Anahuac Triufante: A more united and successful Mexico from Colony to Enduring Republic TL

Part 2: The War for Independence Chapter 5: The Road to Victory
Part 2: The War for Independence Chapter 5: The Road to Victory

Anahuac End of 1812 and 1815 b.jpg

The extent of Mexican controlled territory by 1812 in blue and 1815 in white.

The Path to a United Front


The Anahuac Congress reauthorized Allende as the supreme commander of the Mexican Army and Navy. Immediately he began reorganizing the armed forces from bands of insurgent cells to divisions and regiments of regulars, and organized militias. The unorganized militias were reorganized into rearguard units to be used as defensive forces and if possible police forces. With the authority of the congress, Allende also began sending home many members of those unorganized militias. Under the auspices of the Congress, the executive Triumvirate which included Hidalgo began working on organizing the new nation. This included giving land to the disbanded militia members, often confiscated haciendas and church lands close to their homes on the condition that they support other landowners in defense of their property. This would later cause land crisis after achieving independence but for the time being it helped change the narrative of the war from one of Criollos vs Peninsulares that many Criollos saw and one of a race uprising that many castas (especially the indigenous) and Peninsulares saw into a narrative of Mexicans vs Spaniards.

These land grants were largely a push to concede Hidalgo's demands of a popular revolt. By giving the indigenous their own lands to work and live off of as private individuals, the Congress hopped this would appease any fears that the indigenous peoples were trading one set of masters for another set of masters. It was the challenge, however, of training them to manage their new status and assuage the concerns of many others who still found themselves working for Criollo farmers and the concerns of the Castas members who still found themselves excluded from any form of advancement in society. These tasks kept, to Allende's delight, Hidalgo and the others of the Executive busy and out of the business of war. In essence, it was the creation of a state.

The Tide Turns

Jose Maria Morelos was tasked with "liberating" Veracruz and the entire southern Gulf Coast. He divided up his armies in 1815 into two major prongs. He would lead an army to the Yucatan to take Merida and solidify Mexican control of the peninsula there. Vicente Guerrero would lead another army to take Veracruz while Guadalupe Victoria would move towards Puebla to prevent Guerrero's forces from being encircled. Allende would lead a renewed campaign to take the Valley of mexico while another army would march around the Valley through Guadalajara led by Ignacio Lopez Rayon to reinforce the northern insurgent cells and fully induct them into the new nation.

Ignacio Lopez Rayon's army arrived north at Durango first. They found little in the way of Spanish resistance and moved east while sending emissaries into California and Nuevo Mexico to make contact with colonial authorities there. They were given three options. Surrender, Join, or be attacked. After having not heard from viceroyal authorities for over a year, many of them accepted Mexican control allowing the Lopez's army to move on until it attacked a Spanish force at Monterrey that was preparing to launch a counterattack against the Magee-Gutierrez expedition forces in the Spring of 1814. After weeks of fighting, Blas Jose Gomez fled with his forces south to Saltillo and from their to Tampico where he finally surrendered in June 1814.

Allende was able to recapture Guanajuato and began the invasion of Zacatecas to help cut off Mexico City economically and force the army located their to move out and attack him in country to avoid a potentially disastrous urban battle later on. The entire campaign lasted well into March of 1814 where he did face some defeats but scored various victories. He would not be able to move in until Guadalupe Victoria cutts off the capital's main supply route by taking Puebla, a move that required the capture or at least isolation of Veracruz. In April of 1814, Vicente Guerrero was able to launch his attack on Veracruz leading to a three month campaign and a prolonged siege that finally isolated Veracruz. This gave Guadalupe Victoria an opening to attack Puebla in August of 1814. Unfortunately for the Mexicans, Spanish were able to break out of Veracruz, force Guerrero to retreat and sent Puebla reinforcements. For the time being Mexico City would be safe but it was clear that the Spanish were losing the war.

"El Deseado" Returns

Pablo Morillo's fleet sent by Ferdinand VII to pacify Mexico and the Colonies.
On May 13th 1814 King Ferdinand VII returned to Madrid at the end of the Peninsular War and abolished the constitution of Cadiz returning to Absolutist rule. When word reached the Americas, one by one the rebelling colonies followed Mexico's example and declared complete and total independence from Spain. King Ferdinand began immediately to organize the largest fighting force to cross the atlantic (sent for the purpose of fighting the rebellions) with 12,000 men and 66 ships including over a dozen ships of the line to Veracruz[1]. The Fleet was led by Pablo Morillo and tasked with replacing the failed viceroy Calleja with Apodaca and bringing an end to the rebellion. Morillo's task was to reinforce New Spain and begin the process of reconquering the colonies. The Spanish fleet left Cadiz on February 17, 1815 and arrived in Mexico by April. Upon its arrival Hidalgo was recorded in saying "I never would have imagined lamenting the return of the king whose banishment caused me to take up arms in his name."

By April 1815, Mexican forces managed to secure the entire northern territories for the new nation and Zacatecas and Guanajuato were under Mexican control. Spanish forces were unable to dislodge the Mexicans but were able to hold what little land they had left. Time, however, was in the favor of the Spanish. Temporary measures to secure funds worked so far for the rebels but money was now starting to run out. There was no new land to confiscate, no new royalst Criollos or Peninsulares to take money from without going too far. No state conferred recognition to Mexico so there was no one to trade with despite having control of the small port of Tampico in the Gulf Coast and the major port of Acapulco in the Pacific coast. The arrival of the Spanish Fleet spelt certain doom for the Mexicans.

Allende ordered Guadalupe Victoria to immediately attack Puebla at all costs and launched a similar attack on Mexico City. Lopez was ordered to take his army south to reinforce Guerrero. Morelos was also joining up with Guadalupe Victoria at this time after having taken the Yucatan Peninsula in the end of 1814. He was preparing to move his forces into Central America and by the time new orders came in in April, he had already made inroads into Chiappas and Guatemala.

Guerrero's army did all it could to keep the fresh Spanish troops locked in Veracruz, but several ships landed troops north and south of Veracruz and once again the Spanish were able to break out. Guerrero suffered heavy loses and had to retreat and wait for the arrival of Lopez's army before attempting to either chase the Spanish army or reinitiate a siege on Veracruz. Victoria was unable to take Puebla in time, by May, the Spanish army arrived and forced Victoria to retreat towards Mexico City hoping the Morelos would be able to come in behind the Spanish.

Throughout the Spanish advance to Mexico city, they met with countless guerrilla style attacks from militias that were rushed into its path. The Arrival of Morelos' and Lopez's gave Allende a chance to face the large Spanish force in a two months long campaign that helped dwindle their numbers as they fought through Puebla and entered the Valley of Mexico. Spanish troops entered Mexico City and Apodaca relieved Callejo with instructions to take a force to Veracruz so that he could board a ship the Metropolí and answer to the King for his failures. By August 1815, it seemed as the Spanish could salvage the war.

The Third Battle of Mexico City


Iturbide, Allende, and Lopez lead troops triumphantly through the streets of Mexico City after the Third Battle of Mexico City. Iturbide's banner being flown on the right based on the Anahuac Flag is an anachronistic addition.

After entering Mexico Pablo Morillo, confident in his ability to defeat "armies of mixed mongrels" decided to lead a large force to New Grenada. There he did encounter quick victories but also found a formidable opponent, a one Simon Bolivar who arrived in 1816 after a short exile from the region. Encountering resistance would keep Mortillo from returning to Mexico. This blunder would end up backfiring. In February of 1816, a reorganized Mexican army finally began sieging Puebla taking it by the end of March. With main supply lines cut off, the siege of Mexico City was able to proceed. The short lived Spanish victories became defeats as Mortillo left only 5,000 troops behind, most of which were held up in Mexico City allowing Guerrero to take Veracruz. Morillo, for his part, felt that he accomplished the first part of his mandate by leaving a new viceroy and reinforcements in New Spain. He didn't believe that he needed to see the conflict in New Spain through when New Grenada was so clearly going to reinforce its complete independence if there was no action taken immediately. By early summer, Morillo realized the scope of his error but was too late. Apodaca was kidnapped in Mexico City and soon after one of his generals defected with his armies Mexico City was liberated.[2]

Los Guadalupes remained an active source of intelligence throughout the war for insurgent, and latter Mexican, forces. Fearing the return of Mortillo with a Mexico City still under Spanish control, the Guadalupes met together to discuss how they could expedite victory. Most of the Guadalupes were unsure of what sort of action to take and were reluctant when kidnapping the viceroy was suggested. That's when a Mariana Rodriguez del Torro spoke up calling on the men to action by saying "What's going on? Are there no more men in America other than the brave soldiers who fight outside this city? Let's free this city and take the viceroy and hang him!"[3] Word of the plot was snuck out to Allende's camp and in return Josefa Ortiz, who was in contact with her spy network, sent word to Maria Ignacia Rodriguez who had a relationship of sorts of Iturbide. Iturbide recently arrived to Mexico City before Allende was able to encircle it. As the stories go, she managed to convince him that he was fighting on the losing side and it would be more beneficial for him to help build a Mexico more to his liking than being imprisoned in a liberal Mexico that he did not wish to see.

What is known is that Iturbide covertly began corresponding with Allende through trusted couriers before any fighting broke out. These couriers were set up by Josefa Ortiz who, as mentioned before, had been in contact with Maria Ignacia Rodriguez who did have some sort of a relationship with Iturbide. Nonetheless, when the attack began, Iturbide ordered his men composed mostly of Criollos to switch sides. In the chaos, the Guadalupes kidnapped the viceroy. With Iturbide's assistance, Mexican forces were able to locate Apodaca before the Spanish did. With the viceroy under Mexican custody, a ceasefire was called. The remaining Spanish were forced to surrender. On May 4th, 1816 the Third Battle of Mexico City was over. The Anahuac Congress would move into Mexico City by the end of the Month. Iturbide along with many conservative Criollos and moderate Peninsulares began recognizing independence as an inevitability.

