes of Athens and Achaia.
    Nikaia's energy and power isn't sufficient for further attacks on Epirus and other Crusader states.
    Emperor Michael has to start talks with the west about a reunification of the churches.

    1277: Charles of Anjou conquers Akko, makes himself new king of Jerusalem. This comes in a very unfortunate moment for the crusaders...

    1278: Achaia acquired by Charles of Anjou.

    1279: Michael VIII Palaiologos dies.

    1281: Last Crusader states in Palestine conquered by the Muslims. Teutonic Order moves headquarters from Akko to Venice.

    1283: Philip of Courtenay dies.

    1284: Rum-Seljuks attack East Roman Empire and conquer Brussa, Nicomedia and Nikaia. (IOTL the Ottomans took eleven years for that, but they were one of many little princedoms in Anatolia then. The Rum-Seljuks, OTOH, already own most of Anatolia...)

    1285: Charles of Anjou dies.

    1286: King Otakar has decided to go on a crusade against the Muslims, after the pope promised him to crown him Holy Roman Emperor. But while he always fought valiantly against the pagans in Prussia and Lithuania, which gave him the epiphet of "the Iron king", he's not so lucky now. Having reached Constantinople with his army, he dies. The crusade is cancelled, and the chance to rekindle actual interest in it is lost.

    1287: Catholic and Greek Orthodox church officially reunited, as a last resort. Actually, many Byzantines don't like this idea at all - as they say, they prefer the Sultan's turban to the cardinal's hat.

    1290: Aragon and Egypt make an alliance - the first important alliance between a Christian and a Muslim state.

    1292: West of Lesser Armenia conquered by the Rum-Seljuks.

    [post=564221]Read the story here...[/post]


    Eastern Europe, 1200-1300:

    Early 13th century: (OTL Mamluk sultan Baibars isn't captured by the Mongols, stays Kipchak.)

    1212: Vsevolod "The big nest" III dies.

    1219: Denmark conquers Estonia.

    1221: Nishnij Novgorod founded.

    1223: (No Battle on the river Kalka. Kipchaks / Kumans / Polovtzy still rule the steppes in Southern Russia.)

    1225: Rum-Seljuks conquer Crimea.

    1227: Teutonic Order comes into the Kulmer Land (East Prussia, at the Vistula).
    Jaroslav of Novgorod attacks Finland.

    1230: Livonia completely subjugated.

    1236-40: Mongol attacks on Russia except Novgorod don't happen.

    1237: Friar Julianus returns to the Volga Hungarians, starts to convert them to Christianity and tries to recruit them to settle in Hungary. A delegation of them visits Hungary proper and likes the idea of settling there. The Pope and Hungary support him, too.
    Unification of the Teutonic Order and the Brotherhood of the Sword.
    (Volga Hungarians, Volga Bulgarians not defeated by Mongols.)

    1238: Russian prince Aleksandr Yaroslavich who's the fourth son of his father and has no chance of ever becoming a ruler goes to Vladimir-Suzdal, who are often busy fighting the Volga Bulgarians.

    1240s: Kara-Kitai tribes displaced by the Mongols under Ogadai defeat eastern Kipchaks, cross the lower Volga, attack the area south of Don and Volga and destroy the little country of the Alans, a leftover of the völkerwanderung.

    1240: Russian prince Aleksandr doesn't have to defeat the Swedes at the Neva.

    Since 1240: Christianized Volga Hungarians settle down in Hungary proper, mostly in the Banat (western Vlachia). Vlachia and Moldavia become Hungarian sphere of influence.
    Fewer German settlers go to Poland (except Pomerania and Silesia), Hungary, Romania or Bulgaria. Instead, they press into Pomerania, East Prussia and (later) the Baltic.
    Silesia north of Oder river becomes an area similar to OTL Kashubia during the next centuries, with a population of mixed German-Slavic culture.

    1241: Bulgarian czar Ivan Asen II dies. Bulgaria loses influence on Serbia and Epirus.

    1241/42: The battle of Liegnitz (Legnica) doesn't happen, and neither does the savaging of Poland, Silesia, Moravia, Hungary (which lost half its population IOTL, according to some sources), Romania and Bulgaria by the Mongols. The Teutonic Order doesn't have to pay a high blood toll either.

    1242: Aleksandr doesn't have to fight the Livonian knights on frozen Lake Peipus.

    1243: King Bela IV of Hungary conquers Bosnia.

    1246: King Bela IV of Hungary fights Austria, killing the last duke Friedrich II. His widow Margarete governs in his place. She and his niece Gertrud (wife of Vladislav of Moravia, elder brother of Otakar Przemysl) are the only living heirs.
    Baibars who became a Kipchak leader defeats the Kara-Kitai, throws them back behind the Don. He now reigns in the biggest of the six Kuman cities, Sharukan (in OTL Charkov's place).

    1247: The elder brother of Otakar Przemysl Vladislav doesn't die.

    1250: German settlement has reached the Oder river, and even crossed it in some places, also including southern Silesia.

    [post=553125]Read the story here...[/post]

    To make long things short: Russia stays disunited, although some centers of power are established: Novgorod reigns in the North and slowly starts to expand East; Vladimir-Suzdal controls the thrones of the East, Chernigov those of South-East. The western principalities are weaker, threatened by the Teutonic Order, the freshly united Poland, and the strong Hungary. And Kiev suffers since the trade with Byzantium is cut off until 1276. There are many little wars for control of the thrones, deposings of princes and coups - too many to mention.

    1251: Prince Vladislav of Bohemia has a son, later king Venceslaus / Vaclav II.

    1253: After being defeated by Aleksandr, the Volga Bulgars have to allow the Russians of Vladimir-Suzdal to go with their ships on the Volga without harassing them. This helps Vladimir's trade down to the Caspian Sea, with Choresm.
    Lithuanian leader Mindaugas christened.
    King Venceslaus / Vaclav I. of Bohemia dies. Vladislav inherits Bohemia, and also reigns Austria. Otakar Przemysl only gets Moravia.
    Heinrich / Henryk II the Pious of Silesia, who already rules in Greater and Lesser Poland, is crowned king of Poland, first one since 1079. Although many Piast princes continue to reign in other parts of Poland, his family can keep the king's title.

    1254: Hungary "divides" Styria with young king Venceslaus / Vaclav II. Hungary gets the better part, only a few border cities become Austrian.

    1255: Vladislav of Bohemia dies. His little son inherits Bohemia, and Austria. Otakar Przemysl administrates his lands until his adulthood.
    Otakar tries to improve the situation, wages war against Hungary, but is defeated. In the next few years, he has to suppress Bohemian and Austrian nobles discontent with his rule. He becomes a bit more humble and more pragmatic in the future, looks for new allies, makes peace with the Bavarian dukes and marries Sophie of Wittelsbach.
    Teutonic Order founds Herzogsberg (named after Ottokar) at the site of OTL Königsberg.
    Hungarian prince Stephen / Istvan marries a princess of the Volga Hungarians.

    1257: Otakar Przemysl goes to Prussia, helps to suppress a big uprising of the Prussians.
    Constantine Tikh I is elected new Czar of Bulgaria. After the difficult years after Ivan Asen II's death, he gives the country more stability.

