ATL : British Leyland - Rover Group

Prt I

(Credit: Wikipedia - but certain wording, information changed to fit ATL)


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This is an ATL timeline regarding a break up and re-organisation of British Leyland following The Ryder Report.

It will start in 1970 as in OTL, and change into an ATL in 1975 following the nationalisation of British Leyland and then continue on following the Ryder Report.

It will also concern the tie up between Morris and Nissan (Datsun) in 1980 and Rover Group and BMW in 1984 and launch of both MG and Vanden Plas as marks in their own rights, the revival of Jensen in 1994 and the continuation of the AEC Commercial Vehicle division.



1970


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B
Development of the MGB started at least as early as 1958 with the prototype known by its Abingdon codename; MG EX205. In structure the car was a progressive, modern design in 1962, utilizing a unitary structure, instead of the traditional body-on-frame construction used on both the MGA and MG T-types and the MGB's rival, the Triumph TR series.

However, components such as brakes and suspension were developments of the earlier 1955 MGA, with the B-Series engine having its origins in 1947. The lightweight design reduced manufacturing costs while adding to overall vehicle strength. Wind-up windows were standard, and a comfortable driver's compartment offered plenty of legroom. A parcel shelf was fitted behind the seats.

The MGB achieved a 0–60 mph (97 km/h) time of just over 11 seconds. The three-bearing 1,798 cc B-Series engine produced 95 hp (71 kW) at 5,400 rpm – upgraded in October 1964 to a five-bearing crankshaft. From 1975, US-market MGB engines were de-tuned to meet emission standards, ride height was increased by an inch (25 mm), and distinctive rubber bumpers were fitted to meet bumper standards.

The MGB was one of the first cars to feature controlled crumple zones designed to protect the driver and passenger in a 30 mph (48 km/h) impact with an immovable barrier (200 ton). Nevertheless, the British AA motoring association has described the car, like many other classic models, as much less safe than modern cars. The issue received public attention following a 2013 case in which a driver in a hired 1963 MGB was killed in a collision with a taxi.

All MGBs (except the V8 version) used the BMC B-Series engine. This engine was essentially an enlarged version of that used in the MGA with displacement being increased from 1,622 to 1,798 cc. The earlier cars used a three-main-bearing crankshaft, 18G-series. In February 1964 positive crank-case breathing was introduced and the engine prefix changed to 18GA, until October 1964, when a five-bearing crankshaft design was introduced, the engine prefix became 18GB. Horsepower was rated at 95 net bhp on both five-main-bearing and earlier three-bearing cars with peak power coming at 5,400 rpm with a 6,000 rpm red line. Torque output on the MGB had a peak of 110 lb⋅ft (150 N⋅m) and fuel consumption was around 25 mpg. US specification cars saw power fall in 1968 with the introduction of emission standards and the use of air or smog pumps. In 1971 UK spec cars still had 95 bhp (71 kW) at 5,500 rpm, with 105 lb⋅ft (142 N⋅m) torque at 2,500 rpm. Engine prefixes became 18V and the SU carburettor needles were changed for reasons of the latest emission regulations, under ECE15. By 1973 it was 94 bhp (70 kW); by 1974 it was 87, with 103 lb⋅ft (140 N⋅m) torque; by 1975 it was 85 with 100 lb⋅ft (140 N⋅m). Some California specification cars produced only around 70 hp (52 kW) by the late 1970s. The compression ratio was also reduced from 9:1 to 8:1 on US spec cars in 1972.

All MGBs from 1963 to 1974 used twin 1.5-inch (38 mm) SU carburettors. US spec cars from 1975 used a single Stromberg 1.75-inch (44 mm) carburettor mounted on a combination intake–exhaust manifold. This greatly reduced power as well as created longevity problems as the (adjacent) catalytic converter tended to crack the intake–exhaust manifold. All MGBs used an SU-built electric fuel pump.

All MGBs from 1962 to 1967 used a four-speed manual gearbox with a non-synchromesh, straight-cut first gear. Optional overdrive was available. This gearbox was based on that used in the MGA with some minor upgrades to cope with the additional output of the larger MGB engine. In 1968 the early gearbox was replaced by a full synchromesh unit based on the MGC gearbox. This unit was designed to handle the 150net bhp of the three-litre engine of the MGC and was thus over-engineered when mated with the standard MGB B-Series engine. The same transmission was used in the 3.5-litre V8 version of the MGB-GT-V8. An automatic three-speed transmission was also offered as a factory option, but was unpopular.


Roadster

The roadster was the first of the MGB range to be produced. The body was a pure two-seater; a small rear seat was a rare option at one point. By making better use of space the MGB was able to offer more passenger and luggage accommodation than the earlier MGA while being 3 in (76 mm) shorter overall. The suspension was also softer, giving a smoother ride, and the larger engine gave a slightly higher top speed. The four-speed gearbox was an uprated version of the one used in the MGA with an optional (electrically activated) overdrive transmission. Wheel diameter dropped from 15 to 14 inches (360 mm).

In late 1967, sufficient changes were introduced for the factory to define a Mark II model for the 1968 model year. Changes included synchromesh on all four gears with revised ratios, an optional Borg-Warner 35 automatic gearbox (except in the US), a new rear axle, and an alternator in place of the dynamo with a change to a negative earth system. To accommodate the new gearboxes there were significant changes to the sheet metal in the floor pan, and a new flat-topped transmission tunnel.

To meet US safety regulations for the 1968 model year, the MGB received a plastic and foam rubber covered "safety" dashboard, dubbed the "Abingdon pillow", and dual circuit brakes. Other markets continued with the steel dashboard. Rubery Owen RoStyle wheels were introduced to replace the previous pressed steel versions in 1969 and reclining seats were standardised.

1969 also saw three windscreen wipers instead of two to sweep the required percentage of the glass (US market only), high seat backs with head restraints and side marker lamps.

In North America, 1970 saw split rear bumpers with the number-plate in between,



GT

The fixed-roof MGB GT was introduced in October 1965. Production continued until 1980, although export to the US ceased in 1974. The MGB GT sported a ground-breaking greenhouse designed by Pininfarina and launched the sporty "hatchback" style. By combining the sloping rear window with the rear deck lid, the B GT offered the utility of a station wagon while retaining the style and shape of a coupe. This new configuration was a 2+2 design with a right-angled rear bench seat and far more luggage space than in the roadster. Relatively few components differed, although the MGB GT did receive different suspension springs and anti-roll bars and a different windscreen which was more easily and inexpensively serviceable. In 2019, Road & Track named the GT one of the "16 of Pininfarina's Most Beautiful Designs That Aren't Ferraris."

Although acceleration of the GT was slightly slower than that of the roadster, owing to its increased weight, top speed improved by 5 mph (8.0 km/h) to 105 mph (169 km/h) because of better aerodynamics.


GT V8
MG began offering the MGB GT V8 in 1973 powered by the aluminium block 3,528 cc Rover V8 engine, first fitted to the Rover P5B. This engine had been used in the unibody GM 1961–1963 A-body platform Buick Special/Skylark and Oldsmobile F-85 and 1961–1962 Pontiac Tempest and was then the lightest mass-production V8 in the world. The Buick version had a dry, undressed weight of 318 lb (144 kg) and the 1963 Skylark with optional four-barrel Rochester carburettor and 10:1 compression ratio produced 200 hp (150 kW) at 5,000 rpm. By the time Rover had made webbing modifications to strengthen the block, the engine was considerably heavier (over 170 kg). Some changes were made by MG-Rover and the engine found a long-lived niche in the British motor industry. These cars were similar to those already being produced in significant volume by tuner Ken Costello. MG even contracted Costello to build them a prototype MGB GT V8. However, the powerful 180 bhp (134 kW) engine used by Costello for his conversions was replaced for production by MG with a more modestly tuned version producing only 137 bhp (102 kW) at 5,000 rpm. Nonetheless, 193 lb⋅ft (262 N⋅m) of torque helped it hit 60 mph (97 km/h) in 7.7 seconds and go on to a 125 mph (201 km/h) top speed. Fuel consumption was just under 20 mpg.

By virtue of its aluminium cylinder block and heads, the Rover V8 engine weighed approximately 20 kilos less than MG's iron four-cylinder. Unlike the MGC, the V8 that provided the MGB GT V8's increased power and torque did not require significant chassis changes nor sacrifice handling.


Body styles


2 door roadster

Engines

MG B 1.8 - 1.8 L B Series I4 - 70 kW (95 hp) -

Transmission

Laycock Type LH OD


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1100/1300 Mk II


The ADO16 (Amalgamated Drawing Office project number 16) was designed by Alec Issigonis. Following his success with the Mini, Issigonis set out to design a larger and more sophisticated car which incorporated more advanced features and innovations. Pininfarina, the Italian styling studio that had worked with BMC before on the Austin A40 Farina, was commissioned to style the car. ADO16 had comparable interior space to the larger Ford Cortina.

In common with the Mini, the ADO16 was designed around the BMC A-Series engine, mounted transversely and driving the front wheels. As well as single piston swinging calliper disc brakes at the front, which were not common on mass-produced cars in the early 1960s, the ADO16 featured a Hydrolastic interconnected fluid suspension system designed by Alex Moulton. The mechanically interconnected Citroen 2CV suspension was assessed in the mid-1950s by Alec Issigonis and Alex Moulton (according to an interview by Moulton with CAR magazine in the late 1990s), and was an inspiration in the design of the Hydrolastic suspension system for the Mini and Austin 1100, to try to keep the benefits of the 2CV system (ride comfort, body levelling, keeping the tyres in contact with the road), but with added roll stiffness that the 2CV lacked.

At the end of May 1967, BMC announced the fitting of a larger 1275 cc engine to the MG, Riley Kestrel, Vanden Plas and Wolseley variants.The new car combined the 1275 cc engine block already familiar to drivers of newer Mini Cooper S and Austin-Healey Sprite models with the 1100 transmission, its gear ratios remaining unchanged for the larger engine, but the final-drive being significantly more highly geared.

The Mark II versions of the Morris model were announced, with the larger engine making it into these two makes' UK market ranges in October 1967 Morris 1300. An 1100 version of the Mark II continued alongside the larger-engined models.

Unusually for cars at this end of the market, domestic market waiting lists of several months accumulated for the 1300-engined cars during the closing months of 1967 and well into 1968. The manufacturers explained that following the devaluation of the British Pound in the Fall / Autumn of 1967 they were working flat out to satisfy export market demand, but impatient British would-be customers could be reassured that export sales of the 1300s were "going very well". MG, Wolseley, Riley and Vanden Plas variants with the 1300 engines were already available on the home market in very limited quantities, and Austin and Morris versions would begin to be "available here in small quantities in March 1968".

The addition of a larger engined model to the ADO16 range came at a time when most cars of this size were now available with larger engines than the 1100 cc unit which until then had been the only engine available in the whole range. Its key rivals in the 1960s were the Vauxhall Viva (in HA form from 1963 and HB form from 1966) and the Ford Anglia (and from the end of 1967, the Anglia's successor, the Escort). From 1970, it had gained another fresh rival in the form of the HC Viva, and also from a new Rootes Group model, the Hillman Avenger.

On the outside, a slightly wider front grille, extending a little beneath the headlights, and with a fussier detailing, differentiated Morris Mark IIs from their Mark I predecessors, along with a slightly smoother tail light fitting which also found its way onto the FX4 London taxi of the time. Austin and Morris grilles were again differentiated, the Austin having wavy bars and the Morris straight ones. The 1100 had been introduced with synchromesh on the top three ratios: all synchromesh manual gearboxes were introduced with the 1275 cc models at the end of 1967 and found their way into 1098 cc cars a few months later.

Mark II versions of the Morris 1100/1300 were introduced in October 1968.

At the London Motor Show in October 1969 the manufacturers introduced the Morris 1300 GT, featuring the same 1275 cc twin carburetter engine as that installed in the MG 1300, but with a black full width grill, a black vinyl roof and a thick black metal strip along the side.This was BMC's answer to the Ford Escort GT and its Vauxhall counterpart.Ride height on the Morris 1300 GT was fractionally lowered through the reduction of the Hydrolastic fluid pressure from 225 to 205 psi.



Body styles

2 door saloon
4 door saloon
3 door estate

Engines

Morris 1100 - 1.1 L A Series I4 - 35 kW (46 hp) - 81 Nm (60 lb ft)
Morris 1300 - 1.3 L A Series I4 - 56 kW (75 hp) - 107 Nm (79 lb ft)


1800 Mk II


The Morris 1800 was developed at BMC as a larger follow-up to the successful Mini Minor and Morris 1100 under the ADO17 codename, ADO being an abbreviation for Amalgamated Drawing Office. Additional badge-engineered Austin and Wolseley 18/85 variants were launched in 1966 and 1967 respectively, catering for the BMC dealerships selling those marques.

The car was unconventional in its appearance in 1964, with its large glasshouse and spacious, minimalist interior including leather, wood, and chrome features plus an unusual instrument display with ribbon speedometer and green indicator light on the end of the indicator stalk. There was a chrome "umbrella handle" handbrake under the dashboard parcel shelf, and the two front seats met in the middle and could be used, on occasion, as a bench seat. Both Alec Issigonis and Pininfarina worked on its exterior. The technology "under the skin" was also unconventional and ahead of its time, including Hydrolastic suspension and an example of inertia-controlled brake proportioning, in the form of a valve which transferred braking force between front and rear axles as a function of sensed deceleration rather than as a function of fluid pressure. An interesting feature was a tail/brake/indicator night dipping system. A resistance circuit was connected in such a way so that when the sidelight circuit was energised the resistors dimmed the tail/brake/indicator lights so as not to blind or dazzle following drivers. The bodyshell was exceptionally stiff with a torsional rigidity of 18032 Nm/degree.

Progressive improvement was a feature of most cars in this period, but the number and nature of the changes affecting the early years of the Austin 1800 looked to some as though the car had been introduced with insufficient development. In December 1964, a month after its launch, reclining front seats and the option of an armrest in the middle of the back seat were added to the specification schedule. A month later, in January 1965, the final drive ratio reverted to the 3.88:1 value used in the prototype, from the 4.2:1 ratio applied at launch: this was described as a response to "oil-consumption problems". The same month also saw the indicator switch modified.

At the same time, higher gearing and reduced valve clearances reduced the published power output by 2 bhp (1.5 kW), but cured the "valve-crash" reported by some buyers when approaching top speed on one of Britain's recently constructed motorways. The manufacturer quietly replaced the "flexible, flat-section dipstick" which, it was said, had caused inattentive owners to overfill the sump after inserting the dipstick back-to-front so that the word "Oil" could not be seen on it.

Subsequent modifications included changing, repositioning and re-angling the handbrake in October 1965,removing the rear anti-roll bar and rearranging the rear suspension at the end of 1965, at the same time adjusting the steering to fix a problem of tyre scuffing, and fitting stronger engine side covers in January 1966, along with modified engine-mounting rubbers which were "resistant to debonding".February 1965 saw water shields fitted to the rear hubs,and the car's steering rattle cured by the judicious fitting of a spacer,while the propensity of early cars to jump out of first and second gears was solved by the fitting of a "synchroniser".

Further improvements followed the launch of the Morris 1800 early in 1966. Gear cables were revamped to deal with "difficult engagement" of first and third gears in cold weather,and the seat mountings were adapted to increase rake in May 1966.

In June 1967, without any fanfare or press releases, a modified version of the 1800 began to arrive at dealers, with repositioned heater controls, a strip of "walnut veneer" on the fascia, and separate bucket seats replacing the former split bench seat at the front.Other criticisms seem to have been quietly dealt with at the same time, including the fitting of more highly geared steering, which needed only 3.75 rather than 4.2 turns between locks,although the modification had applied to cars produced since September 1966 and, in the case of Australian cars, some time before that

This was also the point at which the car received a differently calibrated dipstick, giving rise to rumours that engine problems on some of the early models had resulted from nothing more complicated than the wrong calibration of the dipstick, causing the cars to run with the wrong level of engine oil. The manufacturer insisted that the "recalibration" of the dipstick was one of several (unspecified) modifications, and urged owners not to use the new dipsticks with older engines.A nickname of 'Landcrab' was given to the car by some car enthusiasts, derived from the car's unusual proportions, being much wider and lower than most other cars in its class. The car's successful use in endurance rallies came about because, while the car was never particularly fast, its strong body shell and sophisticated suspension allowed it to reliably maintain competitive average speeds over long distances on poor roads. The car's stance, strength and slow-but-sure nature over rough ground put the BMC rally crews in mind of a terrestrial crab. The nickname stuck and became widespread in the press and public.

In May 1968, a Mark II version was launched. This featured a cheaper and more conventional interior, revised front grilles and other trim, and for the Morris models the slim, horizontal rear lights were replaced by vertical "fin" lights which gave a family look along with the smaller ADO16 range. Other changes included a higher second gear and final drive ratio for the manual transmission, and conventional suspension bushes replaced the far superior roller bearings fitted to the Mark I. The compression ratio was increased and maximum power output boosted by 5 bhp to a claimed 86 bhp.The Mark II also had larger wheels.

In 1969, the sills and doors from the 1800 (with Mark II exterior handles) were used on the bodyshell of the otherwise new Austin Maxi; apart from that, both models have little interchangeability.

The 1800S twin carburettor 95 bhp engine came in from October 1968. By 1970, a 97 bhp (72 kW) "S" model with twin SU HS6 carburettors, a 120 mph speedometer and sporty-looking badging was available.


Body styles


4 door saloon

Engines


Morris 1800 - 1,798 cc B Series I4 - 70 kW (94 hp) -
Morris 2200 - 2227 cc E Series I4 -


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Series I

Introduced to the public in June 1970, the new "Range Rover" was launched as "A Car For All Reasons", boasting a top speed of around 100 mph (160 km/h), a towing capacity of 3.5 tons, spacious accommodation for five occupants, hydraulic disc brakes on all wheels, and a groundbreaking four-speed, dual-range, permanent four-wheel drive system.

To much critical acclaim, it appeared that Rover had succeeded in their goal of making a car equally capable both on and off-road – arguably better in both environments than any other four-wheel-drive vehicle of its era. With a top speed of 95 mph (153 km/h) and acceleration from a standstill to 60 mph (97 km/h) in less than 15 seconds, performance was stated as being better than many family saloon cars of its era, and off-road performance was good, owing to its long suspension travel and high ground clearance.