The final Battle of Veracruz and de facto independence

After the battle of Mexico City, many conservative factions began seeing defeat as imminent and took Iturbide's lead to join the rebellion in the hopes of having some say in the new order and protecting their wealth and power. As news spread throughout territory still in control of the Spanish, more and more began joining the Mexicans. During June, Iturbide's formerly royalist forces surrounded Veracruz and assisted Guerrero with the attack. The City capitulated with little violence too.

Morelos and Victoria moved south into Central America once again to liberate the region and offer them protection against the Spanish. By the end of the year, Morelos was able to liberate the region. Morelos' role in the end of Spanish Rule in Central America gained him the title of "Liberator of Central America". Despite the victories in Veracruz and Central America Spain refused to concede defeat. After Veracruz surrender, Jose Cienfuegos, captain general of Cuba, in representation of Spain did accept the surrender of all spanish forces in Mexico, including Central America and the northern territories. But the Spanish crown pointed out that it was not a treaty conceding defeat on the matter of independence, and that Mexico was still a Spanish realm in rebellion.

[1] Since in OTL the insurgency in Mexico was on life support at this point, the fleet was sent to New Granada. ITTL, the situation is dire for the Spanish so it made sense to send it to Mexico. This is also where butterflies will start impacting things outside of Mexico.
[2] Not sure if this is the most plausible but worse blunders have been done in real history. And to be fair, he did make quick work out of the forces fighting and New Granada was in even worse shape than New Spain.
[3] This is similar to something she did say concerning the same plot but after Hidalgo et al were captured in OTL.
 
Hope you continue this to the present day, if possible; BTW, PM @Red_Galiray, @Jonathan Edelstein, @wilcoxchar, @Kaiser Chris, @googoo4, and @Earl Marshal, for starters, for more information in Europe, the United States, South America, Africa, and Asia, respectively...
Thanks! There are a few things I do need to chase down as far as butterflies go. The following questions come to mind:

  1. Will Morillo's detour to Mexico cost him significant loses in New Granada and thus an earlier liberation by the great liberator?
  2. How will Ferdinand VII's rule be impacted? An earlier liberal uprising? (Butterfly Isabella out of existence thus set up a Carlist Spain?)
  3. Would the US be willing to strike an "alliance" type as a precursor to the Monroe Doctrine since in this timeline Mexico is for all intents and purposes independent? Or is it too cash strapped and fearful of another war to do anything beyond make vague comments on the matter? Possibility of American Privateers (Not sure they are still a thing at this point in time though)
  4. How would European powers react when it comes to trade and diplomacy with Mexico in the late 1810's of this timeline vs the mid to late 1820's of the OTL? The need for trade, and mining operations and so on.
  5. If New Granada does get an earlier independence, what are the chances of say a joint expedition to a certain Caribbean island in the hopes of forcing Spain to recognize independence?
I wouldn't mind help on any of these questions to be honest :)
 
Thanks! There are a few things I do need to chase down as far as butterflies go. The following questions come to mind:

  1. Will Morillo's detour to Mexico cost him significant loses in New Granada and thus an earlier liberation by the great liberator?
  2. How will Ferdinand VII's rule be impacted? An earlier liberal uprising? (Butterfly Isabella out of existence thus set up a Carlist Spain?)
  3. Would the US be willing to strike an "alliance" type as a precursor to the Monroe Doctrine since in this timeline Mexico is for all intents and purposes independent? Or is it too cash strapped and fearful of another war to do anything beyond make vague comments on the matter? Possibility of American Privateers (Not sure they are still a thing at this point in time though)
  4. How would European powers react when it comes to trade and diplomacy with Mexico in the late 1810's of this timeline vs the mid to late 1820's of the OTL? The need for trade, and mining operations and so on.
  5. If New Granada does get an earlier independence, what are the chances of say a joint expedition to a certain Caribbean island in the hopes of forcing Spain to recognize independence?
I wouldn't mind help on any of these questions to be honest :)
I'm probably not the best person to answer these questions, but I'll give it a go.

1. The losses Morillo has suffered in Mexico will certainly make things a lot harder for the Spanish going forward. From what little I know of the OTL Reconquest of New Granada, the Spanish were aided by the division and instability among the rebel factions which hindered their ability to cooperate and gain international recognition. With Morillo going to Mexico first, losing several thousand men, and then heading to New Grenada, its very likely his later arrival and weaker force enables the Rebels to deal with the Spanish more effectively.

2. The loss of Mexico, and New Grenada soon after I suspect, will almost certainly encourage Spanish liberals to rise in revolt somewhat earlier than OTL, how much earlier though I can't say. Its very possible that Isabella may not exist given the butterflies and what have you, but I'll leave that up to your discretion.

3. The United States will certainly establish trade relations with Mexico, but they probably won't want to get involved in another war so soon after the War of 1812.

4. Some states like Spain may not approve of relations with Mexico and the other newly freed Spanish colonies, but most like Britain, the United States, etc. will certainly welcome new trading partners especially after the economically devastating Napoleonic Wars.

5. It's possible, but do they have the navy needed to do so? Spain, for all its ills, still had a sizeable navy at the time that could handle whatever the Mexicans and Gran Colombians could throw at them, but then again anything is possible especially if they are able to cooperate effectively.
 
Part 3: A New Republic Chapter 1: 1816-1817 The First Year of Independence
Anahuac Triunfante: A more united and successful Mexico from Colony to Enduring Republic TL

Part 3: A New Republic

Chapter 1: 1816-1817 The First Year of Independence

Anahuac Battle Flag.png
(The Battle flag adopted by the 1st Anahuac Congress based on the colors of the Corte Suprema flag but a radical new design meant to be unmistakable with that of the Spanish)
Anahuac Flag.png
(The National flag adopted by the 2nd Anahuac Congress)

The First National Elections


After the Anahuac Congress entered Mexico City in March 1816, they quickly organized a permanent government. By June several issues became pronounced. Mexico City exerted very little control beyond Central Mexico and the North East. Lopez Rayon’s expedition to assist the insurgents in that region gave Mexico City some leverage in its authority. The problem became pronounced once some members of the Congress advocated for a strong federal central government while others advocated for a weaker federal government. The Specter of conservatives getting elected and demanding a centralist government would threaten to split the country into wars not that different than in Gran Colombia.

Then there was the specter of Spain and the very real threat it represented including the presence of Spanish soldiers in the northwestern presidios and the Veracruz fort of San Juan de Ulua and the ongoing campaign in Central America. From June to August the first elections of a “free” Mexico would be wartime elections and focused mainly on military concerns while the economy was a secondary concern. Everything else became an afterthought.

During those elections the question of Hidalgo, who was a priest in the eyes of the state but excommunicated and defrocked in the eyes of the imprisoned archbishop of Mexico. Hidalgo would plead with the archbishop to reconsider and cut ties with Spain “reaffirming” direct loyalty to the pope, but his words fell upon deaf ears. The Anahuac Congress determined that questions regarding the Church and the archbishop would have to wait, it needed to bring the military conflict to an end first.

The Liberation of Central America

Morelos was tasked with taking an army of 2,000 soldiers to Central America in order to gain leverage against Spain. Chiappas was mostly in rebel hands thanks to his previous campaign and Guatemala was torn between Spanish and Central American forces. Chiapas rebels sent a request to Mexico City asking for an alliance to help defeat the Spanish army in Guatemala. This was a case of perfect timing as Morelos showed up just a week with an army.

Originally, Morelos wanted to take the ships captured at Acapulco to transport his army to coast near San Jose and send advisors to organize a Chiapan offensive in a pincer like maneuver. Unfortunately the lack of aptly trained Mexican sailors made it impossible to outfit a fleet large enough for his army. Only 800 soldiers would be transported in half a dozen ships of Mexico’s First Pacific Squadron. Morelos took the remaining 1200 men through Chiapas and into Guatemala. Vicente Guerrero was placed in command of the 1200 troops while Morelos led the soldiers who landed near San Jose and began the attack which drew the attention of Spanish forces in Guatemala who were unable to reinforce San Salvador.

By the end of July, Chiapan, Guatemalan, and Mexican troops began moving into Honduras and Nicaragua after the liberation of San Salvador and San Jose soon fell to Morelos’ forces by September after a resurgence of rebel uprisings that were previously suppressed by Spanish forces. Jose Maria Morelos became known as the “Libertador de Centro America” and provided advice and council as the Central Americans began building their own government. The Anahuac Congress in December declared the United Provinces of Central America to be under Mexican Protection in a mutual alliance. Vicente Guerrero and Jose Maria Morelos were told to remain in the region to insure its continued independence from Spain. In 1817, the First Pacific Squadron relived several of Morelos’ men with fresh troops. Mexico had a total of 1800 soldiers in Central America throughout that year. Morelos left Central America on the supply fleet with some 900 men leaving Guerrero behind to maintain order.

The Second Anahuac Congress

On December 1st 1816 the second Anahuac Congress and the second Triumvirate began their term. Ignacio Allende, Augustine Iturbide, and Miguel Hidalgo were elected to the Triumvirate. Supreme command of the army was transferred to Ignacio Lopez Rayon and Morelos was given command of the Pacific fleet, which really was a handful of makeshift light warships, and the southern army. The Triumvirate represented the political division present in Congress and proceeding political conflicts.