    1260: Prussians subjugated. Western Farther Pomerania and parts of East Prussia are already settled.

    1261: Otakar has a son, called Heinrich.

    1262: Hungarian prince Stephen rebels against his father, practically gets his own kingdom in Eastern Hungary.

    1263: Lithuanian leader Mindaugas murdered by his own people, who become pagan again. The stronger settlement of Germans in Prussia makes them feel threatened. Although they could probably quite successful if they hid in their dense forests, they dare to leave them and attack the Teutonic knights on their turf. This only leads to their defeat.

    1268: Prince Istvan of Hungary invades Bulgaria. Only the weakness of Byzantium and the crusader states, the Hungarian threat to Serbia and the fact that Hungary itself is close to be overextended prevents that Bulgaria is even worse off.

    1269: Last uprising of the Prussians defeated.

    1270: Germans settle everywhere in Pomerania, and in half of East Prussia. Settlement in the Baltic extended. Teutonic knights decide to subjugate the Lithuanians too.
    King Bela IV of Hungary dies.
    A rebellion of peasants against the rich boyars in Novgorod.
    Aleksandr (Nevsky) goes to Chernigov to fight against the Kumans under Baibars, who became more powerful recently.

    1274: Hungary occupies Serbia.

    1277: No revolt of Ivailo the swineherd in Bulgaria, Constantine Tikh I continues to reign.
    Zemgale and Samogitia conquered by the Teutonic knights. Despite the dangerous situation in the crusader cities, Charles of Anjou conquers them and makes himself king of Jerusalem.

    1278: Achaia acquired by Charles of Anjou.

    1280s: Kumans in Romania cross the Danube, conquer the Karvuna (OTL Dobruja) for themselves, threaten Bulgaria.

    1280: After Constantine Tikh I's death, Macedonia becomes independent. In the following decades, the states of Epirus, Byzantium and Bulgaria will compete for this area. Michael Asen II becomes new Bulgarian czar.
    German settlement everywhere through Danzig and East Prussia.

    1281: Teutonic Order moves from Akko to Venice.

    1282: Belgrad not conquered by Serbia.

    1283: Vladimir-Suzdal finally overwhelms Ryazan, its old challenger.

    1284: Stefan Uroš II Milutin of the former Serbian Nemanjić dynasty rebels against the Hungarians. Fightings go on for several years, but at the end, the Hungarians are stronger.

    1286: Otakar Przemysl dies. The two Przemyslid heirs, Wenzel / Vaclav and Heinrich are still too unexperienced to play an important role in the HRE, which the other princes don't exactly dislike.

    1289: Lithuania subjugated and administered by the Teutonic knights. (Sorry, legolas!) Later becomes the province of Littauen. At the moment, however, the Teutonic knights are mostly restricted to the valley of Memel / Nyemen river.

    1290: Andras III, last king of the Arpad dynasty in Hungary, comes to power.

    1293: Poland attacks Galicia-Volhynia, taking about one third of the latter's territory.

    1295: After the death of Aleksandr, the Russians found the city of Aleksandrskoye at the Volga, at the site of OTL Kazan, also to control the Volga trade better.

    1300: Another Lithuanian uprising defeated.

    [post=572595]An adventurous story here...[/post]


    History of sub-Saharan Africa 1200-1300:

    ~1200: Jolof (in OTL Senegal) settled as small kingdom.

    Early 13th century: Ilé-Ifè (OTL SW Nigeria) reaches its peak.

    1200+: Empire of Kongo at lower Kongo river emerges.

    1203: Soumaoro Kante of the Sosso people occupies Koumbi Saleh, the old capital of Ghana (not today's Ghana, it was more around Mauretania / Mali).

    1221-59: Reign of Dunama Dabbalemi of the Sayfawa dynasty in the Kanem Empire (present-day Chad). He expands his empire, initiates diplomatic exchanges with sultans in North Africa and arranges for the establishment of a special hostel in Cairo to facilitate pilgrimages to Mecca. Through his wars he captures many slaves that he sells to the northern kingdoms, so enriching his country. The empire's influence extends westward to Kano (in present-day Nigeria), eastward to Ouaddaï, and southward to the Adamawa grasslands (in present-day Cameroon).

    1230s: Sosso's vassals start to rebel. Among them is Mali, rich thanks to gold and salt.

    1240: Sundiata Keita of the Mandinka people defeats Sosso king Sumanguru Kante, the murderer of his father and eleven brothers, at the battle of Kirina. After that, he converts to Islam.

    Following this victory, Sundiata expands his Empire to include most of the important parts of West Africa, including the towns of Walata, Tadmekka, and Gao at the southern end of the desert trade routes. The Mali Empire is made up of 3 allied states and 12 tributaries. The three states are Mali (which helds the capital of the Empire, Niani), Mema, and Wagadou, the former Ghana Empire. The 12 tributaries are referred to as the 12 doors of Mali to which only the Mansa (emperor) holds the key. They are Djebeda, Tabon, Negueboria, Kankigne, Togom, Sili, Krina, Koulikoro, Diaghan, Kita, Ka-ba, and Do.

    1255: Sundiata dies, to be succeeded by his son Mansa Wali Keita. During his reign, he makes Hajj.

    1270: Mansa Wali Keita dies. End of the (Falashan) Zagwe dynasty in Ethiopia. Yekuno Amlak comes to power, (re-)starting the Solomonid dynasty.

    1272: The Mamluks invade the little Christian country of Makuria, north of Ethiopia.

    1276: They invade again to put king David's cousin Shekanda on the throne. In the same year, they annex Al-Maris, former Nobatia. Soon afterwards, Alodia / Alwa is also islamized, making Ethiopia the last Christian kingdom in Africa.

    1285: After three weak Mansas, the general and former slave Sakura seizes control of Mali.

    1300: Sakura killed near Tripoli.(?)

    North Africa:
    1207: An Almohad emir, Muhammad bin Abu Hafs, establishes the Hafsid dynasty in Libya.

    1230: Berber Hafsids come to power in Tunis.

    1236: Abdalwadid kingdom of Tlemcen in West Algeria.

    1268: Marinids come to power in NW Africa.

    1269: Last Almohad sultan killed.


    History of science in the 13th century

    13th century: The spinning wheel is brought to Europe (probably from India). "Mathematical Renaissance" in China.

    1202: Leonardo of Pisa introduces Hindu-Arabic numerals to Europe with his book Liber Abaci.

    1204, December 13th: Maimonides / RAMBAM dies.

    1210: Roger Bacon born.

    1238 (3835, Yang Earth Dog): Yang Hui born (invents his version of Pascal's triangle - later important for statistics)

    1240: Bartholomeus de Glanvilla concludes De proprietatibus rerum. The most widely read and quoted encyclopedia in the late-medieval period.

    1250: Fibonacci dies.

    1253: Robert Grosseteste dies. He introduced a kind of scientific thought.

    1260: Vincent of Beauvais concludes Speculum Majus. The most ambitious encyclopedia in the late-medieval period over 3 million words.

    1261 (3858, Yin Metal Chicken): Qin Jiushao, who introduced the 0 to China, dies.

    ~1270: Paper manufacture begins in Italy.

    1274: Nasir al-Din Tusi (said to be most eminent astronomer between Ptolemy and Copernicus; also established trigonometry as independent science) dies.

