Apollinis et Dianae: A Story of Power, Magnificence and Glory

Discussion in 'Alternate History Discussion: Before 1900' started by Emperor Constantine, Oct 11, 2013.

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  1. Emperor Constantine 21st century Monarchist

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    Thats what I was thinking as well. The Southern canal would mainly be backed by the Crown and London merchants while the Northern ones are similar to the Bridgewater canal, except partially funded by the Crown.
     
  2. Herr Frage Jesus Christ Is In Heaven

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    A fascinating TL of the Stuart's triumphant.

    What is the state of affairs in the Colonies?
     
  3. Emperor Constantine 21st century Monarchist

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    Thanks!

    And as to the colonies, I'll be addressing that soon.
     
  4. JedidiahStott The last real Tory

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    Looking at the map, the northern one, I'd suggest building the Liverpool end of the Liverpool-Leeds canal, as far as the Wigan coalfield. That's quite easy construction. Leave the hard expensive bit across the Pennines until people are clamouring for it.

    Then build the short lower end of the Trent and Mersey, to connect Liverpool to the Staffordshire pottery clay lands. There was enormous interest at this period in replicating Chinese porcelain. Our canal, to take coal to the china clay should be ready just nicely in time to trigger an slightly earlier than OTL English porcelain industry, to compete with Sevres and Meissen. And, more importantly to churn out boring , but profitable, bread and butter crockery. This won't require anything much from the King, just some words of encouragement, and maybe a little spying and industrial espionage.

    People knew that the Staffordshire clays were the right sort for porcelain, and it wouldn't require too much prescience to figure out that sooner or later the secrets of porcelain manufacture would be figured out. Then, Staffordshire would be the obvious place. As it was OTL, but England was 50 years behind the fair. TTL, England will be the leader.
     
  5. Emperor Constantine 21st century Monarchist

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    OK so link Liverpool to Leeds, allowing the coal from Wigan to reach Liverpool then be shipped to other places. And I guess expand the Wigan coalfields, any other coalfields that can be easily expanded in the 1680s?

    And jumpstarting the Porcelain industry, sounds like something that Charles and Rupert would be interested in.
     
  6. JedidiahStott The last real Tory

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    Coal all through that area, really it'd be a question of which landowner jumps up and down and waves his hand. Eventually, expand to the Lancashire and South Yorkshire fields. But Wigan will provide quite enough for a good many years.

    This isn't the industrial revolution (yet) , we are still a small poor country .GDP is only about 60 million, compared to about 400 million in 1830. And only about 5, maybe 6 million people (France had over 21 million, depending on how you define 'France') . It will grow , and much quicker than in OTL (OTL population growth 1680 to 1730 was only about 0.2% per decade- some decades it even declined), but for the moment it's still a small country.

    Hence , small initiatives, that show what can be done, so later, when the numbers are there, people can react quickly. And hence why my enclosure proposals, I opted to suggest a poor law based around alms houses, instead of a Bismarckian social sate. The numbers just wouldn't support it.
     
  7. Emperor Constantine 21st century Monarchist

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    OK so Wigan is good for now. Did the Duke of Buckingham own any Coal mines? Cause I can see him trying to get in on something like this to gain favor with the King.

    And I'm thinking that the population in and around London will grow fast with the new city (probably from immigration) so that will trigger the need for more coal.
     
  8. JedidiahStott The last real Tory

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    Which Duke of Buckingham? The second of the second creation? (Villiers) Or the first of the third (Sheffield).

    The former had estates in Yorkshire, so its quite a good chance. I doubt anyone would challenge you if you said he did.(and, after all, by now there will have been enough butterflies, that even if he didn't OTL, it is perfectly possible that TTL he might have invested some of his profits into a coal bearing estate . Especially if he had insider knowledge of what was planned)

    Yes, London is going to grow A LOT. And need a lot more coal. Apart from the economic reasons for London's growth, it's also going to grow a lot because people aren't going to die in such numbers. The rebuilding of the city will have eliminated a lot of the mediaeval filth. And (I presume) the rebuilding will have included proper sewers (they knew how to build them by now). And the New River company is supplying sweet, pure (well, reasonably) water. Plague, cholera, typhus, typhoid, dysentery won't be the killers in *London that they were OTL , or were in other big cities of the period.
     