Congress was divided into three main camps. The radical liberals of the York lodge of the Free masons. The Scottish rite that represented the most conservatives known as imperialists or monarchists due to their desire to establish a conservative monarchy in Mexico with none other than Iturbide as emperor should no European prince be found. Then there was another faction, the conservative faction. This faction was a new one that mostly aligned itself with Allende and represented a more moderate liberalism independent of strict alignment with the York or Scottish rites. [1]

The New Congress began enforcing the end of tribute payments and codified the land grants to disbanded veterans who were of mainly indigenous descent. It also forbid laws barring mestizos and castizos from public offices and property ownership and sent envoys to the distant states of its expectation of the end of colonial abuses towards the indigenous. Another significant law passed was the prohibition of purchasing new slaves or transferring ownership of slaves and protected the freedom of free blacks and zumbos.

The 2nd Anahuac Congress and the 2nd Triumvirate (with Iturbide reluctantly agreeing) refused to recognize any Spaniard as the Archbishop of Mexico. In the absence of an archbishop and contact with Rome, the Congress also established a secular school in Mexico City and Hidalgo went on to urge the governors of the states and territories to do the same in their capitals. In addition, the Congress sent an envoy to Rome with an invitation for the return of the Jesuits and went as far to ask for more to replace many Spaniard Dominicans and Franciscans especially in the far off territories like California.

While these were significant actions, and the liberation of Central America bolstered the Congress’ popularity, the need to spread the Government’s authority without alienating the local governments and people became challenging as more conservative and ambitious elites began pushing back. The solution was to reorganize the provinces into states and then have them elect delegates to form a constituent congress to write a new constitution. The goal was to have a constitution where everyone was given a say since the Anahuac constitution was actually approved only by a few of the former tendencies while approval of the others was assumed by “representatives of the occupied territories”. Another move by the second Anahuac Congress was establishing the territory of Texas in reverence to the Gutierrez-Magee expedition and Texas’ roll in keeping the peace in Mexico’s northern fringes. [2]

The constitutional convention of 1817


During the opening days of the convention, Jose Mariano Morin led the imperialist faction that opposed just about every federalist proposition for the new constitution. Iturbide was careful to present himself as a reluctant symbol of the Imperialists, who in turn began favoring him as a potential monarch. They were both supported by the Catholic church in the person of Bishop Juan Francisco Castañiza Larrea y Gonzalez de Agüero and Archbishop of Mexico Pedro Jose Fonte.

The conservatives, also known as centralists, favored a highly centralized federal government where the states maintained few powers but still kept their sovereignty. The Federalists, the liberals in the congress, opposed the imperialists and the centralists wanting a government that stopped short of a being a confederation. [3]

The main contention between centralists and federalists was the separation of powers. Centralists wanted an executive branch that dominated over the legislative branch and held more influence on the Judicial. Federalists wanted a dominant legislative branch. Another issue between the two were the roles of the states. Federalists saw the states as responsible for determining most laws and having broad autonomous powers over local administration. Centralists saw the states as a subdivision to whom powers would be delegated as the central government saw fit. Imperialists felt the need for a government not that much different than the viceroyalty of the former New Spain, they were opposed by both moderate centralists and federalists and represented a minority forcing Iturbide, a closet imperialist, to side with centralists.

It was under that debate that the new constitution established a strong federal government with an executive branch that would be on near equal terms with a bicameral legislative branch and an independent Supreme court selected by the executive and approved by the legislative branches. Executive power was also moved from a triumvirate to a single individual chosen through indirect election and elections were to be run by the states who would decide the voting requirements.

In March of 1817, the Anahuac Congress promulgated the Constitution of 1817 and sent copies to the 21 newly organized states for ratification (A final act of the 2nd Anahuac Congress). The fight for ratification in each newly elected state legislature lasted until it was finally ratified in October of 1817 just in time for elections for the new federal government to be held in the 1st of December of that same year. On April 1st 1818 the new president, and thus the new government, was inaugurated. Ignacio Allende was elected as the first President of the New Republic with centralist Nicolas Bravo as his vice president.

Federal Republic of Mexico.png
The Mexican states with its territories including the Protectorate of the United Provinces of Central America[4]

[1] There were some we could consider “moderates” in OTL politics but it was mostly federalists vs Centralists who some still wanted to give monarchy a second try…they’d get their chance eventually some forty years later so that tells you just how imbedded they were. ITTL they are smaller and probably wont last long…so it’ll be interesting to see what butterflies this causes down the road, huh?

[2] This paves the was for the statehood that Texas revolutionaries originally wanted IOTL 1836 and would help with dealing with the Comanches later on.

[3] Similar divide as IOTL but shifted more to the left ITTL with conservatives wanting a republic just not as centralist as IOTL. This is a more liberal Mexico after all.

[4] I used a wikipedia map and some very talented editing that can be hardly noticed....I will continue to hold your eyes hostage with my superb editing skills until someone does me the favor of using there edits. I can do worse!!! AND I WILL!!!! >.>
 
Part 3: A New Republic Chapter 2: Independence of Gran Colombia
Part 3: A New Republic

Chapter 2: Independence of Gran Colombia
The Spanish Menace in Nueva Granada

In 1810 various regions and cities formed different juntas declaring independence or rebellion against the viceroy. Eventually larger dominant groups formed but continued fighting each other versus centralists and federalists. Unlike the centralists of Mexico, centralists in New Granada wanted a unitary form of government with a strong executive almost similar to the views of the imperialists.

The struggles between patriots can be exemplified in the fate of Francisco de Miranda, who after helping liberate Venezuela, later ended up as its dictator only to be overthrown by other revolutionaries such as Simon Bolivar by 1813. This infighting made it possible for royalist forces to take and keep hold of vast swaths of territory. The rugged nature of the terrain of New Granada proved to be an obstacle for all parties involved as it made communication and central control/coordination difficult.

Bolivar, “The Liberator”, who was busy forming a coalition to defeat royalists in Venezuela petitioned Cartagena for assistance in his campaigns in 1814. This allowed him to form the second Republic of Venezuela. Despite this, fighting still persisted throughout the region against entrenched royalist forces. After word reached New Granada of Pablo Morillo’s armada which arrived in Veracruz, Bolivar left for Jamaica in May of 1815 to seek aid from European powers but failing that he moved on to the newly established Haitian Republic.

Bolivar managed to gain Haitian support by promising to free the slaves in New Granada and landed in Venezuela with an army around the same time Morillo landed his army of over 6,000 soldiers (several being recruits from New Spain to make up for casualties incurred) further to the west. It was race against the clock, and Bolivar knew that he had to consolidate power in Venezuela before Morillo was in position to attack it.[1]

The Great Liberator vs The Last Conquistador [2]


Simon Bolivar and Pablo Morillo at the end of Bolivar's liberation campaign.

Throughout 1816 and 1817 Simon Bolivar would continue his campaign receiving aid from Haiti. Word of the fall of Cartagena to Morillo reached Bolivar in March 1817, by this time Bolivar and many Venezuelans also heard of the victory of the Mexicans up north and the liberation of Central America. Bolivar decided to send word to Mexico and ask for aid. Unfortunately the Mexican government was still dealing with left over Spanish forces, cash shortages, and political uncertainty that any aid it could offer would be limited.

The 2nd Anahuac Congress decided to ask Vicente Guerrero to work with the United Provinces of Central America to come up with some form of support fearing that Morillo would eventually turn his armies towards Central America. Miguel Hidalgo famously put it this way “Morillo is more than just a Spanish general, he is a conquistador and if our nation is to survive, we must all insure that he becomes the last conquistador”.

During this time, Bolivar decided to move against Morillo and then worry about consolidating the independence of Venezuela afterwords, he was also harboring dreams of a greater American union. By May of 1817 Morillo’s army first encountered Bolivar’s forces as they were moving through the eastern Andes in southern Colombia. Bolivar managed to beat back the smaller force. Morillo had arrived to New Granada after a few royalist campaigns ran their course and could not rely on them for reinforcements [3] For the following months Morillo would fight a loosing war against Bolivar as his arrival boosted morale among the patriots of New Granada.

During Bolivar’s campaign 1817, an answer to Hidalgo’s prayers arrived. Servando Teresa de Mier with an expeditionary force of some 400 adventurers and three frigates had arrived in Tampico with the goal to eventually head to New Grenada. [4] He was told to head to Central America where Vicente Guerrero had worked with the United Provinces of Central America and a few private Mexican patriots to purchase a handful of transport ships and a few sloops of war to carry personal and troops. Together the liberating force was comprised of 400 adventurers, 300 British Foreign Legionnaires, 600 Mexican and Central American volunteers totaling a combined “private” army of 1300 troops. With the help of privateers, the Guerrero-Meir expedition arrived to Colombia in July of 1817.

From July of 1817 to January 1818, both forces would move closer to each other gaining allies along the way. While at sea Mexico stepped up the usage of privateers to keep the Spanish fleet busy. The bulk of the fleet that originally dropped off Morillo’s forces were transports and many of the worships were distributed throughout the rebelling colonies and many were also sent back to Europe to transport a second army to aid Morillo’s forces.

This allowed the liberation armies in New Granada to act without fear of a Spanish Armada and the arrival of more British legionnaires which joined Bolivar’s troops. Together, Bolivar led the combined forces of liberation into a decisive victory against Morillo in the battle of Bocaya in December of 1817. The following year saw more victories against Morillo until

In March 6th, 1818, Bolivar defeated Morillo’s army the battle of Cartagena. Morillo’s reinforcements never came, while the army was being assembled, liberal factions rose up in rebellion against Ferdinand VII. Morillo was stuck with what he had and was forced to either surrender or retreat to evacuate and retreat to Cuba, either choice meant that New Granada would be lost to Spain.

