(As-of-yet-unnamed) Gothic Empire TL

Quick religious map of the world in 1103. I do mean quick, I made this in less than two days, so if there are any glaringly obvious historical errors, please do point that out (especially worried about South East Asia as I am completely blind when it comes to that entire region. I've chosen to leave out a couple of regions. Most notably, obviously, the Americas, but also the Malay Archipelago and Japan. These places haven't really been impacted by the PoD yet, so I don't see much point to drawing them (this is my excuse for being lazy). Mostly gonna be about Christianity, Islam, Zoroastrianism, as I've written extensively enough about Manichaeism and just don't have that much to say about Buddhism or Hinduism, or the Pagan religions.
religion.png

Notes per religion:

Christianity
Basic traits per denomination
Eastern Orthodox
Theology: Chalcedonian Dyophysitism ("Christ in two natures, divine and human, united in one person")
Administration: Communion of autocephalous Patriarchates
Head: primus inter pares, the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople-New Rome
Central basilica: Church of the Holy Wisdom, Constantinople
Western Orthodox
Theology: Chalcedonian Dyophysitism ("Christ in two physis (Greek: generally, 'natures'), divine and human, united in one person")
Administration: Communion of Archbishops subordinate to the Holy See
Head: the Pope, the Bishop of Rome-in-Exile
Central basilica: Cathedral of Saint Maurice, Tours (de-facto, "temporary") / Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome (de-jure, "eternal")
Oriental Orthodox
Theology: Miaphysitism ("Christ in one nature, fully divine and fully human")
Administration: Communion of autocephalous Patriarchates
Head: none
Central basilica: none ; various among the autocephalies
Occidental Orthodoxy
Theology: Arian Subordinationism ("Christ who has a beginning, begotten by and obedient in all things to God the Father, who has no beginning")
Administration: Communion of autonomous Diocese
Head: none ; Primate of the Diocese of Annonaria & Archbishop of Ravenna has a "precedence of honour"
Central basilica: Basilica of Saint Vitalis, Ravenna
African Orthodoxy
Theology: Adoptionist Subordinationism ("Christ who is the exalted Lord, adopted to God at the Conception")
Administration: Unitary Archdiocese
Head: Primate of Africa & Archbishop/Patriarch of Carthage
Central basilica: Basilica of Domus Karita, Carthage
Church of the East
Theology: Lapatian Dyophysitism ("Christ in two qnome (Syriac: generally, 'natures') unmixed but eternally united in one person")
Administration: Hierarchy of Internal Provinces in the Empire of Assyria and communion of autonomous External Provinces
Head: Patriarch of Mahoza of Seleucia & Ctesiphon and Catholicos of all the East on the Holy Apostolic See of Saint Thomas of the Apostolic Church of the East
Central basilica: Basilica of Saint Thomas the Apostle, Mahoza

Catholicism (Eastern Orth. & Western Orth.)
At the time of this map, the thirty-three year experiment that was the Constantinople-Ctesiphon Ecumenical Union is four years gone, and the several century-long divorce process between Rome-in-Exile and New Rome has finally come to some kind of culmination. The Union had happened with very little input from the western Church and the Pope in Tours, which been fuel to the roaring fire that was the Filioque controversy and the general animosity between the two halves of Catholicism, and which led just two years later to the excommunication of the Patriarchate of Constantinople (an all churches in communion with it) by the Papacy. Thirty years later, conservative factions had regained control in Constantinople and in Mahoza (aka. Ctesiphon) and the Ecumenical Union had been broken. These conservatives returned to the controversy of the Filioque, and furiously denounced the arrogance of the Papacy. In an act of either defiance or insult, the eastern Patriarchs 'unilaterally' elevated the Metropolis of Kiev to the status of Patriarchate and, when the Papacy once again fired off a volley of criticism, returned the favour of excommunication. Catholic Orthodoxy was nowm finally and formally, split in twain.

Oriental Church
The Communion of the three Miaphysite Churches - the Armenian church of the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin, the Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria under the Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of all Africa on the Holy See of St. Mark the Apostle, and the Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East - have since their independence following the council of Chalcedon in 451 been broadly an underdog in the game of Christian churches, being out of the favour of the Emperors of Constantinople from the beginning, and then beset by the Arab invasions in the 7th century. Now, however, the Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans in the East, more commonly known as the Emperor of Amida, has given Oriental Orthodoxy an Empire that is on their side. The conquests of Emperor Michael II not only brought ancient Antioch into Christian hands for the first time in centuries, but even went as far as to donate it and an expansive associated patrimony to the Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, establishing an ecclesiastical state not seen outside of the Papist west. Time will tell if the Amidans have history on their side, but for now they certainly have as so the Oriental Church.