    Last edited: Nov 7, 2013
  9. Emperor Constantine 21st century Monarchist

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    Villiers. And good to know. I don't know many of the Nobles in the Restoration era except for those at Court and in high government so I think I'll definitely use Buckingham and whomever owned the Wigan coalmines.

    and yeah that's what I was thinking as well. London will essentially be the Paris of Napoleon III two hundred years early. And with the city much cleaner the population will explode without being constantly being attacked by various diseases. Hell London might end up one of the largest cities in Europe before long.
     
  10. Valena Well-Known Member

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    An "unrelated to mining industry" question- what about Portuguese Royal Family, as it's greatly different from OTL. I only know that a Princess of Beira was born circa 1670(?) but other than that - IDK.
     
  11. Valena Well-Known Member

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    Speakin' of porcelain, I've already proposed that somebody from retinue of Duchess of York (Claudia-Felicitas was half-Medici and grew up in Tuscany, so she's more Italian than Habsburg) will introduce this to brainstorming crowd of Royal Society:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medici_porcelain
    A contemporary French project also existed:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rouen_manufactory

    Sevres and Meissen will only come later, but due to abundant coal Medici porcelain technology could be perfected in England much better than in Italy. Maybe we can even beat Meissen on hard-paste porcelain invention.

    Speakin' of chronometers. Those two
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Hooke#Watch_Balance_Spring
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Tompion#Biography
    Tried to patent... something. But unlike Hooke's optic telegraph, no information on this "something" survived, alas.
     
  12. Valena Well-Known Member

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  13. Valena Well-Known Member

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  14. NthBelisarius Well-Known Member

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    I would like to humbly request any info on when this magnificent timeline will be updated, Emperor Constantine.
     
  15. Emperor Constantine 21st century Monarchist

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    Sometime today hopefully. If not tomorrow.
     
  16. Threadmarks: Chapter XV: In this Golden Age

    Emperor Constantine 21st century Monarchist

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    Chapter XV: In this Golden Age

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    James, Duke of Cambridge at the time of his marriage

    On May 3rd the Yacht Squadron arrives at Greenwich Palace, now completely changed. The once ruined Palace is now a monument to the Baroque era in England. The new palace involves a vast three-sided courtyard, with the fourth side opening to the river Thames. The grounds themselves are planned out by André Le Nôtre, Louis XIV's gardener, and contained avenues of elms, lime trees and Spanish chestnuts and terracing for a huge staircase waterfall and a parterre. Truly Greenwich is a wonderful first impression of England, especially for a young German princess.

    The party is greeted by much of the Court and the Royal Family, including the King, Queen, Queen Mother,Prince of Wales, Princess Royal, Duke and Duchess of York and of course the groom, James Duke of Cambridge. The young Duke, now eighteen, takes after his father in looks. Described as being tall, handsome, well proportioned, and of a good complexion, the Duke is in looks every inch a Stuart. Though his military reputation is sum-what lackluster, thanks to his association with the defeat at the Scone skirmish in Scotland, he more then made up for it at the siege of Perth. Now this Prince becomes the first male of his generation to enter holy matrimony. His bride, however, leaves some to be desired. Sophia Charlotte was a pretty child, well proportioned, has a good complexion seemed to have inherited her English grandmother's looks, and would soon grow into a beautiful woman. However, she is still a child, in both age and mentality (the bride arrived her her favorite dolls) and it would be at least a year before the marriage would be consummated. In spite of these issues, James is enchanted by his young bride, and despite his inherited sexual appetites towards women, both bride and groom would grow to love each other. On May 6th the formal wedding takes place in the Chapel Royal, Greenwich Palace. The chaste honeymoon lasts for a little over a month and on June 10th the young Duchess makes her formal entry into London.