The Birth of Gran Colombia


Anahuac Battle Flag on Sailing warships 1 1.jpg

The arrival of Mexican hired and owned ships during the siege of Cartagena[5]

After the battle of Boyacá, Gran Colombia was proclaimed encompassing Quito, New Granada, and Venezuela. The Spanish reinforcements meant to aid Morillo were diverted to deal with a series of raids on Spanish forts in Florida by Andrew Jackson. Both the Spanish fleet and army concentrated in Cuba with the intention of landing armies in preparation for war. This gave Mexico the chance to send in its ragtag Caribbean fleet with a second expedition of 1000 soldiers near Cartagena to aid Bolivar. The Mexican ships, which really were a number of private vessels with a few ships captured by Mexico and not an official naval fleet, were used to blockade the port city as Bolivar surrounded it. By June 8th 1818, Morillo called for a ceasefire and agreed to surrender all Spanish forces and evacuate with the viceroy to Cuba.

[1] This is where Gran Colombia begins diverging from OTL.

[2] There’s something poetic about this title that just gets me. Too bad Bolivar wasn’t Tupac Amaru II, that would have really been poetic.

[3] Which wasn’t the case IOTL, but he was delayed ITTL so…

[4] He originally arrived to help the insurgents IOTL, but now he has sights on a new target and Mexico is just a second stop on his way there ITTL.

[5] I think I'm getting better at this editing thing or this is just a very easy picture to mess with.
 
I'm wondering of the fate of Cuba. In OTL Mexico did try to gain Cuba from Spain in 1826, but failed in the end. Mexico seems strong enough to take Cuba ITTL
 
I'm wondering of the fate of Cuba. In OTL Mexico did try to gain Cuba from Spain in 1826, but failed in the end. Mexico seems strong enough to take Cuba ITTL
Right now if Mexico needs to get it's mines up and rirunni, otherwise it will be at a very similar position TTL as it was in the OTL by 1826. But yes, at TTL in 1818 Mexico is doing quite well for itself when compared to OTL Mexico in 1821.
 
Part 3 Chapter 3: The US Acquisition of Spanish Florida
Anahuac Triunfante: A more united and successful Mexico from Colony to Enduring Republic TL

Part 3: A New Republic

Chapter 3: The US Acquisition of Spanish Florida

Map of East and West Florida and surrounding territories during the 1810's

The Apalachicola River Incident

From 1816 to 1818 the US was involved in a series of incidents with escaped slaves and Native Americans in West Florida and Spanish Florida. The Spanish were unable to establish order in the area which incentivized the US to take matters into their own hands. Andrew Jackson lead an invasion of Florida with the aim to retaliate after fire was exchanged between American supply ships and a Native American controlled fort in the region.

Andrew Jackson gathered an armed force in March 1818 at Fort Scott to neutralize the threat in Florida. Fears existed in the US of possible slave revolts originating in the area due to the presence of a “black fort”. There were also concerns with runaway slaves and Native American raids. The skirmishes that took place earlier in the year served as a justification for Jackson’s expedition.

The Spanish decided to deploy troops to Florida around the same time fearing that Mexico would replicate its expeditions to Colombia and Central America against Florida taking advantage of the situation. The situation with the US also was a cause for concern. The Captain General of Cuba, Jose Cienfuegos, rerouted troops who arrived to Cuba from Spain, Mexico, and Colombia as well as some local units to Florida. This was possible since troops fighting in Mexico and Colombia were evacuated, including several hundred POW’s. Originally, Cienfuegos wanted to amass an army to retake those former colonies but decided to reorient his efforts to the north. [1]

Andrew Jackson’s army of 3,000 ran into Pablo Morillo’s army of 5,000 at Fort St. Marks on April 5th 1818. A week-long campaign ensued in which Jackson was able to win most of the engagements against the Spanish, but at a cost. Each day more and more Native Americans and former slaves joined the Spanish. This was a result of Jackson’s less than honorable treatment of those that stood in his path as even unarmed men, women and children were attacked by his forces. With Jackson on the retreat, the Spanish pushed forward to attack Fort Gadsden while sending units to reclaim the site of the “Negro Fort”.

By the end of April, Spanish ships in Cuba began preparations for a blockade against New Orleans which meant the ships harrying the Mexican and Colombian coasts were called back. A message asking for reinforcements was also sent to the Metropolí which would put King Ferdinand VII’s plans of creating a second massive fleet to reconquer the colonies akin to Morillo’s fleet on the fast track. Andrew Jackson also decided to fall back into American Territory after President Monroe threatened to send another army to arrest him in an attempt to cool tensions down with Spain.

Diplomatic Fallout


Trial of Alexander Arbuthnot and Robert Ambristor, the two British nationals executed by Jackson's forces during his invasion of Florida

Andrew Jackson’s forces burned down two villages and executed several individuals without trials, including two British nationals. The British began applying pressure to the US demanding indemnities and providing moral support to Spanish claims. Cienfuegos demanded indemnities as well and US commitment on Spain’s claims in the area. Spanish Ambassador Luis de Onis Y Gonzalez-Velera was already in the process of negotiating a deal for West Florida and a possible sale of portions of northern East Florida. [2] Those negotiations soon fell apart and Spain formally withdrew its offer.

Andrew Jackson’s actions were condemned by Congress, and his defeat placed a black mark on his reputation among many who supported him the past. He was brought before a congressional hearing and investigation and forced to resign from the military or face court martial. Despite this, he was still a popular figure with prominent allies such as John Quincy Adams.

Fearing potential war, the US began raising militias and the US Navy began allocating ships to New Orleans. The US was still reeling after the war with Great Britain, its Navy was still being rebuilt and government coffers were just recovering from the immense expenses of that war. James Monroe feared that should it come to war with Spain, the US will find itself fighting on American soil once again.

As Monroe’s government struggled to deal with the diplomatic fallout, he reached out to emissaries from Mexico and Colombia hopping to get some sort of support. Until this time the US did not give any recognition to the patriots of Spain’s former colonies due to its negotiations with Spain over Florida. Any attempt to ally with them openly would potentially be seen as an act of war. He also feared that Britain may lend its support to Spain, after all if the US is helping free European colonies, Britain would be concerned about its own colonies.

Monroe made a secret deal with Mexico and Colombia to join an alliance of American states in mutual defense should the US come to war with Spain. Mexican Ambassador, Jose Manuel Herrera even offered to declare Florida Mexican territory and then sell it to the US, but that was dismissed as too impractical and expensive in multiple ways.

In any event, high level talks with patriots and the US President was a first and a welcomed change from previous US policy. Both President Allende and Colombian President Francisco Santander began making preparations with the anticipation of an American war, which is exactly what Monroe was looking for. In exchange, the US will recognize Mexico, Colombia and any other former colony as well as aid in their development as free nations.

The Naval Blockade of Fort San Juan Ulua

Mexican Ships spotting the approaching Spanish Frigates during the blockade of For San Juan Ulua

President Allende, on his part, took advantage of the reduced Spanish presence and blockaded Fort San Juan Ulua in Veracruz with the few ships Mexico had. The Mexican fleet was composed of a total of two brigantines, three frigates (left over from the Mier expedition), and a little more than half a dozen smaller ships such as sloops of war. Pedro Sainz de Baranda was appointed the squadron’s commander. Unlike the ships used to send volunteers to Colombia, these ships were fully owned and operated by Mexico as the first gulf squadron. It would take over a year to capitulate the fort, but the blockade allowed for increase use of the port in Veracruz for trade now that Spanish ships were no longer an immediate threat.

Anticipating the arrival of a supply fleet, Barranda split his forces into two main flotillas. On flotilla would be composed of the two brigantines with several support vessels at the nearby Sacrificios island and around the Oro coast out of the line of sight of the path to be taken by the Spanish ships. The second main flotilla would be composed of the three frigates and their support ships.

In June 1818, Spain did send supply ships escorted with fresh troops to the fort. Upon spotting the approaching vessels, Baranda sent a few sloops to intercept in an attempt to goad one or more of the Spanish frigates to give chase. One Frigate did break formation and chased the three sloops while the rest continued on their way to the port where they met up with the three Mexican frigates. One Spanish Frigate, the Sabina was captured, and the other retreated. The three sloops made it to Sacrificios Island where they met up with the two Brigantines and a few other smaller vessels forcing the Spanish ship to back off. The Spanish would not send another supply fleet as war with the US became an increasing possibility. This was Mexico’s first real naval engagement, and a resounding victory netting Barranda considerable political clout.

War Averted, the Adams-Onis Treaty

Ferdinand VII was preparing his second army since word reached him earlier in late March of 1818. With news of Jackson’s expedition, Ferdinand sped up the mobilization of troops and ships at Cadiz to go to Florida and secure Spanish possessions. Word of the fleet’s preparations reached Cienfuegos in Cuba by August, and around the same time Monroe was informed of the fleet.

Both Monroe and Ferdinand VII knew that neither nation was in a position to go to war. The United States government nearly went bankrupt by the end of the war of 1812 and had already developed a debt from heavy borrowing. The US Navy was also not up to full strength. Funding the rebuilding of the navy and mobilized militias was bad enough, Monroe got permission to raise a regular army in anticipation of an armed conflict which only added to the country’s expenses.