Occidental Church
The Occidentals are the great Archheretics of Christianity. Even if the Papists despise the Constantinopolitans, and the Constantinopolitans loathe the Antiochenes, and the Antiochenes find disagreable the Mahozans, all can agree that the so-called Orthodoxy of the Gothic Church and its offspring are the greater doctrinal foe. This church stems theologically from Arius of Alexandria, who preached, logically and simply, that if Jesus was the Son of God, then he must be Begotten by God the Father (afterall, what Father does not beget his Son?), and if he is begotten, if there is a time at which he came into being, then there must have been a time when he was not. Thus, Arius concludes, God the Son cannot be coeternal with God the Father, and if he is not coeternal with the Father then he must be subordinate to the Father. This rejection of the doctrine of the trinity - the very heart of Christianity, according to some - is despised by the rest of Christianity, seen as among the highest of theological errors.
However, the Occidental Orthodox have recently been outflanked by radicals on their side. The contraction of the Gothic Empire - to which the Occidental Orthodox Church was deeply tied; even frequently called simply the Gothic Church - has lead to a decline in centralisation. In North Africa, always a troublesome province in matters of faith, this has allowed a new Church to spawn. The Diocese of Vandalia under the Archbishop of Carthage was forcefully seperated by the Egyptian Sultans when the Gothic administrative provice of the same name was abolished and replaced by the Fihrid Emirate of al-Andalus. The Church remained, now as a severed appendage of the main body. However, over a hundred years later when the Sahmid Empire itself violently collapsed, the Church in Ravenna was able to re-establish contact with the Africans. The initial merging happened amicably enough, with the new rulers of the territory, the Majalids, distracted by other theatres. However, a radicalism had emerged in Africa in the years of seperation. A reform movement that claimed to return theology back to the original truth. This movement, allegedly empowered by the Majalids who eventually decided to demand a fresh seperation of Christians under the reign from those elsewhere, had grown rapidly before the reunification, and in 1071 the Diocese of Africa and Mauretania proclaimed a new creed: Christ was a perfect human soul, elected and adopted by God at the time of the Conception, and elevated to divinity at the Resurrection. This form was even more radical a rejection of the trinity than the Arians: God the Father did not make God the Son, rather, the Son was no God at all.

Church of the East
The first of all churches to seperate from the Great Church, even before the schism of 451 that made the Oriental Churches, the Church of the East - known also as the Syrian Church (often East Syrian or Assyrian, to avoid confusion with the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch), the Persian Church and (incorrectly and derogatively) as the Nestorian Church - has spent the six centuries since its formal schism in 410 spreading its gospel among the many peoples of Asia. The Turks who now rule Kiev were originally of this branch before they became Eastern Catholics, as were once most of the House of Varaz which now dominates Iran and Aniran. Assyrian Christianity has significant communities as far away as China and the land of the Uyghurs. Much like the Oriental Orthodox, the Assyrian Church of the East has also recently acquired an imperial champion of their own, in the Holy Emperor of Assyria and the Land Between the Rivers. This state originates in the great Sasanian Civil War of the 8th century, when the governor of Nineveh, Aram I, was proclaimed as the King of Nineveh by the Church and with the consent of the eventually-victorious Shahanshah Shapur V. This kingdom functioned almost as an organ of the Church, with the latter being in charge of the entirety of the civil administration. In the 11th century, as the Sasanians were finally crumbling under the might of the Varazians, Aram's descendant rapidly and expertly seized Mesopotamia, and as God willed it, the Varazians reached the maximal extent of the conquests before crossing the Zagros into that lowland. The land seized by the Kingdom corresponded with the seven Internal Provinces of the Church of the East, and these were as such reorganised to be fit for purpose as administrative divisions of a true Empire. Furthermore, the King seized to be just a King, as following the capture of Mahoza (Ctesiphon-Seleucia), the King was re-crowned by the Catholicos-Patriarch in a ceremony below the great Arch of Chosroes, discarding the old title of Malik for the new Qisar, or Caesar. Under a progressive Patriarch-Catholicos and facilitated by the open dialouge between the Sanjari Turks and the Roman Empire, the Church of the East and the (eastern) Orthodox Church (re-)entered communion in 1068 AD, on the basis that theological disagreements were mostly based on differences in liturgical language (Syrian qnome and parsapa and Greek physis and hypostasis can easily be undersood as respecitvely synonymous terms), and that the seperation of the Church of the East had occured on political, not religious, grounds (the need for Christians under the Shahanshah to distance themselves from his rival in Rome). Outside of Turkey, the union was mostly superficial, an opening of diplomatic connections between Mahoza and Constantinople, more than any kind of true uniad moment. Despite this, later conservative leaders in Mahoza rejected the union, claimed that qnome differed from physis, and that the seperation of the Church of the East at the Council of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, while it may have been prompted by political demands, was a righteous and necessary ecclesiological decision. As such, the churches seperated, and the turks abandoned the East.

Islam
Basic traits per denomination

Sunni / Athari
Sunni: 'those who act according to the Sunnah' (traditions and practices of the Prophet)
Athari: 'traditionalism'
Doctrine of governance: Imam descended from the Prophet Muhammed through his daughter Fatima, his cousin Ali, and their sons Hassan and Husayn. Direct rule by the Imam and indirect rule through Sultans are both accepted as legitimate and righteous under the Law.

Emphasis of jurisprudence: Taqlid (the following of legal precedence over individual reasoning by jurists); Imam is mujtahid (one who may engage in ijtihad)
Devotional practice: Popular esotericism (akin to OTL Sufi practice, where local communities are included in devotional rituals conducted by organised tariqas/brotherhoods)
Khawarij / Mansuri / Ulemi
Khawarij: 'those who walk away' (referring to the "exodus" of the sect from the mainstream during the early period)
Mansuri: 'followers of Mansur' (referring to Mansur al-Hadi, the pre-eminent Khawarij preacher who established the first community in Nizwa)
Ulemi: 'followers of the Ulama' (referring to the emphasis placed on governance by councils of islamic scholars, or ulama)
Doctrine of governance: Imam is elected by a council of scholars, to elevate the best among them. Imamate is a primarily worldly office; spiritual aspects derive only from theological expertise of the Imam.
Emphasis of jurisprudence: Ijtihad (independent reasoning by jurists on the basis of scripture and precedence over the following of tradition)
Devotional practice: Popular esotericism