    For Londoners, it is a joyous occasion. The pageantry is exquisite, all taking place on the river Thames. Hundreds of barges fill the river, all full of color, and celebrations. Trumpets roar, cannons fire and at night bonfires are lit. Though the German Princess is only married to the King's nephew, and not son of the King, her arrival is greeted as though she was the Princess of Wales or even a Queen. This is because Sophia is the first Protestant Princess to marry into the Stuart Dynasty sense Anne of Denmark married King James I & VI almost a century ago. This event clearly showed the preference of the people toward a Protestant Princess rather then a Catholic. Though at this point most of the nation has learned to live with a Catholic Queen, however-much they might grumble about it. In fact the only Catholic the English seem to genuinely like is their little Catholic Queen, Catherine of Braganza. Her piety, unassuming nature, disinterest in politics (except when it involved Portugal and her few favorites, like Rochester) and devotion to her children steadily won over the prickly English people. Though the affection was mixed with pity at the Queen having to endure her husbands many mistresses and illegitimate children, Catherine has, almost without noticement or meaning to, became the most popular Catholic in the Royal Family. Of the other Royal Catholics: the Queen Mother is pitied and somewhat liked but most haven't forgotten her flaunting of her religion and attempts to convert her husband and children, not to mention the numerous nobles she converted in the 1630s. The Duke of York, with his own brand of militant Catholicism and general obstinate nature, is seen as a younger, more extreme version of the Queen Mother. And his Duchess, Claudia Felictas, despite her withdrawn nature in regards to religion, is seen as an agent of the Emperor. At the end of June, another member joins the Royal Family.

    On June 29th the Duchess of York gives birth to a girl, named Maria Magdalena after the Duchess's late sister. This child, in breaking with tradition and at the the York's instance, was baptized in the Catholic Faith, causing a minor riot in London, quickly put down by the King's Guard. Ultimately the King supports the decision, arguing that religion should be a private affair, and furthermore Lady Maria is low in the line of succession, so no real fear a Catholic Queen Regnant. As the the festivities surrounding the arrival of the Duchess of Cambridge and the baptism of Lady Maria end, the Prince of Wales departs London to return to his new appointment: Head of the Council of Wales and the Marches. Established in 1472 by Edward IV,it was created to counsel and act on behalf of his son, the infant Edward, Prince of Wales. The Council, which met at Ludlow Castle, was in charge of the Principality proper and the surrounding English counties of Shropshire, Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Gloucestershire. Now, for the first time sense the future Queen Mary I, a Prince of Wales is heading the council and administrating his Principality. Many question why the medieval tradition was revived, as Charles' own father never served as Head of the Council. The official line was that it was a way to prepare him to govern England, but Courtiers whisper that it was because of the incredibly close relationship between the Prince and his twin, the Princess Royal. Aged 17, the Katherine-Henriette has grown into a beautiful young woman. With dark hair,large dark eyes, an oval shaped face,light complexion , milky-white skin, and her ancestress Mary Queen of Scots' height ( 5' 11"),the Princess Royal was a perfect mix of her great-grandmother's Italian looks, her mother's Portuguese, and her Stuart roots. Her brother had also grown more handsome with age. With his father's famous height, dark curls, sensual lips,dark eyes and a well-propositioned body, the Prince cuts a striking figure at Court. Combined, the Royal twins are nicknamed Diana and Apollo by various Courtiers, both because of their being twins, and because of Katherine's love of hunting (something shared by her father and uncle) and Charles' love of music and poetry (at odds with his later warlike behavior).

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    The Princess Royal, Katherine-Henriette, circa 1682

    Now that both are 17 marriage negotiations begin in earnest. Though there have been attempts to betroth both young Royals sense birth, these negotiations have been half hearted at best. This is because of the wish of Queen Catherine that her children will have more time to grow and mature before being sent off to marry,a wish supported by the King as well. However, for both the Prince of Wales and Princess Royal prospects in the marriage pool are a bit bleak. Most of the Sovereigns or their heirs are either already married or to young. There was early plans to marry the Princess Royal to either King Carlos II of Spain or le Grand Dauphin, but both came to nothing. There was even an attempt to make Katherine the Holy Roman Empress when Leopold I's wife, Infanta Margarita Teresa of Spain died in 1679. Sadly, it fell through when the Imperial Court continued to draw out negotiations, with the Emperor ultimately marrying Princess Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg, herself a rejected bride of the Duke of York. As for the Prince of Wales, initial plans for him to marry Madame Royale or Mademoiselle d'Orleans also fell through, thanks to French marriage policy towards the Habsburgs.