Spain’s fleet was a shadow of its former glory. Many of its ships were quickly becoming outdated. Spain was unable to field an army the could equal the US forces in numbers and would have to rely on quick naval victories to achieve any sort of advantage against the US, and that would be a challenge on its own. Florida, by mid late summer of 1818, had some 6,000 Spanish soldiers with no more than 2,000 native allies. There were another few thousand on Cuba. The US had mobilized militias that numbered up to 20,000 with a regular army of 5,000 being assembled and a few hundred native allies. Spain was letting negotiations and talks drag long enough for the British to side with Spain, but the British were reluctant to do so at best. Not to mention that years of war has drained Spanish coffers dry. [3]

James Monroe decided to offer an olive branch. The US would pay $2,000 in indemnities to the British and assume $5,000,000 indemnities against spain owed to its citizens in addition to paying Spain $3,000,000 for Florida. The British felt that a war between the US and Spain would end up allowing the US to ally with Spain’s former colonies. This in turn posed a risk of American expansion beyond Spain, maybe even into Cuba and make American Hispañola indebted to the US. Great Britain put pressure on Spain to accept, and on November 13th, 1818 Spain agreed to the terms set by the US. It would take several months for Spain to confirm its acceptance due to the distances involved, so it wouldn’t be till mid 1819 that all parties involved officially accepted the conditions.

Aftermath

After the ratification of the Adams-Onis Treaty, Monroe gave the nations of Mexico (with its protectorate of the United Provinces of Central America), Colombia, The United Provinces of Rio de La Plata, and Chile official recognition since the US no longer had to worry about Spanish sensibilities. It also helped that by that time Ferdinand VII’s army at Cadiz turned against him in a liberal coup. In addition to that recognition he also established the “Monroe Doctrine” declaring that any European attack or attempt to recolonize nations of the new world would be considered an act of war against the US. Of course, the US would be unable to actually follow through with such a threat. The expenses incurred as a result of the entire situation exacerbated the economic fragility of the US leading to a severe economic crisis.

Once the armies gathering at the port of Cadiz heard of the deal to sell Florida, many liberals blamed the Absolutist tendencies of Ferdinand VII and absolutists in his court for the loss of the Spanish Empire. It was the unwillingness to adopt the liberal constitution with full faith that led to the uprisings in America, and those same uprisings weakened Spain to the point where a backwater former British colony managed to wrestle Florida from Spanish control. Spain descended into civil war.

With Spanish reinforcements being nonexistent, Cienfuegos and Morillo were powerless to launch any sort of attack against Mexico or Colombia and King Ferdinand was unable to further dissuade other European nations from dealing with its former colonies. It was at this point that many in Spain saw the end of the Spanish Empire that once ruled the world.

With the threat of Spain gone, and not to mention a liberal uprising that looked eerily similar to the French revolution, Europed opened its doors to Mexico and the other former Spanish colonies.
------------

[1] IOTL Spain couldn’t do this because it still had soldiers fighting in Mexico, and Colombia with the navy busy backing them up. ITTL they aren’t spread as thin.

[2] Spain’s negotiations were impacted by the fact they don’t control Mexican Northern territories anymore ITTL so they took longer and of a different character.

[3] The financial situation of the US is OTL, but the numbers of troops is TTL. Spain is also in a very similar situation as the US, though they do have an upper hand when it comes to the Navy.

Don't mind me, I'm just setting some butterflies free and murdering a few here and there...Any comments and feedback are welcomed :)
 
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Andrew Jackson's popularity shouldn't be able to protect him from this fiasco, his unsanctioned actions have nearly ruined the young nation for good.

The best thing about this Florida becoming a safe heaven for escaped slaves and the native population, at least those already in the area.
 
Andrew Jackson's popularity shouldn't be able to protect him from this fiasco, his unsanctioned actions have nearly ruined the young nation for good.

The best thing about this Florida becoming a safe heaven for escaped slaves and the native population, at least those already in the area.
Florida is no longer part of Spain unfortunately, Though I am having second thoughts...maybe it should have been all sold to the US. It could have easily just kept Spain, but the US would have made noise and forced spain into a war due to the indemnities Americans were claiming.
 
Part 3: Chapter 4 Ignacio Allende's Administration 1818-1822
Here is my update. I would like to include updates about Spain, the US, and South America and maybe the Dominican Republic/Haiti. So far, Mexico's actions have released butterflies to those areas, such as Spain's earlier liberal revolt, Jackson's failed invasion of Florida and increased US government expenses, A maringally Earlier Gran Colombia (who in the OTL attracted the attention of Dominican and even Puerto Rican rebellious elements iirc). In this update, the Butterfly god has decided to prevent disastrous debt in Mexico....Comments are most welcomed! (Freelance mapmakers even more welcomed).

Anahuac Triunfante: A more united and successful Mexico from Colony to Enduring Republic TL
Part 3: A New Republic

Chapter 4: Ignacio Allende’s administration 1818-1822
United Mexican States 1818.jpg

Map of the United Mexican States as they stood in 1818 including the Protectorate of the United Provinces of Central America


The Allende Foreign Policy

Ignacio Allende tapped Guadalupe Victoria as his foreign minister and charged him the duty to obtain foreign recognition of the newly constituted republic in 1818 as well as favorable treaties and potential loans and investments. While Jose Herrera courted the US, Victoria himself would go with a few ambassadors to Europe and attempt to obtain audiences with Great Britain, France, Prussia and a few other European states and the Pope. Initial attempts were met with little success due to pressure from Spain, an ally of many of these nations during the Napoleonic wars.

The Apalachicola incident allowed Mexico to finally get official recognition from the United States, and soon after saw an increase of commerce from British and French merchants. The victory against the Spanish resupply flotilla afforded Mexico just enough prestige for the governments of the main European powers to allow their citizens to trade with Mexico independently. After the outbreak of the Liberal revolt in late 1819, other smaller European nations began following the path of the UK and France. Victoria managed to secure himself popularity among educated Mexicans after achieving a trade agreement and recognition from Great Britain by early 1820. [1]

By 1821, Bolivar managed assist revolutionaries and liberate Paraguay, and aided in securing the liberation of nations that comprised the former United Provinces of Rio de La Plata ending the independence war in South America. From the year 1819 to 1821 the Mexican government ordered a second South American expedition to assist Bolivar lead by Morelos which returned in time for the elections of 1822.

The Indios of the North

Comancheria.jpg
Borders of territory controlled by the Comanche Indians designated in Red.

During the organization of the new federal government in 1818, the states also were asked to submit new constitutions. This lead to the redivision of several states as their borders were reworked to better suit a republican federal government versus a centralized viceroyalty.

Northern Mexico remained largely unsettled, other than by the native peoples. Spain operated a number of Presidios, Spanish forts, that encouraged native populations to settle near them and trade. Essentially, they bribed native tribes to not attack New Spanish property or New Spanish native allies and retaliate against “rogue” tribes such as the Comanche and their Navajo-Kiwi allies.

After achieving independence, Mexico continued funding the Presidios as it took over one by one in Chiuahua, Choahuila, Sonora, Durango, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas and continued the Spanish strategy. [2] The territorial governments of Texas, New Mexico and the two Californias were left on their own for the most part during this period.

Many former indigenous militiamen of the revolution were given incentives, such as land grants, to take their families north and settle land appropriated by the new government. These land grants were also given to many mestizo soldiers and families in the hopes of civilizing the north. From 1818-1822 over 2,000 families would move to the northern states and an additional 900 into the territories. [3] The New Mexico and Texan territorial governments also managed to set up a system of tribute payments with the Comanche which helped reduce raids into Mexican territory, although they did still take place. By 1821, Allende sent a small military force to garrison in Chihuahua's capital of about 200 calvary men and another unit of 90 calvary men to Santa Fe to help deal with those raids.

Righting the wrongs of the Peninsular oppressors.

While the majority of Criollos were in no way egalitarian in their views of the former castas and the indigenous and many subscribed to racist views, they took steps to reverse some of the elements of the old social order that were especially criticized by Alexander Von Humboldt.

Laws were passed by 1819 that gave all Mexicans land owning rights and made it illegal to bar Mestizos from participation in the political process. Echoing one of Morelos’ “Sentimientos” in his famous document, many Criollos were adamant that only wealth and “virtue” would be considered when giving anyone the right to participation in the political process (as long as they were men). In practice, very few indigenous people participated in government in the first decades of Mexico’s history. And most mestizos that did participate were noticeably of lighter skin color.

Black and mulatto Mexicans were largely marginalized as a result of their small population numbers. With the end of the tribute system and states either manumitting slaves or out right abolishing it in accordance with the federal constitution.

The expulsion of Jesuit priests was an old grievance. While Spain re-invited the Jesuits after the establishment of the Constitution of Cadiz, they never really made it into Mexico. Now that Mexico was independent, the government began courting them. Many liberal Criollos wanted to increase literacy rates in Mexico among all Criollos and Mestizos with an eye towards the “Civilizing” of the indigenous peoples. The government found two main schools, one in Mexico City and one in Puebla. The hope was that teachers would spread from there throughout central Mexico.

Economic Policy [4]

With US recognition, several small mining upstarts from the US bought mining rights in central Mexico in 1819. However, by mid-1820 the financial crises in the United states led those companies into bankruptcy. Allende stepped in offering to buy their mining rights and in turn sell them at reduced price to local hacienda members who retained many of the foreign experts. Mexico now had domestic control of a small portion of its mining operation. Under Lucas Aleman’s national bank established in 1823, those mining companies began building refineries and expanding their operations. The most prominent of the Mexican owned corporation as Allianza Mineral Mexicana, or AMM. [5]

The British also financed and ran major mining operations in Mexico beginning in 1821 mainly the largest mining company of Real de Monte y Pachuca. These operations, as well as that of the AMM brought in much needed revenue to the government and capital to the economy.