Chassis & suspension​

The Range Rover broke from the Land Rovers of its time by using coil springs instead of the then-common leaf springs. Because of its hefty weight, it also had disc brakes on all four wheels. Originally, it had no power steering, though this was added a few years after its introduction.

Most Range Rovers had a 100-inch (2,540 mm) wheel base. However, 1992 saw the introduction of a more luxurious model, branded the LSE in the United Kingdom and County LWB (long wheelbase) in the United States, providing expansive rear-passenger legroom absent from the 100-inch wheelbase models. These had a 108-inch (2,743 mm) wheelbase, air suspension and 4.2-litre engines.

The 100-inch Range Rover chassis became the basis for the Land Rover Discovery introduced in 1989.

Originally, the Range Rover was fitted with a detuned 135 hp (101 kW) version of the Buick derived Rover V8 engine. The 3,528 cc (3.5 L; 215.3 cu in) engine was increased to a displacement of 3,947 cc (3.9 L; 240.9 cu in) for the 1989 model year, and 4,197 cc (4.2 L; 256.1 cu in) in 1992.

The VM engines were highly advanced and refined diesel engines for their time but were received poorly by the UK press due to their inconsistent torque delivery compared to the V8 models. To counter these criticisms Land Rover used a Turbo D Range Rover to set several speed and endurance records for diesel vehicles during 1987, including a continuous run over 24 hours at over 100 mph (160 km/h).
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Transmission

The Range Rover used permanent four wheel drive, rather than the switchable rear-wheel/four-wheel drive on Land Rover Series vehicles, and had a lever for switching ratios on the transfer box for off-road use. Originally, the only gearbox available was a four-speed manual unit, until

Another major transmission upgrade in the Range Rover's lifetime was the switch from the LT95 combined four-speed manual gearbox and transfer box to the LT77 five-speed gearbox

The LT 230 was later used on both the Defender and Discovery models, but was replaced on the Range Rover by a Borg Warner chain-driven transfer box incorporating an automatic viscous coupling limited slip differential – earlier transmissions had a manual differential lock (operated by a vacuum servo on the LT95 and mechanically on the LT 230).


Body styles

3 door SUV
5 door SUV

Engines

Petrol

Range Rover 3.5 - 3.5 L Rover V8 -
Range Rover 3.9 - 3.9 L Rover V8 -
Range Rover 4.2 - 4.2 L Rover V8 -


Diesel

Range Rover 2.4d - 2.4 L VM Motori Td I4 -
Range Rover 2.5d - 2.5 L VM Motori Td I4 -
Range Rover 2.5d - 2.5 L 200Tdi I4 -
Range Rover 2.5d - 2.5 L 300Tdi I4 -


Transmission

4 speed manual
5 speed manual
3 speed automatic
4 speed automatic

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P6

The P6 was announced on 9 October 1963, just before the Earls Court Motor Show. The vehicle was marketed first as the Rover 2000 and was a complete "clean sheet" design intended to appeal to a larger number of buyers than earlier models such as the P4 it replaced. Rover had identified a developing market between the standard '1.5-litre' saloon car class (such as the Ford Consul and the Singer Gazelle) and the accepted 'three-litre' large saloon cars (typified by the Wolseley 6/99 and the Vauxhall Cresta). Younger and increasingly affluent professional workers and executives were seeking out cars that were superior to the normal 1.5-litre models in style, design and luxury but which offered more modern driving dynamics than the big three-litre class and lower purchase and running costs than sports saloons such as the Jaguar Mark 2. Automotive technology had improved significantly in the mid-to-late 1950s, typified by the introduction of cars such as the Citroën DS and Lancia Flavia in Europe and the Chevrolet Corvair in America. The replacement for the traditionally-designed P4 would therefore be a smaller car with a two-litre engine (although a gas turbine was envisioned as power unit in the future) utilising the latest design, engineering and styling, thus making the Rover one of the earliest examples of what would now be classified as an executive car. The P6 would be lower-priced than the P4 and sales volumes were anticipated to be significantly higher. The more upmarket and conservative P5 was sold alongside the P6 until 1973.

The 2000 was advanced for the time with a de Dion tube suspension at the rear, four-wheel disc brakes (inboard on the rear), and a fully synchromesh transmission. The unibody design featured non-stressed panels bolted to a unit frame, inspired by the Citroën DS. The de Dion set-up was unique in that the "tube" was in two parts that could telescope, thereby avoiding the need for sliding splines in the drive shafts, with consequent stiction under drive or braking torque, while still keeping the wheels vertical and parallel in relation to the body.

The Rover 2000 won industry awards for safety when it was introduced and included a carefully designed "safety" interior. One innovative feature was the prism of plastic on the top of the front side lights. This allowed the driver to see the front corner of the car in low light conditions, and also confirmed that they were operative. The relatively sharp plastic projections did not meet homologation standards in some export markets, including Germany, however and so a lens with a smooth top was substituted where the law demanded.

One unique feature of the Rover 2000 was the design of the front suspension system, in which a bell crank (an L-shaped rotating bracket trailing the upper hub carrier joint) conveyed the vertical motion of the wheel to a fore-and-aft-horizontally mounted spring fastened to the rear wall of the engine compartment. A single hydraulically damped arm was mounted on the bulkhead for the steering. The front suspension was designed to allow as much width for the engine compartment as possible so that Rover's gas turbine engine could be fitted. The styling outline was first seen in the 1961 prototype T4, a front-engined front-wheel-drive gas turbine saloon, one of a line of gas turbine prototypes built by Rover in the 1950s and 1960s. T4 survives today and can be seen at the British Motor Museum.

In the event, the gas turbine engine was never used for the production vehicle, but the engine compartment width (with slightly amended shape) did facilitate the accommodation of the Buick-derived Rover V8 engine made available in the P6 from April 1968.

Sculptor Flaminio Bertoni's Citroën DS body inspired David Bache. With a nod to the new Kamm tail, the finished Rover appearance incorporated a necessarily enlarged boot filled otherwise by Rover's de Dion rear suspension. It lacked the Citroën shark nose, which it was planned to introduce later as a drooping bonnet with headlamps in pods and projecting sidelights.

Luggage compartment space was limited due to the complex rear suspension and, in Series II vehicles, the boot mounted battery. The spare wheel competed for space also, and was stored either flat on the boot floor or vertically to the side. A later optional 'touring package' allowed the spare to be carried on the boot lid; with a vinyl weatherproof cover. When not in place, the mounting bracket was concealed by a circular Rover badge. Series II models briefly offered Dunlop Denovo Run-flat tyres, eliminating the need for a spare, though this was not commonly selected and is very unusual on surviving examples.

The car's primary competitor on the domestic UK market was the Triumph 2000, also released in October 1963, just one week after the P6. In continental Europe, the Rover 2000 competed in the same sector as the Citroën DS which, like the initial Rover offering, was offered only with a four-cylinder engine – a situation which was resolved in the Rover when the V8 was engineered to fit into the engine bay. The Rover 2000 interior was not as spacious as those of its Triumph and Citroën rivals, especially in the back, where its sculpted two-person rear seat implied that customers wishing to accommodate three in the back of a Rover should opt for the larger and older Rover P5.

The first P6 used a 2.0 L (1,978 cc or 120.7 cu in) engine designed specifically for the P6. Although it was announced towards the end of 1963, the car had been in "pilot production" since the beginning of the year, therefore deliveries were able to begin immediately. Original output was in the order of 104 bhp (78 kW). At the time the engine was unusual in having an overhead camshaft layout. The cylinder head had a perfectly flat surface, and the combustion chambers were cast into the piston crowns (sometimes known as a Heron head). With the rapid construction of motorways around the world, many of which (including those in the United Kingdom in this period) had no upper speed limits, the P6's engine was developed to be efficient, smooth and reliable when driven at high speeds for long periods. It had 'square' dimensions where the cylinder bore and stroke were the same (85.7 mm or 3.4 in) to minimise piston speeds and bearing loads, which was very unusual amongst British saloon cars: these tended to have under-square (long stroke) engines, a lingering legacy of the pre-1947 horsepower tax system and the driving conditions encountered on British roads in the pre-motorway era.

Cars that were built until 1966 are referred to as early cars. The Rover 2000 had many detailed differences that changed over the first 3 years of production. Items such as exhaust systems, gear linkages and most visibly the front valance. It had vertical slats and was curved with no extra bumps which gave the car the nickname "sharks tooth". Also on these cars the boot-shuts and the door-shuts of the base unit were painted body colour. The cars varied very slightly in appearance because radio aerials, a heated rear window and a locking fuel cap were optional extras. Early instrument panels were not made of plastic. The speedometer only went up to 110 mph and the centre console and pedals were different on later cars.

There are a number of very early cars still in existence in some form. The earliest surviving production P6 is 102 FJJ which has a good number of original panels. It is being rebuilt around a 1965 base unit. Three of the FLK cars exist 143, 145 and 149, two of which have been lovingly restored. The gold car or the 100th 2000 off the production line also survives in restored condition.

Rover later developed a derivative of the engine by fitting twin SU carburettors and a redesigned top end and marketed the revised specification vehicles as the 2000 TC. The 2000 TC was launched in March 1966 for export markets in North America and continental Europe. Limited availability of the redesigned induction manifold needed for the twin-carburetter engine was given as one reason for restricting the 2000 TC to overseas sales.The manufacturers also stated pointedly that the UK's recently introduced blanket 70 mph (113 km/h) speed limit would make the extra speed of the new car superfluous on the domestic market.Fortunately for performance-oriented UK buyers, supplies of the redesigned inlet manifold must have improved and the company relented in time for the London Motor Show in October 1966 when the 2000 TC became available for the UK market. The 2000 TC prototypes had run in the Rally of Great Britain as part of their test programme. It featured a bigger starter motor and tachometer as standard and was identifiable by "TC" initials on the bodywork. The power output of the 2000 TC engine was around 124 bhp (92 kW). The standard specification engines continued in production in vehicles designated as 2000 SC models. These featured the original single SU.

Rover saw Buick's compact 3.5 L (3528 cc/215 in³) V8 from the Buick Special as a way to differentiate the P6 from its chief rival, the Triumph 2000. They purchased the rights to the innovative aluminium engine and once it was modified to allow its use by Rover, it became an instant hit. The Rover V8 engine, as it became known, outlived its original host, the P5B, by more than thirty years.

The 3500 was introduced in April 1968 (one year after the Rover company was purchased by Triumph's owner, Leyland) and continued to be offered until 1977. The manufacturer asserted that the light metal V8 engine weighed the same as the four-cylinder unit of the Rover 2000, and the more powerful car's maximum speed of 114 mph (183 km/h) as well as its 10.5-second acceleration time from 0–60 mph (97 km/h) were considered impressive, and usefully faster than most of the cars with which, on the UK market, the car competed on price and specifications. (The glaring exception was the Jaguar 340, which was substantially quicker than the Rover 3500 and was advertised at a 15 per cent lower manufacturer's recommended price, the Jaguar representing exceptional value as a "run-out" model, to be replaced later in 1968 by the Daimler-Jaguar Sovereign.)

In comparison, the Rover 3500 auto tested by Motor magazine in the issue published on 20 April 1968 achieved a maximum speed of 117 miles per hour (188 km/h) (mean), 0–60 mph in 9.5 seconds, with a standing quarter-mile in 17.6 seconds.

It was necessary to modify the under-bonnet space to squeeze the V8 engine into the P6 engine bay: the front suspension cross-member had to be relocated forward, while a more visible change was an extra air intake beneath the front bumper to accommodate the larger radiator.There was no longer space under the bonnet for the car's battery, which in the 3500 retreated to a position on the right side of the boot.Nevertheless, the overall length and width of the body were unchanged when compared with the smaller engine original P6.

Having invested heavily in the car's engine and running gear, the manufacturer left most other aspects of the car unchanged. However, the new Rover 3500 could be readily distinguished from the 2000 thanks to various prominent V8 badges on the outside and beneath the radio. The 3500 was also delivered with a black vinyl covering on the C-pillar,although this decoration later appeared also on four-cylinder cars.

A 3-speed Borg Warner 35 automatic was the only transmission until the 1971 addition of a four-speed manual 3500S model, fitted with a modified version of the gearbox used in the 2000/2200. The letter "S" did not denote "Sport", it was chosen because it stood for something specific on those cars: "Synchromesh". However it is important to note that the 3500S was noticeably quicker than the automatic version of this car with a 0-60 mph time of 9 seconds, compared with 10.1 for the default, i.e. automatic, car. Moreover, due to the fuel-guzzling nature of automatic gearboxes of this era, the manual car's official cycle was 24 mpg compared to the automatic's 22 mpg.

The Rover 3500 was also assembled by Leykor in South Africa. A high compression version was added in 1971, with a high compression version of the V8 producing 184 hp (137 kW). The P6 continued in South African assembly until being phased out during 1975; the SD1 arrived in 1977.

The Series II, or Mark II as it was actually named by Rover, was launched in 1970. All variants carried the battery in the boot and had new exterior fixtures such as a plastic front air intake (to replace the alloy version), new bonnet pressings (with V8 blips even for the 4-cylinder engine cars) and new rear lights. The interior of the 3500 and 2000TC versions was updated with new instrumentation with circular gauges and rotary switches. The old-style instrumentation with a linear speedometer and toggle switches continued on the 2000SC versions.

The final years of the Rover P6 coincided with production problems at British Leyland. This was highlighted in August 1975 when Drive, the magazine of the British Automobile Association awarded a trophy to a Rover 3500 as the worst new car in England. It reported that a Rover 3500 purchased in 1974 had covered 6,000 miles (9,600 kilometres) during its first six months, during which period it had consumed three engines, two gearboxes, two clutch housings and needed a complete new set of electrical cables. The car had spent 114 of its first 165 days in a workshop.The runner-up prize in this rogue's gallery was awarded to an Austin Allegro with forty faults reported over ten months, and a Triumph Stag came in third.The story was picked up and reported in other publications, not only domestically but also in Germany, at the time Europe's largest national car market and an important target export market for the company. Further evidence of poor quality control on the 3500 assembly line at the Solihull plant appeared in a report in Autocar magazine in October 1976, surveying the experiences of company car fleet managers with the model, although the report also suggested, apparently wishing to appear even-handed, that at least part of the problem might have arisen from excessively optimistic expectations of the model


Body styles

4 door saloon
5 door estate

Engines

Rover 2000 - 2.0 L I4 -
Rover 2200 - 2.2 L I4
Rover 3500 - 3.5 L I4 -

Transmission

4 speed manual
3 speed automatic
 

Attachments

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Prt II
1971


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Roadster

1971-1974 MG's returned to the earlier single-piece full-length style chrome bumper.


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1100/1300 Mk III


The Mark III models were introduced in September 1971. At the launch of the Morris 1100 in 1962 the manufacturer stated that they intended for the ADO16 models to remain in production for at least ten years, which despite BMC's vicissitudes through the 1960s turned out to be reasonably prescient. The range was gradually reduced, with the MG 1300 dropped in 1971 and the Wolseley 1300 in 1973. The final British ADO16, a Vanden Plas Princess 1300, left the factory on 19 June 1974. When British Leyland replaced the ADO16, it was replaced variously by the Austin Maxi (1969), the Morris Marina (1971), and the Austin Allegro (1973). The luxury Vanden Plas 1500 version of the Allegro debuted in 1975.

By this time, its original rival, the Ford Cortina, had long since grown larger, putting ADO16 into the small, rather than medium-sized class, which British Leyland was now competing in with the Austin Maxi, Morris Marina as well as the long-running Morris 1800/2200 saloons. The ADO16's final key rivals were the Ford Escort, Vauxhall Viva and Hillman Avenger. Foreign cars were also becoming increasingly popular on the UK market during the early 1970s, with perhaps the biggest imported rival to the ADO16 being the Datsun Sunny from Japan.

Mark III models are introduced. Models available: Morris 1100 two-door Deluxe, 1100 four-door Super Deluxe, 1300 two-door Super Deluxe, 1300 four-door Super Deluxe, 1300GT and 1300 Traveller estate.



Marina

The Marina was developed under the ADO28 codename. The impetus for its development came when Leyland Motors merged with British Motor Holdings (BMH) in 1968, thus forming British Leyland (BL). BMH was the corporate parent of the two biggest car manufacturers in the UK, Austin and Morris. The new BL management, made largely from ex-Leyland Motors staff, were shocked to learn that apart from the Austin Maxi (then entering the final stages of development) and a tentative design for a replacement for the Mini (the 9X) BMH had no new cars under development. The company's products aimed at the mass-market consisted of the Morris Minor, dating from 1948, and the 1100/1300 range of mid-sized Austin and Morris saloons that were a decade old. BL rapidly implemented a plan to develop a replacement for both the Minor and the smaller Farina models that could be produced as quickly as possible and would be on sale for no more than five years until a genuinely "all new" product could be launched in its place.

To try to introduce some clear distinctions between its multiple brands BL decided to release conservative, traditionally engineered cars under the Morris name, and sell more adventurous cars as Austins, or even as new marques – such as the Austin Allegro and Wolseley Princess, the former of which occupied the same small family car segment as the Marina would. Specifically this meant that Austins use the groundbreaking transverse-engine front-wheel-drive layout developed by Alec Issigonis. It was thus decided that the ADO28 would be badged as a Morris.

The Marina would use a conventional rear-wheel drive, live rear axle drive-train as found on other popular mass-market cars such as the Ford Escort and Vauxhall Viva. This strategy was also intended to improve sales in BL's export markets. Commonwealth markets such as South Africa, Australia and New Zealand were large buyers of BL products, but the innovative BMC cars were considered too fragile and complex for use in such countries, as well as being fitted exclusively with small, low-powered engines. As a result, the Marina was unadventurous but simple, making use of existing BMC components derived from the Morris Minor and MGB, as well as using mainly Triumph Dolomite transmission and running gear from the former Leyland side of the organisation.

