Bahia de Todos los Santos: Spanish Colonization of the Mid-Atlantic

Discussion in 'Alternate History Discussion: Before 1900' started by Malta, Feb 19, 2017.

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  1. Malta Kirked

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    The Republic of Carolina – On the Ground Snapshot– Bahia in 1820

    Provincia de la Bahia, the Province of Bahia, the bedrock of the Republic of Carolina from whence the long history of the fledgling colonies became an independent republic was by 1820 still very much an important, if not the most, part of the Republic of Carolina as the nation celebrated over a decade since the 2nd Convention of Roble.

    Bahia was still the most densely populated of the provinces and boated the highest population. It was also still very much the epicenter of Carolino trade as trading ships from Nouvelle Rochelle, Great Britain, the United Provinces, and their many Latin American sister-republics now were openly allowed to trade on the waters of Bahia de la Todos los Santos. Though, tell-tale hints of a great shift in the economic status of Bahia, if not the entire Republic, were already beginning to emerge. As mines and farms boomed in the Sierra Apalchen, capital was already moving along the riverways and newly blazed trails westward as boom towns began to emerge farther and farther away. Though, the fruits of these labors more often than not found themselves shipped back toward Bahia, a growing share of river trade was shifting toward the Rio Misisipi.

    Still, geography was very much on Bahia’s side, with investors from along the shores of the bay looking north toward the winding path of la Bahia’s major tributary-the Rio Santa Anna. In newly acquired territory won from the Virginians, Spanish speaking settlers moved up river into what was at times hotly contested between the English and Spanish speaking residents which at times called for armed intervention by the Regional authorities. The province of Ancàrngorm or Ancarngorria as known by Spanish speakers was primarily inhabited by the Scot-Irish settlers that had settled the region several decades prior and even before the Misisipi War Spanish settlers had shown up in the border regions. Currently, disputes are ongoing in the English-speaking community to either continue to resist encroachment by the Carolina government, move to Virginia, or to take the money of the investors from further south.

    Politically, Bahia is able to still throw its weight around with the large number of representatives to the Cortes General. In particular political leaders from Bahia have reached out to their fellow Atlantic facing provinces to help facilitate trade and friendly relations with other powers, as well as the funding of the navy. Time will tell how long Bahia is able to influence the Cortes General as already the capital of Carolina has moved further west onto the Misisipi, with the foundation of the Capitol Region, Colombia.
     
  2. Threadmarks: Race and Settlement Following Independence.

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    Race and Settlement Following Independence.

    The War of Independence for Carolina had not been the beginning of the upset for the racial-social order in Colonial Carolina. It had been just the latest event in a long chain of events that had been moving forward since the first colonization of Carolina. Indeed, scholars would look at the racial-social balance in Carolina as moving ‘progressively’ forward when in many cases this has not always been the case, a better analogy would be a zig-zagging path of greater equality for the people of Carolina.

    The first step in this was the nature of Spanish colonization was in ways two faced. The Spanish colonists looked as their enforcement of Spanish culture on the local Indio tribes as being paternal and protective. However, in many cases this paternal attitude was a screen to mask actions which included eradication of native culture, Latinization, and enforced servitude of the people. At the same time due to the settler situation in Carolina, a higher male to female ratio, many of the Spanish colonists took wives from among the Indios and as a result a burgeoning Mestizo population developed. This Mestizo population was treated on an equal level as the Criollo and Espanoles which allowed them to inherit land and become leaders of the developing colonial society.

    The second great steps for Carolina’s social-racial system began much latter, when Espanoles landowners began to import large numbers of slaves as a part of the 17th and 18th century cash crop booms. Many of the Negros, Zambos (African and Indian parentage), and Mulattos were affected again with horrible treatment and what was considered a ‘paternal’ treatment by Espanoles, Criollos, and Mestizos within Carolina society. The only exception to this was among the border Indio tribes where many were treated as equals. It could be said that as Carolino settlers moved inland the relationship with Indio tribes that had been ‘Latinized’ became friendlier, with the introduction of the Africans this processed seemed to have very gradually been started for them. Throughout Carolina you had a difference of opinions, ranging from believing the Negros could be equals to believing that this would never be true. Perhaps fortunately the belief of “Latinization” did not hold to blood (but culture) was held among the majority of Carolino scholars and leaders.