    Now, under the influence of the Queen, Charles II turns towards Portugal and Italy to provide suitable spouses for his eldest children. Though some of his advisers want a German match, the King refuses, no doubt spurred on by his dislike of "Cold Northern Ladies" from his days of exile. No, his children will not be tied down to cold Germans. For the Princess Royal, several suitors are considered. First up is D. João Duke of Braganza and Prince of Brazil, heir to the Portuguese throne (King Alfonso Vi having been persuaded to formally abdicate in 1678). Though the Infante is almost four years younger then the Princess Royal (born 22 October 1670) he seems to be the best choice. The nephew of Queen Catherine and therefore the first cousin of both Katherine-Henriette and Charles, the Infante is also related to the French Royal Family through his mother, Elisabeth Margurite d'Orleans, a first cousin of King Louis XIV. Though João is the leading candidate, there are other Italian suggestions. One is the young Duke Francesco II d'Este of Modena.The brother of the rejected Mary Beatrice (now married to the Grand Prince of Tuscany) the Duke isn't a high ranking option but some see it as a way to extend English influence into Italy. The same can be said of Hereditary Prince Odoardo Farnese of Parma. The son of Duke Ranuccio II Farnese and Princess Isabella d'Este, the Prince can boast of a prestigious pedigree, going all the way back to Pope Paul III. And, despite the King's opposition, tentative negotiations begin with the Elector of Saxony for a match between the Princess and his son, the Electoral Prince John George. Son of the Saxon Elector, head of the Protestant Estates in the Holy Roman Empire, and Princess Anna Sophia of Denmark, the Electoral Prince is a tantalizing prospect for expanding English influence in the Empire, combined of course with the marriage between Lady Anne of York and the Elector Palatine. While negotiations continue for the hand of the Princess royal, attention soon turns to finding a new Princess of Wales for Prince Charles.

    Like his sister, the main candidate for the Prince's bride is Portuguese, D. Isabel Marguerite Princess of Beira. The older sister of D. João, the Infanta is one of the most eligible Royal in all Europe. Such a match would bring England and Portugal, two ancient allies, even closer together, especially if combined with a match between the Princess Royal and the Prince of Brazil. Of cource, the Infanta isn't the only option being considered. Others include Princess Isabella Francesca Farnese of Parma, a half-sister of Hereditary Prince Odoardo, Princesse Marie Thérèse de Bourbon-Condé, a granddaughter of le Grand Condé by his son Prince Henri Jules Duc de Bourbon (the highest ranking single woman at the French Court) Princess Anna Maria Louisa Medici of Tuscany, daughter of Grand Duke Cosimo III and Princese Marguerite Louise d'Orléans, and even Mademoiselle de Valois (Louis XIV having suggested transferring the betrothal from Henry-Sebastian Duke of Kendal to the Prince of Wales). But the big fish, the one who King Charles most desires for a daughter-in-law, is proving elusive. This Princess is Archduchess Maria Anna, youngest daughter of Emperor Leopold I and the late Infanta Margaret Theresa. Such a marriage, a direct match with both Branches of the House of Habsburg, has been attempted only once before, during the controversial Spanish Match, which saw King James I try to negotiate a marriage between his son, the future Charles I, and the Infanta Maria Anna. Ultimately it fell through, with Charles I marrying Henreitta Maria and Maria Anna marrying Emperor Ferdinand III. Now Charles II revives his grandfather's old hopes and dreams. If these negotiations are successful, the Stuart Dynasty will be tied to almost all of the major Nations in Europe. For now however, the negotiations continue.