The car was designed by Roy Haynes, the same man who designed the Ford Cortina Mark II (launched in 1966), with which it shares some stylistic similarities. Lacking the budget to develop two cars to compete directly with the Escort and the Cortina, the makers sized the ADO28 between the two benchmark Ford models. Haynes' original idea was to produce the car in coupé and saloon versions with the coupé pitched as a premium, sporting version, in a similar mould to the Ford Capri – a popular coupé based on Cortina running gear – to appeal to younger buyers, while the saloon was for the crucial company car market and families.

Haynes also attempted to put forward a system that many manufacturers now use: a common floor pan shared between models. The Marina was the first car design that used this idea. Although this idea carried great potential benefits for a company selling cars under numerous different brands across multiple market sectors it was looked on as too radical by the management of British Leyland and Triumph designer Harry Webster was drafted in to push the project forward. Roy Haynes soon left the company.

The British Leyland Board decided to build the Marina at the ex-Morris Motors plant at Cowley in Oxford, which was largely still as it was in the 1920s. The plant had insufficient capacity – British manufacturers had difficulties in meeting demand in the post-war years – which increased design and production costs significantly, since Leyland had to rebuild the plant.

The Marina was originally designed to use the E-series overhead cam BMC engines. These engines had a number of design problems. A modular engine design, the E series had standard bores, with capacity increased by using either more cylinders or larger strokes. However, small-capacity sixes fell out of favour as post-war Britain became increasingly affluent.

To increase capacity, BL preferred increasing stroke, which added little to the cost of production. This resulted in a tall engine. It was not possible to slant the engine, because of the location of the fuel pump. Furthermore, the engine had to be "siamesed", that is, the water jacket was shared between pairs of cylinders. These factors contributed to overheating and oil burning in the Austin Maxi, and so the board decided to adopt the more reliable A and B- series engines for indigenous production. (Australia and South Africa continued with the E series.) However, the body had already been designed, so the Marina was forever cursed with a "full nappy" rear-end styling, needed to even the lines between the necessarily bloated front and the rear.

The engine assembly line was bifurcated by a municipal road; Leyland had to build an overpass, further increasing cost. The Birmingham local authority then agreed to sell the road to Leyland after the overpass had been completed. This increased the cost even further.

Numerous redesigns also meant that the final design of the Marina was rushed, as the project's final deadline grew near. The car went from design stage to production in just 18 months. Consequently, the board decided to cut costs and abandon Macpherson struts in favour of an old design from the Morris Minor. They also abandoned a project to design a new 4-speed BMC gearbox. As a further cost-cutting measure the coupé version of the Marina would now use the same front doors as the saloon version. This produced significant cost savings in tooling and assembly, but left the coupé as an obvious styling derivative of the saloon rather than having a different, more sporting image as Roy Haynes had originally proposed. This made it impossible to pitch the coupé as a superior product, and so it was decided that the 2-door coupé version of the Marina would be the cheaper of the two body styles, with the 1.3-litre model directly replacing the entry-level 2-door version of the Morris Minor and competing with the 2-door saloon versions of the Ford Escort and the Hillman Avenger.

Meanwhile, the 1.8-litre coupé models had no direct predecessor in the BL range and the closest equivalents were the sporting Ford Capri and the new Vauxhall Firenza. This gave the coupé a rather conflicted image – the sporty bodystyle led many buyers and testers to have expectations of the Marina coupé that the final product was never intended to meet, being mechanically identical to the standard saloon version. The Marina saloons had more obvious market placements; the 1.3-litre saloon replaced the 4-door Minor while the 1.8-litre version superseded the Austin and Morris Farina saloons and the 1.8-litre Marina estate did the same for the outgoing estate versions of the Farina. The dashboard also suffered from being ergonomically illogical, with the radio and warning light controls facing away from the driver towards the passenger seat.

The indigenous engines were the venerable A-Series and B-Series units in 1.3- and 1.8-litre capacities, respectively, which drove rear wheels through a live axle. It featured torsion bar suspension at the front, leaf-spring suspension at the rear. An estate (station wagon) came in 1972, 18 months after the saloon and coupé, giving British Leyland a full-circle competitor for the Cortina and Capri. Five body styles were available all in all: saloon, estate, coupé, pickup, and van. For extra performance, TC versions were equipped with a twin carburettor engine similar to that in the MG MGB for extra performance. These could be fitted with a body kit from BL Special Tuning that added front and rear spoilers, alloy wheels, extra lighting and other details. A 1.5-litre diesel version, using an engine developed from the B-Series, was offered in a few European countries where the tax rates favoured diesels. With no more than 37 or 40 hp on offer depending on the source, performance was often lethargic; 3,870 diesels were built between 1977 and 1980. They were never sold in Britain, where diesel engines were almost unheard of in passenger cars.

The Marina was a conventional design, a fully unitary spot-welded body (no sub-frames were used except on the six-cylinder) with a longitudinally mounted engine driving through the transmission and naked propeller shaft to a solid live rear axle suspended on semi-elliptic leaf springs with telescopic dampers. To ease production and reduce costs, the body featured a strong central spine around the transmission tunnel, where most of the unit's strength was. The rear dampers were inclined inboard from the axle to their top mounts on this spine, rather than being mounted vertically on dedicated top mounts built into the body at the rear-wheel arches. This limited the effectiveness of the dampers somewhat (they were dissipating vertical motion when mounted at an angle), and when combined with the live rear axle, made the rear end prone to "bump steer" on rough roads. A similar setup was used on the early Ford Escort for the same reasons of cost-effective construction, but Ford revised the arrangement on later models. BL lacked the funds to retool the Marina's design significantly, and so all models were fitted in this less-than-ideal way.

The front suspension was closely derived from that on the Morris Minor, using longitudinal torsion bars for springing. The rest of the front suspension consisted of lower arms pivoting on trunnions with upper ball joints supporting the wheel and acting on hydraulic lever arm dampers. These provided superior ride comfort over rough roads when compared to early telescopic dampers, but at the expense of sloppy handling and body control at high speeds. Improvements in road surfaces, the development of the motorway network, the huge increase in the performance of even standard family cars and advances in the design of telescopic dampers since the Minor was launched in 1948 made this type of damper obsolete by 1971. Nonetheless it was adopted to keep development and tooling costs to a minimum.

British Leyland's Special Tuning department (which primarily handled development of BL's works' motor-sport cars and technical support to private entries using BL products) produced a variety of upgrades for the Marina, which were (technically) available on road cars through special order. Amongst the S/T products were a kit to adapt the front suspension to use telescopic dampers (eventually fitted to the Ital), and adaptor kits to convert the rear dampers to a more effective vertical orientation using separate turrets. The S/T suspension upgrades produced significant improvements in handling and ride over the standard Marina, but were not widely publicised on the general market.

The troublesome manual gearbox was a four-speed unit with synchromesh on all gears except reverse, and was derived from the Triumph Toledo unit, controlled by a floor-mounted lever. Automatic transmission was a conventional Borg Warner Type 35 3 Speed transmission and was offered at extra cost.



Body styles​

2 door coupe
4 door saloon
5 door estate
Van
Pick up

Engines

Petrol


Morris Marina 1.3 - 1275 cc A Series I4 - 45 kW (60 hp) - 94 Nm (69 lb ft)
Morris Marina 1.8 - 1798 cc B Series I4 - 70 kW (94 hp) -
Morris Marina 1.8 - 1798 cc B Series Twin Cam - I4 - 63 kW (85 hp)
Morris Marina 1.7 - 1695 cc O Series I4 -

Diesel

Morris Marina 1.5 - 1489 cc B Series I4 -
 
Last edited:
Prt III
1972

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B


From 1972 there were two different Pirelli Cinturato radial tyre sizes factory-fitted to new cars, depending on whether the car was a roadster,(155/80x14) or a GT,(165/80x14).The original tyres for the majority of MGBs were 165HR14 Pirelli Cinturato.


Roadster
Further changes in 1972 were to the interior with a new fascia.


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1800/2200 Mk III

Further, less dramatic modifications heralded a Mark III version in 1972. This had another change to the front grille (now a shared style for the Austin and interior improvements, including a conventional floor-mounted handbrake. At this point, six-cylinder versions were introduced – the Austin 2200, and Wolseley Six. While 1800 versions of the Austin were continued, the Wolseley 18/85 was dropped.


 
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Prt IV
1973


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P6


In order to try to meet exhaust emission requirements particularly in California various changes were made to carburetor and exhaust.The engine capacity was increased ten percent to increase torque and minimise the loss in reported power output and the 2200 SC and 2200 TC replaced the 2000 SC and TC. Announced in October 1973 and produced through to the early part of 1977, it used a 2.2 L (2,205 cc or 134.6 cu in) version of the 2000 engine with the bore increased from 85.7 mm (3.4 in) to 90.5 mm (3.6 in): the stroke was unchanged at 85.7 mm.Gear boxes on the manual transmission cars were strengthened to cope with the increased low speed torque. Nominal output fell to 98 bhp (73 kW; 99 PS) and 115 bhp (86 kW; 117 PS) for the SC (single carburettor) and TC (twin carburettor) versions respectively, on the road largely concealed by the improved torque.
 
Last edited:
Prt V
1974


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B


With the 1974.5 arrival of the rubber bumper cars the factory-fitted tyre size was simplified to 165/80x14 for all cars, irrespective of whether the car was a roadster or a GT, and also irrespective of the wheel type (wire or RoStyle). The factory built V8s were fitted with alloy wheels and full profile 175HR14 tyres.


Roadster
To meet impact regulations, 1974 US models had the chrome bumper over-riders replaced with oversized rubber ones, nicknamed "Sabrinas" after the British actress Sabrina. In the second half of 1974 the chrome bumpers were replaced altogether. A new, steel-reinforced black rubber bumper at the front incorporated the grille area as well, giving a major restyling to the B's nose, and a matching rear bumper completed the change.


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1100/1300 Mk III


Morris 1300 Traveller estate discontinued.

Production of the remaining ADO16 models in the United Kingdom is discontinued.
 
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Prt VI
1975


After British Leylands nationalisation the 1975 Ryder Report was released and it was decided to break up British Leyland into three groups to hopefully make them not only more manageable but make them profitable.


The following groups would be as follows



Daimler.jpg


Daimler Group


Daimler / Jaguar / Triumph / Vitesse / Riley

Scammell / Guy Motors





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Rover Group


Rover / Morris / MG / Land Rover/ Range Rover / Vanden Plas

AEC Truck & Bus



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Wolseley Group

Wolseley / Austin / Healey / Alvis

Leyland Truck & Bus / Albion Truck & Bus


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Marina


A facelift in 1975 gave the Marina new radiator grilles, dashboard, seats, suspension modifications and increased soundproofing.


Body styles

2 door coupe
4 door saloon
5 door estate
Van




Engines


Petrol

Morris Marina 1300 - 1.275 L A Series I4 - 45 kW (60 hp) - 94 Nm (65 lb ft)
Morris Marina 1800 - 1.798 L B Series I4 -
Morris Marina 1700 - 1.695 L O Series I4 -
Morris Marina 1800 - 1.798 L B Series I4 twin carb’ - 45 kW (60 hp) - 94 Nm (65 lb ft)



Diesel


Morris Marina 1500 - 1.489 L B Series I4 -

Transmission


3 speed Borg-Warner
4 speed manual




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Series III

The series III had the same body and engine options as the preceding IIa, including station wagons and the One-Ton versions. Little changed cosmetically from the IIA to the Series III. The series III is the most common series vehicle, with 440,000 of the type built from 1971 to 1985. The headlights were moved to the wings on late production IIA models from 1968/9 onward (ostensibly to comply with Australian, American and Dutch lighting regulations) and remained in this position for the series III. The traditional metal grille, featured on the series I, II and IIA, was replaced with a plastic one for the series-III model. The 2.25-litre engine had its compression raised from 7:1 to 8:1, increasing the power slightly (the high compression engine had been an optional fit on the IIa model for several years).



The series III saw many changes in the later part of its life as Land Rover updated the design to meet increased competition. This was the first model to feature synchromesh on all four gears, although some late H-suffix SIIA models (mainly the more expensive estates) had used the all-synchro box. In keeping with early 1970s trends in automotive interior design, both in safety and use of more advanced materials, the simple metal dashboard of earlier models was redesigned to accept a new moulded plastic dash. The instrument cluster, which was previously centrally located, was moved to the driver's side. Long-wheelbase series-III vehicles had the Salisbury rear axle (the differential housing and axle case are one piece) as standard, although some late SIIA 109-inch (2,800 mm) vehicles had them too.


Body styles


2 door off road

4 door off road

4 door pickup



Engines



Petrol


Series III 2.0 - 2.25 L -

Series III 2.6 - 2.6 L -



Diesel


Series III 2.0d - 2.25 L -

Series III 3.5d - 3.5 L -



Transmission


4 speed manual

2 speed manual selectable 4 wheel drive



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B

Servo assistance (power brakes) became standard in 1975.
The "Jubilee" model, made to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the company in 1975 had the alloy wheels from the V8, allegedly because the V8 was not selling and they had a large stock. With a pre-war British racing green colour, tinted glass, gold body stipes and other gold trim 751 Jubilees were made


Roadster

For the 1975 model year only, the front anti-roll bar was deleted as a cost-saving measure (though still available as an option). The damage done by the British Leyland response to US legislation was partially alleviated by revisions to the suspension geometry.


GT

A special edition of the GT was produced in 1975 for the 50th Anniversary of the MG Car Company. It was in pre-war British Racing Green, had tinted glass, gold body stripes, V8 alloy wheels painted in gold and black and other gold trim. 751 Jubilees were made, one was destroyed in an advertising stunt that went wrong.
 
Last edited:
Prt VII
1976


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B GT V8



Both chrome and rubber-bumpered GT versions of the V8-powered MGB ended production in 1976





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Following on from the Ryder Report both Daimler & Rover Groups sign an agreement that allows both groups to use the platform of the Rover P7 and Daimler Sovereign to release their own models based on those platforms. but with entirely different bodies.


P7



Development

In 1971, Rover, and at that time a part of the British Leyland (BL) group, began developing a new car to replace both the Rover P6 and the Triumph 2000 / 2500 and create a new (post 1975 Daimler-Jaguar Sovereign sub-model). The designers of both Triumph and Rover submitted plans for the new car, of which the latter was chosen. David Bache was to head the design team, inspired by exotic machinery such as the Ferrari Daytona and 265 GTC/4 and the late 1960s design study by Pinninfarina for the BMC 1800 which also guided the design of the Citroen CX Spen King was responsible for the engineering. The two had previously collaborated on the Range Rover. The project was first code-named RTD1 (for Rover Triumph Daimler Number 1) but then soon changed to P7 & Sterling as Rover and Daimler-Jaguar were put in the new "Specialist Division" of British Leyland.


Design


The new car was designed with simplicity of manufacture in mind in contrast to the P6, the design of which was rather complicated in areas such as the De Dion type rear suspension. The P7 used a well-known live rear axle instead. This different approach was chosen because surveys showed that although the automotive press was impressed by sophisticated and revolutionary designs the general buying public was not unless the results were good. However, with the live rear axle came another retrograde step – the car was fitted with drum brakes at the rear.

Rover's plans to use its then fairly new 2.2 L four cylinder engine were soon abandoned as BL management ruled that substantially redesigned versions of Triumph's six-cylinder engine were to power the car instead. The Rover V8 engine was fitted in the engine bay. The three-speed automatic gearbox was the Borg Warner 65 model.

The dashboard of the P7 features an air vent, unusually, directly facing the passenger. The display binnacle sits on top of the dashboard in front of the driver to aid production in left-hand drive markets, since it avoided the expense of producing two different dashboard moldings for LHD and RHD versions. The air vent doubles as a passage for the steering-wheel column, and the "podular" display binnacle can be easily fitted on top of the dashboard on either the left or right-hand side of the car. This concept was not entirely new; it had also been used on the Range Rover and was used again on the Mk.1 Austin Metro both of which were also designed by David Bache. The interior of the P7 Series 1 was notable for its lack of wood embellishment in comparison to previous Rover saloons (and was clearly opposite with it’s Daimler-Jaguar Sterling sibling which did), with an extensive use instead of modern soft-feel plastics, and a new "skeletal" version of the Rover badge would appear on the bonnet - Bache was keen that the P7 should make use of the latest industrial design trends and be a clean break from the past.

An estate body had been envisaged, but it did not get beyond the prototype stage. Two similarly specified estates have survived, and are exhibited at the Heritage Motor Trust and the Haynes International Motor Museum respectively. One was used by BL chairman Sir Michael Edwards as personal transport in the late 1970s. The two cars as befit prototypes differ in the detail of and around the tailgate. One car has a recessed tailgate, while the other has a clam shell arrangement, where the whole tailgate is visible when closed.

The P7 was intended to be produced in a state-of-the-art extension to Rover's historic Soilihull factory alongside the Land Rover and Range Rover models but after the Ryder report production was moved to Rover's home base of Cowley in Oxfordshire. It was largely funded by the British government, who had bailed BL out from bankruptcy in 1975. Unfortunately, this did nothing to improve the patchy build quality that then plagued all of British Leyland. That, along with quick-wearing interior materials and poor detailing ensured that initial enthusiasm soon turned to disappointment.

This car was launched on its home market in June 1976 in hatchback / fastback form only, as the V8-engined Rover 3500. Although there was no four-cylinder version of the P7 at this point, British Leyland produced 1.8, 2.0 and 2.2 versions of the smaller Wolseley Princess in order to compete with the entry-level versions of the Ford Granada, as well as more expensive versions of the Ford Cortina.

The car was warmly received by the press and even received the European Car Of The Year award for 1977. Its launch on the European mainland coincided with its appearance at the Geneva Motor Show in March 1977, some three months after the Car of the Year announcement. Dealers had no left-hand drive cars for sale, however, since production had been blocked by a tool makers' strike affecting several British Leyland plants and a "body shell dispute" at the company's Cowley plant. Closer to home, the car and its design team received The Midlander of the Year Award for 1976, because they had between them done most in the year to increase the prestige of the (English) Midlands region.