    For the considered “Black” populations of Carolina their struggle for common rights was long and fierce, with widespread individual attempts to make their own place in Carolino society on their own terms. Be it using the law to win their freedom or out right rebellion. The Communero revolts of the 18th Century showed to the Criollo and Mestizo populations of Carolina that the Negros, Zambos, and Mulattos were determined to bleed and die for their equal rights, and for the machismo culture of Carolina this sparked a great amount of respect especially among those in Carolina that held a vague or middle ground opinion toward their status in Carolina. This would begin a shift that would still take a century more to fully fill but it was beginning.

    What was occurring prior to the War of Independence was a wide-spread “Americano” viewpoint. The people of Carolina increasingly were looking to other Carolinos or “Americanos” to solve their problems and help in their lives. There was a back lash against the Espanoles population in Carolina as by the 19th century the majority of Espanoles within Carolina were wealthy land-owners who coming from Spain or other Spanish colonies disregarded Carolina’s unique and changing racial-social system. As it would be, this resulted in a massive revolt against the power of the Espanoles within Carolina culminating in their total removal from power. Though to say it was all against the Espanoles would be glossing over true history, as members of the other racial-social castes within Carolina did side with the Pro-Americano or Anti-Americano sides, respectively those fighting to break away from Spain and those who fought to stay with Spain. The reasons were many, either out of loyalty to Spain, their economic position was tied to the Espanoles, their rivals had sided with the Communeros or other personal reasons.

    The end result was the total breaking of power by the Espanoles and what could be considered their total ejection from Carolina’s society, though this again would be glossing. Those Espanoles who rejected the new regime left Carolina and mostly migrated to Cuba or Puerto Rico. However, there were two notable groups that stayed in Carolina. The first were the Espanoles upper class who had sided with the Communeros, being landowners or bureaucrats or merchants, they abandoned their self-identification with Spain and adopted Criollo status or even refused either status and declared themselves just “Carolinos”. The second group was made of not only middle to lower class Spaniards but also other Europeans as in their drive to restrain Carolina they had hired mercenaries from other countries and used soldiers on loan from Bavaria. This group defected to Carolina and formed the core of a new settler push through the Ohio Valley but also a sizeable portion of the Carolino Legions.

    With the Espanoles removed, the other racial-social castes not only moved in to fill the gap, as it was described by a Carolino poet at the time, “So did all men seek to hold the chains of state but did each one find their hands side by side”. All wanted their own control in the new order of the Republic of Carolina, especially the Negros and Mulattos would not back down to any threat that forced them to become second class citizens or worse. It should also be noted that at this time the racial diversity within Carolina in much of Carolina Orientales was more divided than that of Joseana. Centuries of alternating patterns of settlement had created a mixture of Criollo, Mestizo, Indio, Negro, and Mulatto communities. Joseana having been created from a very slash-and-burn style of plantation settlement was much more homogeneous with a large Negro base and smaller minorities of Indio, Mulattos, and Mestizo settlers. The population of Joseana could have at the time threatened to secede from Carolina and form their own state had the parties at the Convention of Roble not been accommodating.

    Though, leading up to the Constitution of Roble was not an easy task as fallout was still widespread throughout the country following the war and every community was trying to see where they fit in the social order. Tensions especially flared when splitting up large estates or pushing new settlements in the Misisipi river valley, instances of rioting and violence flared up and threatened to break the country. Perhaps though it was the secession of California and Alta America that ironically saw the different racial-social groups in Carolina to work together. The news itself was shocking, but that the Vaqueros republics leaned toward tyranny sent a chill through the leaders of the communities in Carolina and Joseana. An outside threat that forced all sides to recognize that they wanted to keep their freedoms and working together was preferable than working against one another. As dramatic as it sounds shortly afterward the constitution was approved with a “Guarantee of Rights” which included measures that all Carolinos despite their race or creed would be considered equals under the law. With these and other guarantees of regional governments and their powers the status of Negros and Mulattos in Carolina was by law considered equal. This was the first steps for a united Latin Americano viewpoint.

    Though, equality under law had been gained it would still take time for cultural inequality to dissipate between the groups. Most of which would be fought on the grounds of West of the Misisipi. Following the Misipi War the entire river valley region saw a new period of settlement coming from eastern portions of Carolina. From the Ohio river valley and from Joseana settlers moved, pushing out or absorbing Indios tribes that got in their way. Federal commissioners worked to incorporate the Indio settlements into the framework of the new Provincias that sprang up those that refused eventually met the same fate of many tribes that refused the first wave of Spanish colonists in Carolina.