    1277: A treaty between the crusader Bohemond VII, titular prince of Antioch and the Doge of Venice for the transfer of glassmaking technology isn't signed, so the transfer of Syrian glassworkers and their trade secrets doesn't happen. The famous Venetian glass industry isn't born.

    late 1280s: Eyeglasses are invented in Italy.

    1285: William of Ockham born.

    General state of the art:

    Western Europe: The "12th century Renaissance" has already started, with men like Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas, Roger Bacon. Scholastics. The nominalists (those who believe that Plato's "ideal entities" are just names, but not the real things) slowly win over the "realists" (those who support Plato).

    Islamic World: Algebra, Non-Euclidean geometry. Lots of knowledge about Optics, f.e. refraction. Also good in mechanics.

    India: Also many ideas in mathematics and physics - including ideas for an atomic theory, law of gravity, and a heliocentric system. Geometry, trigonometry, binary system, floating point operations, even calculus.

    China: Lots of mathematics, f.e. about solving of equations of higher grades, the Rule of Three and matrix methods for linear equations. First law of motion.


    General summary of the 13th century:

    Temujin (who isn't called Genghiz yet) dies early in 1200. The Mongols and other steppe people fall apart, fight among themselves instead. Temujin's son Ogadai manages to unite them for a second time, fights the Kara-Kitai, the Tangutes / Hsi-Hsia and even challenges the Choresmians, who still are victorious under their Shah Jalal-ad-Din. After Ogadai's death, the steppe people fall apart again.

    East Asia:
    Hsi-Hsia are eventually conquered by the Jin. Song China has to struggle with internal problems and loses a border war against Pagan. Khilji dynasty comes to power in Delhi.

    Muslim world:
    Choresm conquers Baghdad, makes the Caliph its puppet, extends its influence down to the Mediterranean. The Shiites stay stronger. Assassins survive. Rum-Seljuks kick out Byzantium / Nikaia from Asia Minor. Mamluks come to power in Egypt, conquer crusader states in Palestine.

    Eastern Europe:
    Hungary controls Bosnia, Serbia and OTL Romania. Volga Hungarians go to Hungary proper, convert to Christianity. Bulgaria stays more stable. Nikaia can reconquer Constantinople eventually, but has to agree on a union of the churches, and is dangerously weakened. Teutonic Order subjugates Prussians earlier, conquers Lithuania. Vladimir-Suzdal expands at the expense of Volga Bulgarians. Kara-Kitai attack the Kumans, but the latter under Baibars can defend successfully.

    Western Europe:
    Poland is (mostly) reunited, a new king is crowned. Hungary expands into Austria for short time, but is beaten back by Otakar Przemysl, who doesn't inherit Bohemia ITTL, but can keep Austria in the family and is elected king of the HRE. The Przemyslid lands are split between two lines of succession. Other than that, no changes.

    America, Oceania, sub-Saharan Africa:
    No changes.
    Last edited: Dec 15, 2007
  2. Max Sinister Retired Myriad Club Member Gone Fishin'

    Jan 15, 2004
    The Chaos TL

    Middle East 1300-1400

    1302: After the defeat in the 1280s, Byzantium has retreated behind the Bosphorus and defended itself successfully from there, being safe for a while. The union with the Catholic church has been dissolved again, and despite of that and the toppling of emperor Andronikos II after said defeat, the country has enjoyed relative peace. Now however, the country is attacked by the ambitious Charles of Valois, who wants to become new Latin emperor. Thrace is overrun, and in their panic the Byzantines call the Seljuks for help. The Seljuks indeed throw the crusaders out again, but they don't think about giving Thrace to Byzantium again... now the empire only consists of the capital and Thessaloniki.

    1304: Kingdom of Lesser Armenia becomes a tributary of the Rum-Seljuks (without war).

    1306: Order of the Johannites buys Rhodos from Genoa.

    1310: Seljuks defeat Bulgaria the first time, taking the South with Philippopolis (Plovdiv) and the Aegean coast. Czar Michael Asen III falls in battle.

    1314: Thessaloniki conquered by Seljuks.

    Since 1318: The new Choresm Shah Arslan I of the Karluk dynasty consolidates the empire and also adds Kashgar to it.

    1319: Rum-Seljuks conquer the disputed area of Macedonia.

    1323 / 1364: Rasulid Yemen loses against Mamluk Egypt. Hejaz now controlled by the latter.

    1325: Zaidite dynasty restricts Rasulids to South Yemen.

    1327: Constantinople falls after a long siege, effectively defeated by the hunger. Many Byzantines flee, parts to free Greek states or Trapezunt, others to Italy (mostly Florence, Genoa and Milan, avoiding Anjou Naples, the Papal states and Venice), again others even to Kiev. Genoa loses access to the Black Sea, suffering economic decline in the following years. The knowledge they bring to Western Europe helps spawning the "Rinascita" (it wasn't called that at this time) that already started in the last century.

    1329: Another Seljuk victory against Bulgaria. Sofia falls.

    1333: Seljuks conquer Thessalia. The remaining states in Greece start to panic, appeal for a new crusade, but with no success: Italy is divided, the HRE kings struggle with the pope or are too weak, France is first too poor and later under various kings, Hungary busy with Serbs and Kumans.

    1334: Choresm and Mamluk Egypt clash over Syria / Palestine. Choresm wins and annexes northern Palestine, but news about unrests in Afghanistan force the Shah to cancel further advancing.

    1338: After the necessary organizations, a small crusade organized mostly by small nations like Savoy happens, and Thessalia is reconquered. Bulgaria gets Sofia back.

    1342: Lesser Armenia annexed by the Rum-Seljuks.

    1347: Army of Georgia defeated, southern half of Trapezunt conquered.

    1348: Rum-Seljuk ruler Kay Khusrau III dies, divides his empire between his sons Kay Khusrau IV of Rum (rules the European possessions and about a quarter of Asia Minor) and Kilij Arslan IV in Konya (former Ikonion).

    [post=581854]Read a story here...[/post]

    1352: Mamluk Egypt allies with Sultanate of Konya against Choresm. The invade Syria together, defeat the Choresmian armies several times.

    1353-55: Kay Khusrau IV of Rum attacks Bulgaria, takes the capital of Tarnovo.

    1357: When Choresm is in a desperate situation, the Shah hires the Assassins to get rid of his enemies. The general of the Mamluks and the Sultan of Konya are killed. Kay Khusrau unites Konya with Rum again (and later removes the young heirs of his brother). He rules the succession, to avoid another split of the Empire for the future. Choresm makes peace, only gives northern Palestine back to Egypt.

    1360: Karvuna (OTL Dobruja) is made a tributary of the Rum-Seljuks.

    1361: Rum-Seljuks conquer Thessalia back and invade the duchy of Athens. The crusaders are now restricted to the Peloponnes, Epirus and the Aegaean islands.

    1362: Shiite revolt in Persia begins, which will eventually lead to Persia becoming independent again.

    1363: Caliphate in Baghdad abolished by Shiites; Seljuks now claim the Caliph title for themselves / their Abbasid puppets.

    1364-69: Rum-Seljuks battle the allied Serbians and Bosnians, occupy their lands.