Poor construction quality was apparent even in the company's press department fleet. The British magazine Motor published a road test of an automatic 3500 in January 1977, and while keen to highlight the Rover's general excellence, they also reported that the test car suffered from poor door seals, with daylight visible from inside past the rear door window frame's edge on the left side of the car, and a curious steering vibration at speed which might (or might not) have resulted from the car's front wheels not having been correctly balanced. Disappointment was recorded that the ventilation outlet directly in front of the driver appeared to be blocked, delivering barely a breeze even when fully open; the writer had encountered this problem on one other Rover 3500, although he had also driven other cars of the same type with an abundant output of fresh air through the vent in question. Nevertheless, in March 1977, Britain's Autocar was able to publish an article by Raymond Mays – a famous racing driver and team manager during (in particular) the 1930s, 1950s and 1960s – in which Mays explained why, after driving it for 12,000 miles, he considered his Rover 3500 was "the best car he [had] ever had", both for its many qualities as a driver's car and for its excellent fuel economy even when driven hard. Similar ventilation problems persisted until 1980 and were reported in tests of the V8-S version.

Another area of concern was flaking paint on early models, forcing British Leyland to spend a lot of money on repainting cars.

In television shows John Steed in The New Avengers and George Cowley in The Professionals both used yellow Rover 3500 models

Cosmetic tweaks and range expansion​

Between 1976 and 1981 there were some very minor updates to the car including new badging (front and rear) and chrome backed door mirrors,. The saw the introduction of the then range-topping V8-S model with no mechanical alterations, available in a rather bright metallic "Triton" green amongst others with either gold or silver-painted alloy wheels depending on the body color. Interior specification included air-conditioning, thick luxurious carpets, velour seats and a headlamp wash/wipe system. This now very rare model was replaced in late 1980 with the Vanden Plas (VDP) model, which came with a leather interior as standard.

Body styles

5 door hatchback

Engines

Petrol

Rover 2000 - 1,998 L O Series I4 -
Rover 2400 - 2,350 L Leyland PE166 I6 -
Rover 2600 - 2,597 L Leyland PE166 I6 -
Rover 2600 - 2,622 L BMC E Series I6 -
Rover 3500 - 3,528 L Rover V8 -

Diesel

Rover 2400d - 2393 L VM Motori HR 492 OHV I4 -

Transmissions​

1700 L - 4 speed manual / 3 speed automatic
1700 HL - 4 speed manual / 3 speed automatic
1700 HLS - 4 speed manual / 3 speed automatic
2000 HL - 4 speed manual / 3 speed automatic
2000 HLS - 4 speed manual / 3 speed automatic
2200 HL - 4 speed manual / 3 speed automatic
2200 HLS - 4 speed manual / 3 speed automatic

 
Last edited:
Prt VIII
1977

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B


The overdrive unit was operational in third and fourth gears (until 1977, when overdrive was only operational in fourth) but the overall ratio in third gear overdrive was roughly the same as fourth gear direct. The switch was moved to the top of the gearshift knob in 1977.



Roadster

A rear anti-roll bar was made standard equipment on all models. US emissions regulations also reduced horsepower.




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Marina

In May 1977 Marinas started to appear at dealers equipped with Allegro style seats: apart from rationalising the procuring and production processes, this was said to make the Marina seating more comfortable and supportive


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Series I

The Range Rover used permanent four wheel drive, rather than the switchable rear-wheel/four-wheel drive on Land Rover Series vehicles, and had a lever for switching ratios on the transfer box for off-road use. Originally, the only gearbox available was a four-speed manual unit, until Fairy overdrive became an option after 1977.
 
Last edited:
Prt IX
1978

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AEC


AEC sign an agreement with SCANIA to licence produce their commercial vehicles. The company will still continue with it's model range of models until the release of their SCANIA based models starting in 1980.


It's first model, the SCANIA based BR112 bus and coach platform was released in the UK, Australia and New Zealand.



Morris.jpg



Marina Mk II

The Morris Marina Mk II was given the design code ADO73 F/L (because it was considered a face lift of the Series 2 Marina (ADO73) launched in 1976) and was first launched on 1 July 1978. It took its name from Giorgetto Giugiaro's Italdesign studio, which had been employed by BL to manage the re-engineering of the Morris Marina, which had been produced by the company since 1971. Although BL's advertising emphasised the car's connection with the Italian design house, Italdesign did not have a direct role in the styling of the new car, which had been handled in-house by Harris Mann. Italdesign had been involved in a consultancy role, to help design new tooling and assembly methods, and work out how to integrate the altered parts of the new car into the existing Marina production chain. That is why, despite bearing the studio's name, the Ital is absent from lists of styling jobs handled by the firm. It was originally planned to brand the car as the Morris Marina Ital but, for most markets, the Marina name was dropped on the orders of British Leyland CEO, Michael Edwardes, and only the Ital name was used.

The Ital had revised exterior styling, but retained the Marina's 1.3- and 1.7-litre petrol engines and rear-wheel drive chassis. The dashboard and interior of the Marina were also carried over largely unaltered, including the main fascia panel, which faced 'away' from the driver. The Marina's coupé variant was not produced in Ital form, but the four door saloon, the five door estate, and the pickup and van versions, were carried over from the Marina range.

Body styles

4 door saloon
5 door estate
Pick up
Van

Engines

Petrol

Marina 1.3 - 1.275 cc A Series OHV I4 -
Marina 1.7 - 1695 cc O Series I4 -
Marina 2.0 - 1995 cc O Series I4 -

Diesel

Marina 1.5 - 1489 cc B Series I4 -
 
Last edited:
Prt X
1979

Morris.jpg
Nissan.png



Morris-MG Division of Rover Group sign an agreement with Nissan of Japan to co-develop a series of models for the UK market which will later encompass Australia, New Zealand and North America




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Roadster


In March 1979 British Leyland started the production of black painted limited edition MGB roadsters for the US market, meant for a total of 500 examples. Due to a high demand for the limited edition model, production ended with 6,682 examples. The UK received bronze-painted roadsters and a silver GT model limited edition. The production run of homemarket limited edition MGBs was split between 421 roadsters and 579 GTs.





Range_Rover.png


Series I

From 1979 onwards, Land Rover collaborated with Perkins on Project Iceberg, an effort to develop a diesel version of the Range Rover's 3.5-litre V8 engine. Both naturally aspirated and turbocharged versions were built, but the all-alloy engine blocks failed under the much greater pressures involved in diesel operation. The project was, therefore, abandoned. The effort to strengthen the Rover V8 for diesel operation was not, however, completely wasted; the 4.2-litre petrol variant of the engine used crankshaft castings developed in the Iceberg project.



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P8 Series.

The Rover P8 Series is a full-size luxury car produced by British automobile manufacturer Rover Division of Rover group produced between 1979 and 1987.

The car was significantly released in April 1979, known as the "3400 to 5300 Series ", incorporating a exterior redesign by Pininfarina. It included thicker and more incorporated rubber bumpers with decorative chrome only on the top edge, flush door handles, one-piece front door glass without a separate quarter light, a grille with only vertical vanes, reverse lights moved from the boot plinth to the larger rear light clusters, and a revised roof line with narrower door frames and increased glass area. The option of a sunroof and cruise control were also offered for the first time.

The 5.3 L V12, 4.2 L and 3.4 L straight-six engines carried over from the Series II, with minor changes. The larger six-cylinder and V12 models incorporated Bosch fuel injection (made under licence by Lucas) while the smaller six-cylinder remained carburetted. The smaller six-cylinder engine was never offered in the US, and the V12 was no longer offered there after 1980 like it's smaller 3500 Series brother.

The 1979 UK model range included the Rover 3400 & 4200, 5300 , 4.2 Vanden Plas & Vanden Plas 5.3 V12.



Body styles

4 door saloon

Engines

Rover 3400 - 3.4 L RDY I4 - 119 kW (160 hp) -
Rover 4200 - 4.2 L RDY I4 - 198 kW (265 hp) - 384 Nm (283 lb ft)
Rover 5300 - 5.3 L RDY V12 - 180 kW (242 hp) - 400 Nm (295 lb ft)
 
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Prt XI
1980


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Mammoth


&

Mandator


AEC released their SCANIA based II Series of models in the UK, Australia and New Zealand. Marketed as the Mandator Series (10 to 17 tons) & the Mammoth series (26 to 38 tons)


Mercury

AEC released their first ever panel van. The Mercury series is based on the Nissan E23 Urvan.


Land-Rover.png


Series III

In 1980, the 2.25-litre petrol and diesel engines received five main bearing crankshafts to increase rigidity and the transmission, and axles and wheel hubs were strengthened. This was the culmination of a series of updates to the transmission that had been made since the 1960s to combat the all-too-common problem of the rear axle half-shafts breaking in heavy usage. This problem was partly due to the design of the shafts themselves. Due to the fully floating design of the rear wheel hubs, the half shafts can be removed very quickly without even having to jack the vehicle off the ground. The tendency for commercial operators to overload their vehicles exacerbated this flaw which blighted the series Land Rovers in many of their export markets and established a reputation that continues in many markets to the present day. This is despite the 1982 re-design (mainly the increase of driving-splines from 10 to 24 to reduce stress) that all but solved the problem.

Also, new trim options were introduced to make the interior more comfortable if the buyer so wished (many farmers and commercial users preferred the original, non-trimmed interior).



Morris.jpg



Marina Mk II

From October 1980, an automatic version of the Ital was available with the 2.0-litre O-Series power unit, as the range topping 2.0HLS. Only about 1,000 2.0HLS models were sold. Due to that, and their short production run, the 2.0HLS is the rarest Ital model. In November 1981, all HL and HLS models were fitted with upgraded interior trim.


Tornado Mk I

&

MG Tornado Mk I

The first generation Morris Tornado (also known as Typhoon Coupe) was introduced in September 1980 as a contender in the upper medium class of cars.

The angular body, available as a two-door hardtop coupé "personal luxury car", and a four-door hardtop saloon, which featured very slim C- and D-pillars and large glass surfaces. The coupé featured a "glass-to-glass" rear window sharing the very slim C- and D-pillars from the sedan. The angular appearance was shared with Nissan’s Fairlady Z.

The wind resistance coefficient of the two-door version is 0.37.At the time of introduction, the two body styles both carried the same price tags.The Tornado featured some industry firsts, for instance a fuel consumption gauge in the dashboard.

Originally the Tornado was available with naturally aspirated inline four- and six-cylinder engines of 1.8 L, 2.0 L, and 2.8 L displacement; the largest engine received an electronic engine management system developed together with Hitachi, and was called NAPS-Z.The 1.8 litre fours were also originally available with a four-speed manual transmission, all others received five-speeds as standard (or an optional three-speed automatic).

The car shared many components with the six-cylinder version of the Datsun Bluebird 910, sold in North America as the Morris Tempest (Datsun 810), but used a platform based on the Nissan Skyline R30. The vehicle's styling seemed to be influenced by its more successful main competitor, the Toyota Soarer.However, when the Tornado was introduced, the styling was already a little dated and the coupé-only Soarer did significantly better in the market.


Body styles

2 door coupe

Engines

Tornado 1.8 - 1.8 L MZ18 I4 - 77 kW (104 hp) - 147 Nm (108 lb ft)
Tornado 2.0 - 2.0 L ML20 E I6 - 92 kW (123 hp) -
Tornado 2.0 - 2.0 L ML20 ET I6 - 107 kW (143 hp) -
Tornado 2.8 - 2.8 L ML28 E I6 - 107 kW (143 hp)
MG Tornado 3.0 - 3.0 L MVG30 ET I6 - 551 kW (739 hp) - 686 Nm (506 lb ft)

Transmissions

4 speed manual
5 speed manual
3 speed automatic
4 speed automatic


Typhoon Mk I

&


MG Typhoon Mk I

The Morris Typhoon, based on Nissan’s C31 model Laurel, was introduced in November 1980, was the first model that was only available in a four-door form, either as a saloon or estate. Engines for the Typhoon Mk I were 1.8-liter, 2.0-liter L20, 2.4-liter ML24 gasoline, and 2.8-liter diesel. The coupé was replaced by the new Nissan Leopard based Tornado (M30).

Development Supervisor, Itou Makoto Sakurai, was in charge of developing the Typhoon with Morris' input in the UK. The Typhoon's redesign was carried out in a European style and tone. The coefficient of drag (Cd value) of the four-door hardtop is 0.38. The lowest-priced ML18 is a four-cylinder engine, as is the 2-litre MZ20. The ML20-series are inline-six cylinder models, also available in fuel injected ML20E type, and as the turbocharged ML20ET - the first turbocharged Typhoon. On top of the lineup was the 2.8-litre ML28E, and for some export markets the 2.4-litre ML24 engine (usually carburetted) was also offered. Mostly for commercial use there was the four-cylinder MLD20 diesel engine, while private users usually preferred the larger six-cylinder MLD28 type which was also available with much better equipment.

European export models received the carburetted 2.0 (DX or SGL trim) and 2.4 inline-sixes (SGL), with 71 kW (97 PS) and 88 kW (120 PS) respectively, or with the large 2.8 diesel with 60 kW (82 PS).A fuel injected 2.4 with 127 PS (93 kW) later appeared for some markets.The 2.4-liter six only developed 113 PS (83 kW) in Swedish-market petrol cars as a result of that country's stringent emissions standards. As large Japanese cars are not very popular with private buyers in Europe, the diesel saw the lion's share of sales, mainly for taxi usage.


Body styles

4 door saloon
5 door estate

Engines

Petrol

Typhoon 1.8 - 1,770 cc MZ18S I4 - 77 kW (104 hp) - 147 Nm (108 lb ft)
Typhoon 1.8 - 1,809 cc MCA18S I4 - 66 kW (89 hp) - 149 Nm (110 lb ft)
Typhoon 2.0 - 1.952 cc MZ20S I4 - 81 kW (108 hp) -
Typhoon 2.0 - 1,998 cc ML20/20E I6 - 91 kW (123 hp) -
Typhoon 2.0 - 1,998 cc ML20ET I6 turbo - 107 kW (143 hp) -
Typhoon 2.4 - 2,393 cc ML24 I6 - 110 kW (148 hp) -
Typhoon 2.8 - 2,753 cc ML28E I6 - 99 kW (133 hp) -

Diesel

Typhoon 2.0d - 1,952 cc MLD20 I4 - 49 kW (66 hp) - 127 Nm (90 lb ft)
Typhoon 2.8d - 2,792 cc MLD28 I6 - 67 kW (90 hp) - 170 Nm (123 lb ft)

Transmissions

4 / 5 speed manual
3 / 4 speed automatic


Range-Rover.jpg



Series I


One problem with the Range Rover chassis was that it suffered considerably from body roll. Because of this, the suspension was lowered by 20 mm (0.8 in) in 1980



Rover.png



P7

US market


In 1980 Rover obtained US type approval for the P7 and re-entered the American market after a ten-year absence. The car was only made available as a single variant, using a modified version of the V8 engine and badged simply as "Rover 3500". The equipment and trim levels were similar to that of the UK market's then top-of-the-range V8-S model. The main differences were a smaller steering wheel, the manually operated sunroof being a cost option and rear passenger head restraints were not available at all. Small Union Jack badges were fixed to the lower section of each front wing, just ahead of the doors, to promote the car's British origins. Canadian market cars had V8 badges instead of the Union Jack.

The five-speed manual gearbox was supplied as standard, with the three-speed automatic version being a cost option.

US safety legislation (that first applied to the Citroen DS) demanded that the headlamp arrangement excluded the front glass panels. Also larger, heavier bumpers were required, increasing the overall length to 191 inches (4850 mm).

American emissions regulations necessitated other differences including replacement of the carburettors with Lucas’s L Jetronic fuel injection system and the fitting of dual catalytic converters, a modified exhaust manifold and de-smogging equipment. The engine's compression ratio was modified to 8.13:1. Publicity claimed it was capable of reaching 148 hp (SAE) at 5100 rpm but the car as sold actually peaked at 133 hp (at 5000 rpm). A desmogged carbureted engine had already been on sale in Australia since August 1978, with 102 kW (137 hp). Australia received a version of the fuel injected federalized engine with 106 kW (142 hp) beginning with the 1981 model year.
 

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Prt XII
1981


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Mercury / Militant


AEC released their updated SCANIA based BR112 bus and coach platform called the Series II in the UK, Australia and New Zealand.


Monarch

AEC released their first ever panel van based on the Nissan Urvan series E23 based van.


Morris.jpg



Tornado Mk I

&

MG.png


MG Tornado Mk I

In July 1981 a two-litre turbocharged engine was added. Available as a GLX, GLS, and MG, it had the same maximum output (145 PS) as the more expensive and heavier 2.8.


Typhoon Mk I

&

MG Typhoon Mk I

In February 1981 the GX trim level was added. ML20E saloon with independent rear suspension in the vehicle suspension formula (a six-link independent rear suspension was equipped as standard on the turbocharged cars). In November 1981 the car received some improvement and the GT Medalist model was new to the lineup.



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P7 Series


In 1981 the cylinder heads of the V12 engine were replaced by the new "Fireball" high-compression design by Swiss racing driver Michael May, and were badged from this time onwards to 1985 as "HE" (High Efficiency) models.

In late 1981 the Rover 3400/5300 Series and Vanden Plas models received a minor interior upgrade for the 1982 model year with features similar to Vanden Plas models. Also for the 1982 model year, a top spec "Rover" Vanden Plas model was introduced in the US market.
 
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Prt XIII
1982


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Matador Series

Due to Scania not building any light commercial vehicles below 10 tons AEC, instead the licence-build Nissan series of vehicles.

AEC released their Matador series based on the Nissan F22 & H40 series of light trucks in the UK, Australia and New Zealand.



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Series III


Changes culminated in April 1982 with the introduction of the "County" spec. Station Wagon Land Rovers, available in both 88-inch (2,200 mm) and 109-inch (2,800 mm) types. These had all-new cloth seats from the Leyland T-45 Lorry, soundproofing kits, tinted glass and other "soft" options designed to appeal to the leisure owner/user.

Of more interest was the introduction of the High Capacity Pick Up to the 109-inch (2,800 mm) chassis. This was a pick-up truck load bay that offered 25% more cubic capacity than the standard pick-up style. The HCPU came with heavy-duty suspension and was popular with public utility companies and building contractors.




Morris.jpg



Marina Mk II


Finally, in September 1982, a revised Ital range was introduced. The L and 2.0-litre models were dropped, and the HL and HLS were replaced by the SL and SLX models. Front suspension was changed to telescopic front dampers across the range, and parabolic rear springs were also fitted, together with additional soundproofing and improved trim.