Ibrahimi
Ibrahimi: 'followers of Ibrahim' (referring to Imam Ibrahim, the 11th and final Imam according to the Ibrahimis)
Doctrine of governance: Rulers must follow the Law, as laid out by jurists, but the buisness of governance should be left to Emirs and Maliks.
Emphasis of jurisprudence: Ijtihad
Devotional practice: Exclusionary esotericism (ascetic monasticism akin to OTL Eastern Orthodox monastic traditions)
Sahiri
Sahiri: 'followers of Sahir' (referring to Imam Sahir al-Salim, the 11th and final Imam according to Sahiris)
Doctrine of governance: the council of deputies appointed by Sahir al-Salim before his assassination should rule the community until the return of Sahir's successor, the Final Imam, at the end of time.
Emphasis of jurisprudence: Taqlid, ijtihad only permitted by the deputies of the imam
Devotional practice: Emphasis on simple prayer
Khilafatiyya
Khilafatiyya: 'teachings of the Khilafah/Successor' (referring to the millenarian doctrine of the emergence of a Successor to the Messenger of God, preceding the End Times)
Doctrine of governance: the Caliphs (initially only Ali ibn Muhammad, but later also his successors) rule undisputed as direct and enlightened successors to the Final Prophet
Emphasis of jurisprudence: Ijtihad with a violent aversion to percieved innovation springing from blind taqlid
Devotional practice: Simple, ascetic prayer ; rejection of esoteric ritual practice as innovation (bid'ah)


Read post #95 'A post about the state of the Islamic world in 1100 AD" for more details

Zoroastrianism
The collapse of the Sasanians and the rise of the Varazians brought a paradigm-shift to the Zoroastrian world. The Sasanians had, for most of their history but especially after the reconsolidation under Shapur V, promoted the doctrine of Zurvanism. This variant theology of Zoroastrianism was based on centuries of transmission and re-interpretation of the original Avesta texts. Where what might be called prototypical Zoroastrianism preaches a dualistic cosmology of good and evil in which a single uncreated deity, Ahura Mazda (Lord of Wisdom)
, exists in conflict with Angra Maniyu, the Spirit of Malevolence, the Zurvanites preach a much more unitarian, and fatalistic, cosmology. Their ultimate god is not the Spirit of Benevolence (Spenta Mainyu), but Zurvan, the Personage of Space and Infinite Time, the One Alone (Aka) God of Time beyond Time. Zurvan is beyond anything that exists, completely transcendental, neutral, without passion, amoral and beyond good and evil. Zurvan, undifferentiated Time, was the father of the twin brothers, Spenta and Angriya Mainyu - a tendency knowns as the 'twin brothers doctrine' - by whom all that exists would be created. Beyond all differentiation, Zurvan was of course completely androgyne, and as such could concieve the two brothers alone. The teaching of the absolute God beyond all multiplicity or dualism led to some unfortunate places, such an extreme belief in predestination and rejection of free will among some scholars.
Compelling as this is, it was not to last. The branch had never truly caught on outside of specific regions; in Mesopotamia, the heart of the empire, it saw quite a bit of traction among the upper echelons of society; in the north, Tabarestan and the Atropatene where the Sasanians held out the longest, and further north among the barbarian kingdom of the Bulgars on the Volga, it became entrenched as orthodoxy. The Varazians, however, rejected these teachings. The Varazians, perhaps due to their distance from the imperial core, had not acquired to this deviant comsology. They still held to the half dualist, half monotheist theology of most Zoroastrians, particularly those away from the beating hearts of Sasanian civilization in Cteisphon, Yazd and later Ardabil. Magi who insisted on the supremacy of Zurvanism were, frequently, simply removed from their post. The Varazians encouraged a textual movement that had occasionally brewed somewhere within Sasanian fire temples in the last several centuries, but which had always been kept down by the establishment. Under new managment, such a movement could finally flourish, and as magi went back to the Avestas, both ones that had been copied down under the Sasanians, and some that were even older, they found no fatalistic god Zurvan who existed before and above and beyond all that exists. Through this reformation, Zurvan, derived as it is from the Zend zruvan-, 'Time', became once again merely an abstract concept. The God that the Zurvanites had found was not one from the text, but a conclusion they had found necessary from their reading of it. The Varazian magi found no such necessity. With time, the Tabarestanis and Medians and even the Bulgars, who were quite resistant, began to consign godly Zurvan to the past; not a violent, revolutionary rejection, but a simple decline in popularity. Most people were quick to adapt to the change, perhaps because such high-minded disputes about the nature of time and space and what lies beyond often don't bother most people, many of them had always understood Zurvan as a parable, a story from their faith, a cosmological myth among a rich tapestry of cosmological myths. The rapid decline in popularity of the cult of Zurvan can perhaps be blamed on Zurvan itself. Maybe it shouldn't be surprising that the androgyne, amoral, undifferentiated One God of Time Beyond Time, beyond and entirely agnostic to all that exists, is simply less adhesive to the minds of most believers than the Benevolent Spirit, the god that gives freedom and justice and which struggles constantly, as they themselves do, against the spirit of evil and chaos.