    1365: Persians throw off the Choresmian yoke, forming a new Shiite empire under the Zahedid dynasty (named after an old Sufi order) that includes Azerbaijan and Mesopotamia. Afghanistan also becomes independent again.

    1370: A new leader of the steppe people with the name Arik-Buqa who converted to Islam, together with the united people, starts what he calls a Jihad - although he'll also fight against other Muslims, if he perceives them as decadent.

    1371: Rum-Seljuks pick up the pieces in Syria where the breakdown of the Choresmian empire left a power vacuum.

    1374: Crusaders thrown out of Epirus. The Rum-Seljuks also try to conquer the Peloponnes, but are defeated by Teodoro of Monferrat, whom some people call "the last real knight". Black Death reaches Afghanistan.

    1375: Arik-Buqa destroys the country of the Kirghiz, scattering their remains.

    1377-81: Black Death hits Persia.

    1378: Serbians rebel against the Muslims, but are brutally repressed. In the city of Niš, all adult people are killed. The sultan orders that the children are to be raised as Muslims - later they will turn into TTL's first Janissaries.

    1378-85: Black Death strikes Choresm, preventing a reconquest of Persia.

    1380: Trapezunt conquered by Rum-Seljuks.

    1383-87: Rum-Seljuks cross the Danube, defeat the Hungarians several times, take control of Vlachia.

    1384-90: Seljuk lands struck by Black Death, which helps them losing the Crusade. The little isolated country of Montenegro is spared by the plague, though.

    1386-89: Arik-Buqa strikes against the weakened Choresm. After his hordes finally leave, as the historians say, "not even grass grows anymore" in the north-eastern provinces.

    1387-89: Egypt hit by Black Death.

    1388-91: Last crusade. Hungarians and their allies can win some battles against the Seljuks, take Bosnia back, but no more.

    1390: A capable army commander ends the Choresmian Civil War and makes himself Shah Atsiz II. After the hard decades before, he and his successors give Choresm stability for more than a century.

    1396-1400: After the Seljuks have a bit recovered from the Black Death, they strike against Hungary again. They occupy Moldovia, Bosnia and Slavonia (East Croatia).

    [post=598523]Read a short story here...[/post]


    Northern and Western (Britain, France, Iberia) Europe 1300-1400:

    1302: Flemish citizens massacre French occupation troops, defeat them in the battle of Kortrijk.

    1303: Philippe the Fair excommunicated by the pope. Pope Boniface VIII seized by the French, has to go to Avignon. In the following decades, the (mostly French) popes will reign from here.

    1306: Robert the Bruce crowned king of Scotland, starting the Bruce dynasty.
    Jews kicked out of France - the state is almost broke, and the king wants to take their money.

    1307: King Edward I of England dies, after having defeated the Scots twice (not just once as OTL).
    Knights Templar accused for heresy in France.

    1309: Popes move to Avignon.

    1310s: Scots defeat the English, thanks to their pike fighters. TTL Edward II of England starts in a better position, and isn't as incompetent as his OTL counterpart, but after many fights he gets tired too. So the Scots become independent again, only have to cede the territory south of the Firths (Wall of Antoninus).

    1311/12: Knights Templar again accused for heresy in France.

    1312: Flanders and France make peace; Flanders cedes French-speaking parts.

    1314: Philippe the Fair dies. After the short reign of his first son Louis X (-1317) follows the latter's baby son Jean I. In the first years, his uncles Charles (-1323) and Philippe (-1327) reign in his name.

    1315: Great famine in Europe.

    1323: Aragon acquires Sardinia.

    1326: Christoffer II of Denmark kicked out after he wants to tax the nobles and the church; now Gerhard III of Holstein effectively rules the country.

    1331: Gerhard III of Holstein (the strong man in Denmark) marries countess Margarethe of Holland, Zeeland and Hennegau (in Wallonia).

    1335: Unpopular king Pere IV of Aragon toppled by the nobles, who make the state a quasi nobles' Republic. The king is only the nominal ruler.

    1336: Young French king Jean I starts a short war with Genoa.

    1340: Castille and Portugal defeat the Moorish army; this is the last time an Arab army lands on Iberian soil.

    1341: Breton war of Succession begins. France supports Charles of Blois, England John of Montfort - with the result that both are drawn into the war.

    1344: Sea Battle of Blankenberge. English and Flemish defeat the French; England now rules the Channel and can land troops in Brittany.

    1345: Scotland enters the war against England, hoping to get the lost lands back.

    1346: Land Battle of Vannes, Brittany. Thanks to their longbows and the bad weather, the English defeat the French. Great famine in Europe.

    1347: Black Death does not hit Europe. From now on, there's not much this Europe have in common with that of OTL - in fact, the Breton war of Succession was the last recognizable event. Overpopulated Europe suffers under population pressure. Some states less than others - England, Poland and Scandinavia still have a low population and can rather afford to grow; Germans go to the East, Hungarians to Romania, Spanish and Portuguese kick out the Moors and settle in their places - but France and Italy suffer much.

    1349: France acquires the Dauphiné.

    [post=584998]Read a short essay here...[/post]

    1350: Battle of Blaye, Aquitaine (50 km north of Bordeaux). Another victory for the English.

    since 1350: The Canary islands are missionarized by Aragonese, after being (re-)discovered earlier.

    1350-75: Due to growing demand for food, Denmark, Norway, Scotland, England, Brittany, Navarre and Portugal extend fishery in the North Atlantic, going farther and farther west. Soon, tales of strange islands in the far west start to spread among fishermen and sailors.

    1351: Peasants' revolts in France start, making it even more difficult to fight the English.

    1352: After sultan Yusuf of Granada misses to pay one tribute in time, Castille attacks and conquers the country. The last hold of the Muslims in Iberia has fallen. The Reconquista is over, now the Conquista begins.
    Sweden conquers Skane (South Sweden) from Denmark.

    1353: France has to make peace with England after the defeat in the battle of Caen. John of Montfort becomes duke of Brittany, England gets all of Gascony (similar as in the peace of OTL 1360), Flanders acquires the Artois.

    1354: Free to make war against Scotland, the English defeat them soon. The pre-war border is restored.

    1355: The French queen Isabelle deposes her incompetent husband, makes her son Jean king. (He planned to give several duchies from the crown's domain to his sons, as appanage. If that plan had been realized, the French kings would've lost half of their power, since he had no less than four surviving sons. Instead, the queen promises them lands that have yet to be conquered, in the English territory.)
    Portuguese king Fernando deposed because of unspeakable cruelty, his younger brother Diniz II takes the power.

    1360: Juan, unpopular king of Castille, deposed by his brother Pedro with English help. Start of English-Castillian friendship.

    since 1360: After coming of age, Danish king Henrik tries to subdue his vassals, especially mighty Holstein, but is defeated and loses most power. Jutland is now completely under Holstein's control.

    1361-64: Hanseatic League defeats Sweden-Norway in a trade war.

    1363: Castille takes over the Canaries, starts to settle them in the following decades.

    1365: Norwegians are unhappy with king Magnus, make David of Scotland king instead.

    1366: Burgundy goes to France. In the same year, the French start the war against England again. Since they have learned how devastating the English / Welsh longbows are, they avoid open fight - with success.