A series of tariffs meant to stimulate certain agricultural industries were also passed as well as the funding of new roads and restoration of old and existing roads. Most of these projects were focused in central Mexico. Major highways were formed to connect the cities of Veracruz, Campeche, Tampico, Acapulco, Puebla, and Mexico City in a network to help boost trade. The government also made attempts to restart the Manila trade but that wouldn’t start until the Spanish liberal government consolidated control of Spain in 1822.

Efforts led by Lucas Aleman to establish a national bank to encourage economic development allowed private investments into infrastructure and industry in central Mexico. The Texan territorial government in cooperation with Tamaulipas began building a road to connect Tampico with Bexar and Monterey which was completed by 1825.

Despite these promising developments, Mexico was still a nation of concentrated wealth. The vast majority of indigenous Mexicans continued living in abject poverty. While there was an increase of mestizo participation in trade, business, and land ownership, they were still an economic and political minority. Literacy rates remained between a dismal 5-10% throughout the early 1820’s.

Immigration

Ignacio Allende’s administration did not focus on immigration initially. But by 1820 it became a focus among many liberals as another way to settle the northern territories and increase literacy in the country. During Victoria’s travels in Europe, he also helped set up immigration offices in Italy and Catholic areas in the various German states. From 1820-1822 over two hundred families began trickling in as a result of his efforts.

The largest and only real significant immigration to Mexico during Allende’s administration occurred in the territory of Texas. Stephen Austin was negotiating with the territorial government for a land grant. Since there were already a few hundred settlers from the US, the territorial government agreed to work towards making a deal with him for a land grant. As long as all settlers learned Spanish and converted to the Roman Catholic faith, they’d be welcomed to Texas. By 1821, Austin had nearly 300 settlers who moved into the southeastern portion of Texas. By the following year a few hundred more would follow.

Texan settlers were also met by Mexican settlers numbering close to four hundred, mostly mestizos but with a significant number of indigenous independence war veterans. Conflicts would often break out due to accusations of false conversions on the part of Austin’s settlers. Worried of social instability, Allende placed a 2 year hold on any further immigration from the United States into the northern territories. Despite that hold, nearly 500 illegal immigrants made into Texas from the US by 1823 forcing Allende to send in the military to enforce Mexican immigration law. These conflicts between the different settler groups and illegal immigration from the US would lead to the Texan revolt years down the road [6]

The Second Presidential Elections

Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon President of Mexico 1822-1826
Campaigning began in late August 1821 for the 1822 elections. The constitution did not allow for consecutive reelections, so Allende would not be running. By now three parties had formed in Mexico. The Liberal Party formed by liberals, the Conservative party formed by a coalition of moderates and conservatives and the Monarchist party formed by the staunchest conservatives and closest allies of the Peninsulares still residing in Mexico. Iturbide was nominated by the Monarchists while Guadalupe Victoria was nominated by the Conservatives while Morelos became the favored candidate of the Liberal Party. [7} Thanks to his war record, his two expeditions to south America, and the liberation of Central America, Morelos was immensely popular among the common people. With Hidalgo’s blessing (both literally and politically) Morelos ran a successful campaign winning the election for President. Victoria came in second place and thus won the Vice Presidency.

Iturbide conceded the election despite urgings from monarchists that he take soldiers loyal to him and take his “rightful place” at the head of government. His decision not to act was not out of a sense of loyalty to the rule of law, but he feared that Victoria would side with Morelos. Both Morelos and Victoria held a position in the people’s eyes second only to that of Allende and Hidalgo and equal only to Ignacio Lopez and Vicente Guerrero. Iturbide was also very popular, but only came after the aforementioned revolutionaries in popularity and support of both the people of Mexico and the army.

Morelos would face many challenges. The Californias and New Mexico were largely out of contact with the central government and practically running themselves. Many Mayans saw the Yucatan as their own realm and a sizable Peninsular population held most of the land and power in that area since it escaped the land confiscations of the war. Many indigenous farmers were starting to fail due to the inexperience of their new place in society which was causing unrest and slowing down economic growth. Morelos also realized that Monarchists and Conservatives would only tolerate him to a point before moving against him if he moved too far and too fast with implementing the liberal vision for Mexico. He had to navigate all of these issues with the awareness that Spain could, or rather would, return with a vengeance.

[1] Mexico’s economy and government budget are at a much better place in TTL than in the OTL due to the course of the war and relatively quick recognition by foreign powers.

[2] Due to money issues, Mexico did the opposite which brought about devastating raids from the natives hurting development of those states and settlement of the OTL modern US Southwest. But NIMTL (Not In My TimeLine) :D

[3] What’s this? More Mexicans in the North you say? Couldn’t possibly impact any future events….

[4] There’s a lot in here that is OTL and a lot that is TTL. Basically, I made things slightly better to significantly better taking into account a shorter and less chaotic war for independence, quicker foreign investment and recognition post-independence, and a more united populace not burdened by as many revolts. The same holds true for

[5] AMM is an invention of TTL as is the defunct American ones.

[6] More butterflies and butterfly nets. Unlike OTL, there are more Mexicans in Texas, more are coming and soon there would be more Europeans there too.

[7] I put Victoria with the Conservatives as a moderate, IOTL he did try his best to keep balance in Mexico between the two OTL factions of the Conservatives and Moderates. I figured that even if Mexico as a whole was more liberal, he’d still be a moderate trying to get everyone to get along.
 

mad orc

Banned
This timeline asks what a continuous uninterrupted rebellion would look like, what it takes to get that, and how that would impact the early history of independent Mexico. I don't have one singular POD but rather a general cultural one. The What if of this timeline is: "What if Mexicans, especially Criollos, were more liberal along the lines of the enlightenment in northern Europe?" or "What if Mexican Criollos and the castas were more united and forceful in their resentment to the Peninsulares?" or rather both.

To make this happen I have one or two semi-POD's that release butterflies that work in mysterious ways. I don't know if that's ASB or not, but I hope it can be overlooked or accepted. These will trigger other later "POD's".

Before joining AH.com I mulled over in my mind how things could have gone differently for Mexico in its early years. The closest to that vision that I found here was a timeline by Archangelsk (Link) whose format I liked and will sort off be using here. I would also like to credit the timelines of Mad Orc, Vaultboy, and Jycee whose timelines I am still reading whose styles and formats are also an influence.

There will be main timeline posts (Parts and Chapters) as well as "Bio" posts which would be like dramatized segments in historical documentaries. You won't necessarily need to read those, but they would, I hope, ad a bit more. I also would like to add the occasional culture post but I can't say how frequent they would be. I would also like to point out that I am making the timeline grow more or less "naturally" even though I do have ideas of where I want Mexico to be, if I find that can't be there without too much tomfoolery on my part, then it won't got there. But there will be some slight "wanking" of Mexico.

My next post will contain the first part of the Timeline. Please feel free to leave feedback and constructive criticism is always welcomed!

I am loving it !!!!
If you want any help, especially about Alta California and Chihuahua and Arizona, then please feel free to ask.


But most if all. Please continue the TL.

Happy New year !:D
 
"Texan revolt years down" ALMO INTENSIFIES. Also is that a imprecation to the Spanish reconquista attemptaof Mexico at the end.
Notice that it's a "revolt"....as for the Spanish, my next post will show how a monarch butterfly (This is very much a pun) might cause some interesting issues. Actually, I think I now know what title to give myself...

I am loving it !!!!
If you want any help, especially about Alta California and Chihuahua and Arizona, then please feel free to ask.


But most if all. Please continue the TL.

Happy New year !:D
Thanks, and Happy New Years!

Lately I've been stung by a muse regarding a post 1900 TL so I've been focusing on that but want to take this TL at least until the 1850's before I start posting a new one. I am not sure when the end date will be, but eventually there would be too many butterflies. I am working on the next update still.
 
Part 3 Chapter 5: Spain, Gran Colombia, And The United States 1819-1824
Anahuac Triunfante: A more united and successful Mexico from Colony to Enduring Republic TL
Part 3: A New Republic
Chapter 5: Spain, Gran Colombia, And the United States 1819-1824

Spain: The Liberal Uprising

Rafael Del Riego was ordered to take his battalion to the port of Cadiz in preparations for either war with the US or to reconquer Mexico, which at the time many Spaniards still referred to as New Spain. However, Del Riego and many others knew better than to think that Spain could afford either war. A liberal minded army, Spanish forces joined Regio’s initial mutiny in June 1st 1819 which would bring an end to King Ferdinand VII’s absolutist rule in Spain. [1]

It didn’t take long for other parts of Spain to revolt, such as Galicia. By the end of the year similar revolts began to break out all over Europe from Portugal to Greece to varying degrees of success. While war in Spain lasted far longer well into 1822 when forces resisting the Liberals were finally defeated, liberals managed to take control of Madrid and large swaths of territory around southern and northwestern Spain. Ferdinand VII was forced to adopt once again the Cadiz Constitution of 1812 by March 1820 and “rule” as a constitutional monarch at gun point.

Envoys from Mexico requesting a cessation of hostilities arrived to Spain in 1822 hopping to find a friendlier government that would grant recognition and trade rights to the Philippines and other Spanish territories in the Pacific. Spain agreed to accept Mexican merchant vessels in the Philippines but negotiations didn’t go further beyond that.