    Settlers from the Ohio River Valley moved north along the Great Lakes meeting interference only from a few Indio tribes and leftover Virginian settlers. With the Misisipi War came a great influx of Virginians, mostly English or Scot-Irish in origin, as Carolina absorbed their settlements. Here was a good-sized minority of non-Latin Americano and their introduction into Carolino society was for the most part forced and bloody. The Carolino Legion was deployed to the Northeast to put down revolts by formerly Virginian settlers who refused the authority of Roble and later Columbia. The Legion also safeguarded Latino Americano settlers and “Los Ingles” who wanted to work with the Carolino government.

    Many of the Virginians who wished to work with Carolina were from the Virginian state of “Maryland” and were Catholic themselves, many Marylanders had sought the frontier to practice their faith openly when it became persecuted by the British crown. The racial-social push and pull in Carolina had always involved religion, for the most part the Spanish colonists saw faith to the Church as a sign of culture and equality and so a war against the Native and African gods had commenced on a low scale whenever ‘Latinization’ was involved. Faith in the Catholic Church was strong throughout Carolina but many leaders who had seen the Church’s influence in the other Spanish American wars of independence were wary. Hence a clause for freedom of religion had been included into the Constitution as among the Guarantees. Still, a very Anti-Protestant theme was strong as they were demonized as being everything from lazy to corrupt to greedy.

    Further south, many Carolinos from Joseana moved west and south into the Trinidad river region which abutted that of the Vaqueros Republic of Alta America. The tensions here were largely political and would affect greater Carolina further down the road.

    Where the two settler movements of Criollo, Mestizo, Indio, Negro, and Mulatto met was in a stretch of the Misisipi from the capitol region of Columbia (centered on Memphis) to a portion of the Misisipi north of the mouth to the Misuri (Missouri) river. Here racial-social clashes became the most violent but also the shortest lived. Here the populations of Carolina met and were thrown into one another. Here blood and tears were shed by all sides. Here the racial-social boundaries between all blurred and would eventually dissolved. Here the government of Carolina would follow a united ethnic policy much like their southern neighbor Mexico to blur and blend the different ethnic groups of Carolina and so the west would be claimed not by individual ethnic groups but by Carolinos.
     
  3. Malta Kirked

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    Also Virginia I think needs a new flag
    [​IMG]
     
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  4. JDF_01 Perra condescendiente

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    Looks like a son from a "fun night" between the haitian, icelandic and chilean flags. I love it!
     
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  5. Malta Kirked

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    The updates I have planned will focus on the economy, the Caribbean, development of the Army/Navy and Political Coalitions. And relations with other powers.

    Any topic anyone is interested in seeing specifically?
     
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  6. Sceonn Peace at a Bargain Price

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    Can't think of anything, sorry!
     
  7. Xenophonte Quod natura non dat, Salmantica non præstat.

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    Perhaps some about the Religious and/or ecclesiastic relation?
     
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  8. Unknown Member

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    Maybe an update on Nouvelle Roche; how many people live there, BTW?
     
  9. Malta Kirked

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    Perhaps similar to OTL but with an upswing of German migration while the Hudson Valley region remains French the Central and Southern New Jersey areas are very German.
     
  10. Malta Kirked

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    HAVing a crisis of mind here.

    I am thinking that the new Republic would NOT be called the Republic of Carolina, as it includes Joseana and Santos Domingo. While Carolina hardliners would argue Joseana was once part of the Viceroyalty of Carolina the Joseana so should be called that and of course there is Santo Domingo.

    SO they would possibly opt for a new approach as a symbol of union between the freed peoples.

    So would they then adopt "Columbia" before the Kingdom of New Granada? Or American?
     
  11. Xenophonte Quod natura non dat, Salmantica non præstat.

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    I like and would choose 'Columbia'.
     
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  12. HonestAbe1809 Abraham Lincoln 2020

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    I'm slightly dissapointed since I rather liked Joseana being a Black-majority nation in North America. Especially since the existence of an independent Joseana is canon to this version of the timeline.

    Any ideas for the Pacific Northwest? Because I've got an idea of a melting pot nation consisting of Russians from Alaska, vaqueros from California, people from Carolina and Alta America, and Brits from Virginia
     
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  13. Malta Kirked

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    I can understand the feeling, I am intrigued by the idea personally but at the sametime I want a Union of Hispanic States. What if I created a separate thread for that TL? Make a thread called "Norteamérica: A Land Divided" and "Norteamérica: A Land United"?

    Right now, the Californians are getting worried of the Russians up there. They are likely going to seek an Alliance with Britain to defend them. Maybe make a grab for the area. But as per OTL everyone is starting to open up the region.
     
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  14. Gabzcervo Timeline raises FAQs

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    I like and would choose "America"
     
  15. HonestAbe1809 Abraham Lincoln 2020

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    I can understand that. I just like the idea of several culturally distinctive nations filling the continent rather than a large expansive one. Having two timelines could solve the issue of having competing views over where the timeline should go.