    1368: Famine in Western Europe. Growing unrest (again!) in France hampers the war against England.
    After the defeat of king Henrik's forces in Denmark against the mighty nobles, some of them flee to Bornholm, forming the Bornholm brotherhood, starting piracy in the Baltic.

    1370: The pope Clemens VII agrees after diplomatic pressure (and because the growing unrest in Italy endangers the Papal states) to return to Rome.

    1381: The Danish prince Harald goes on a journey with some fishermen, interested in their tales of lands in the west. They land in Newfoundland (later named Prince-Haralds-Land), meeting some Indians. Prince Harald claims the land in the name of the Danish king, returns to Europe together with some Indians, presenting them the astonished courts of Europe. In the following years, several other ships will go to the New World, return with plants and animals. After the first curiosity has ebbed, people in Europe mostly don't care about anymore, though. A few fishermen make settlement on Prince-Haralds-Land, Cape Cod and Manhattan, but that's all for the moment. The Indians still influence scholars - before, people thought that humans in far away countries might have no heads and a face on the belly, or wolf's heads, or a single giant foot, which obviously isn't the case. Some people start to wonder how the lands might look like.
    Portugal conquers the city of Ceuta. They start exploring the West African coast, looking for a route to Mali with its famous riches of gold.

    1383: Another famine in Western Europe.

    1384: Not to be outdone, Castille attacks Morocco, conquers Melilla and Tétouan.

    1385: England and France make peace again. The English lose what they conquered in the last war, back to the borders of 1340.

    1387: Prince Harald makes a second journey to America, coming as far as Manhattan this time. A scholar who accompanied him brings an interesting new weed to Europe - the tobacco.

    1392: Portugal discovers and takes claim of Madeira. (Well, here again it's very possible that the Genoese were there before...)

    1394: Yet another famine in Western Europe.

    1396: Black Death arrives in Denmark, France.

    1397/98: Scandinavia, Iberia (except Aragon) and England are struck by Black Death.

    1399: Black Death strikes Scotland.

    1400: Ireland is hit by the Black Death.

    As a fast result of the Black Death, two new addictions spread through Europe: Liquor, known by the alchemists for longer time already, is (mis-)used as a cure against the plague. So is tobacco, which is brought from the New World and sold for high prices.
    The Jews have to suffer under pogroms ITTL too. Many have to flee from their places, especially in Castille and Germany.

    Americans, check this out: [post=606030]The (longer) story about the discovery of your continent[/post]!


    Central Europe (HRE, Italy, Poland, Hungary) 1300-1400:

    1301: Poland feels threatened by the Germans and the Przemyslids. The king tries to fight them to break free, so a coalition of the Teutonic Order, Bohemia, Moravia and the HRE under king Otto IV of Brandenburg forms against him.
    Andras III, last Arpad king of Hungary, dies. This leads to a difficult situation in Hungary.

    1308: The war between Germans and Poles doesn't end in the latter's favor. The Teutonic Order acquires Pommerellen (OTL West Prussia, the Poles also call it Eastern Pomerania), Silesia becomes a German fief; the western third goes to Brandenburg, which already acquired the Lower Lausitz / Lusatia, the rest is divided between the two Przemyslid lands, Bohemia and Moravia.

    1309: King Otto of the HRE dies, Heinrich VII of Luxemburg (same as OTL) becomes new king. He manages to be crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by the pope in 1312, becoming the first emperor since Friedrich II.
    Popes move to Avignon.

    1310: Luzern and Zug join the Swiss.
    Polish king Boleslaw V toppled by discontent nobles, who elect Kazimierz III new king.

    1313: Kazimierz III makes an "everlasting alliance" with the (in many ways still independent) rulers of Mazovia.

    1314-16: Sedisvacancy - no pope elected.

    1315: Great famine in Europe.

    1320: Heinrich VII dies (later than IOTL), duke Ottokar (yes, he was named after Ottokar Przemysl) of Upper Bavaria and the Palatinate is elected new king.

    1321: Some of the electors in Germany are not happy, and elect Waldemar of Brandenburg anti-king.

    1326: Use of cannons in Europe first mentioned in a Florentine document.

    1328: Waldemar of Brandenburg defeated at Ansbach by Ottokar. Brandenburg loses its influence in Pomerania.

    1330: Pope Johannes (John) XXII bans king Ottokar.
    Florence acquires Lucca for 75000 florin (gold coins).

    1333-36: Ottokar goes to Italy, is crowned Emperor in Rome - not by the pope, but by the head of the mighty Colonna family! Still being banned, he declares Johannes to be deposed and appoints an anti-pope, a certain Innocent IV.

    1334: Zürich, Glarus and Bern join the Swiss.

    1335: Heinrich of Tyrol dies without male heirs; Tyrol will fall to the house of Luxemburg, via his daughter who married into this house.

    1336: Intrafamilial contract of the Przemyslids: King Otakar of Bohemia gets Moravia and all of Silesia, while Wenzel of Carinthia acquires Austria. He now governs all the German-speaking lands. Note that despite of their Czech name, the family of the Przemyslids is already more German than Czech, due to cultural influence and marriages with Germans.
    Uprising in Flanders against unpopular count Ludwig II under brewer Jakob van Artevelde.

    1339: Venice starts expanding on the terra firma.

    1340: Due to different developments, the Lower Bavarian line of the Wittelsbachs continues. Bavaria stays split.

    1342: Clemens VI elected pope. He's the last recognizable pope from OTL.

    1346: Great famine in Europe.

    1347: Black Death does not hit Europe. From now on, there's not much this Europe have in common with that of OTL. Overpopulated Europe suffers under population pressure. Some states less than others - England, Poland and Scandinavia still have a low population and can rather afford to grow; Germans go to the East, Hungarians to Romania, Spanish and Portuguese kick out the Moors and settle in their places - but France and Italy suffer much.

    [post=589206]Read a story here...[/post]

    General tendencies in the second half of the century:
    The popes centralize the Catholic church more and more, and also try to make more and more money. Selling of indulgences is wide-spread and often criticized.
    The kings of the HRE have more and more difficulties to do any politics in the HRE - they need too much money to be elected, to be crowned emperor (if at all), and everything else.
    While the artisans and merchants in the cities make more and more money, the knights and lesser nobles don't. As a result, many become "robber barons" and oppress their peasants.

    1353: First university in the HRE founded (in Innsbruck, Tyrol). Vienna, Prague and Heidelberg soon follow.

    1354: Swiss conquer the lands of the Rudolfine sideline of the Habsburgs, Aargau and Thurgau. The Habsburgs are angry, and the Roman emperor even is on their side, but when he dies, the Habsburgs have to fight alone.

    1357: Golden Bull in the HRE: It says that the Roman king is elected solely by the seven electors, the pope isn't necessary. The seven electors are the same ones as OTL.

    1362: Grote Mandränke (great man-drinking; a big flood) in the German Sea. More than 100,000 people are said to have died.

    1363: Anjou dynasty in Hungary dies out. The nobles elect Wladyslaw IV of Poland new king.

    1366: Venice defeats its old rival Genoa. However, in reality both powers have already somewhat suffered since the rise of the Seljuks and the fall of Constantinople.

    1368: Famine in Western Europe.