The Rest
Yeah, that's all you're getting. I've covered Manichaeism previously, and Buddhism and Hinduism have not been overly affected by the PoD, and I also just don't know enough about them to really type out a big blob of text for them. So here are some bullet-points in stead.
- Buddhism is far stronger in India than IOTL, and there's some messiness going on in northern Indochina, with the Thais moving around and the meeting of Theravada and Vajrayana schols in northern Burma.
- India as a whole is, of course, massively simplified. Anyone who's tried to just do a bit of reading up on Hindu sectarianism, you know just getting the basics right, will immediately come to wish that no only had they not bothered, but will long for a day where they could not hope to tell you what a 'vaishnavism' even is.
Long and short of it: there are denomination of Sanatana Dharma which are not shown. Jains have a significant presence among the Western Chalukyas, up on the Deccan, but they aren't the majority anywhere and aren't shown on the map.
- China is probably the one region I got the closest to changing to be more detailed before abandoning it. China is a big dumb mess. Chinese Folk Religion is the biggest religion, but it's also, to quote wikipedia (which is in turn quoting a scholar on the subject), an empty bowl, which can variously be filled with the contents of institutionalised religions such as Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism. Seperating 'Chinese religion' out as its own category feels wrong, since there isn't such a thing as 'Chinese religion' (the three teachings of Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism were not only not simply segments of a greater whole but were in fact frequently at odds with each other), then I thought about doing an outline around China Proper with a note saying 'region in which Chinese folk religion and Syncretism are dominant' or something, but that just felt sort of hacky. And then I've also additionally thrown a giant Manichaean population into this mess. Great. So here's what you get: a note attached to the post saying "China is simplified on this map and, in this context, 'Mahayana Buddhism' should be read as synecdoche for the various interrelated, syncretic and competing faiths and philosophies that make up religion in China"
- North Asian Shamanism is a broad umbrella term under which the biggest religion is Tengrism. I don't want to create a seperate category for 'Tengri' and then lump the rest of the North Asian paganisms into a seperate category when, really, if we're doing a 'North Asian Paganism' category, well yeah Tengri definetly fits that bill. It's a simplification, but I am but one man.
- I don't have enough to write about Judaism to justify an entire subheading but: they're going strong in Yemen. the collapse of the Muhallabids brought a bit of breathing room, but the invasion of the Sahiris very quickly closed it again. The Hadramawati Himyarites made good off the chaos and resisted the Muslims effectively, while a contingent of Adeni Himyarite Jews fled across the Gulf and founded a community in the Gulf of Tadjoura.
-Manichaeism: I've written extensively about it elsewhere, don't need to do so here.
- European Paganism: mostly the Slavic variety but too many Baltics in this category to call it 'Slavic Paganism'. It's grown into a bit of an institution in Novgorod, a state that very briefly experienced the institutionalism of Christianity and learned what they could from it. Still won't last, though. German merchants are coming.
- Other Paganism: the absolute worst contender, here. Garbage category. Includes: West African Animism; Waaqeffanna of the Oromo; the indigenous religion of the Vlachs of Transylvania (probably should've put this one in European Paganism, genuinely have no idea why I didn't, since the coloure region also includes some non-Vlachs); a grab-bag of Caucasian paganisms which I couldn't be bothered to research deeper; Benzhuism of the Bai people (although this one might be in the wrong spot on the map. Again; lazy); ad the the mess of Animist and others that existed (and continue to exist) in the interior of South East Asia.


This post has literally taken me all day to write. I think I started around two pm and as I write these words the clock on my computer says 23:58. Can you guess at what point in writing this my browser crashed and caused me to lose a good two hours of work? Don't forget to save, kids. Constantly.
 
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Quick religious map of the world in 1103. I do mean quick, I made this in less than two days, so if there are any glaringly obvious historical errors, please do point that out (especially worried about South East Asia as I am completely blind when it comes to that entire region. I've chosen to leave out a couple of regions. Most notably, obviously, the Americas, but also the Malay Archipelago and Japan. These places haven't really been impacted by the PoD yet, so I don't see much point to drawing them (this is my excuse for being lazy). Mostly gonna be about Christianity, Islam, Zoroastrianism, as I've written extensively enough about Manichaeism and just don't have that much to say about Buddhism or Hinduism, or the Pagan religions.
View attachment 750415
Notes per religion:

Christianity
Basic traits per denomination
Eastern Orthodox
Theology: Chalcedonian Dyophysitism ("Christ in two natures, divine and human, united in one person")
Administration: Communion of autocephalous Patriarchates
Head: primus inter pares, the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople-New Rome
Central basilica: Church of the Holy Wisdom, Constantinople
Western Orthodox
Theology: Chalcedonian Dyophysitism ("Christ in two physis (Greek: generally, 'natures'), divine and human, united in one person")
Administration: Communion of Archbishops subordinate to the Holy See
Head: the Pope, the Bishop of Rome-in-Exile
Central basilica: Cathedral of Saint Maurice, Tours (de-facto, "temporary") / Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome (de-jure, "eternal")
Oriental Orthodox
Theology: Miaphysitism ("Christ in one nature, fully divine and fully human")
Administration: Communion of autocephalous Patriarchates
Head: none
Central basilica: none ; various among the autocephalies
Occidental Orthodoxy
Theology: Arian Subordinationism ("Christ who has a beginning, begotten by and obedient in all things to God the Father, who has no beginning")
Administration: Communion of autonomous Diocese
Head: none ; Primate of the Diocese of Annonaria & Archbishop of Ravenna has a "precedence of honour"
Central basilica: Basilica of Saint Vitalis, Ravenna
African Orthodoxy
Theology: Adoptionist Subordinationism ("Christ who is the exalted Lord, adopted to God at the Conception")
Administration: Unitary Archdiocese
Head: Primate of Africa & Archbishop/Patriarch of Carthage
Central basilica: Basilica of Domus Karita, Carthage
Church of the East
Theology: Lapatian Dyophysitism ("Christ in two qnome (Syriac: generally, 'natures') unmixed but eternally united in one person")
Administration: Hierarchy of Internal Provinces in the Empire of Assyria and communion of autonomous External Provinces
Head: Patriarch of Mahoza of Seleucia & Ctesiphon and Catholicos of all the East on the Holy Apostolic See of Saint Thomas of the Apostolic Church of the East
Central basilica: Basilica of Saint Thomas the Apostle, Mahoza