Tornado Mk I

&

MG Tornado Mk I

In September 1982, the Tornado received a mild face lift and with it, the under-performing 2.8 was dropped from the lineup.


Typhoon Mk I

&

MG Typhoon Mk I


November 1982 saw the introduction of the Vanden Plas with Hubert de Givenchy doing the TV commercials in North America, borrowing a marketing concept for an American luxury coupe, the Lincoln Continental Mark IV.

In September 1982 there was a minor change. Up a sense of luxury and large-scale extrusion in the chrome bumpers and rear licence plate holder. The tail lamp design was changed as well. Instead of the Z18 series engine, the new OHC four-cylinder 1809 cc CA18S engine was fitted to the Typhoon 1.8. The engine range was overhauled at the time and now included the MCA18S, ML20E, turbocharged ML20ET, the four-cylinder SOHC Z20S, and the diesel mLD20 and MLD28-6 models. The carburetted ML20, the ML28E, and the column-shifted LD20 (six-seater) were discontinued. The six-cylinder gasoline-powered car with automatic transmission and Super Touring equipment received an overdrive gear at the same time.

Fitted with a detuned version of the ML24 engine, the Typhoon was introduced to the Middle Eastern (mainly Saudi) market in 1982.



Whirlwind


The Nissan based Morris Whirlwind (chassis name K10) was introduced onto the UK market in October 1982 as a challenger to the Austin Metro, Honda Charade based Triumph 100, Ford Fiesta, and Opel - Vauxhall Chevette. The Nissan Micra which the Whirlwind was based on was intended to replace the Nissan Cherry as the company's competitor in the supermini sector, as the Cherry model sold in Europe had progressively become larger with each successive generation.

The Morris Whirlwind had particularly low fuel consumption made possible by a specially developed engine only used in the Whirlwind, an uncommonly high gearing, and a particularly low weight: only 630 kg (1,389 lb) in early European trim.The low weight target necessitated a minimum of insulation, meaning that early Whirlwind’s were quite loud.

The bodystyle was originally designed for Fiat as a replacement for the Fiat 127, but Fiat then adopted the Giugiaro-styled Uno instead.

The Whirlwind was initially available with an extremely refined all-aluminium Morris built MA10S SOHC engine. European market cars developed 50 PS (37 kW; 49 hp) or 55 PS (40 kW; 54 hp) in the high compression version coupled with the five-speed option. It was also available with either Nissan based automatic (called "Morrismatic"), four-speed or five-speed gearbox. Both the automatic and five-speed manual gearboxes were unusual in a supermini at this time. The Morrismatic model originally had a 60 PS (44 kW; 59 hp) version of the 1-litre engine.


Body styles

5 door

Engines

MG Whirlwind 1.0 - 0.930 cc MA09ERT turbo I4 - 81 kW (108 hp) - 133 Nm (98 lb ft)
Morris Whirlwind 1.0 - 0.987 cc MA10S I4 - 39 kW (52 hp) - 75 Nm (55 lb ft)
Morris Whirlwind 1.2 - 1.235 cc MA12S I4 - 45 kW (60 hp) - 94 Nm (65 lb ft)

Transmission

4 speed manual
5 speed manual
3 speed automatic



Range-Rover.jpg



Series I

A three-speed Chrysler Torgue Flite automatic gearbox became an option in October 1982, after years of demands from buyers.


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P8 Series


In late 1981 the Rover P8 Series and Vanden Plas models received a minor interior upgrade for the 1982 model year with features similar to Vanden Plas models. Also for the 1982 model year, a top spec "Rover" Vanden Plas model was introduced in the US market


P7 Series II


Early in 1982, Rover unveiled the Cowley-built, face lifted P7 Series II line to the public. These cars benefited mostly from small cosmetic changes on the exterior as well as a quite extensively redesigned interior. The biggest interior change was to the instrument binnacle, which was made both flatter and longer than the original, with the ancillary gauges and digital clock moved out of the driver's line of sight almost over the centre of the dashboard, whilst the dials themselves followed modern practice being under a glass hood instead of being deeply recessed as before. Wood trim on both the dashboard and the door cards were included after criticism that the original interior looked downmarket. Car spotters can distinguish the two series by the headlights, which were chrome-rimmed and flush fitting on the Series 2, recessed on the Series 1, the deeper rear window, now fitted with a rear wash wipe, and the new plastic wrap around bumpers which replaced the three-piece rubber and stainless steel ones. Other details, which are not as easy to assign include the full-width rear badge strip under the tail lights, engine size badges on front wings, and a range of new wheel trims and alloy wheels. The automatic gearbox was now a French built GM Turbo-Hydramatic 180 model ( TH180 ), still offering three speeds but better ratios. The electric window switch pack moved from the centre console to the driver's door (and is well remembered for lacking edge finishing trim around the recesses), and a fully automatic choke appeared – eliminating the manual choke lever which had a tendency to break.


Further Range Expansion


1982 was also the year when Rover P7 buyers could finally opt for a four-cylinder engine since the two-litre BL O Series engine of the Morris Ital was now fitted to the car, now called the Rover 2000 - marking the first time an engine from the Austin-Morris division of BL would appear in a Rover. The engine was particularly aimed at company car fleets where its size enabled it to beat a taxation threshold. This broadened the P range and made it more affordable to potential buyers, giving British Leyland an all-round rival to the Ford Granda which had always featured a four-cylinder version, although unlike the P8 or earlier P6 had never been available with a V8 engine. The Rover P7 was not particularly fast, with a continental magazine stating that the most one could say was that it was faster than diesel and turbo diesel cars in the same class.
 
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Prt XIV
1983


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90 & 110 Series


Production of the model now known as the Defender began in 1983 as the Land Rover 110, a name which reflected the 110-inch (2,800 mm) length of the wheelbase. The Land Rover 90, with 93-inch (2,362 mm) wheelbase, and Land Rover 127, with 127-inch (3,226 mm) wheelbase, soon followed.

Superficially there is little to distinguish the post-1983 vehicles from the Series III Land Rover. A full-length bonnet, revised grille, plus the fitting of wheel arch extensions to cover wider-track axles are the most noticeable changes. Initially the conservative engineering department insisted that the Land Rover was also available with a part-time 4WD system familiar to derivatives produced since 1949. However, the part-time system failed to sell and was quickly dropped from the options list by 1984. While the engine and other body panels carried over from the Series III mechanically the 90 and 110 were modernised, including:

Coil springs offering a more compliant ride and improved axle articulation A permanent four wheel-drive system derived from the Range Rover, featuring a two-speed transfer gearbox with a lockable centre differential A modernised interior, A taller one-piece windscreen. A new series of progressively more powerful and modern engines

The 110 was launched in 1983, and the 90 followed in 1984.

This period saw Land Rover market the utility Land Rover as a private recreational vehicle. While the basic pick-up, 4 x 4 and van versions were still working vehicles, the County 4 x 4's were sold as multi-purpose family vehicles, featuring improved interior trim and more comfortable seats. This change was reflected in Land Rover starting what had long been common practice in the car industry — detailed changes and improvements to the County model from year to year in order to attract new buyers and to encourage existing owners to trade in for a new vehicle. These changes included different exterior styling graphics and colour options, and the introduction of new options, such as radio-cassette players, Rostyle wheels, headlamp wash and wipe systems, as well as accessories such as surf board carriers and bike racks. The switch from leaf spring to coil spring suspension was a key part of the new model's success. It offered improved off-road ability, load capacity, handling and ride comfort.



127 & ( 130 )


From 1983, Land Rover introduced a third wheelbase to its utility line-up, a 127-inch (3,226 mm) wheelbase vehicle designed to accommodate larger, heavier loads than the 110. Called the "Land Rover 127", it was designed specifically with use by utility companies in mind, as well as military usage. In its standard form, it is a four-door six-seater consisting of the front half of a 110 4x4, and the rear of a 110 high-capacity pick up (HCPU). Logic was that this allowed a work crew and their equipment to be carried in one vehicle at the same time. The 127 could carry up to a 1.4 tonnes (1.4 long tons; 1.5 short tons) payload, compared to the 1.03 tonnes (1.01 long tons; 1.14 short tons) payload of the 110 and the 0.6 tonnes (0.59 long tons; 0.66 short tons) of the 90.

Land Rover 127's were built on a special production line, and all started life as 110 4 x 4 chassis (the model was initially marketed as the 110 crew cab, before the more logical 127 name was adopted). These were then cut in two and the 17 inches (432 mm) of extra chassis length welded on before the two original halves were reunited. These models did not receive their own dedicated badging like the other two models: instead they used the same metal grille badges as used on the Series III 109 V8 models, that simply said "Land-Rover". Although the standard body-style was popular, the 127 was a common basis for conversion to specialist uses, such as mobile workshops, ambulances, fire engines and flatbed transports. In South Africa, the Land Rover assembly plant offered a 127 4 x 4 with seating for 15. Land Rover also offered the 127 as a bare chassis, with just front bodywork and bulkhead, for easy conversion.

Initially held back by the low power of the Land Rover engines (other than the thirsty petrol V8 engine), the 127 benefited from the improvements to the line-up, and by 1990 was only available with the two highest power engines, the 134 hp (100 kW) 3.5-litre V8 petrol, and the 85 hp (63 kW) 2.5-litre turbo diesel .



Engine Development


The original 110 of 1983 was available with the same engine line-up as the Series III vehicles it replaced, namely 2.25-litre (137 cu in) petrol and diesel engines, and a 3.5-litre (210 cu in) V8 petrol unit, although a small number of 3.2-litre (200 cu in) V8's were produced. In 1981 the 2.25 l engines were upgraded from three- to five crankshaft bearings in preparation for the planned increases in capacity and power. The five bearing version was known as the 2.3 litre to differentiate it despite having the same displacement.

The 2.5-litre version of the diesel engine, displacing 2,495 cubic centimetres (152.3 cu in) and producing 68 hp (51 kW), was introduced in both the 110 and the newly arrived 90. This was a long stroke version of the venerable 2.25-litre unit, fitted with updated fuel injection equipment and a revised cylinder head for quieter, smoother and more efficient running. A timing bell also replaced the older engine's chain. Despite these improvements the engine was under powered and unrefined in comparison with the competition.

The 2.5 diesel, 2.5 petrol and Turbo Diesel engines all shared the same block castings and other components such as valve-gear and cooling system parts, allowing them to be built on the same production line. The Turbo Diesel produced 85 hp (63 kW), a 13% increase over the naturally aspirated unit, and a 31.5% increase in torque to 150 lb⋅ft (203 N⋅m) at 1800 rpm. Externally, turbo diesel vehicles differed from other models only by having an air intake grille in the left-hand wing to supply cool air to the turbo. Early turbo-diesel engines gained a reputation for poor reliability, with major failures to the bottom-end and cracked pistons.

At the same time that the Turbo Diesel was introduced, the V8 engine was upgraded. Power was increased to 134 hp (100 kW), and SU carburettors replaced the Zenith models used on earlier V8s.





Morris.jpg



Cyclone Mk I


&

MG.png




Cyclone Mk I

The first version of the Nissan Sunny based Morris Cyclone was announced in April 1982, making its UK and European debut in October. By this time, Morris had decided to standardise its naming policy worldwide on types of winds not unlike Volkswagen, so as a Morris it tended, in all markets, to be known as the Cyclone.

This generation Cyclone hatchback (the Nissan based saloon was marketed as Hurricane) sold in North America only for model year 1983. Some unusual options were carried over from the previous generation, such as having the rear locks (on four-door models) remote operated by cable from the front seat. The rear child locks could also be controlled with a slider mounted beneath the driver's seat.



Body styles

2 door coupe
4 & 5 door hatchback
4 door saloon

Engines


Petrol

Morris Cyclone 1.0 - 0.998 L ME10 I4 - 37 kW (49 hp) - 75 Nm (55 lb ft)
Morris Cyclone 1.3 - 1,370 L ME13 I4 - 44 kW (59 hp) -
Morris Cyclone 1.5 - 1,488 L ME15 I4 - 55 kW (74 hp) -
Morris Cyclone 1.6 - 1,597 L ME16 I4 - 53kW (71 hp) -
MG Cyclone 1.5 - 1,488 L ME15ET I4 turbo - 85 kW (115 hp) -

Diesel

Morris Cyclone 1.7 - 1,680 L ME16 I4 - 45 kW (60 hp) - 104 Nm (77 lb ft)


Hurricane Mk I


A front-wheel drive Stanza based Morris Hurricane was introduced in 1983 allowing the Morris Marina to be finally retired – the first middle-class Datsun (Nissan) design to be of that configuration, built to the principles which had been established in Europe for this class since a few years back. In Europe, front-wheel drive and a hatchback design were becoming the norm in this segment.

It remained on sale in Britain until 1987, after which Morris sold the first Nissan Bluebird based Hurricane as its only product in this market sector.

This version was sold in the United Kingdom and Europe as the Morris Hurricane; the range was "L" 1.6 L, "GL" 1.6 L, "SGL" 1.6 L and "SGL" 1.8 L. Some markets (such as Belgium, where it came fitted with the full SGL equipment) also received a 1.7-litre turbo diesel engine with 73 PS (54 kW), beginning with the 1984 model year. European market cars were generally fitted with very long gearing, making the car one of the most fuel efficient in its class. It was first sold in Britain from January 1983, alongside the similar-sized rear-wheel drive Nissan Bluebird saloons and estates, which later also switched to front-wheel drive. This meant that Nissan and Morris was in the position of offering traditional rear-wheel drive saloons and estates alongside similar-sized front-wheel drive cars including hatchbacks, as this market sector was in a period of transition in the early 1980s.

Morris Motors New Zealand imported later generation Violets and other models for evaluation, or imported a small production run if additional import licences became available (there was a trading scheme enabling importers to trade unused annual license allocations with each other). One highly specified, five-door, third generation, front-drive model with automatic transmission - and then-rare air conditioning - was imported for an international distributors' conference held in NZ in 1983 and was later used by a company executive's wife before being resold through the company's own dealer network. There was also a small later shipment of cars for public sale (this time without a/c) but, as usual with low-volume imports of this type by Morris and rivals, most were pre-sold before the ship docked. A number of Morris Hurricanes also arrived as used imports from Japan in the late 1980s.



Body styles

3 door hatchback
4 door saloon
5 door hatchback

Engines


Petro
l​

Morris Hurricane 1.6 - 1,598 cc MCA16S I4 - 60 kW (80 hp) - 123 Nm (91 lb ft)
Morris Hurricane 1.8 - 1,809 cc MCA18DE I4 - 98 kW (131 hp) - 159 Nm (117 lb ft)
Morris Hurricane 2.0 - 1,974 cc MCA20E I4 - 78 kW (106 hp) - 160 Nm (118 lb ft)
MG Hurricane 2.0 - 1,952 cc MZ20E I4 - 74 kW (99 hp) -

Diesel

Morris Hurricane 1.7td - 1,680 cc MCD17T I4 turbo -


Transmission

3 speed automatic
5 speed manual

Typhoon Mk I

&

MG Typhoon Mk I

In February 1983 the "50 Special" was released. In March the Vanden PLas II version went on sale. In July electrically retractable bumpers and door mirrors were introduced, a first.


Range-Rover.jpg



Series I

The other major transmission upgrade in the Range Rover's lifetime was the switch from the LT95 combined four-speed manual gearbox and transfer box to the LT77 five-speed gearbox and separate LT 230 transfer box in 1983. The LT 230 was later used on both the Defender and Discovery models, but was replaced on the Range Rover by a Borg Warner chain-driven transfer box incorporating an automatic viscous coupling limited slip differential – earlier transmissions had a manual differential lock (operated by a vacuum servo on the LT95 and mechanically on the LT 230).
 
Last edited:
Prt XV
1984


Land-Rover.png


90 & 110 Series

From 1984, wind-up windows were fitted (Series models and very early 110's had sliding panels), and a 2.5-litre (153 cu in), 68 horsepower (51 kW) diesel engine was introduced. This was based on the earlier 2.3-litre (140 cu in) engine, but had a more modern fuel-injection system as well as increased capacity. A low compression version of the 3.5-litre (214 cu in) V8 Range Rover engine improved performance. It was initially available in the 110 with a Range Rover LT95 four-speed transmission with integral transfer case and vacuum operated differential lock, then later in conjunction with a high strength "Santana" five-speed transmission.



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BMW.png



BMW & Rover Group signed an agreement to co-develop a series of models to not only expand Rovers range but also to replace their ageing P7 and P8 models.

The agreement also allows BMW to use Land Rover and Range rover technology to develop their own SUV models.




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Cyclone Mk I

&

MG.png



MG Cyclone Mk I


The series was face lifted at the end of March 1984, with wider and slimmer headlights. There were no longer two types of headlamps available.




Marina Mk II



With the range cropped, the range then consisted of the 1.3 SL and SLX saloon, 1.3 SL estate, 1.7 SLX saloon, and the 1.7 SL saloon and estate. The saloon models were dropped in February 1984, with the estate models remaining in production until the summer of that year.


Tornado Mk I

&

MG Tornado Mk I


In June 1984 a limited MG GT with the Nissan 300ZX's 230 PS (169 kW) 3 litre turbo engine joined the line-up.


Typhoon Mk I

&

MG Typhoon Mk I

January 1984 saw the abolition of the 1.8-litre GL models, while the “Brougham” III limited edition also went on sale.


Typhoon Mk II

&

MG Typhoon Mk II

The Morris Typhoon Mk II (M320) was fitted with four gasoline engines. The MCA20S (which were the only four-cylinder to be seen in the Typhoon, the ML24S the MVG20ET, the MVG30E and the electronic carburettor installed MVG30S. It also came with the MLD28 diesel. In 1987 there was a minor facelift which basically were bigger bumpers, new grilles, and new lights in the front and back. The MLD28 diesel engines were swapped out in favour of the similarly dimensioned MRD28. This generation became the first Laurel with a V6 engine.

The styling of the Morris Typhoon began to resemble the larger Nissan Cedric and Nissan Gloria models but on a slightly smaller platform. The Toyota competitor was the Cresta hardtop and the Chaser sedan, and in 1986 the Honda Vigor.