    1371: Beggars' hordes moving through Italy actually manage to overwhelm the government of Parma. A radical preacher and the government which couldn't pay the mercenaries anymore also can be blamed for the revolution. Since the other little states of Italy are in a similar situation, having to fight religious movements and beggars, and often being close to financial collapse, they can't interfere. In the city, all the property of the church, all opponents of the new government, and of many people considered to be "too rich" is confiscated and divided among the people.
    In Hungary, after the death of incompetent and often absent king Kazimierz / Kázmér / Casimir, the nobles elect Sigismund of Luxemburg.

    1375-78: Süddeutscher Städtebund (South German City League) formed. Various South German princes, led by those of Württemberg and Habsburg, fight them. With the help of the Swiss, the cities stay victorious, and other than IOTL, their alliance isn't interdicted by the Roman king. In this war, the Habsburgs lose most of their territories except Freiburg with the Black Forest.

    1376: Giovanni de Medici gets dictatorial power in Florence. Since the republic feels threatened by the beggars roaming in Italy, the Medici can keep their power.

    1379: Vaclav III, last of the Bohemian Przemyslids, dies. The duke of Austria and Carinthia Heinrich inherits Bohemia, Moravia and (parts of) Silesia, which makes him the mightiest prince of the HRE by far.

    1380: Florence, which already has taken over other city states like Pistoia and Arezzo, now conquers Ghibelline Pisa, acquiring a harbor (later replaced by Livorno).

    1383: Another famine in Western Europe.

    1386: The Czechs rebel against king Heinrich's rule. In fact, a lot of ressentiment caused by hunger, poverty and some religious quarrels is mixed in. The deposed king tries to reconquer his lands from Austria and Silesia, but since the other princes of the HRE (including the Roman king) aren't interested in helping him, Hungary has to deal with the Seljuks and Poland with the Teutonic Order, noone helps him. In Bohemia, the property of the church is confiscated, preaching in Czech and the translation of the bible legalized, and some other reforms implemented.

    1387: Florence defends successfully against various mercenary groups who roam through Italy after the First Aquitaine War ended. The family degli Albizzi tries to cooperate with the mercenaries to oust the Medici from power, but are banned.

    1389: The victorious Czechs form a quasi-republic, with a parliament that elects a king. The nobles, the church, the peasants and the cities send representatives to it, one quarter each. Heinrich has to accept the Czech independance, only gets the southernmost parts of Bohemia and Moravia (which are German-settled). The electorate of Bohemia officially goes to Austria.

    1391: A group of radical Begines (=religious movement) topples the bishop of Utrecht, Eastern Netherlands, working together with his peasants. Although they're relatively peaceful, and probably couldn't have lasted in a war, the stupid bishop manages to anger all his potential allies in the area (the Netherlands are divided between Holstein-Holland-Hennegau, Luxemburg-Limburg, Brabant, Geldern and the (quasi-)republics of Flanders and Friesland at this time). So the new republic continues.

    1392/93: Black Death strikes Hungary, being introduced by returning crusaders. The king also dies of it.

    1394/95: Black Death hits the HRE. Poland is also affected, but by imposing a quarantine it's mostly saved; so is Flanders. Persecuted Jews flee to Poland, Flanders, Seljuk Balcans.

    1394: Black Death arrives in Venice.
    Yet another famine in Western Europe.

    1395: Other Italian states are hit by the Black Death (although there are some exceptions, like Florence and Savoy). The divine republic of Parma is especially shocked - their preachers promised them that God would spare them, which doesn't happen.

    1396: The lands of the Teutonic Order are struck by Black Death.

    1399: Florence buys Corsica from Genoa. The current ruler, Cosimo de Medici, plans to build up a fleet and becoming a naval power in the Med.

    As a fast result of the Black Death, two new addictions spread through Europe: Liquor, known by the alchemists for longer time already, is (mis-)used as a cure against the plague. So is tobacco, which is brought from the New World and sold for high prices.
    The Jews have to suffer under pogroms ITTL too. Many have to flee from their places, especially in Castille and Germany.

    [post=602435]Short comment about the situation here...[/post]


    East Asia 1300-1400:

    Since 1300 (2997, Yang Metal Rat): Growing Nipponese piracy greatly hurts extern trade of Song China.

    before 1300-30: Sultans of Delhi invade and annex Gujarat and parts of the Deccan (South India).

    1301 (2998, Yin Metal Ox): Famine in Song China kills several million people.

    1306 (3003, Yang Fire Horse): After the Song government fails to pay the officials in some provinces, the unrest grows. People more and more agree that the emperor lost the Mandate of Heaven. In this year, the rebellions start with Szechuan seceding from the empire, becoming an independent kingdom.

    1309 (3006, Yin Earth Chicken): All of South China in unrest. The emperor is killed in the chaos. Jin China also uses the opportunity to plunder and annex parts of the Yangtse area. Many wars and revolts shake up South China for some time.

    1310: The Vietnamese king Tran Anh Tong defeats Champa (South Vietnam) and makes it a vassal.

    1311: Hojo Sadatoki dies. He's the last recognizable member of the Hojo ITTL, who're the real power in Nippon behind the powerless shogun.

    1317: Rama Khamheng destroys Khmer Empire.

    ~1320: Sukhothai in North Thailand starts to break apart.

    1330 (3027, Yang Metal Horse): After the dust has settled in China, the so-called Four Kingdoms have formed: Szechuan, one kingdom of the coastal areas, one kingdom along the Yangtse and one kingdom in the inner parts, named after the city of Hong.

    1333: Kamakura peroid in Nippon doesn't end.

    1336: Mujahid Sultanate in the Deccan founded by a Turkish governor named Mohammed Mujahid Shah, breaking away from the Delhi Sultanate.

    1337 (3034, Yin Fire Ox): Outbreak of the Black Death in Hubei, China. Because there's no world-spanning Mongol Empire with no inner barriers, which helped trade enormously, and China itself is split, it takes longer to spread.

    1340 (3037, Yang Metal Dragon): Black Death spread all along the Yangtse.

    1343: In South India, the Vijayanagara Empire of the Hindu is founded, as a counterpart to the Muslim states, replacing the Hoysala Empire.
    (Vijayanagar means "city of the victor", so it could very well appear here too, despite of butterflies.)

    1344 (3041, Yang Wood Monkey): Black Death hits Hong.

    1347 (3044, Yin Fire Pig): Black Death hits the South Chinese coast kingdom.

    1349 (3046, Yin Earth Ox): Black Death reaches Szechuan.

    1350: Thai found empire of Ayutthaya / Ayutha.

    [post=568999]Read a short story here...[/post]

    1352 (3049, Yang Water Dragon): Black Death hits Dali in SW China.

    1353-59 (3050, Yin Water Snake / 3056, Yin Earth Pig): Black Death sweeps through North China.

    1355: Pagan empire struck by Black Death.

    1355/56 (3052, Yin Wood Sheep / 3053, Yang Fire Monkey): Hong emperor strikes against Yangtse kingdom, divides it in two, then makes peace.

    1357-60 (3054, Yin Fire Chicken / 3057, Yang Metal Rat): Hong emperor makes war against South Chinese coast kingdom, conquers Wengzhou, thereby dividing his strongest two enemies.