Catholicism (Eastern Orth. & Western Orth.)
At the time of this map, the thirty-three year experiment that was the Constantinople-Ctesiphon Ecumenical Union is four years gone, and the several century-long divorce process between Rome-in-Exile and New Rome has finally come to some kind of culmination. The Union had happened with very little input from the western Church and the Pope in Tours, which been fuel to the roaring fire that was the Filioque controversy and the general animosity between the two halves of Catholicism, and which led just two years later to the excommunication of the Patriarchate of Constantinople (an all churches in communion with it) by the Papacy. Thirty years later, conservative factions had regained control in Constantinople and in Mahoza (aka. Ctesiphon) and the Ecumenical Union had been broken. These conservatives returned to the controversy of the Filioque, and furiously denounced the arrogance of the Papacy. In an act of either defiance or insult, the eastern Patriarchs 'unilaterally' elevated the Metropolis of Kiev to the status of Patriarchate and, when the Papacy once again fired off a volley of criticism, returned the favour of excommunication. Catholic Orthodoxy was nowm finally and formally, split in twain.

Oriental Church
The Communion of the three Miaphysite Churches - the Armenian church of the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin, the Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria under the Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of all Africa on the Holy See of St. Mark the Apostle, and the Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East - have since their independence following the council of Chalcedon in 451 been broadly an underdog in the game of Christian churches, being out of the favour of the Emperors of Constantinople from the beginning, and then beset by the Arab invasions in the 7th century. Now, however, the Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans in the East, more commonly known as the Emperor of Amida, has given Oriental Orthodoxy an Empire that is on their side. The conquests of Emperor Michael II not only brought ancient Antioch into Christian hands for the first time in centuries, but even went as far as to donate it and an expansive associated patrimony to the Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, establishing an ecclesiastical state not seen outside of the Papist west. Time will tell if the Amidans have history on their side, but for now they certainly have as so the Oriental Church.

Occidental Church
The Occidentals are the great Archheretics of Christianity. Even if the Papists despise the Constantinopolitans, and the Constantinopolitans loathe the Antiochenes, and the Antiochenes find disagreable the Mahozans, all can agree that the so-called Orthodoxy of the Gothic Church and its offspring are the greater doctrinal foe. This church stems theologically from Arius of Alexandria, who preached, logically and simply, that if Jesus was the Son of God, then he must be Begotten by God the Father (afterall, what Father does not beget his Son?), and if he is begotten, if there is a time at which he came into being, then there must have been a time when he was not. Thus, Arius concludes, God the Son cannot be coeternal with God the Father, and if he is not coeternal with the Father then he must be subordinate to the Father. This rejection of the doctrine of the trinity - the very heart of Christianity, according to some - is despised by the rest of Christianity, seen as among the highest of theological errors.
However, the Occidental Orthodox have recently been outflanked by radicals on their side. The contraction of the Gothic Empire - to which the Occidental Orthodox Church was deeply tied; even frequently called simply the Gothic Church - has lead to a decline in centralisation. In North Africa, always a troublesome province in matters of faith, this has allowed a new Church to spawn. The Diocese of Vandalia under the Archbishop of Carthage was forcefully seperated by the Egyptian Sultans when the Gothic administrative provice of the same name was abolished and replaced by the Fihrid Emirate of al-Andalus. The Church remained, now as a severed appendage of the main body. However, over a hundred years later when the Sahmid Empire itself violently collapsed, the Church in Ravenna was able to re-establish contact with the Africans. The initial merging happened amicably enough, with the new rulers of the territory, the Majalids, distracted by other theatres. However, a radicalism had emerged in Africa in the years of seperation. A reform movement that claimed to return theology back to the original truth. This movement, allegedly empowered by the Majalids who eventually decided to demand a fresh seperation of Christians under the reign from those elsewhere, had grown rapidly before the reunification, and in 1071 the Diocese of Africa and Mauretania proclaimed a new creed: Christ was a perfect human soul, elected and adopted by God at the time of the Conception, and elevated to divinity at the Resurrection. This form was even more radical a rejection of the trinity than the Arians: God the Father did not make God the Son, rather, the Son was no God at all.

Church of the East
The first of all churches to seperate from the Great Church, even before the schism of 451 that made the Oriental Churches, the Church of the East - known also as the Syrian Church (often East Syrian or Assyrian, to avoid confusion with the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch), the Persian Church and (incorrectly and derogatively) as the Nestorian Church - has spent the six centuries since its formal schism in 410 spreading its gospel among the many peoples of Asia. The Turks who now rule Kiev were originally of this branch before they became Eastern Catholics, as were once most of the House of Varaz which now dominates Iran and Aniran. Assyrian Christianity has significant communities as far away as China and the land of the Uyghurs. Much like the Oriental Orthodox, the Assyrian Church of the East has also recently acquired an imperial champion of their own, in the Holy Emperor of Assyria and the Land Between the Rivers. This state originates in the great Sasanian Civil War of the 8th century, when the governor of Nineveh, Aram I, was proclaimed as the King of Nineveh by the Church and with the consent of the eventually-victorious Shahanshah Shapur V. This kingdom functioned almost as an organ of the Church, with the latter being in charge of the entirety of the civil administration. In the 11th century, as the Sasanians were finally crumbling under the might of the Varazians, Aram's descendant rapidly and expertly seized Mesopotamia, and as God willed it, the Varazians reached the maximal extent of the conquests before crossing the Zagros into that lowland. The land seized by the Kingdom corresponded with the seven Internal Provinces of the Church of the East, and these were as such reorganised to be fit for purpose as administrative divisions of a true Empire. Furthermore, the King seized to be just a King, as following the capture of Mahoza (Ctesiphon-Seleucia), the King was re-crowned by the Catholicos-Patriarch in a ceremony below the great Arch of Chosroes, discarding the old title of Malik for the new Qisar, or Caesar. Under a progressive Patriarch-Catholicos and facilitated by the open dialouge between the Sanjari Turks and the Roman Empire, the Church of the East and the (eastern) Orthodox Church (re-)entered communion in 1068 AD, on the basis that theological disagreements were mostly based on differences in liturgical language (Syrian qnome and parsapa and Greek physis and hypostasis can easily be undersood as respecitvely synonymous terms), and that the seperation of the Church of the East had occured on political, not religious, grounds (the need for Christians under the Shahanshah to distance themselves from his rival in Rome). Outside of Turkey, the union was mostly superficial, an opening of diplomatic connections between Mahoza and Constantinople, more than any kind of true uniad moment. Despite this, later conservative leaders in Mahoza rejected the union, claimed that qnome differed from physis, and that the seperation of the Church of the East at the Council of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, while it may have been prompted by political demands, was a righteous and necessary ecclesiological decision. As such, the churches seperated, and the turks abandoned the East.