From 1820 to 1822, Rafael del Riego became the president of the Cortes General, a role similar to that of prime minister. During the first two years of his government, he attempted to industrialize Spain, redistribute land, and reign in the outdated economic model that led to Spain’s ruin. At every step he met resistance from conservative factions in Spain and sporadic uprisings that would take up most of his government’s attention. [2]

Just as things were beginning to settle down for Spain, France got tacit support from other European countries to intervene and reestablish conservative rule in Spain in late 1822. By April of 1823, King Louis sent an army of around 100,000 soldiers known as the “Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis”. In the ensuing conflict, Ferdinand VII was killed as he attempted to escape the “protective” custody of Spanish forces during their evacuation of Saville where he was being held up. By October 1823, liberal forces surrendered during the siege of Cadiz brining an end to four years of liberal rule.

King Louis now needed to find a new Spanish monarch and obvious choice was Ferdinand VII’s younger brother, Carlos. Some advisers, going of on what they were informed by the Spanish, cautioned Louis on selecting such a staunch absolutist ruler out of fear that he would simply cause another liberal revolt. The youngest surviving sibling, Francisco de Paula Antonio was proposed as a safer alternative but Louis pointed out the issue of succession law. Another option was changing the law of succession to allow succession through Ferdinand VII’s older sister Carlota Joaquina (and consequently allowing women to succeed) and ask one of her sons, Miguel, to take the Spanish throne, but the political situation in Portugal and his involvement in a revolt at around the same time made that unfeasible, but his older sister, Isabel Maria, could serve as regent until things calmed down in Portugal.

Louis had a message sent to Lisbon with the proposal to make Isabel Maria regent until such a time that Miguel or another male heir to the throne would be available. If no male heir would be found, she could be crowned Queen of Spain. Louis thought he could place competent and conservative advisors at her side that would allow for some stability in Spain for a change. Carlos however, protested the measure claiming that such a succession law change was without merit and claimed that only a royal decree could change it.

Gran Colombia: The Liberation of Peru and Bolivia

By the latter half of 1819 most royalist forces in Colombia and Panama were defeated with Bolivar’s troops focusing on last royalist army in Venezuela in late August. It was in this context that the congress of Angostura proclaimed Venezuela and New Granada to be part of one country named Colombia (Later on it would be referred to as Gran Colombia). In the 1820 elections Simon Bolivar became the President of Colombia with Francisco De Paula Santander.

Soon after claiming victory in Venezuela Bolivar expel royalist forces from Quito and begin preparations for eventually invading Spanish Peru. Throughout this time period Santander effectively ran the country. Bolivar believed in a strong central government led by a powerful executive, while Santander was more of a federalist. Santander was better suited with managing the different political factions that debated between establishing a centralist vs a federalist government. Santander was able to find middle ground using the Mexican model as an exemplar with which to argue against staunch centralists.

In 1821 Panama declared its independence with little opposition from Spain. Debates on the path to take included remaining independent, joining Colombia, or becoming a protectorate of Mexico. Panama eventually opted out for union with Colombia after receiving assurances of a federalist model of government which further bolstered Santander’s side in the debates against centralists. Santander encouraged Bolivar to make a move against Peru earlier in 1920 in order to avoid his return to government. [3]

By August 1820, Bolivar was moving into northern Peru, forcing Peruvian Royalists to move troops who were fighting troops from Argentine general San Martin and Chilean naval commander Thomas Alexander Cochrane allowing for victories at Ica, Ayacucho and Cusco in Southern Peru by October. Northern Peru came under Bolivar’s control as far south as Trujillo and Pucallpa sandwiching royalist forces in the central portion of the country and a small sliver of coastline around Lima. In 1821, Bolivar met up with Martin during a siege of Lima in the city of Ayacucho to discuss future plans for Peru. Martin decided to slowly withdraw his forces allowing Bolivar, with considerable help from Peruvian patriots, to set up a republic in the area. By late 1822 Peruvian patriots and Colombian troops had taken control of some the most critical cities that Martin originally held. [4] Royalist forces continued to resist Bolivar throughout the year until finally being defeated by the end of the year. Upper Peru, however, still remained firmly in the hands of the Spanish.

From 1823 to 1824 Bolivar drove into upper Peru with the intent of liberating that region from Spanish Rule. After the battles of Junin and Juyjuy royalist forces were defeated and scattered. Bolivar helped prop up Antonio Jose de Sucre, who would become the first president of Bolivia, as the leader of Upper Peru in its congress in early 1824. The question of Upper Peru’s fate was divided between joining either the United Provinces to the south or Peru (since they were united as a Spanish colony). By June 11th, 1824, Bolivia declared its independence adopting Bolivar’s name in his honor. Total independence was a move that Bolivar did not quite agree with for fears of Quito wishing their own independence. With South American independence effectively won, Bolivar took what was left of his Colombian forces back north to Colombia.

The United States: The Slave Problem

In 1819, the economy of the US was hit hard in what would be known as the panic of 1819. It was a result of government debt, conservative credit policies from the national banks who called in loans from the state banks which had a domino effect eventually causing many to lose their homes and land. Northern states reacted by pushing for tariffs in the 1820’s, the federal government found itself in dire need of cash after the expenses of the Apalachicola river incident and the purchase of the Florida. The tariffs stoked resentment among southerners due to the increased prices.

The rise of protectionism was seen as a threat to southerners who feared the negative impact tariffs would have on prices of goods. It was in the context of the panic of 1819 and the debate regarding tariffs that the Missouri Compromise was set. Debates regarding the spread and existence of slavery were seeing their birth. While criticism of the spread of slavery did already exist, the balanced nature of the Senate between free states and slave states kept most controversy at bay. But Missouri wanting to join as a slave state threatened that balance. Northern attempts to prevent it or to prevent further spread of slavery were seen as a second insult, the first being the desire for tariffs.

A compromise was set in 1820 were Maine would become a free state and Missouri a slave state to maintain the balance, this bought some time before the issue came up of Arkansas’ admission to the union as a slave state in 1836.

While the US now had control of Florida with William P Duval as territorial governor by 1822. Some white settlers began moving into the territory to start up plantations and small communities, bringing with them some slaves. Between 1819-1822 several armed groups moved into Florida in attempts to chase down and recapture runaways. Duval began organizing the territorial government and coordinating with the small military garrison that mostly served as a reactionary force when things got out of hand, usually to help out slave bounty hunters in their skirmishes with the natives. Attempts to negotiate were met with hostility forcing Monroe to raise a regular army of four thousand soldiers and send them into Florida for what would be called the Seminole Wars, which was really a series of battles and conflicts between 1822-1824. The wars ended when John H Eaton arrived with a larger volunteer force to aid federal troops. Eaton had served a term in the Senate and decided to allow his friend, Andrew Jackson, a go at it while he went to Florida to “Finish what you[Jackson] started” as he said in a letter to Jackson. [5]

Several tribes agreed to a cease fire and began working on negotiations for a peace treaty that would give them the security they sought. Negotiations wouldn’t start until later in 1825 which eventually led to a treaty confining the natives into a reservation in central Florida away from the coasts. In that same year movement to the reservation began after several conflicts with whites forced the government. Duval, to his credit, worked hard to ensure that the US would honor its promises in providing aid and protection to the natives, for the time being.

On the foreign policy side, the US was quick to recognize the newly independent Peru and Bolivia. Monroe also began working on developing an alliance of sorts that he proposed earlier to Mexico and Colombia in order to give his "doctrine" more validity in the eyes of Europe. Though many Americans, that is those who knew enough about foreign politics, became skeptical of the idea of working with a country led by a "half breed" who commanded a feeble fleet confined to its own coast and another country "infested" with freed slaves who had no real navy to speak off. The financial crises, the slave question, and the situation in Florida took up most of his time, so little was done on bringing his plans of a "Monroe Doctrine Pact" into fruition.

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[1] About a year early vs OTL. As a result, the Spanish took far longer to pacify most of the Country.

[2] A fate similar to OTL Mexico…

[3] An earlier Bolivar campaign butterflies easier victories for Jose de San Martin and Thomas Alexander Cochrane’s forces.

[4] iOTL Martin left long before Bolivar could take control of the southern cities that Martin held. Due to earlier dates and greater cooperation, Martin’s evacuation was slow enough for Bolivar to take some key areas and allow Peruvian patriots to do the rest.

[5] I retconned (and edited) my last update to state that there were congressional hearings on Jackson and he was forced to give up any involvement in military action for the rest of his life and return to Tennessee. This results in a different but similar experience for the natives in Florida. It also means a different political career for Jackson…
 
Part 3 Chapter 6: The Mexican Economy Under Morelos 1822-1826
Anahuac Triunfante: A more united and successful Mexico from Colony to Enduring Republic TL
Part 3: A New Republic
Chapter 6: The Mexican Economy under Morelos 1822-1826

The Land Crisis of 1823

Morelos quickly began working on solving the issue of the increasing number of indigenous land owners who found themselves living once again under their former hacienda owners. He proposed a number of land reforms aimed at setting up companies of which they would hold shares in but be administered by agents who would usually be government officials or communally elected officials who would work closely with hacienda owners who would in turn maintain direct ownership on some land. Many Peninsulares who still had land as well as Mexican hacienda owners still found ways to short change their “tenants”.

Mayans began claiming rights to land owned by Peninsulares and their Criollo allies in the Yucatan peninsula and decried the lack of change in the Yucatan between colonial New Spain and independent Mexico. Morelos had tasked the young Lucas Aleman and his Secretary of public finance Francisco Garcia Salinas with finding a legal mean with which to appropriate lands from the Peninsulares and set up similar communal land systems. Garcia and Aleman didn’t see eye to eye very often, but managed to agree to settle the issue in the courts. The government alleged that the Peninsulares and several conservative Criollos never truly joined the state during the war for independence and had in the eyes of the law lost their land like many in Central Mexico. The Supreme Court awarded the government the lands of many Peninsulares as a result.