In October 1984 the Typhoon facelift was released. Osamu Ito, Development Supervisor of the R31/32 Skyline, was assigned to redesign the Typhoon. He saw the car needed significant changes, and set about doing so. Some of the Laurel's new features included a 4-door saloon body, variations in the hardtop, an angular design (including a strong push), and the world's first electric retractable door mirrors.

The MRB20E engine was equipped with a six-cylinder series SOHC 2.0L, MVG20ET-SOHC 2.0L V6 turbo, MCA18S-series four-cylinder (LPG and specifications), MLD28-series 6-cylinder diesel SOHC2.8L. The car's system also integrated a Typhoon steering rack and adopted a rack-and-pinion type.



Body styles

4 door saloon
5 door estate

Engines

Petrol

Typhoon 1.8 - 1.8 L MCA18i I4 - 75 kW (100 hp)
Typhoon 2.0 - 2.0 L MRB20 DET I6 turbo - 158 kW (212 hp) - 186 Nm (137 lb ft)
Typhoon 2.0 - 2.0 L MRB20 DE I6 turbo - 114 kW (153 hp) - 181 Nm (133 lb ft)
Typhoon 2.0 - 2.0 L MRB20 E I6 turbo - 110 kW (148 hp) - 167 Nm (123 lb ft)
Typhoon 2.5 - 2.5 L MRB25 DE I6 turbo - 149 kW (200 hp) - 255 Nm (188 lb ft)

Diesel

Typhoon 2.8d - 2.8 L MRD28 I6 - 74 kW (99 hp) - 181 Nm (134 lb ft)

Transmission

5 speed manual
4 speed automatic
5 speed automatic



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P7 Series II


The flagship model was created when Rover introduced a 190 bhp (142 kW; 193 PS) fuel-injected version of its V8. Borrowing from technologies pioneered in the US and Australian markets (where strict emissions regulations meant the inclusion of high compression carbureted engines was not feasible) the new derivative was originally only available in the Vitesse model, but from 1984 onwards it was also offered in the luxury Vanden Plas range, badged as the Vanden Plas EFi. To meet the demands of the luxury executive car market, where automatic transmission tended to be preferred, Rover first offered an auto as an option in the Vitesse, but later withdrew the option and lured the customers to the plush Vanden Plas EFi instead which had all the standard comforts of the Vitesse, such as electric mirrors, windows and locks, a trip computer, headlight washers, an adjustable steering column and a four-speaker stereo (something special at that time). Additionally, it added standard leather seats (velour cloth was a no-cost option), an electrically operated sunroof (available on all models) and cruise control; the only option being air-conditioning. Very rare are the "Twin Plenum" Vitesses; these had two throttle bodies mounted on the plenum chamber instead of one and were produced in very small numbers as homologation for the twin plenum racers.


P8 Series


For the 1984 model year the Sovereign name was transferred from the Daimler marque to a new top-specification Jaguar model, the "Jaguar Sovereign". A base Rover 3400/5300 was no longer available, with the V12 engine only being offered as a Vanden Plas HE. The Vanden Plas name was also dropped at the time in the UK market by Daimler & Wolseley Groups, due to Rover being split from British Leyland; the name was used on top-of-the-range Rover-branded cars. The Vanden Plas trademark was also retained by Rover in North America, and top-of-the-line s were still sold there with the Vanden Plas name.



The 1984 UK model range included the Rover 3.4 & 4.2, Sovereign 4.2 & 5.3, Vanden Plas 4.2 & 5.3.
 
Last edited:
Prt XVI
1985


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90 & 110 Series

In 1985 the petrol units were upgraded. An enlarged four-cylinder engine was introduced. This 83 hp (62 kW) engine shared the same block and cooling system (as well as other ancillary components) as the diesel unit. Unlike the diesel engine, this new 2.5-litre petrol engine retained the chain-driven camshaft of its 2.25-litre predecessor. At the same time, the 114 hp (85 kW) V8 was also made available in the 90- the first time a production short wheelbase Land Rover had been given V8 power. The V8 on both models was now mated to an all-new five-speed LT85 manual gearbox.


Morris.jpg



Cyclone Mk I

&

MG.png


Cyclone Mk I

In May 1985 the turbocharger was changed to a water-cooled design.

Tempest Mk I

&


MG Tempest Mk I

On October 17, 1984 the first generation Nissan Maxima based Morris Tempest (MU11) was introduced for the 1985 model year. This Tempest was available with a 157 hp (117 kW), 3.0-liter MVG30E V6 engine and a four-speed automatic or a five-speed manual transmission. A smaller 2.0-liter version of this engine was offered. These engines were the first V6 engines to be mass-produced by Morris. The first generation was assigned compact status in the North American market. This was the only Typhoon generation to be available as an estate.

Body styles

4 door saloon
5 door estate


Engines


Tempest 2.0 - 2.0 L MVG20E V6 - 85 kW (113 hp) -
MG Tempest 2.0 - 2.0 L MVG20ET V6 turbo - 116 kW (155 hp) -
Tempest 3.0 - 3.0 L MVG30E V6 - 119 kW (160 hp) - 247 Nm (187 lb ft)


Transmissions


5 speed MRS5F50A manual
4 speed MRL4FO2A automatic


Typhoon Mk II

&

MG Typhoon Mk II


In May 1985, the Vanden Plas edition was released. Detail improvements were made in October 1985 and January 1986.


Whirlwind Mk I

The model was revised in June 1985, identifiable by a restyled tailgate and larger rear lamp clusters. The UK market saw the debut of the first MG Whirlwind Turbo/MA10ET, where Morris grafted a turbocharger to the small 1.0 L engine. This version was never sold in the rest of Europe, where the only engines ever available were the 1.0 and 1.2 units.
 
Last edited:
Prt XVII
1986


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Nissan open their UK assembly plant in Sunderland producing European spec Bluebirds.





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Mercury Series II

AEC released a Mercury Series II van based on the E24 series Nissan Urvan


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90 & 110 Series


The year 1986 saw improvements in engines to match the more advanced offerings by Japanese competitors. The "Diesel Turbo" engine was introduced in September, a lightly turbocharged version of the existing 2.5-litre diesel, with several changes to suit the higher power output, including a re-designed crankshaft teflon coated pistons and nimonic steel exhaust valves to cope with the higher internal temperatures. Similarly, an eight-bladed cooling fan was fitted, together with an oil cooler. The changes for the turbo diesel were kept as slight as possible, in the aim of making the car saleable in Land Rover's traditional export markets across the globe.



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9 Series


The first MG 9 was originally based on the R30 Rover P9 and was intended to be a homologation special to satisfy the Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft and Group A Touring rules, which required a total of 5,000 cars to be built. It was presented to the public at the 1985 Frankfurt Motor Show, and began production from March 1986 to June 1991. The (r30) MG 9 was mainly produced in the coupé body style, but limited volumes of convertibles were also produced.

The front splitter, the rear apron, sill panels, as well as changes to the body in the area of the rear window (C pillar) and the bootlid improved the aerodynamics. For aerodynamic reasons, the rear window was flattened and the tailgate was made of light, glass reinforced plastic raised by approximately 40 mm for better airflow. The changes over the rear of the car resulted in lower lift forces and better straight-line stability. In addition, the windscreen was glued in – not, as with the other R30 models, framed with a window rubber and piping. As a result, the MG 4 achieved a relatively low drag coefficient of Cd =0.33 instead of Cd =0.38 as in the standard 400 Series. The only exterior body panels the regular 400 Series and the MG 4 shared were the bonnet, roof panel, sunroof and inner door panels.

The brake callipers, rotors and master cylinder were unique to the MG 9 model.

The transmission was a Getrag 265 5-speed manual. European models were outfitted with a dog leg version with close ratio and a 1:1 ratio for fifth gear. North American models used a traditional shift pattern and had wider gear spacing with an over driven fifth gear. A clutch type limited slip differential was standard equipment.

In 2004, Sports Car International named the MG 9 number six on the list of Top Sports ‘Cars Of the 1980’s. In 2007, Automobile Magazine included the BMW based R30 MG 9 in their "5 greatest drivers cars of all time" under their 25 Greatest Cars of All Time


Engines


The MG 9 used the Rover RS14 four-cylinder engine, a high-revving DOHC design with a head closely based on that of the Rover RS38 six-cylinder engine and the block from the BMW based RM10 four-cylinder engine with a 7,250 rpm red line. In countries where the MG 9 was sold (non UK) with a catalytic converter, the initial versions were rated at 143 kW (195 PS; 192 hp) and had a top speed of 235 km/h (146 mph). In countries where a catalytic converter was not fitted, the engine was rated at 147 kW (200 PS; 197 hp).


Suspension


Differences from the regular P9 Series models included:

5-stud wheel hubs
offset control arm bushings in the front suspension, for increased caster angle.
aluminium control arms.
revised front strut tubes with bolt on kingpins and sway bar mounted to strut tube, similar to the R28 Rover P9 series)
front wheel bearings and brake calliper bolt spacing from the R28 ( Rover P9 Series)



Morris.jpg


Morris Cyclone Mk II

&


MG.png


Cyclone Mk II

In 1986, Nissan's thus Morris’s design chief refused to follow the smoother, aerodynamic look of other cars, and told his design team to come up with an affordable, subcompact car. A squarer Morris Cyclone MN13 series was released as a result; innovations included a permanently four-wheel drive model with a viscous coupling which appeared in May 1986.

In the UK & Europe, the MN13 Morris Cyclone was usually sold under the Nissan Sunny name- however, this was not the same car as the Morris Cyclone (MB12) sold at around the same time. In some markets (such as Greece), the MN13 Sunny/Pulsar retained the Hurricane nameplate. The top version, called the MG Cyclone, initially had the 1.6-litre 16-valve engine with 110 PS (81 kW) at 6400 rpm.The MG Cyclone was quite discreet, with external changes limited to side skirts and small spoilers front and rear, as well as alloy wheels. It was not a particularly strong contender in the GTi market, to rectify this Morris later introduced a more powerful and torquier 1.8-litre version.

In Australia and New Zealand, the previous Cyclone and Hurricane ranges were replaced by a single model line now called just the Cyclone—which were based on the Japanese market Pulsar and again mostly locally assembled and engines. Versions in Australia and New Zealand were available in four body shapes; three-door hatchback (SG, SR), five-door hatchback (SGS, ZXE), four-door saloon (SG, SGS, ZXE), and a five-door "Traveller" (SG, SGS).



Body styles

3 door hatchback
5 door hatchback
4 door saloon


Engines


Petrol


Morris Cyclone 1.0 - 0.998 L ME10 I4 - 37 kW (49 hp) - 75 Nm (55 lb ft)
Morris Cyclone 1.3 - 1.270 L ME13 I4 - 44 kW (55 hp) -
Morris Cyclone 1.4 - 1.392 L MGA14S I4 - 59 kW (79 hp) - 111 Nm (82 lb ft)
Morris Cyclone 1.4 - 1,392 L MGA14DS I4 - 55 kW (74 lb ft) - 112 Nm (83 lb ft)
Morris Cyclone 1.5 - 1,487 L ME15 I4 - 55 kW (74 hp) -
Morris Cyclone 1.6 - 1,597 L MGA16S I4 - 63 kW (84 hp) - 126 Nm (93 lb ft)
Morris Cyclone 1.6 - 1,598 L ME16LF I4 - 52 kW (70 hp) -
Morris Cyclone 1.6 - 1,598 L MCA16DE DOHC I4 - 91 kW (121 hp) - 137 Nm (101 lb ft)
Morris Cyclone 1.8 - 1,796 L ME18LE I4 - 70 kW (95 hp) -
MG Cyclone 1.8 - 1,809 L MCA18DE DOHC I4 - 98 kW (131 lb ft) - 155 Nm (115 lb ft)


Diesel


Morris Cyclone 1.7 - 1,680 MCD17 I4 - 45 kW (60 hp) - 104 Nm (77 lb ft)


Transmission

4 speed manual
5 speed manual
3 speed automatic

Tornado Mk II

&

MG Tornado Mk II

The Morris Tornado Mk II (M31) appeared in February 1986 and was only available as a luxury GT coupé. This vehicle shared a platform with the Nissan Skyline R31, Nissan Cefiro A31, and the Morris Typhoon (C32) to share development costs.

The displacements of the engines were of either a 2.0L or a 3.0L, and they were the MVG30DET, MVG30DE, MVG20DET (post 1988), MVG20ET (prior to 1988), and MVG20E. Early 2.0 turbo versions had the single-cam (per bank) MVG20ET.

The angular bodywork was reflected in the companion fastback sportscar, called the Nissan Fairlady ZX. The Tornado's more traditional coupé styling was offered as an alternative to the Nissan Fairlady ZX's fastback appearance.

Trim packages started with the top level Vanden Plas with the 3.0 V6 engine, the Vanden Plas with the 3.0 V6, (later received the 3.0 V6 turbo), the MG with the 2.0 V6 Turbo, the MG GT with the 2.0 V6 Turbo, the MG GT-S with the V6 Turbo, the GLX with a 2.0 V6 and the base model called the GLA with the 2.0 V6. All models came with a digital instrument cluster, all models except the GLA and the GLX came with stereo and cruise control buttons installed in the steering wheel centre pad, and both Grand Selection models were installed with a 6-inch TV screen installed in the dashboard below the A/C controls that allowed passengers to watch broadcast TV if the transmission was in Park and the parking brake applied. The video entertainment system also had RCA connections to attach a camcorder and watch recorded video. The stereo and video equipment was supplied by Sony. On top of that, the Vanden Plas models featured a keyless entry card.

The Tornado had few factory options, but dealers offered the addition of a cellular phone installed in a dedicated compartment in the dashboard above the glove compartment where a modern passenger side airbag would now be located, and a choice of a cassette tape changer with a separate single disc CD player later upgraded to a CD changer. Catering to tastes for luxury, the Tornado was available in leather for all trim packages, with a wool interior offered on the top three trim packages. The front passenger seat was also equipped with what Morris called "Partner Comfort Seat" where the top portion of the front passenger seat was further articulated to tilt forward, supporting the passenger's shoulders while allowing the seatback structure to recline. The front edge of the passenger seat cushion was also adjustable. This was created by Dr. Yoshiyuki Matsuoka who worked for Nissan starting in 1982 with input from Morris-MG of the UK. .

Like the Skyline and Fairlady ZX, the Tornado coupé was a front-engined and rear-wheel drive vehicle. The MRE4R01A four-speed automatic with electronic overdrive was used as well as a five-speed manual transmission.

The Tornado was equipped with the DUET-SS "Super Sonic Suspension" II system that was also installed on other Morris vehicles at the time, which featured a sonar module mounted under the front bumper that scanned the road surface and adjusted the suspension accordingly via actuators mounted on the strut towers. There was also a switch on the centre console that allowed the driver to change between "Auto", "Soft", "Medium" and "Hard" settings on all models except the XS model, which removed the "Auto" selection.


Body styles

2 door coupe

Engines

Tornado 2.0 - 2.0 L MVG20 E V6 - 85 kW (113 hp) -
Tornado 2.0 - 2.0 L MVG20 ET V6 turbo - 127 kW (170 hp) -
Tornado 2.0 - 2.0 L MVG20 DET V6 turbo - 154 kW (202 hp) -
Tornado 3.0 - 3.0 L MVG30 DE V6 - 157 kW (210 hp) -
Tornado 3.0 - 3.0 L MVG30 DET V6 turbo - 190 kW (255 hp) - 320 Nm (236 lb ft)

Transmissions

5 speed manual
4 speed automatic


Typhoon Mk II

&

MG Typhoon Mk II

In October 1986 there were mechanical changes along with significant modifications to the exterior. There was a new turbocharged DOHC engine, the 2.0-liter MRB20DET 24-valve six-cylinder, while the MLD28 diesel engine was replaced by the new MRD28-series six-cylinder diesel engine.


Range-Rover.jpg



Series I


Petrol-fuelled Range Rovers were fitted with carburettors until 1986, when they were replaced by Lucas electronic fuel injection improving both performance and fuel economy. The Lucas injection system continued to evolve over the next several years.

Because of the Iceberg failure, it was not until 1986 that Range Rovers gained diesel engines from the factory. The more efficient 2,393 cc (2.4 L; 146.0 cu in) inline four VM diesel from Italy was made available as an option for the heavily taxed European market as the 'Turbo D' model,



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P9 Series


Development


Development of the BMW based R30 P9 Series began in July 1976 even before BMW & Rover signed their agreement in 1984, with styling being developed under chief designer Claus Luthe with exterior styling led by Boyke Boyer. In 1978, the final design was approved, with design freeze (cubing process) being completed in 1979. BMW's launch film for the E30 shows the design process including Computer-aided design (CAD), crash testing and wind-tunnel testing. The car was released at the end of November 1982.

Externally, the R30's appearance is very similar to twin headlight versions of its R21 predecessor, however there are various detail changes in styling to the R30. Major differences to the R21 include the interior and a revised suspension, the latter to reduce the over steer for which the R21 was criticised.


Body Styles


In addition to the two-door sedan and Baur convertible body styles of its R21 predecessors, the R30 later also became available as a four-door sedan and five-door estate (marketed and known as the Countryman..

The Countryman body style began life as a prototype built by BMW engineer Max Reisböck in his friend's garage in 1984 and began production in 1987. The factory convertible version began production in 1985, with the Baur convertible conversions remaining available alongside it.


Engines


Initially, the R30 used carryover four-cylinder (M10) and six-cylinder (M20) petrol engines from its R21 predecessor. Over the production run, new families of four-cylinder petrol engines were introduced and the six-cylinder engine received various upgrades. A six-cylinder diesel engine was introduced, in both naturally aspirated and turbocharged forms.