Islam
Basic traits per denomination

Sunni / Athari
Sunni: 'those who act according to the Sunnah' (traditions and practices of the Prophet)
Athari: 'traditionalism'
Doctrine of governance: Imam descended from the Prophet Muhammed through his daughter Fatima, his cousin Ali, and their sons Hassan and Husayn. Direct rule by the Imam and indirect rule through Sultans are both accepted as legitimate and righteous under the Law.

Emphasis of jurisprudence: Taqlid (the following of legal precedence over individual reasoning)
Devotional practice: Popular esotericism (akin to OTL Sufi practice, where local communities are included in rituals of Dhikr)
Khawarij / Mansuri / Ulemi
Khawarij: 'those who walk away' (referring to the "exodus" of the sect from the mainstream during the early period)
Mansuri: 'followers of Mansur' (referring to Mansur al-Hadi, the pre-eminent Khawarij preacher who established the first community in Nizwa)
Ulemi: 'followers of the Ulama' (referring to the emphasis placed on governance by councils of islamic scholars, or ulama)
Doctrine of governance: Imam is elected by a council of scholars, to elevate the best among them. Imamate is a primarily worldly office; spiritual aspects derive only from theological expertise of the Imam.
Emphasis of jurisprudence: Ijtihad (independent reasoning on behalf of legal scholars on the basis of scripture over following of tradition and precedence)
Devotional practice: Popular esotericism

Ibrahimi
Ibrahimi: 'followers of Ibrahim' (referring to Imam Ibrahim, the 11th and final Imam according to the Ibrahimis)
Doctrine of governance: Rulers must follow the Law of God, but the buisness of governance should be left to Emirs and Maliks.
Emphasis of jurisprudence: Ijtihad
Devotional practice: Exclusionary esotericism (ascetic monasticism akin to OTL Eastern Orthodox monastic traditions)
Sahiri
Sahiri: 'followers of Sahir' (referring to Imam Sahir al-Salim, the 11th and final Imam according to Sahiris)
Doctrine of governance: the council of deputies appointed by Sahir al-Salim before his assassination should rule the community until the return of Sahir's successor, the Final Imam, at the end of time.
Emphasis of jurisprudence: Taqlid, ijtihad only permitted by the deputies of the imam
Devotional practice: Emphasis on simple prayer
Khilafatiyya
Khilafatiyya: 'teachings of the Khilafah/Successor' (referring to the millenarian doctrine of the emergence of a Successor to the Messenger of God, preceding the End Times)
Doctrine of governance: the Caliphs (initially only Ali ibn Muhammad, but later also his successors) rule undisputed as direct and enlightened successors to the Final Prophet
Emphasis of jurisprudence: Ijtihad with a violent aversion to percieved innovation springing from blind taqlid
Devotional practice: Simple, ascetic prayer ; rejection of esotericism as innovation (bid'ah)


Read post #95 'A post about the state of the Islamic world in 1100 AD" for more details