    I'm looking forward to when the Californians discover the gold fields. How big is California?

    Another idea I've got for the Northwest would be a brand-new religion that's basically a Hispanic version of Mormonism. That'd be a fun wild card to throw into the region.
     
  16. Malta Kirked

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    Right now they are pretty much in the South of the OTL state with a few missions to the northern parts, they claim the entire western coast line from their capital of San Michael (San Diego) to the Nootka Sound.
     
  17. Malta Kirked

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  18. Threadmarks: Stabilization, Politics and Economics for Latin America

    Malta Kirked

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    Stabilization, Politics and Economics for Latin America

    Following the period of struggle for independence that the Latin American (and Anglo American) nations fought for the next stage of their development would be characterized by how they stabilized. The period of stabilization refers to each nation settling down into long periods of enduring, largely without political or economic conflicts or disasters. The various nations of the Americas fell on a spectrum of rapid versus slow stabilizations in part due to the circumstances of their colonial status before independence and the circumstances of their struggle to gain independence. For example, it could be said that Peru, Granada, Llanos, and Bolivia fell on the slow stabilization path with Peru being the worst example as it experienced for decades after independence several bouts of civil war between conservative and liberal parties that almost constantly toppled each other’s governments within the country which prevented any sort of economic progress. It would not be until the late 19th century that Peru began to climb out of its pit.

    On the other end of the spectrum the countries with the shortest or smoothest paths to stabilization would be Nouvelle Rochelle, Chile, Brazil, Carolina, Virginia, and the Central Republics in that order. These nations very quickly, within twenty years of independence, pull together a political unity and channel this into expanding and diversifying their economic potential. Though these countries achieved this through several different means, not taking the same paths for the most part and in some cases relying on each other to achieve it.

    Nouvelle Rochelle: The Beacon of Democracy – The United Communes of Nouvelle Rochelle achieved their stabilization even before many of the other American countries were waging their wars for independence. Having joined the United Provinces following the Eighties Year War the Rochellians had already taken the model of the Low Country’s democracy and affixed it to themselves but with their own American flair in mind. Already by the 18th century Nouvelle Rochelle had become a refuge for not just French Huguenots but also dissenters from across Europe and even in their neighboring colonies. Catholics and Quakers pushed out of Virginia and Carolina formed their own communities in Nouvelle Rochelle. The Rochellians therefore adopted policies towards ethnic and religious tolerance which were also adapted to functioning as a unified government. Their territory was divided into communes and each one sent a set number of delegates to vote in the Generality, their legislature. The Council of State acted as the executive branch of government and a Court of Law was established as their judiciary. Most of this was ironed out even when the Netherlands were overrun by the French, so the Rochellians were already acting on their own behalf by the time they made the split official. Nouvelle Rochelle and the competing Batavian Republic split the trade routes and colonies, drawing Anti-French and Pro-French loyalties during the early stages of the French and then Napoleonic Wars. With the defeat of France it meant the victory for Nouvelle Rochelle which became a major center of trade for not only North America but also much of the Atlantic. With the example of Nouvelle Rochelle their neighboring countries would incorporate many of the constitutional aspects into their own constitutions which helped many become a success.

    Carolina: From Periphery to Metropole – The Republic of Carolina followed closely in the example of Nouvelle Rochelle in that it adopted very quickly an inclusive constitution. For Carolina this was extremely important as the nation itself was not only much larger than Nouvelle Rochelle but also consisted of many more groups of people who had much to win or lose on their nation’s success. Following the end of their struggle for independence the loose alliance of provinces and rebel leaders that made up the rebelling Comuneros nearly completely split into three competing nation-states. The creole dominated Carolina and Bravos; and the black dominated Joseana. While Bravo split off, a blow to the new nation’s territorial integrity if perhaps a savior for its political stability, Joseana in the end decided to stay with the Republic. This is largely thanks to the efforts of politicians from both sides to see unity but also taking a few books from Nouvelle Rochelle form a constitution which balanced out government authority, granting powers to the administrative regions but also special powers to the executive branch of the government. This appeased both conservatives and liberals within the country which helped in turn damper down fears of ethnic and religious violence and tyranny.