    1358 (3055, Yang Earth Dog): Jin empire demands from Hong emperor to pay tribute. He gives in, for the moment.
    Black Death reaches Annam.

    1360: Khmer hit by Black Death.

    1362: Black Death in Goryeo.

    1362-66 (3059, Yang Water Tiger / 3063, Yang Fire Horse): Hong emperor conquers upper Yangtse kingdom, Szechuan kingdom and Dali kingdom (the latter one wasn't Chinese yet).

    1363: Lao kingdom of Lan Xang or Lan Ch'ang established.

    1363/64: Black Death brought to Nippon by ships.

    1364: Death of Gajah Mada, who reigned as Majapahit's prime minister since 1331. Under his government, Majapahit extended over most of OTL Indonesia's territory.

    1365-71: Black Death sweeps through Sultanate of Delhi.

    1366: Srivijaya conquered by Majapahit.

    1367 (3064, Yin Fire Sheep): Border war of Hong and Pagan; the first ones are victorious, Pagan has to give conquered Chinese lands back and has to pay tribute.

    1369 (3066, Yin Earth Chicken): Lower Yangtse kingdom conquered by Hong.
    In Goryeo, the king gets rid of the Choe family that was the real power behind the throne for more than a century.

    1370: Nipponese Emperor breaks free from the H?j? Shogun, Muromachi time ends. Soon however, the Hatti family takes the post of Shogun and the power again.

    1371-75 (3068, Yin Metal Pig / 3072, Yin Wood Rabbit): Hong emperor makes war against South Chinese coast kingdom. At first, the war is lead by land, but since the army of Hong isn't making progress fast enough, Hong starts to build a fleet of cannon-armed junks which bombard Canton and other cities. South China is united again.

    1372-75: Various South Indian states are struck by the Black Death.

    1376 (3073, Yang Fire Dragon): Annam becomes a Hong tributary. Champa throws off Annam's influence.

    1379: When Khmer try to subjugate Lan Xang again, the Laots ask Hong China for help. Khmer empire has to back off.

    1380: Nepal united for the first time.

    1381 (3078, Yin Metal Chicken): Hong China stops paying tribute to the Jin. A new war starts. It proves now, however, that Jin China, although it seemed to be strong on the outside, it depends too much on mercenaries.

    1382: In Thailand, Sukhothai has to submit to Ayutthaya.

    1384 (3081, Yang Wood Rat): Hong emperor makes peace because unrest in Szechuan, southern provinces demand his undivided attention. Jin China cedes Kaifeng, Luoyang.

    1385 (3082, Yin Wood Ox): First campaign against Nipponese pirates around Taiwan.
    Hong China and Annam make Champa a tributary again.

    1387 (3084, Yin Fire Rabbit): War between Hong and Jin starts again.

    1390: First war of the many that will follow between Ayutthaya and Khmer.
    Goryeo enters the war on Hong China's side against Jin.

    1392 (3089, Yang Water Monkey): Hong conquers Beijing, Jin empire destroyed. The surviving Jin leaders are decapitated. The emperor decides that the Great Wall is to be repaired and extended.

    1394 (3091, Yang Wood Dog): Hong emperor destroys Nipponese pirates, sends his ships to Nippon, which has to give him proper respect. This is the first of many journeys his ships will make, to show the world that China is united and strong again.
    Ryukyu Islands annexed by China.

    ~1400: Melaka / Malacca founded.

    [post=608780]A short historical comment here[/post]


    Eastern Europe 1300-1400:

    1300: Teutonic Order moves its headquarter from Venice to Marienburg at the Vistula.

    1303-07: Serbian rebellion under Stepan Hrebeljanovi?. At the end, Hungary has to give them independence. The new Serbia under czar Stepan also includes Bosnia.

    1315: Teutonic Order decides to invade Russia.

    1319: Young Serbia clashes with the Seljuks in Macedonia, but is defeated.

    1320s: In Novgorod, the ushkuiniki (Russian river pirates) don't come into existence, since the stronger Vladimir is too deterring. Instead, the Novgorodians will start to explore Siberia, starting with the Ob river.

    1322: Russian princedom of Polozk conquered by Teutonic Order. Parts of the population flee, first to Smolensk, later also to Novgorod, after Smolensk is unwilling / unable to help them. The former princedom is germanized through the centuries, since the Germans still quell to the East. City names in NE Russia like Novopolozk and Nishny Polozk will tell about their wanderings. Polozk itself is later known under the name of Plotzeck.

    1323: Serbia invades the crusader states of Epirus and Thessalia, but loses them a few years later again.

    1328: Refugees from conquered Constantinople arrive in Russia, settle mostly in Kiev. The city suffers under the loss of trade with Byzantium (it wasn't much left after the resurrection of the Byzantine Empire), but gains importance as a cultural center, thanks to the influx of Byzantine scholars. Later, when a Kievan prince marries a Byzantine noblewoman, and founds schools and libraries to plead her, this will become even more apparent.

    1334: Vladimir-Suzdal declares that the metropolitan of Vladimir is the highest authority for Orthodox Christianity. Not everyone agrees with them, though.

    1348: Russian princedom of Turov-Pinsk conquered. Similar events: Part of the people flee, end up in Vladimir-Suzdal's sphere of influence, settle in the areas formerly inhabited by Volga Bulgars and Volga Hungarians. Turov becomes the German city of Thurau.

    (I've left out various little wars among the princedoms, dynastic marriages, im- and deposing (including murder, sometimes) of princes, and border wars of Russian states with the Teutonic Order, Sweden, Kumans and Volga Bulgars again. Sorry for Western Eurocentrism.)

    [post=595654]Read a story here...[/post]

    until 1350s: Hungary extends its influence over the western Kumans (west of the Dniepr).

    Since ~1350: Vladimir-Suzdal and later Chernigov start to expand into the woodlands between Volga and Ural (the former) and the area between the triangle Ryazan-Volgograd-Samara (the latter). The Muslim or pagan people living there are converted by force and assimilated, or killed and displaced.

    1360: Teutonic Order buys Estonia from Denmark (the king needs money for his war against the vassals).

    1375: In an alliance with Hungary, the Teutonic Order conquers the princedom of Halicz-Volhyn, which is divided between them. The Teutonic part is object of German immigration and germanization too, and later forms the province of Wolhynien. Some Volhynians flee to the princedom of Kiev, which gains in importance by their influx.

    1380s: When steppe people leader Arik-Buqa drives the Kara-Kitai and other Siberian people west, they also harass the Volga area. Eastern Russian princes make Vsevolod V Yuryevich of Vladimir-Suzdal their leader, to fight them.

    1381: The western and south-western states from Smolensk to Chernigov elect the most popular of them, prince Vladimir V Rostislavich of Kiev, their leader, seeking protection against the Teutonic Order, the Kumans and the Hungarians.

    1383: The patriarch of Kiev crowns Vladimir V Czar of all Rus. The difference between the South / West and Vladimir-Suzdal that already was apparent becomes even more outspoken. Main reason: While the West had to deal mainly with the Teutonic Order (and Novgorod in addition with Sweden), and the South with the Kumans, who had to retreat from the arriving Kara-Kitai (who fled again before Arik-Buqa, it's complicated...), Vladimir and its allies looked more to the East, where the Volga Bulgarians and Hungarians are.