    But marriage negotiations aren't the only business Charles II is conducting. Under his direction numerous changes have taken place throughout the country. In London, the beautiful St. James's park is finally completed. With Charles' support the marshy area in the field that became St. James's park was drained, replaced with a formal pattern of ornamental water and avenues, influenced by the French gardens at the Tuileries in Paris and Louis XIV's magnificent new Chateau de Versailes, designed by André Le Nôtre. Crowned by the new rectangular lake, or canal, the park is soon opened to the public by the generous King, quickly becoming a popular destination for Londoners of all classes. But that was merely the first of many new plans and building projects. Besides the finished project at Greenwich, the King, under the influence of Queen Catherine, has began a complete transformation at Hampton Court. Under the skillful eye of Baron Christopher Wren, Hampton court begins to transform from the old fashioned Tudor-style residence into a Grand Baroque Palace rivaling that of Versailles. The plans call for the Tudor era buildings to be torn down and rebuilt section by section, eventually becoming a vast palace constructed around two courtyards at right angles to each other, to be topped by a vast dome. This palace, once completed, is one of the largest palaces in England and quickly becomes a favorite for both the Queen and Prince of Wales.


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    Hampton Court Palace, circa 1700

    Changes also take place at Windsor Castle, the medieval fortress of the Monarchy at Berkshire. In 1668 King Charles appointed Prince Rupert Constable of Windsor Castle , who immediately began to reorder the castle's deference, repair the Round Tower and reconstruct the real tennis court (a favorite sport of the King's). However, most of the changes were carried out by Sir Hugh May, Comptroller of the Works at Windsor Castle. As the English Court was heavily influenced by French etiquette , a substantial number of enfiladed rooms was required in order to satisfy court protocol; this demand for space forced May to expand out into the North Terrace, rebuilding and widening it in the process.This new building was called the Star Building, because Charles II placed a huge gilt Garter star on the side of it. Working with sculptor and woodcarver Grinling Gibbons and the painter Antonio Verrio, May created a series of baroque interiors, the grandest of which, St George's Hall, influenced several of Baron Wren's works at Hampton Court and later Winchester. The first time the Court stayed at Windsor for an extended time was in 1674 for 4 months. Aft that first stay, Charles seemed to have fallen in love with the old castle, staying there for at least a month (longer after the renovations were completed) each year for the rest of his life. But the King did more then repair and rebuild old Royal residences, he also built a few of his own. At Newmarket, Suffolk, where the King loved to go to watch (and sometimes participate in) the horse races, Charles builds a new city Palace. Based on the Palazzos Pamphili and Barberini in Rome, the Newmarket palace quickly becomes the standard by which all city residences of the Nobility in both Newmarket and London are judged by. And at Winchester, a massive new Palace begins to take root. Designed by Baron Wren and again influenced by Versailles, the Winchester Palace was to be one of the Crowning architectural achievement of Charles II's reign. The main body of the palace is to be composed of a large parallelogram whose center was occupied by a large hall. Two courtyards, adorned with fountains, left and right of the large living room, have informed the grand staircase, the chapel, the theater and all communications from domestic service of the palace.The facade had been imposing and 400 meters long. It is to be reached by a triple row of ramps and have caught the imagination by the extent of its elliptical colonnade half closed, encircling the courtyard .The state apartments are to occupy the entire facade of the south, the north facade overlooking the beds will house the apartments of the King and Queen, with their respective Households. Reception rooms and hallways and lobbies are to be in both the left and right in wings. Two wings with a single story extension to the front of the north will extend towards River Itchen, and house various members of the Royal family, like the Yorks and Cumberlands. Though it will take years to complete, the Palace of Winchester and its grand gardens (heavily influenced by those at Versailles and Greenwich) will be the envy of all of the Nobility and many foreign Monarchs.


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    Map of the Winchester Palace and the surrounding grounds