Petrol


16i - 1.6 L M40 inline 4 - 100 PS : 73 kW (98 hp) - 145 Nm 107 lb ft)
18i - 1.8 L M40 inline 4 113 PS : 83 kW 83 kW (111 hp) - 162 Nm (119 lb ft)
18is -1.8 L M42 inline 4 - 136 PS : 100 kW (134 hp) - 172 Nm (127 lb ft)
20i - 2.0 L M20 inline 6 - 129 PS : 95 kW (127 hp) - 164 Nm (121 lb ft)
25i/is/ix - 2.5 L M20 inline 6 - 170 PS : 125 kW (168 hp) - 222 Nm (164 lb ft)
MG 9 / Evo 1 - 2.3 L S14 inline 4 - 195 PS : 143 kW (192 hp) - 230 Nm (170 lb ft)
MG 9 - 2.3 L S14 inline - 220 PS : 162 kW (217 hp) - 245 Nm (181 lb ft)
MG 9 - 2.5 L S14 inline 4 - 238 PS : 162 kW (217 hp) - 240 Nm (177 lb ft)


* With catalytic converter: 90 kW (122 PS; 120 hp), 230 N⋅m (170 lb⋅ft)
** Without catalytic converter: 126 kW (171 PS; 169 hp), 226 N⋅m (167 lb⋅ft)


Diesel


24d - 2.4 L M21 inline 6 - 86 PS : 63 kW (85 hp) - 152 Nm ( 112 lb ft)
24td - 2.4 L M21 inline 6 turbo - 115 PS : 85 kW (113 hp) - 210 Nm (155 lb ft)


Four cylinder Petrol


At the launch of the BMW E30 range in 1982 (pre- Rover P9), the 316 used a 1766 cc version of the RM10 fed by a carburetor and producing 66 kW (89 hp). The 1.8i had the same RM10 engine, but with Bosch L - Jetronic fuel-injection, increasing power to 77 kW (103 hp)while also improving fuel economy.

The 1987 Series 2 (Rover P9) update introduced a new four-cylinder engine: the RM40, which used Bosch fuel-injection. In the 1.8i, a 1,796 cc (110 cu in) version of the RM40 was used. The 1.6i model replaced the 1.6, using a 1,596 cc (97 cu in) version of the RM40.

The 1.8iS was released in 1989, using the new RM42 engine and only being available with two doors. This is the most modern engine available in the R30 range, incorporating DOHC, the updated Bosch Motronic 1.3, hydraulic valve adjusters and coil on ignition. In some markets, the RM42 engine was used in the 1.8i/1.8iC models, instead of the M40.

The MG 9 is powered by the RS14 engine, a high-revving four-cylinder engine.


Six cylinder Petrol


At the launch of the R30 range, the six-cylinder models consisted of the 2.0i, which had a 2.0 L (122 cu in) version of the RM20 producing 92 kW (123 bhp), and the 2.3i, with a 2.3 L (140 cu in) RM20 producing 102 kW (137 bhp) both using Bosch L-Jetronic fuel injection. These models were not sold in North America, presumably for emissions reasons. In 1985, the 2.3 L engine was replaced with a 2.5 L version of the RM20, which produced 125 kW (168 bhp) and used Bosch Motronic fuel injection. This engine was available in the 2.5i variants, including the all-wheel drive 2.5 iX.

An economy version called the 2.5e was released with a lower revving, more fuel efficient engine. The e is an abbreviation for eta, which is used to represent the thermal efficiency of a heat engine. To maximise low-rev torque, the 2.5e engine was the largest available in an R30 (aside from the 3.3i model, which was only sold in South Africa). The 2.5e engine had a longer stroke than the 2.5i version, with a more restrictive head, four cam bearings instead of seven, and single valve springs (instead of the dual valve springs used by the 2.5i version). For versions without a catalytic converter, the 2.5e engine produced 90 kW (121 bhp) at 4250 rpm and 240 N⋅m (177 lbf⋅ft) at 3250 rpm. By comparison, peak torque for the 2.5i engine was 215 N⋅m (159 lb⋅ft) at 4000 rpm.

The 1987 Series 2 update boosted the 20i to 95 kW (127 hp) and the P25i to 125 kW (168 hp), and improved fuel economy


Six cylinder Diesel


In 1984 the 324td (pre Rover P9) was unveiled at the Cowley facility. The RM21 engine used a Garrett turbocharger (without an inter cooler). The engine has a capacity of 2,443 cc (149 cu in) and uses mechanical fuel injection.

In 1985 BMW introduced the 2.4d, (pre Rover P) a naturally aspirated version of the same M21 engine, which was popular in countries with a high motor vehicle tax.

In 1987 an electronically controlled fuel pump was used which increased the torque output by 10 N⋅m (7 lb⋅ft). The updated engine has a smaller turbocharger, decreasing turbo lag.


Drive train


In total, six transmissions were available for the various models of the P30: four manuals, and two automatics.


Manual Transmissions


4-speed Getrag 242— 1.6 and 1.8i models
5-speed Getrag 240 — 16, 1.8i and 2.0i models (with a different bell housing for the 2.0i, to suit the Rover RM42 engine).
5-speed Getrag 260 — 2.3i, P25e, 2.5es and 2.5i models.
5-speed Getrag 265 — MG 9 model (dog leg shift pattern for European models and a standard H-pattern for North American models).


Automatic

3-speed ZF 3 HP 22— 1981 to 1985.
4-speed ZF 4 HP 22 — P20i and P23i models until 1985, available on all models from 1985 onwards


Suspension​


One of the features that added to the roominess of the R30 was the suspension. The front MacPherson strut and rear semi trailing arm suspension were a compact arrangement that left a lot of cabin and boot space for the car's overall size. The semi-trailing arms have been criticised for the dynamic toe and camber changes inherent to the suspension geometry, causing bump steer in hard cornering situations (such as racing and autocross). Nonetheless, reviewers praised the handling of the R30.

A widened version of the R30 front suspension and the drivetrain from the R30 P25i were used in the BMW based MG GT roadster. The BMW based MG 4 and BMW based Rover Compact (R35 / R36) rear suspensions are also very similar to the R30, but utilising five-lug hubs. The BMW M Coupe MG 4 uses a widened version of the same rear semi-trailing arm suspension.


Brakes

For the front wheels, all models use disk brakes. For the rear wheels, most models use disk brakes, except for some 4-cylinder models which use drum brakes. Anti lock braking system (ABS) became available in 1986.


P11 Series


The BMW 7 Series based Rover ( R32) P11 Series was produced from 1986 to 1994. It replaced the R23 and was initially available with straight six or V12 power plants. In 1992, V8 engines became available. From its inception, the R32 was widely considered the most technologically advanced series of cars in its day and set the standard for performance luxury cars well into the 1990s.

The R32 introduced several features for the first time in a BMW: Electronic Damper Control, Traction Control System; standard and long base wheel length(i and iL); and dual-zone climate control. The R32 5.0i was the first car adhering to ‘gentlemen’s agreement’ among the German manufacturers limiting maximum speed to 250 km/h (155 mph).

Additionally, some of the world's first automotive features for passenger vehicles were introduced in R32: projector lens headlamps (1986); double glazed windows (1991, beating Mercedes-Benz by a few months); HID, Xenon headlamps (1991).

R32 also introduced BMW's first V8 engine since the BMW 501 / 502 last produced in 1962, and their first V12 engine, which was also Germany's first post-war V12 engine for a passenger vehicle. The surprise news of Rover's V12 also caused Mercedes Benz to delay the introduction of the W140 by two years from 1989 to 1991.

In 1994, the R32 was replaced by the R38; an evolutionary design that built upon the R32's driver-centric design.


Development & production


The styling is credited to the chief stylist Ercole Sprade and Hans Kerschbaum working under the guidance of then-chief designer Claus Luthe. Design work began in late 1979. By 1983, 1:1 scale models were presented and frozen in October 1984 for production which was scheduled in June 1986.

Production of the R32 P10 Series started with the P35i in June 1986 and the P30i in December 1986, concluding in April 1994..


Features


Some luxury options featured on the R32 include integrated telephone and fax machines, a wine cooler , electronically adjustable rear seats and radio controls for rear passengers (exclusive to the 5.0iL).

In 1991, world first series production low beam Xenon high intensity discharge headlamps (Litronic, only low beam) were introduced on the 5.0iL. Other safety features include a system that automatically increases spring pressure on the windscreen wipers to keep them firmly pressed on the glass at Motorway speeds.

The R32 was the first Rover to be available with traction control (called Automatic Stability Control at the time, however ASC is not considered as stability control by modern definitions). Initial versions (ASC) reduced wheel spin by reducing engine power, while later versions (ASC+T) also applied the rear brakes.

The car was also available in a long wheelbase version (indicated by an 'L' from German Lang, after the model number). These models have an extra 11.4 cm (4.5 in) of leg room for the rear passengers, by stretching the rear doors and body at this point.


Styling


The R32 was the first BMW based Rover model to use L-shaped tail-lights, which were designed with safety of following traffic in mind. Other styling features include BMW's traditional Hoffmiester kink in the rear window line and circular headlights.

Externally, the standard Rover grille indicated which engine was present under the hood: all 6-cylinder models have a narrow grille, and a wider grille was standard for the V8 and V12 models. The narrow grille was available as an option on the 8- and 12-cylinder R32 models.


Engines


Over its lifespan, the R32 P10 Series was produced with straight-six, V8 and V12 gasoline engine

The launch models consisted of the 30i/iL and P35i/iL, which were powered by the M30 straight six engine. Also available at the R32 launch was the 5.0i/iL, which was the first BMW ever sold with a V12 engine. The rated power output of the 5.0 L (305 cu in) RM70 V12 is 220 kW (295 hp).

In 1991, Rover began production of its first V8 engine since 1962 with the end of BMW 501/502 production. This RM60 V8 was introduced in the R32, along with the R34 Rover P11 Series. The 4.0 litre version powered the new 40i/iL models, and the 3.0 litre version was sold in parallel with the RM30 straight-six in the P30i/iL models. The top speed of the 4.0i was electronically limited to 240 km/h (149 mph). Both V8 engines were coupled to a new, 5-speed automatic transmission made by ZF. The Nikasil bore lining used in the RM60 engine was prone when used with high sulphur fuels.


3.0i - RM30 I6 inline 6 - 138 kW : 188 PS (185 hp) - 290 Nm (192 lb ft)
3.0i - RM60 V8 - 160 kW : 218 PS (215 hp) - 290 Nm (214 lb ft)
3.5i - RM30 I6 inline 6 - 155 kW : 211 PS (208 hp) - 305 Nm (225 lb ft)
4.0i - RM60 V8 - 210 kW : 286 PS (282 hp) - 400 Nm (295 lb ft)
5.0i - RM70 V12 - 220 kW : 299 PS (295 hp) - 450 Nm (332 lb ft)
 
Last edited:
Prt XVIII
1987




AEC.jpg


Mammoth

&


Mandator


AEC released their SCANIA based Series III range of models in the UK, Australia and New Zealand. Marketed as before as the Mandator series (10 to 17 tons) and the Mammoth series (17 to 44 tons)


Morris.jpg



Cyclone Mk II

&


MG.png



Cyclone Mk II


In February 1987 a version with three viscous couplings was introduced: one for each axle and one in between. This was originally limited to a production of 200 cars, at a price increase 50 percent higher than for the regular four-wheel-drive version.


Hurricane Mk II


Morris renewed the Hurricane line in 1987 (MT12 series), introducing squared-off styling. Japan and the US received this model. The US Stanza used the same CA20E engine found in the previous generation. The car was unusually heavy for its class, due to sharing a platform with the contemporary Maxima and as a result of its small engine, underpowered. In part to offset this, some export markets offered turbocharged models, badged "Hurricane GS"; and a cousin, the "Hurricane GT".

Europe received a version of the Morris Hurricane as well as its Datsun/Nissan Bluebird siblings replacement. These were built in Cowley, in the United Kingdom, unlike the Nissans which were built in Sunderland and badged as the Nissan Bluebird. The estate was the only "real" Bluebird in this range, imported from Japan.

The MT12 was introduced in Europe in 1985 as a replacement for the MU11 Bluebird based Morris Hurricane. The saloon versions (four door) were available first and the hatchback (five door) became available in January 1988. Using the MU11 platform, Hurricane Estates were all sourced from Cowley. Although it was not the first Japanese based car to be built in Britain (the Honda-based Triumph Acclaim predated it by five years), the Morris Hurricane was instrumental in proving that a British factory could produce vehicles to the same quality standards as those built in Japan. The Morris Cyclone proved so popular that in December 1988 Morris announced the institution of a third shift, in order to bump production from 29,000 to circa 40,000 cars annually. Being built in the United Kingdom, it was possible to sell the Hurricane in markets like Spain and Italy without the quota limitations imposed on foreign made cars. In Italy it was the only Morris available in 1989,

In 1991, Morris replaced the Hurricane Mk II with the Primera based Hurricane Mk III series. In the late 1980s and early 90s, Morris Hurricanes were very commonly seen as taxis, their drivers racking up phenomenal mileage on just routine servicing and there is one still in daily use as a taxi in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain (October 2018). The bodyshell's resistance to corrosion has become legendary - it is not uncommon to see Hurricanes as old as 1987 or 1988 vintage still on British roads with virtually no trace of rust at all. However, the Bluebirds' reliability and all-around robustness has ultimately led to its demise – as a banger racers' car of choice.

Almost all petrol MT12/MT72 Hurricanes came with 8-valve versions of Nissan's CA Engine and either a five-speed manual or a four-speed automatic transmission. The diesel models used the normally aspirated LD20 engine. Performance was average for its class, the 1.6 struggling more with its lower torque characteristics that did not seem suited to the weight of the car. The turbo models used the CA18ET engine with 135 PS (99 kW; 133 bhp) giving a 0 - 60 mph (97 km/h) time of 8.6 seconds. This engine used a small turbocharger producing 0.60 bar of boost.This is the same engine used in the European Nissan Silvia S12. Power outputs for the naturally aspirated engines ranged from 84 to 116 PS (62 to 85 kW; 83 to 114 hp) from the 1.6 through the 2.0-liter version, while the diesel offered 67 PS (49 kW; 66 hp).



Body styles


4 door saloon
5 door hatchback

Engines


Petrol


Morris Hurricane 1.6 - 1.6 L MCA16S I4 - 60 kW (80 hp) - 123 Nm (91 lb ft)
Morris Hurricane 1.8i - 1.8 L MCA18i I4 - 68 kW (91 hp) -
MG Hurricane 1.8 - 1.8 L MCA18DE I4 - 98 kW (131 hp) - 159 Nm (157 lb ft)
Morris Hurricane 1.8 - 1.8 L MCA18ET I4 - 99 kW (133 hp) - 183 Nm (135 lb ft)
MG Hurricane 1.8 - 1.8 L MCA18DET I4 turbo - 124 kW (166 hp) - 228 Nm (168 lb ft)
Morris Hurricane 2.0 L - 2.0 L MCA20S I4 - 76 kW (102 hp) - 160 Nm (118 lb ft)
MG Hurricane 2.0 - 2.0 L MCA20E I4 - 78 kW (105 hp) - 160 Nm (118 lb ft)


Diesel

Morris Hurricane 2.0d - 2.0 L MLD20 I4 - 49 kW (66 hp) - 127 Nm (94 lb ft)


Transmission

4 speed manual
5 speed manual
4 speed automatic


Tempest Mk I

&


MG Tempest Mk I


In 1987 Morris Tempest was introduced with a freshened exterior and interior. Automatic shoulder belts were now found on both the 1987 saloon and wagons built after February 1987. Luxury amenities were offered on both the "base" GL, later renamed GXE and SE trim levels. Such features for the GL/GXE included digital touch entry system on the driver and passenger side door panel, power windows, locks, antenna, power seats, remote trunk release, voice warning system, optional leather seating, optional heated front seats, an optional Electronics Pkg (a saloon exclusive, it included a digital instruments and a trip computer) and an optional power sunroof (sunroof was standard on Typhoon estates). 15-inch alloy wheels were standard for the Typhoon.


Typhoon Mk II

&

MG Typhoon Mk II


In May 1987 the "LX" edition was released. In August of the same year, the GT was added to the lineup.


Morris Whirlwind Mk I

The 1.2, with the larger MA12 1.2 L engine with an electronically controlled carburettor with 57 PS (42 kW; 56 hp), arrived in late 1987

 

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Prt XIX
1988


AEC.jpg



Regent / Regal / Reliance

AEC released their SCANIA based Series III range of bus and coach platforms in the UK, Australia and New Zealand marketed as their Regent series (single decker), Regal (double decker) and Reliance (coach)



Land-Rover.png



90 & 110 Series

A revised block and improved big end bearings were introduced in 1988 to improve reliability.


MG.png


11 Series
The MG 11 Series 5.0 was introduced in 1988 and was the first MG series production automobile to use a V12. The suffix 5.0 means the engine displacement which was unchanged from the standard Rover RM70 V12. The MG 11 Series 5.0 was based on the newly introduced 5.0i/iL. Exterior changes include a front chin spoiler, 17-inch multi-spoke alloy wheels, choice of special colours, "MG 5.0" badge at the rear, and MG pinstriping. The interior was customised according to customer specifications which ranged from a wide range of upholstery, steering wheel options, and gear knobs, and child seats. Standard interior features included an Alpina instrument cluster with a special 300 km/h (186 mph) speedometer and badging. The luxurious amenities provided on a standard 750i/iL, apart from the above changes, were retained. Each MG 11 5.0 was equipped with a special plaque on the interior containing a special identification number.

Mechanical changes included increased engine power to 257 kW (349 PS; 345 hp) and 470 N⋅m (347 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4,000 RPM. The engine was mated to a 4-speed automatic transmission manufactured by ZF Friedrichshafen and had modified gear ratios. Improved springs were installed with Bilstein shock absorbers at the front and Fichteil & Sachs shock absorbers at the rear.

The mechanical improvements enabled the MG 11 Series 5.0 to accelerate to 100 km/h (62 mph) from a standstill in 6.9 seconds and attaining a top speed of 275 km/h (171 mph). Production of the MG 11 Series 5.0 ceased in 1994, when the R32 models were phased out.



10 Series


The R34 MG 10 based generation of the MG 10 was produced from September 1988 to August 1995. Powered by the RS38 straight-6 engine, an evolution of the previous generation's straight-6, it was initially produced in a sedan body style, with a Countryman (estate) version following in 1992.

Production of MG 10 models began with the painted body shell of an R34 MG 10 Series at the Cowley plant. Only the South African MG 10 was entirely assembled at the Rosslyn, South Africa assembly plant from complete knock-down kits supplied from Garching, Germany. The MG 10 Series, which was MG's first wagon saw 891 units produced.