Several members of the state government sympathetic to the Peninsulares organized a revolt April 1823 and raised a small force in Merida. Guadalupe Victoria was sent to disarm the uprising taking troops stationed in Veracruz, about one thousand regulars and 1200 militiamen by sea to the port of Campeche. From their his force marched to Merida joining militiamen from the state of Tabasco. In early March the Yucatecan separatist army already had engaged Mayan militias but was unable to prevent Merida from being cut off. With the arrival of the Mexican Army, the Militias began taking several haciendas and removing local state officials who were seen as enemies. The presence of Mexican forces at Merida helped prevent a massacre as many Mayans were inclined to seek vengeance for past wrongs. Seeing the writing on the wall the rebels surrendered explicitly to federal troops not Mayans. Victoria assumed military governorship of the Yucatan state and began enforcement of the court’s ruling.

The Spanish Attack

Seeing the events in the Yucatan unfold, Monarchists throughout the republic felt that they would be next. Some even began writing to Spanish officials in Spain indicating their willingness to join any Spanish expedition to “restore good order and the Catholic faith” to Mexico. This included exaggeration of the desire of Mexicans to return to Spanish rule and the accusation of godless rule by “uneducated heathens” led by “an unruly indio heretic” referring to Morelos. By 1825 King Carlos sent word to Cuba that he would send some soldiers to assist in such a conquest but would be otherwise unable to provide assistance by way of funding or increased naval presence. In February of 1825 a Spanish fleet composed of frigates, brigantines and transport ships headed for Tampico carrying with them 5000 soldiers.

Using rumors from New Orleans and US citizens sympathetic to Mexico in Havana, Commander Barranda surmised that Compenche was the Spanish target. However, a member of the Monarchist conspiracy unwittingly confessed to a liberal priest who alerted General Lopez of the Spanish’s true landing sight, Tampico. Immediately Morelos began rounding up conspirators ranging from army officials, to state functionaries, to peninsular priests and bishops while Lopez organized the Puebla and Mexico state militias with a force of one thousand regulars from Mexico City to march to Tampico.

On March 7th, 1825 the Gulf Squadron intercepted the Spanish fleet and engaged it using hit and run tactics forcing some of the escort ships to break off and give chase only to be ambushed by Mexican frigates just beyond the horizon. Mexicans managed to damage one Spanish frigate and sink two brigantines and capture a sloop of war suffering minimal losses. But the Spanish landed near Tampico. They were expecting a royalist allied force to meet them, but reconnaissance units soon detected the 6,000 strong Mexican force approaching them. The Spanish failed to bring their own artillery expecting find pieces in the hands of allied troops. The ensuing fighting confined them the coast and by March 20th a second army of two thousand regulars arrived from the north. With the Gulf Squadron blocking escape and relief from Cuba, the Spanish force surrendered.

Aftermath of the Failed Reconquista of Mexico

In April 18th 1825, by congressional decree, all peninsulares were ordered to leave the country and any protectorate territories, their lands and a significant portion of property and wealth was to be confiscated and their Criollo supporters either jailed, exiled, or fined significantly.[1] Despite Iturbide’s attempts to distance himself from the event, he was exiled as a ring leader. Most went to Cuba and Puerto Rico, the more wealthy headed to Spain. The role of the navy solidified its importance causing the Congress to hire Comodore David Porter, who had earlier resigned his US Naval post after a court martial, with the aims of expanding the Gulf Squadron into a fleet with the eventual inclusion of Ships of The Line.[2]

Morelos, as well as many in the government, began to fear that Spain would target vulnerable areas of Mexico for a subsequent attack. Lucas Aleman began call for an outgoing foreign policy declaring that Spain was always going to be openly hostile to Mexico. This eventually would lead to ideologies of Mexican expansionism and the much later development of “La Raza Cosmica” (the cosmic race) ideology where Iberian Americans, specifically Mexicans, were seen as the divinely ordained replacement of Spain as the leader of “La Hispanidad” with a mission to liberate the oppressed people of the world from both external oppression via Imperialism, and internal oppression such as the state of being uncivilized. [3]

Morelos ended up agreeing with Lucas Aleman, even though initially he saw Mexico as a peaceful nation that would not intervene in the affairs of nations, a statement in his “Sentimientos de La Nacion” that he shared over a decade earlier. He began working on getting more funding for the navy and army with plans to set up the foundations for a future president to take on the liberation of Cuba and bring an end to the Spanish threat once and for all.

The Economy [5]


The first main highway that connected Veracruz to Puebla and Mexico City built by late 1822

Thanks to the development of road systems connecting major cities in Central Mexico and some of the regions beyond Central Mexico, the federal and various state governments were able to focus on interstate commerce and encouraging exploitation of sugarcane, coffee, cotton, tobacco and other similar crops. A series of tariffs and taxation schemes were designed to promote domestic production. Morelos began encouraging the use of community-based land management where owners would cooperate and combine their lands in a democratic fashion. This system would eventually evolve into the Ejido system in the dawn of the 20th century but in the 1820’s this became the basis for the reform of the hacienda system established in Central Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula. In addition to communal farming, some hacienda owners and other private investors formed plantations to exploit cash crops available in Mexico.

A steady business of exporting sugarcane and coffee in exchange for manufactured goods helped develop the Mexican economy and began transforming Mexico into an agrarian society not too different from that of the southern United States, albeit without the slavery (minus instances of debt peonage). This was made possible through the influx of capital and loans from both public and private sources such as the AMM, Monte de Rey, and Lucas Aleman’s state banking system. The arrival of more manufactured goods that could safely be tariffed at modest levels brought increased state revenues that allowed Morelos to continue funding presidios in the North, infrastructure programs in Central Mexico, and the expensive military as well as interests in Central America.

Joel Robert Poinsett, who was sent as ambassador to Mexico from the United States, mentioned the system of roads in his notes on his travels through the young republic:

“Upon leaving this village we found ourselves upon a well-constructed road covered with strong lime cement which was in prefect preservation even where the country was not level”[6]

The road he was on was one of the first roads to be renovated early in Morelos’ term in 1822. He also related the comments made by a traveler on the road during stop about the president, “I was interrupted by a traveler who is on his road from the capital to Veracruz. He has been relating to me the industrious conduct of the President who despite his mixed racial heritage has respected the rule of law and continued the legacy of the previous executive of which is held in as high regard as our very own George Washington”. To say that Poinsett was impressed of the potential of Mexico would have been accurate. However, he did note that Mexico still had a long way to set up proper infrastructure and villages with proper homes before it could be compared with even the least developed counties of the Midwest in the United States.

Silver production in Mexico from 1803-1816 fell from $22.1 million USD to $8.8 million. Gold maintained a steady pace of around $900,000 while cooper only produced a fraction of the amount. By 1822, as a result of investments and local interest and the stability afforded to Mexico during Allende’s administration silver bounced back up to $14 million. From 1822-1825 that number increased to $18 Million and bounced prewar levels by the end of the decade. In 1824 exports of tobacco, indigo, coffee, and sugarcane (among other cash crops) brought in a modest but promising $1.3 million where in 1820 there were no such exports. These exports grew to $3.1 million by 1827 and by the end of the decade they reached over $7 Million in spite of various conflicts and crisis that Mexico faced, mainly due to the importation of farming equipment and technologies that increasingly became more common each year. However, sugar production did reach up to nearly $2 Million earlier in 1803, its resurgence would surpass that in the following decade making Veracruz a rival source for sugarcane of Cuba, which in turn was factor in Mexican designs on that island.

Poinsett attributed the nascent export economy to the political stability of the country’s formative years and mused that had the war for independence dragged on, the damage to both Mexico and its revolutionary’s ability to administer it could have been catastrophic. H.G. Ward, a British envoy who wrote about Mexico after Morelos’ administration ended in 1827, wasn’t a fan of what he termed “the evils” of the situation blacks faced in the US and saw in the president the hope that racial amalgamation would prevent the disorder seen in blacks in the US as well as the ills born out of their exclusion from society. He pointed out in his notes on Mexico that he saw the potential of the nation to grow as a strong exporter free of racial divisions that formed a black mark on its northern neighbor in the eyes of many liberal Europeans.

By the end of Morelos’ presidency, the Mexican coffers were secured with a steady stream of revenue and the economy experienced a period of growth capable of sustaining various projects and making previously impractical plans, such as an invasion of Cuba proposed by Lucas Aleman, all the more realistic while not incurring too much of a debt.

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[1] In OTL they were allowed to leave with their wealth intact and sell their lands. But since ITTL there was a precedent for confiscating land, that didn’t happen here giving Mexico some extra cash and capital in general.

[2] In OTL Mexico only had one ship of the line which defected from Spain in 1828. The crew wasn’t the best one could hope for, figures since they kind of mutinied in order to defect. So, the ship was retired not too long after.

[4] OTL Lucas Aleman did have the idea of liberating Cuba to bring an end to the Spanish menace. The “Raza Cosmica” is an idea developed very early in the 20th century in Mexico but without the “Co-Prosperity Sphere” hypocritically imperialistic tendency I hinted at here for TTL. Maybe this could be a response to “White Man’s Burden”…

[5] A good deal of these numbers come from actual early 1810s to early 1820s figures, I have “extrapolated” the growth based on the divergences of TTL from OTL.

[6] The roads ITTL are a lot more developed and more well maintained, so I changed what he actually said in the OTL to reflect this and other details.
 
Great to see Mexico focus on a Navy and railroad, as both can help when they go to war with the U.S.

P.S. Can you post a map of the world and Mexico.
 
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