    More practical changes also take place. In the South, an old idea is revived with a new spin. Based on the soon to be finished Canal royal en Languedoc (the French Canal designed to link the Atlantic to the Mediterranean) and heavily influenced by Prince Rupert and various merchants, plans are drawn up to create a Canal to connect London to Bristol, by linking the Avon, Kennet and Thames rivers together. Once completed the London-Bristol canal will allow faster and safer transportation of goods and people between two of England's largest and most important cities. Thanks to a population boom in London and other cities in the South, the North sees the expansion of the coal mines at Wigan and Worsley, Lancastershire and at the South Yorkshire Coalfield, in a triangle between Barnsley, Doncaster and Sheffield. To allow quicker and more efficient transportation of the newly mined coal, several new Canals are built, backed by the various landowners and coalmine owners. The Aire and Calder Navigation will connect the Aire and Calder rivers in the West Riding of Yorkshire, the Leeds and Liverpool Canal will connect the coastal town of Liverpool to the town of Leeds ( very close to the coal mines at Wigan), and the Worsley-Manchester canal will link the towns of Worsley and Manchester. Though these canals wont be ready for several years, once complete they will help to create an economic boom in the North, leading to the growing importance of the towns of Liverpool, Manchester and Leeds.In order to better facilitate trade with the North American colonies, the port of Liverpool is expanded, with merchants encouraged to invest and sail out of this port by the Crown and Royal Bank. By the next century Liverpool is one of the largest ports in England. Meanwhile, a massive campaign is undertaken to repair and expand England's road network, to allow better travel and trade throughout the country. At the direction of the Royal Bank, a new Royal highways company is set up to maintain the highways. Under the Royal Highways company a series of turnpike trusts are set up to charge tolls to pay for the highways' upkeep. Though unpopular, the trusts are necessary as the government can't constantly pay for the repairs and upkeep for the various roads. But the most important change, for the common man at least, is still to come. This of course is the issues of enclosures.

    Enclosures are defined as the act of appropriating land, esp common land, by putting a hedge or other barrier around it. In England, the process ends traditional rights such as mowing meadows for hay, or grazing livestock on common land formerly held in the open field system. Once enclosed, these uses of the land become restricted to the owner, and it ceases to be land for commons. England's now rapidly growing population is already putting pressure on food production, making enclosure increasingly necessary. However, enclosures are expensive and tend to be problematic for the commoners. Many people were dependent on the common lands for their livelihood, even though most have no right to the land.Enclosing these lands might be profitable and allow for larger population but it will still ruin many people. Acceptable for many Nobles and landowners but not for the King. In an attempt to find a compromise that benefits both sides negotiations begin between the King's his ministers and many of the countries largest landowners. Negotiations go back and forth but seem to be going nowhere when an idea comes out of the Royal Society that changes the direction of the talks. Royal society members John Graunt and Isaac Newton, both skilled mathematicians in their own rights, have found that, given enough people, they reliably predict the number who will die at any age.

    With this new ability the Crown, via the Royal Bank, is able to create a new company, one that is becoming increasingly necessary: the Royal Insurance Company. This new company will provide may types of insurance like Fire or maritime, but also a new type as well: insurance for men. The idea is to combine the new insurance company with a General Enclosure act, financed by the Royal banks, and to enact a new Poor law on a national scale, with the wealthy paying to establish alms houses , in return for a general right to enclose, to help take care of those whom are to ill to provide for themselves .The hope that these acts will make the landowners rich, support the poor and help those who aren't able to support themselves. Though the details will take some time to work out, the progressive ideas symbolize a shift in how England will deal with the various classes. Another progressive idea is semi-compulsory elementary education, to be provided by the Anglican Church. For just a penny a week, parents can provide a better future for their children, something that the common classes would have had no hope off without the generosity of the King. Though not compulsory, nearly all who can afford to pay do so and by the beginning of the next century the literacy rates throughout the country have improved dramatically. These progressive ideas heavily boost Charles II's popularity among the common classes, something that will last for the rest of his life.

    As 1681 draws to a close it is clear that England is experiencing tramendious changes. From the new Capital to the emerging industries in the North to the peace abroad and security at home, it is obvious to all that England has became a Great Power, equaling the likes of Spain, France, the Holy Roman Empire and the Netherlands. Within her borders the people hale it as a new Golden Age, headed by Charles the Wise. But with the constant shifts and changes in Europe, it remains to be seen if England will retain its new found power or lose it all in the power games of Kings.
     
    Last edited: Dec 1, 2013
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  17. Valena Well-Known Member

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    Nice update:)Lookin' for the next one:)
     
  18. Emperor Constantine 21st century Monarchist

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    Thanks:D. Lets just say the next one will be a little.... poisonous.
     
  19. Valena Well-Known Member

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    I like the smell of poison over the water in the morning:)
     
  20. Valena Well-Known Member

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    I PMd you some stuff regarding miracles, heirs and bridal market of your TL:)
     
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