Cosmetic changes to the exterior from the standard R34 included unique front and rear bumpers and side rocker panels, contributing to a drag coefficient of 0.32 (from 0.30),and interior updates included a unique gear shift surround and rear headrests.

The second-generation MG 10 was introduced with the RS38 B36 engine, which generated 232 kW (315 PS; 311 hp) at 6,900 rpm and 360 N⋅m (266 lb⋅ft) of torque at 4,750 rpm, touting a factory 0-97 km/h (60 mph) acceleration figure of 6.3 seconds. Top speed was electronically limited to 250kmh – 155 mph.


M System Wheels

The MG 10 came with an unusual wheel design. From 1988 to 1992 the MG 10 featured the three-piece Style 20 "M-System" wheels, which consisted of directional bolted-on wheel covers and a fin assembly in front of the black, 5-spoke forged aluminium wheel. The purpose of the M-System cover was to divert heat from the brake assembly to increase cooling.




Morris.jpg


Cyclone Mk II

&



MG.png



Cyclone Mk II


For 1988 it became a regularly available model; this was very similar to the Attesa system which first appeared in the Morris Typhoon soon thereafter.


Hurricane Mk II

The later MT72 models replaced the MT12 during 1988, followed by a facelift around a year later. This is a point to note, as it is a common mistake to class all pre-facelift models as MT12s. The facelift models had a more modern and European look, with round front and rear bumpers and the corporate slatted grill. These were eventually built entirely in England.


Tempest Mk I

&


MG Tempest Mk I

An exclusive option for 1988 was the Sonar Suspension System -which was part of the Electronics Pkg- replacing the trip computer that was previously offered. This feature used sonar waves to monitor the road conditions ahead and adjusted the shocks accordingly for the most controlled ride. 1988 was also the year that the previously standard digital touch system offered on the GXE saloon became part of the 'Electronics Package' option as well. The SE (and some GXEs) offered dual power seats, a five-speed manual transmission, three-way shock adjustable suspension, front and rear windshield defroster, and a factory-installed security system. The SE also has a small rear spoiler, all-wheel disc brakes, black side rear view mirrors, and body moulding (GXE got body-colour side rear-view mirrors and matching body moulding). Again, the Tempest's prime competitor was the similarly specified Ford Scorpio, Toyota Cressida (which remained rear wheel drive) and Vauxhall Opel Carlton. The Tempest provided a combination of luxury and sporty features while the Cressida was generally seen as being softer and more luxurious.


Tornado Mk II

&

MG Tornado Mk II

From August 1988, the quad cam version appeared. The bodywork was also facelifted at this time, and now featured a somewhat smoother front appearance. It was the facelifted version that was exported to the USA. In the USA, the Tornado also has a Vanden Plas version. Output of the VG30DE engine also increased marginally at the time of the facelift. Available in top spec form was the new turbocharged 3 litre VG30DET engine which produces 255 PS (188 kW). Only the smaller MVG20ET and MVG20DET engines had intercoolers.


Typhoon Mk II

&

MG Typhoon Mk II

In February 1988 there was an improved and some 20 released GLX anniversary special edition. In May 1988, the "GLS" model was released. In September of the same year, the “Selection” was added to the lineup.

Rover.png



P10 Series


The Rover R34 P10 is based on the third generation of the BMW 5 Series, which was produced from November 2, 1987 until 1996. Initially launched as a sedan in January 1988, the R34 also saw a "Countryman" estate body style added in September 1992. Rover replaced the R34 with the R39 Rover P14 in December 1995, although R34 Countryman models remained in production until June 1996.

The R34 generation marked the first time all wheel drive was incorporated into the P10 Series with the P25iX, and the first V8 engine to be used in a 5 Series. The R34 also saw the introduction of stability control (ASC), traction control (ASC+T) , a 6-speed manual transmission and adjustable damping (EDC) to the P10 range.

There was an unusually large range of engines fitted over its lifetime as nine different engine families were used. These consisted of straight four , straight six and V6 engines.

The R34 MG 10 is powered by the S38 straight-six engine and was produced in sedan and wagon body styles

Development & Launch

Development (BMW only ) ran from July 1981 to early (with Rover from 1984) 1987, with the initial design proposal penned by Ercole Spada in 1982. Under the guidance of chief designer Claus Luthe, BMW based much of the design on the R32 7 Series. Following Spada's departure from BMW and styling approval in 1983, J Mays finalised the design for production in mid-1985. Special attention was paid to aerodynamics, with the E34 basic sedan having a drag coefficient of 0.30.


Series production began in November 1987. In December 1987, the R34 sedan was unveiled to the global press.

Suspension

Front suspension consists of double pivot MacPherson struts, with a replaceable shock absorber cartridge inside a steel strut housing. Control arms and thrust arms control front-to-back and side-to-side movement. (p300-1) Steering on most models is a recirculating ball design, however the all-wheel drive P25iX uses a rack and pinion steering system (along with front suspension) similar to the R30 P0 Series P25iX model. All front suspension components are steel, except that the lower control arms on some models are aluminium.


Rear suspension consists of semi trailing arms with coil springs integrated in a strut assembly.


The next petrol model up was the six-cylinder P20i, which began production in January 1988. It was initially powered by the Rover RM20 single overhead camshaft engine, which was replaced by the Rover RM50 double overhead camshaft engine in 1990. The P20i was the second most popular R34 model globally, with 426,971 units produced. The P25i was the most popular R34 model globally. As per the P20i, the P25i initially used the RM20 engine, which was replaced by the RM50 engine in 1990.

A rare R34 model is the petrol-powered six-cylinder P25iX, of which only 9,366 cars were produced. The P25iX was the first all-wheel drive P11 Series, and the only all-wheel drive model in the R34 range. It was powered by the Rover RM50 engine and was the first P11 Series to use a rack and pinion steering system.

There are two versions of the R34 P30i: an inline-six model produced from 1988 to 1990, and a V8 model produced from 1993 to 1995. The earlier model was one of the last applications of the BMW M30 inline-six engine. The V8 version, which replaced the six-cylinder P35i in the lineup, was powered by the new Rover RM60 V8 engine and was available with a 5-speed manual or 5-speed automatic transmission. Initially, the V8 models were differentiated from other models by the wide grill; in 1994 the wide grill became available on other models.

The highest six-cylinder model (except for the MG 6) was the P35i. Despite the 'P35i' model designation and '3.5' casting on the intake manifold, the Rover RM60 engine found in the R34 P35i actually has a displacement of 3.4 litres (207 cu in).The P35i was replaced by the V8-engined P30i and P40i models in 1993.

In 1993, the P40i model was added to the top of the P10 Series lineup, powered by the Rover RM60 V8 engine and available in both sedan and wagon body styles (the latter not in the US). Transmission options were a 6-speed manual or a 5-speed automatic. A total of 26,485 units were produced. Initially, the V8 models were differentiated from other models by the wider grilles. In 1994 the wide grilles became available on other models as well.

Diesel

The first diesel model was the 24td, which was introduced in 1988.


Body Styles

2 door coupe
4 door saloon
5 door state

Engines

Petrol

1.8i - RM40 B18 inline 4 - 83 kW (111 hp) - 165 Nm (122 lb ft)
1.8i - RM43 B18 inline 4 - 85 kW (114 hp) - 168 Nm (124 lb ft)
2.0i - RM20 B20 inline 6 - 95 kW (127 hp) - 164 Nm (121 lb ft)
2.0i - RM50 B20 inline 6 - 110 kW (148 hp) - 190 Nm (140 lb ft)
2.0i - RM50 B20 TU inline 6 - 110 kW (148 hp) - 190 Nm (140 lb ft)
2.5i - RM20 B25 inline 6 - 125 kW (168 hp) - 222 Nm (164 lb ft)
2.5i - RM20 B25 inline 6 - 141 kW (189 hp) - 245 Nm (181 lb ft)
2.5i - RM20 B25 TU inline 6 - 141 kW (189 hp) - 250 Nm (184 lb ft)
3.0i - RM30 B30 inline 6 - 138 kW (185 hp) - 260 Nm (192 lb ft)
3.0i - RM60 B30 inline 6 - 138 kW ( 185 hp) - 260 Nm (192 lb ft)
3.5i - RM30 B35 inline 6 - 155 kW (208 hp) - 305 Nm (225 lb ft)
4.0i - RM60 B40 V8 - 210 kW (282 hp) - 400 Nm (295 lb ft)
MG 10 - RS38 B36 inline 6 - 232 kW (311 hp) - 360 Nm (266 lb ft)
MG 10 - RS38 B38 inline 6 - 250 kW (335 hp) - 400 Nm (266 lb ft)


Diesel

2.4td - RM21 D24 inline 6 - 85 kW (114 hp) - 222 Nm (164 lb ft)
2.5td - RM51 D25 inline 6 - 85 kW (114 hp) - 222 Nm (164 lb ft)
2.5tds - RM51 D25 inline 6 - 105 kW (141 hp) - 260 Nm (192 lb ft)


Drive train


Manual


5-speed Getrag 260
5-speed Getrag 280 — 3.6 L MG 6 model only
5-speed ZF SE 310 — 91-92 US, and European M50 engines
5-speed Getrag 250G - 93-95 US M50 engines.
6-speed Getrag 420G — 640i and 1994-1996 MG 6 only


Automatic


4-speed ZF 4 HP 22 - RM20 and RM30 engines
4-speed GM 4L 30 E (A4S 310R) - RM50 engines (US only)
5-speed ZF 5 HP 18 - RM50 and RM51 (except US) and 1992-1995 3.0i (RM60 B30).
5-speed ZF 5 HP 30 - 4.0i
 
Last edited:
Prt XX
1989


Vanden Plas.jpg


Vanden Plas is launched as a completely separate brand under the Rover group umbrella.



They will start selling models based on Nissans ‘Infiniti’ range from 1990.


Land-Rover.png


90 & 110 Series

A re-designed breather system was introduced in 1989 to improve reliabilty.


Discovery Series I


The Discovery Series I was conspicuously presented during the 1989 Frankfurt Motor Show, and introduced to market in the United Kingdom in October that year, after the vehicle had been developed under the internal code-name "Project Jay". The new model was strongly based on the more upmarket Range Rover using the same chassis, suspension and 4WD-system, and a derivative body design – especially the four-door copied much of the more expensive Range Rover's body structure. However, with smaller engines available, just two side doors at introduction, and other cost-reductions, the new Discovery was priced more affordably, for a larger, more middle-class market segment, intended to counter the Japanese competition at the time.

The Discovery was Land Rover's first model that was positioned as a family car, designed to be both fully off-road capable, and suitable as a daily driver for any family, even offering more luggage space, and optionally more seats than the Range Rover. The Mk I Discovery remains the only model offered as a three-door, and was the only one available with a four cylinder petrol engine until 2017

At launch, the Discovery was only available as a three-door model, but the five-door version followed the next year, in 1990. Both were fitted with five seats, with the option to have two jump seats fitted in the boot. Compared to the Range Rover, the Discovery was given a slightly longer rear, which was further extended on the series II. In order to make room for optional third row jump seats, the spare wheel had to move to the outside of the car, fitted to a side-swinging rear door, instead of the Range Rover's split tailgate. The roof of the rear section of the car was raised, to create sufficient headroom in the third row. Combined with a safari side window cluster, this gave the Discovery its own distinct look and profile.

Land Rover employed an external consultancy, Conran design Group to design the interior. They were instructed to ignore current car interior design and position the vehicle as a 'lifestyle accessory'. Their interior incorporated a number of original features, although some ideas shown on the original interior mock-ups (constructed inside a Range Rover body shell at Conran's workshops) were left on the shelf, such as a custom sunglasses holder built into the centre of the steering wheel. The design was unveiled to critical acclaim, and won a British Design Award in 1989.

The original transmission was a dual-ratio five-speed manual with drive via a transfer case with a lockable centre differential.

Initially – and regardless of exterior colour choice – much of the interior in all Discovery's was trimmed in light 'Sonar Blue' upholstery and plastic, with magazine holders above the windscreen, hand-holds for rear passengers incorporated into the head restraints of the front seats, remote radio controls on the instrument cluster, twin removable sunroof panels (including a special zip-up storage bag behind the rear seats) and a Land Rover-branded cloth fabric holdall in the front centre console for oddments storage that could be removed from the vehicle and worn as a handbag using a supplied shoulder strap (relatively few of these bags have survived, making them collectable items). However, most of all of the interior and dashboard components came either from the Range Rover or from other Rover Group cars - for example the switchgear and instrument pod were from the Maestro and Montego; the digital clock from the Metro, the dashboard air vents were from the Rover 800 and the heater/air conditioning control panel was from the Range Rover. Similarly, the Discovery utilised several Range Rover body panels - most notably the door shells and window frames, but with different aluminium skin panels, retaining the distinctive Morris Marina door handles. Other standard parts used were the headlights from the Morris 200/400 van and tail lights from the Austin Maestro van. The latter would continue to bear the Austin logo on their lenses until production of the first generation Discovery ended in 1998.

In Australia, the Series I launched in April 1991, available only as a three-door estate in 3.5-litre V8i guise with 115 kW (154 hp) and 260 N⋅m (190 lb⋅ft) and coupled with a five-speed manual gear box. In October 1991, Land Rover launched the five-door body variant in base V8i and luxury HL versions. Both featured central locking, electric windows, headlight washers and heated door mirrors, with the HL adding alloy wheels, air conditioning, driving lights and an improved audio system. Furthermore, the Tdi engine became available, rated at 83 kW (111 hp) and 265 N⋅m (195 lb⋅ft). In early-1993, a four-speed automatic option was added to the Australian range and the HL was discontinued



Body styles

3 door estate
5 door estate

Engines


Petrol


Discovery 2.0 - 2.0 L T Series I4 -
Discovery 3.5 - 3.5 L Rover V8 -
Discovery 3.9 - 3.9 L Rover V8 -

Diesel

Discovery 2.5 - 2.5 L 200Tdi I4 -
Discovery 2.5 - 2.5 L 300 Tdi I4 -
Discovery 4.0 - 4.0 L Rover V8 -

Transmissions


4 speed ZF 4HP22 automatic
6 speed manual


Morris.jpg




Morris Tempest Mk II


&



MG.png



MG Tempest Mk II


This would be the last of the ‘big Morris’s’ to be sold in the UK and Europe as customers downsized to smaller models

Instead all further Tempest models and the Typhoon/Tornado series would only be sold in Australia, North America and New Zealand.

The redesigned Morris Tempest debuted on October 24, 1988 for the 1989 model year, internally designated MJ30. Larger dimensions made it the second Japanese based saloon sold in North America to qualify as a "mid-size" (after the Austin 7). Morris used a "4DSC" window decal on the third generation Morris Typhoon in North America, marketing it as a "four-door sports car."

Body styles

4 door saloon

Engines

Tempest 3.0 - 3.0 L MGV30E V6 - 119 kW (160 hp) - 247 Nm (182 lb ft)
MG Tempest 3.0 - 3.0 L MVE30DE V6 - 142 kW (190 hp) - 258 Nm (190 lb ft)


Transmissions

5 speed MSRF5F50A manual
5 speed MSRF5F50V manual
4 speed MRE4F02A automatic
4 speed MRE4F04V automatic


Typhoon Mk II

&

MG Typhoon Mk II

In January 1989 Typhoon’s with an automatic gearbox received a shift lock.


Typhoon Mk III

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MG Typhoon Mk III


In December 1988, the Morris Typhoon Mk III (M33) was announced. A month later, in January 1989, the Typhoon Mk III went on sale, originally only available as a four-door saloon. The base engine offering again was a 1.8-litre four, the available options consisted of a 2-litre six (SOHC, DOHC or DOHC Turbo) and a 2.8-litre diesel inline-six. Early in 1991 a DOHC 2.5-litre inline-six coupled to a five-speed automatic became available.

The Morris Typhoon used a rear-wheel drive layout. It has the same floor plan as the Nissan A31 Cefiro and the four-door Nissan Skyline R32. They also have many interchangeable parts which makes them ideal for modification. Suspension parts are identical to the Nissan Silvia S13 model.

The Toyota competitor was the Cresta, and there was also the new Honda Inspire in the same segment. The Typhoon was repositioned slightly higher as a larger luxury saloon, as its exterior dimensions matched with the Nissan Cedric and Nissan Gloria.

Trim levels included the GL, GLX and GLS. The GLS was the only Typhoon with the MRB25DE option and a front lip spoiler, with other models offering only the MRB20, MCA18 and MRD28 engines.

V6 engines were no longer available; instead, the MRB20E type (SOHC), MRB20DE type (DOHC), MRB20DET type (single turbo DOHC) series 6-cylinder 2.0L, CA18i series four-cylinder SOHC1.8L and RD28-series six-cylinder diesel engines were offered. In addition to this, the improved HICAS-II suspension configuration was used. Four-cylinder model (CA18i) series and six-cylinder diesel engine (RD28) in the presence of instruction car specifications.



Body styles

4 door saloon
5 door estate

Engines

Petrol

Typhoon 1.8 - 1.8 L MCA18i I4 - 75 kW (100 hp)
Typhoon 2.0 - 2.0 L MRB20 DET I6 turbo - 158 kW (212 hp) - 186 Nm (137 lb ft)
Typhoon 2.0 - 2.0 L MRB20 DE I6 turbo - 114 kW (153 hp) - 181 Nm (133 lb ft)
Typhoon 2.0 - 2.0 L MRB20 E I6 turbo - 110 kW (148 hp) - 167 Nm (123 lb ft)
Typhoon 2.5 - 2.5 L MRB25 DE I6 turbo - 149 kW (200 hp) - 255 Nm (188 lb ft)

Diesel

Typhoon 2.8d - 2.8 L MRD28 I6 - 74 kW (99 hp) - 181 Nm (134 lb ft)

Transmissions
5 speed manual
4 speed automatic
5 speed automatic

Morris Whirlwind Mk I

Another face lift came in March 1989, which consisted of some minor upgrades such as deeper bumpers, a new front grille, minor interior details, and headlight changes. This was also when the five-door hatchback version was introduced in Europe, shortly before Ford launched the third-generation Fiesta which also offered a 5-door model for the first time.



Rover.png



Rover P 10 Series


2.4td diesel model introduced
1.8i four-cylinder model introduced
Driver's side airbag introduced
 
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