Zoroastrianism
The collapse of the Sasanians and the rise of the Varazians brought a paradigm-shift to the Zoroastrian world. The Sasanians had, for most of their history but especially after the reconsolidation under Shapur V, promoted the doctrine of Zurvanism. This variant theology of Zoroastrianism was based on centuries of transmission and re-interpretation of the original Avesta texts. Where what might be called prototypical Zoroastrianism preaches a dualistic cosmology of good and evil in which a single uncreated deity, Ahura Mazda (Lord of Wisdom)
, exists in conflict with Angra Maniyu, the Spirit of Malevolence, the Zurvanites preach a much more unitarian, and fatalistic, cosmology. Their ultimate god is not the Spirit of Benevolence (Spenta Mainyu), but Zurvan, the Personage of Space and Infinite Time, the One Alone (Aka) God of Time beyond Time. Zurvan is beyond anything that exists, completely transcendental, neutral, without passion, amoral and beyond good and evil. Zurvan, undifferentiated Time, was the father of the twin brothers, Spenta and Angriya Mainyu - a tendency knowns as the 'twin brothers doctrine' - by whom all that exists would be created. Beyond all differentiation, Zurvan was of course completely androgyne, and as such could concieve the two brothers alone. The teaching of the absolute God beyond all multiplicity or dualism led to some unfortunate places, such an extreme belief in predestination and rejection of free will among some scholars.
Compelling as this is, it was not to last. The branch had never truly caught on outside of specific regions; in Mesopotamia, the heart of the empire, it saw quite a bit of traction among the upper echelons of society; in the north, Tabarestan and the Atropatene where the Sasanians held out the longest, and further north among the barbarian kingdom of the Bulgars on the Volga, it became entrenched as orthodoxy. The Varazians, however, rejected these teachings. The Varazians, perhaps due to their distance from the imperial core, had not acquired to this deviant comsology. They still held to the half dualist, half monotheist theology of most Zoroastrians, particularly those away from the beating hearts of Sasanian civilization in Cteisphon, Yazd and later Ardabil. Magi who insisted on the supremacy of Zurvanism were, frequently, simply removed from their post. The Varazians encouraged a textual movement that had occasionally brewed somewhere within Sasanian fire temples in the last several centuries, but which had always been kept down by the establishment. Under new managment, such a movement could finally flourish, and as magi went back to the Avestas, both ones that had been copied down under the Sasanians, and some that were even older, they found no fatalistic god Zurvan who existed before and above and beyond all that exists. Through this reformation, Zurvan, derived as it is from the Zend zruvan-, 'Time', became once again merely an abstract concept. The God that the Zurvanites had found was not one from the text, but a conclusion they had found necessary from their reading of it. The Varazian magi found no such necessity. With time, the Tabarestanis and Medians and even the Bulgars, who were quite resistant, began to consign godly Zurvan to the past; not a violent, revolutionary rejection, but a simple decline in popularity. Most people were quick to adapt to the change, perhaps because such high-minded disputes about the nature of time and space and what lies beyond often don't bother most people, many of them had always understood Zurvan as a parable, a story from their faith, a cosmological myth among a rich tapestry of cosmological myths. The rapid decline in popularity of the cult of Zurvan can perhaps be blamed on Zurvan itself. Maybe it shouldn't be surprising that the androgyne, amoral, undifferentiated One God of Time Beyond Time, beyond and entirely agnostic to all that exists, is simply less adhesive to the minds of most believers than the Benevolent Spirit, the god that gives freedom and justice and which struggles constantly, as they themselves do, against the spirit of evil and chaos.

The Rest
Yeah, that's all you're getting. I've covered Manichaeism previously, and Buddhism and Hinduism have not been overly affected by the PoD, and I also just don't know enough about them to really type out a big blob of text for them. So here are some bullet-points in stead.
- Buddhism is far stronger in India than IOTL, and there's some messiness going on in northern Indochina, with the Thais moving around and the meeting of Theravada and Vajrayana schols in northern Burma.
- India as a whole is, of course, massively simplified. Anyone who's tried to just do a bit of reading up on Hindu sectarianism, you know just getting the basics right, will immediately come to wish that no only had they not bothered, but will long for a day where they could not hope to tell you what a 'vaishnavism' even is.
Long and short of it: there are denomination of Sanatana Dharma which are not shown. Jains have a significant presence among the Western Chalukyas, up on the Deccan, but they aren't the majority anywhere and aren't shown on the map.
- China is probably the one region I got the closest to changing to be more detailed before abandoning it. China is a big dumb mess. Chinese Folk Religion is the biggest religion, but it's also, to quote wikipedia (which is in turn quoting a scholar on the subject), an empty bowl, which can variously be filled with the contents of institutionalised religions such as Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism. Seperating 'Chinese religion' out as its own category feels wrong, since there isn't such a thing as 'Chinese religion' (the three teachings of Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism were not only not simply segments of a greater whole but were in fact frequently at odds with each other), then I thought about doing an outline around China Proper with a note saying 'region in which Chinese folk religion and Syncretism are dominant' or something, but that just felt sort of hacky. And then I've also additionally thrown a giant Manichaean population into this mess. Great. So here's what you get: a note attached to the post saying "China is simplified on this map and, in this context, 'Mahayana Buddhism' should be read as synecdoche for the various interrelated, syncretic and competing faiths and philosophies that make up religion in China"
- North Asian Shamanism is a broad umbrella term under which the biggest religion is Tengrism. I don't want to create a seperate category for 'Tengri' and then lump the rest of the North Asian paganisms into a seperate category when, really, if we're doing a 'North Asian Paganism' category, well yeah Tengri definetly fits that bill. It's a simplification, but I am but one man.
- I don't have enough to write about Judaism to justify an entire subheading but: they're going strong in Yemen. the collapse of the Muhallabids brought a bit of breathing room, but the invasion of the Sahiris very quickly closed it again. The Hadramawati Himyarites made good off the chaos and resisted the Muslims effectively, while a contingent of Adeni Himyarite Jews fled across the Gulf and founded a community in the Gulf of Tadjoura.
-Manichaeism: I've written extensively about it elsewhere, don't need to do so here.
- European Paganism: mostly the Slavic variety but too many Baltics in this category to call it 'Slavic Paganism'. It's grown into a bit of an institution in Novgorod, a state that very briefly experienced the institutionalism of Christianity and learned what they could from it. Still won't last, though. German merchants are coming.
- Other Paganism: the absolute worst contender, here. Garbage category. Includes: West African Animism; Waaqeffanna of the Oromo; the indigenous religion of the Vlachs of Transylvania (probably should've put this one in European Paganism, genuinely have no idea why I didn't, since the coloure region also includes some non-Vlachs); a grab-bag of Caucasian paganisms which I couldn't be bothered to research deeper; Benzhuism of the Bai people (although this one might be in the wrong spot on the map. Again; lazy); ad the the mess of Animist and others that existed (and continue to exist) in the interior of South East Asia.