    Leading up to the 19th century under Spanish rule the territories that consisted of the Republic of Carolina were periphery, they were the outer edges of the Spanish Empire and did not have the same amount of economic importance as their silver producing colonies of Mexico and Peru. It would be a good thing that the Silver Curse that would see Peru and Mexico become afflicted with economic woes passed Carolina over, as this allowed the Spanish colony to develop and diversify its economic attributes. Achieving their political stabilization thus Carolina was able to quickly connect to the global trade, having Nouvelle Rochelle again next door helped greatly, but also challenge British dominance and become the center of industry for the Americas.

    Virginia: The Lone Anglo – Despite the Puritanical nature of the early Virginians as time went on this tendency slowly became milder as time went on. With immigration from Europe outside of England proper it would eventually see the overarching reach of the churches within Virginia become separated from their direct power over government. Wishing to not follow the example of the British the Virginians set out to create a republic that would be a shining city on a hill for the world. Fortunately, the democratic traditions of the English would win out as Virginia transitioned from a colony to a fairly stable Republic as influenced by their Protestant cousins in Nouvelle Rochelle the Virginians would enshrine a constitution which gave autonomy to the states but provided power to a central government. The defeat during the Misisipi War was a set back for the nation, as the bitter pill of loss saw the long time ruling Whig Party split apart leading to restructuring of the political party landscape and also ferocious shoring up of their remaining territory. This would be the start of the so called “Indian Wars” as Virginian military and paramilitary campaigns thrust westward.

    The Central Republics: A Rock and a Hard Place – Rather than stabilizing so quickly out of political tradition the Central Republics of Central America did so out of necessity. Wedged between Mexico and Granada the conservative and liberal parties within the newly independent states of the region decided to follow the example of the Swiss and look to common defense over political disunity. Thus the Central Americanos were able to form a decentralized confederation. However, due to their geographic isolation this would see their economic stabilization take some time and would be one of many Latin American countries which would fall into the British sphere of investment and influence prior to the rise of Carolina.

    Mexico: The Oldest Son – The Mexican Federal States fell toward the middle of the short-long spectrum of stabilization. The wars of independence for Mexico left it devastated and at the same time free. Following failed rebellion after failed rebellion against Spain followed by a successful one Mexico was changed over the course of a century. Who knows how events may have turned if the elite landowners within Mexico had not been sapped by their failed rebellions and finally ousted by a revolution from the poor and middle class members of Mexican society? Of all of the new American nations it was Mexico bar Haiti which saw the complete removal of its former socio-economic society and the turn over of a new one. New Communes were formed from one end of Mexico to the other as the farmers, artisans, and workers split up the old holdings of the landed elite and turned them over to either private ownership of community co-ops. This left the nation of shakey grounds, and had it not been for the commitment of its neighbors to peace it is possible the nation itself could have become grounded in decades of civil war. In many ways for Mexico their stabilization resulted of a yearly flip of the coin. Perhaps the greatest factor was the cooperation of the Catholic Church, the revolutionaries in many ways were the common people and could not be called ‘Liberal’ as typically defined the group in other parts of Latin America as they did not want to pursue what could be called ‘secular’ policies such as completely separating from the Church but they did want free speech, a right to assemble, and to end the debtor prisons which plagued the lower classes. Mexico would re-write its constitution three times, but each time was completed through a democratic process and did not have the win-or-lose-all brinkmanship that characterized conflicts elsewhere.

    Still, the reality was devastation and it would take time for Mexico to expand its economic stability. It would take money from the British to stabilize itself but fortunately Carolina would step in later in the century to prevent the British from taking bloody steps to get a return on their investments.

    Brazil: Empire of the South – Brazil was one of the countries which achieved their short-term stability through rather conservative and imperial means. Unlike many of their neighbors there was for independence was not only short, but they were also able to rally around the personage of their monarch, Pedro I. Along with the size and economic variety of the country it allowed them to very quickly stabilize and become a prominent continental power in the 19th century. However, Brazil’s political stability was only on a government scale, at the lower scale the country constantly was mired in social and local revolts. The most common of these were the Indio and Slave revolts, as they resisted their enslavement by plantation owners. The second was outright secessionist revolts, in the north and south groups that chaffed under the taxes levied on them by the Brazilian government sought to breakaway from Brazil and plagued the government throughout the 19th century, the Uruguay and Riograndese Republics only being able to succeed.

    Those countries which stabilized the quickest would find themselves at the forefront of resisting the next phase of attempts by the Europeans to again control the former colonies.
     
  19. Sceonn Peace at a Bargain Price

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    Can we get a map? I don't really know what and where Bravos is.
     
  20. HonestAbe1809 Abraham Lincoln 2020

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    I'm pretty sure it's OTL Texas. It's derived from the name "Rio Bravo" which is the Hispanic name for the Rio Grande.
     
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