    1388: Russian schism begins, when the metropolitan of Vladimir and the patriarch of Kiev excommunicate each other, driven by the Czar / Grand Prince of Vladimir respectively.

    1394-96: Black Death sweeps through Southern Russian states.

    1397: Western Russian states struck by Black Death.

    1397-1401: Novgorod hit by Black Death.

    1399-1402: Black Death reaches Vladimir-Suzdal and other eastern Russian states.

    [post=613067]Read a historical comment here[/post]


    Rest of the world (Americas, Africa, Australia) 1300-1400:

    14th century: Islam introduced in Darfur by the Tunjur.
    Bantu-speaking Ovambo and Herero migrate from the north to OTL Namibia.
    Mogadishu comes to prominence as a trade city.

    1300+: Anasazi invade the Chaco-Canyon area, defeat Hohokam.

    1303/23: Alexandrian earthquakes which destroy the Pharos of Alexandria.

    1312-37: Kango / Kankan Musa in Mali, at its height of power.

    1315: A Muslim prince of Nubian royal blood ascends the throne of Makuria as king.

    1321: Beni Ammar establish independent dynasty in Libya.

    1324: Mali Empire gains direct control over the city of Timbuktu. Mansa Musa makes Hajj; when he passes through Cairo in July, he's accompanied by five hundred slaves, each reportedly carrying a six-pound staff of gold. He spends out so much gold that it takes 12 years for the economy to recover, due to the rapid inflation that it initiated.

    1325: Founding of Tenochtitlan.
    Musa returns from hajj; the Sankore Masjid in Timbuktu has been converted into a fully staffed Madrassa (Islamic school or in this case university) and with the largest collections of books in Africa since the Library of Alexandria, financed by a royal lady.

    1325-1350: Ibn Battuta makes his famous journeys; first to Mecca (hajj), then to Choresm; after that, a second hajj, following that, East Africa; after that, Mecca again, then Constantinople and the lands of the Rum-Seljuks, and after that, the Sultanate of Delhi, but never has the opportunity to visit China and SE Asia, other than OTL. He later goes to Muslim Spain and the empire of Mali, though, and still writes about his journeys.

    1331-51: Abu al-Hasan 'Ali reigns in Morocco. He conquers Tlemcen (Algeria) in 1337 and even manages to extend Morocco's rule to Tunisia in 1347-57. Later, his empire will fall apart again, though.

    1343: Tepaneks unite the valley of Mexico.

    1350: Last wave of immigrants to OTL New Zealand from the Society Islands.

    ~1350: Jolof begins dominating neighboring states such as Waalo. Start of the reign of N'Dyadya N'Dyaye.

    Between 1350-1400: Cahokia abandoned.

    1360: Civil War in Mali.

    1375: Nimi a Nzima, the ruler of Mpemba Kasi makes an alliance with Nsaku Lau, ruler of neighboring Mbata, in which each would guarantee the succession of the other's state in the line of the two rulers making the agreement. The son and heir of this arrangement, Lukeni lua Nimi (often called Nimi a Lukeni) becomes the founder of Kongo around 1400.

    1376: The Mexica elect their first tlatoani (=great speaker; means emperor), Acamapichtli. They are a tributary of Azcapotzalco.

    1390: Kingdom of Kaffa founded in W Ethiopia.

    End of 14th century: Ilé-Ifè (OTL SW Nigeria) declines, to be replaced by Oyo and Benin.

    1400: Internal struggles and external attacks have torn Kanem-Bornu apart.

    ~1400: Oranyan founds the Empire of Oyo (in OTL Nigeria).

    14th century: Lamu, Malindi in Kenya founded by Swahili.


    History of science in the 14th century:

    1319: Robert of Oldham discovers Law of exponential growth / compounded interest.

    1320: Kamal al-Din Abul Hasan Muhammad Al-Farisi, Persian mathematician and physicist, dies.

    ~1340: Double-entry bookkeeping invented in Europe

    1344: Death of Rabbi Levi ben Gershon, who wrote "Book of Numbers" in 1321 dealing with arithmetical operations, including extraction of roots, and "On Sines, Chords and Arcs", which examined trigonometry, in 1344.

    1348: Displaced Constantinopolitans help founding a Platonic Academy in Florence. Knowledge of Greek spreads through Italy.

    1367: James of Crawley shows that it's easier (and thus, according to Ockham's razor more probable) that Earth moves, instead of the heaven(s).

    1384: In Szechuan, a young official visiting one of the salt mines accidentally drops some new copper coins (Szechuan has been part of the Hong empire for just a few years) into a zinc tub full of salt solution. Being somewhat cheap, he orders a worker to retrieve them ALL. This takes some time for the worker, since the solution is too thick to see through and too thin that the coins don't sink that fast. After cleaning the coins, the official is surprised to see that some of the coins now look a bit different than others, for they were electroplated. The news spread, and during the next decades Szechuan becomes the center for the production of all kinds of galvanized metal things.

    General state of the art:

    Western Europe: Ockham's conciliarism is widespread among intellectuals who wish for a church reform. Realism has lost against Nominalism in philosophy. Kinematics distinguished from dynamics in physics. "The Law of Falling Bodies" documented in Oxford. First ideas about stochastics.
    Humanism ideal lives. Artists invented the Central perspective. No printing yet, however. Humanist education lives up - kids may wear nice clothes instead of cowls, there's less corporal punishment and unnecessary praying, and they may play games. The progresses in art and education and the humanism are restricted mostly to Northern Italy, the scientific progress to England. And unfortunately, some of the humanists also read hermetic (ie: esoteric) books. The more extremes tend to a neo-platonistic or even neo-pagan religion (secretly, of course).

    Islamic World: Tables of trigonometric functions which are correct to 8 decimal places of accuracy. Symbols in algebra introduced. Value of Pi calculated to 15 decimal places. One scholar calculates a model for the solar system, including elliptical orbits. In Damascus (famous for its glassworks) prisms are used to discover the spectral nature of light. The laws of falling discovered.

    India: Kerala School founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama. They make a lot of progresses in Mathematics, among many others:
    # Mathematical operations with zero.
    # Infinite series expansions of functions.
    # Power series.
    # Taylor series.
    # Maclaurin series.
    # Trigonometric series.
    # A rule to calculate approximate values of square roots.

    China: The breakdown of the united Song state hampered science a lot. After the rebuilding of schools and libraries starts in 1375, however, soon new discoveries are made. Before the breakdown, calculating square roots is discovered.

    Summary of the 14th century:

    East Asia: China breaks apart, but is reunited under the Hong dynasty. The leader of the steppe people Arik-Buqa plagues North China and Choresm, drives some Siberians to the west.

    Muslim World: Choresm falls apart after Shiite revolts, Persia becomes independent. The Rum-Seljuks conquer Syria, Balcans.

    Eastern Europe: The Teutonic Order conquers several Russian princedoms. Serbia becomes independent for a short time. Russian schism, antagonists Vladimir and Kiev.

    Western and Central Europe: English-French War(s). Rise of Switzerland. Several dynasties competing in the HRE. Scotland-Norway. Reconquista finished.

    Rest of the World: America discovered by Danes. Aztecs start to rise.

    Last edited: Dec 15, 2007