This post has literally taken me all day to write. I think I started around two pm and as I write these words the clock on my computer says 23:58. Can you guess at what point in writing this my browser crashed and caused me to lose a good two hours of work? Don't forget to save, kids. Constantly.
Why does Christianity still spread through the Fezzan, south even tho Islam held Tunis?(Which combined with influence from Egpyt is a pretty handy way to conquer or convert the Fezzan, especially with Muslim Arabs more Desert Merchantile than Christian North Africans).
 
Why does Christianity still spread through the Fezzan, south even tho Islam held Tunis?(Which combined with influence from Egpyt is a pretty handy way to conquer or convert the Fezzan, especially with Muslim Arabs more Desert Merchantile than Christian North Africans).
Tunis was governed indirectly by a Christian vassal kingdom of the Egyptian sultan from 722 to 738, and local Christian rulers continued to have much more influence than they did IOTL; after the collapse of the Sahmids following the natural disasters of 1043 AD, several Vandal (in the sense that the ethnos trace their origins to the Kingdom of the Vandals; they don't speak Vandalic and aren't much like the Vandals that we know ) petty kingdoms asserted themselves and became highly autonomous vassals under the Majalid sultan. The later conquest, and more loose level of control, combined with lower levels of Arab migration to the region, meant that Christian communities held on, particularly in the Fezzan, where traces of the Donatists still linger in the practices of the Church.

Basically, Christianity got there first, and the Muslims haven't been able to/bothered to get rid of it.
 
If they're descendants of the Garamantian converts, won't they be Chalcedonian?.
The Arian church were quite forceful with enforcing their Christology and stamping out the Chalcedonian one. The Donatism that lingers is more of a vague general spirit of clergical rigorism than anything more substantive.
 
Is there a reason for this "East", like is it different from the regular Church of the East?.
The Church of the East is the same as OTL's Church of the East, the one that schism'd from Niceanism at the Council of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, proselytised across Asia, and declined after the 14th century. I call it the East Syriac Church because it uses the East Syriac liturgical rite, to distinguish it from the other Syriac church, the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch, which is part of the Oriental (Miaphysite) Communion and uses the West Syriac rite.
 
So in the last two weeks I've moved apartments and finished the first week of a 8-hours-a-day-five-days-a-week chemistry course. Three weeks remain. I don't expect to get much work done in here, but I've finally more or less finished moving in, so I might rediscover the motivation again. Anyway, anybody who follows this timeline will presumably at this point be used to unscheduled and unannounced multi-week hiatuses (hiatii?). Unlike the last coulpe of breaks I've had, I haven't even been working on that much in the background this time, aside from tinkering with a psuedo-Munro QuarterBAM world map of 1100 AD. Might get that out eventually, but don't expect it to be very soon.
 
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A very brief note on the House of Varaz and their empire
I've decided to retcon the internal boundaries of the Varazian empire, as shown on the West Asia, North Africa and Europe 1100 CE map. Had some vague ideas when I made them but hadn't really though them through. Anyway, here's the new ones:

Varazis.png

The Varazians were, as I've mentioned previously, a Sogdian-speaking dynasty from Samarkand. One of the Seven Great Houses of Iran, the Sogdians traced their origins to the Achaemenid period, and played a major role in the Sassanid empire. Their state first emerged as an independent kingdom after the Sassanid Civil War. For about a century after the 920s, the Varazians gradually expanded into the behemoth that you see before you, conquering the various post-Sassanian states of Greater Iran. After seizing all of Turkistan from the Ispahbudhanid empire, the Varazians conquered the great cities of Khorasan. This region was organised into the three southernmost provinces (middle shade of red). From the first invasion out of their home in Sogdiana to the conquest of north and west Khorasan, some sixty years elapsed. Their remaining conquests, which brought them the western part of the Iranian Plateau, Sakastan, and the southern coast, would take half the time. These regions were not organised into provinces as northern Khorasan had been, but were turned into military governates, ruled by a spahbed.
In the Hindu Kush, the Varazians wrecked the Shahdom of Kabul, ruled by a Khalaj dynasty (OTLs 'Turk Shahis'), fracturing it into a collection of smaller vassal-states, all of whom carried the title of Shahdom. In the north-east, another military district was founded; a frontier to defend from the Uyghurs of China and their Turk vassals.
 
After making that 'not gonna get much work done rn' post I took a quick look through the folders for this TL and found a couple of things that were basically ready for posting. The Varazians post above is one. Here's another: Ten (roughly) generations of German Emperors; the Sons of Pepin the Great
FamilyTreePepinIV.png


I quickly patched this together after not having looked at it for a long time, so if there are any glaring fuckups do let me know.
 
guang2.png

Big Uyghur China. I've written several thousand words over the last few months for the backstory of this map, which I won't be attaching to this post for reasons of I cannot be bothered. I'm continuing to be extremely busy (I started on an engineering degree approximately 1 month after the 1100 AD world map post) but, as this hopefully shows, things continue to occur.
 
Very interesting timeline and maps. I still find myself refreshing the thread once a week waiting for new updates.
Yeah, it's gone pretty dead. AH is a huge time-sink for me, it takes a lot of effort to get "in the zone" and getting anything from vague idea to post-worthy can consume full days of my time, and I just do not have that kind of free time anymore. This TL started soon after I became unemployed, and I was only working/going to school sporadically and/or part time up until september of last year, as mentioned in the Guang China map post, I started uni, which (as it turns out! big surprise!) actually does take up most of your free time. I have a bunch of half (or less) finished stuff hanging around in the background that I occasionally work on but production ain't gonna pick up any time soon. At least not until summer holidays, at which point I will probably (once again) have too much free time.
 
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