Let us imagine a modern Romanía. One that has endured the ages, yet commands not the world's stage. Let us imagine the Romans as a people stretching from Azerbaijan to Serbia. Let us imagine that much of history is similar to ours; the Turks, the crusades, the rise of Europe, the Renaissance, colonialism, a great revolutionary was, the industrial revolution, amd now nationalism. Let us say that Romanía has lost Anatolia to Turks, regained it, and then lost it to Timur, and then regained it, that the Romans took the tactful job of retaking the Balkans in the same timeframe as the Ottomans, yet without the predation upon Hungary. Let us imagine that the Romans, ancient as they are, decided to look forward with the Europeans and that the glorious days of Augustus pale in the glories of what is to come. They industrialse like their neighbours. This is Romanía. Now let us suppose Byzantium is also a Republican Monarchy, as argued by Anthony Kaldellis, then what is the nature of this industrialised Roman society? Do they assemble in the Hippodrome, peticoats and tophats, for political functions, to acclaim emperor's and such? What is the nature of the government? Does the beuracracy continue to function, does a parliament arise? What of the Emperor? He is simply a public servant like all in the government. What of the raging capitalism in the West? The Romans had no interest in that which does not provide for the common good. What of railroads? Of private industry? Romanía would surely have quite a command economy. What of banking? The republics of Italia are powerless or non existent yet here is Byzantium. What would its realtions be to its neighbours? To Persia, now and forever its eternal rival, to Russia who surely looks to Romanía as a father? What of the Slavs? Do they become integrated, Romans in actuality? How does their national spirit, these Romans, react to the new nationalism of the West? Does Roman Polity adorn itself with flags, as the Romans had no concept like heraldry? What is this New Rome? That is what I'd like to answer.