America - Albion's Orphan - A history of the conquest of Britain - 1760

So slavery is dying a death of a thousand cuts: no importation, the young and healthy escape so less reproduction, slave-state representation in Congress being made smaller and smaller, and fostering greater abolitionist tendencies throughout the Kingdom.

This may make tensions and relations even better in the long run, maybe even better than today in OTL, but I'm worried about the backlash and pushback by the plantation class. When people feel like their social standing and power are in danger, things get violent.
 
Chapter 154: Albion's Dysfunction
1800

London


Over the course of the past two years, a new rivalry had emerged between England (Wessex to outsiders much to William IV's annoyance), Anglia and Mercia. This time, the "Kings" of Anglia and Mercia as well as the Prince of England (William) would seek the hand of Henriette of Nassau-Weiland. She was the cousin of William V, Duke of Orange, and related to many of the secondary German Protestant Houses. Already 20, she was certainly marriage eligible and her father opted to marry her off to Prince William of Wessex (the new official title of the heir to the English throne). In short order, the other Kings would marry different Princesses but being beat out for a woman's hand was humiliating and did little warm the relations between the Royal Houses of Britain.

Ambassador John Quincy Adams would watch in fascination as the assorted petty states which once comprised Britain argued back and forth. Even economic policies which would have benefited all were abandoned out of spite or pique. Though he'd never desired a diplomatic assignment (his father had pushed him into government service), the younger Adams would be effective in improving American relations with several of the British Kingdoms. American ships were welcomed everywhere on the island even when their neighbors were banned.

Adams wished he'd been able to return home and run for Parliament. The disputes taking place in the Slave Dominions made headlines even in English papers. But an Adams always knew his duty.

The American was happy to see that Oxford and Cambridge would be reopened by Royal Order in 1797 (indeed, his wedding to Louisa Johnson would be in one of the Oxford Chapels). While the great libraries had been emptied in the years when French, Irish and Williamite troops occupied the College's beautiful dormitories as barracks.

Scotland

Jackie Custis of Maryland had been appointed the new Ambassador to Scotland in the wake of Andrew Jackson's resignation. A political appointee, Custis had long clung to coattails of his famous stepfather, George Washington, and his friends John Laurens, Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr. He'd contributed little as a Presidential aide and never reached the high office of his friends. Tired of being compared to George Washington, he happily accepted a series of Ambassadorial assignments in Europe (leaving many of his children with his parents).

Custis proved popular among the Scottish gentry and actually did a reasonable competent job in negotiating a trade agreement with lowered barriers (most favored nation) with Scotland. He also maintained a distant friend ship with the King of Northumbria. Now fortyish, Custis knew that he'd never accomplished much on his own and wondered if he'd ever get the opportunity.

In a bizarre request, the King of Scotland would inquire if Custis would "mediate" a trade treaty between Scotland and Northumbria. Though he served neither nation, Custis was honored by the requested to serve as a "neutral party". Eventually, the two Kings would inquire if the trade agreement may be extended to Wales and Ireland in 1802. In 1803, the King of Anglia would seek to join what was swiftly turning into a significant "bloc" which may stand in the way of potential English (Wessex) aggression. Even the King of Mercia, whom had a trade treaty with Wales in place, would seek to contribute.

Almost by default, Custis found himself mediating a treaty as a disinterested third party. His superior in America would write to inquire what the hell was going on as there was some fear that any sort of economic union would precede a political union of the island and form a new threat to America (the Irish feared the same thing). However, Custis blithely continued on until 1804 when a new trade union, British Accords, would be the first major act of cooperation among the petty states of Britain in over forty years. Increased economic opportunity would encourage Cornwall to join in 1805 and, by that point, only England (Wessex) stood alone.
 
@Alt History Buff here ya go. I took some creative courtesies and fixed some of the provinces and territories borders to make them more bearable to the viewer.View attachment 493092
KolyenuKS,

Do you get these maps from a specific site?

Everytime that I create a new map, I regret it as the format seems to be a problem when I copy over from google to MS Paint.

Is there a place to get clean maps which work well with Paint?

Again, great job on the map. I've been busy the past few days and didn't get a chance to look at this until today.
 
Chapter 155: Dissention
1801

Manhattan


First Lord of the Treasury John Adams had successfully managed to split the western regions of Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina politically (as well as culturally) from the original Dominions. However, it was not all smooth sailing for the administration. Adams' belief that the people of these regions would march in lockstep to his desires would prove faulty. The western rebels acted on their own behalf, not some Massachusetts man.

Adams intended to form a single, strong polity from these regions but the Virginians and Carolinians were resistant to merging along a single north-south spot of land along the Appalachians. Arguments about positioning of the capital as well as distribution of patronage would splinter the proposed "Dominion of Appalachia" into north and south.

In hopes of putting an end to the problems, Adams dispatched his fellow Massachusetts man, Eldridge Gerry, to set the new borders. Later, the eastern peoples of Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina, irate at seeing counties stripped away which voted to remain with the old Dominions, would decry Gerry's blatantly political moves as "Gerrymandering" and burn the man in effigy in the Dominion capitals.

The northern version would propose the title "Dominion of Kanawha" which made up much of the western border of the region. Tired of the argument (and the fact he didn't particularly care given he'd initiated the political firestorm to harm the slave movement), the First Lord and his allies agreed just to shut the people up. Kanawha was formally broken off into a separate dominion on December 31st, 1801.

To the south, problems were greater.

The proposed southern region would comprise of the western counties of North and South Carolina and would propose the name "Catawba" after the Catawba River in North Carolina which became the "Wateree" River in South Carolina. The South Carolinians would propose "Wateree" as the name of the proposed Dominion. The two rivers (really ONE river) were the main borders with the western and eastern counties of North and South Carolina. The rancor grew so great that, by mid-1801, even Adams was tired of dealing with the feuding Carolinians.

Finally, he agreed that the Western North Carolinians and Western South Carolinians would form their own dominions (naturally named Catawba and Wateree). Throughout this entire time, the westerners would remain seated in Parliament still officially representing their former Dominions. Patrick Calhoun and Andrew Jackson of Virginia (Kanawha by 1801) would pursue their own feud with the "Night-riders", even encouraging westerners from the new Dominions to raid back across the borders to seek revenge for a spiraling circle of violence. While many of the new Kanawhans, Catawbans and Watereeans would possess no particular affection for Africans, they enjoyed inciting trouble east of the border.

By 1802, Parliament was effectively at war with itself. Men whom envisioned themselves as the next First Lord would realize that their past alliances to the "Slave Dominion" Parliamentarians were damaging their chances of succeeding Adams rather than aiding them. It was once thought that no First Lord could gain a majority without extensive southern support. Now, it was reaching the point which gaining too many supporters in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina (what was left of them) would only be used by opposition leaders to bludgeon the aspiring men. Now, men whom once considered all abolitionists as "radicals", would fall over themselves to prove their anti-slavery credentials.

In 1802, New York, which at the formation of the Kingdom of British North America possessed the third most slaves in the colonies after Virginia and Maryland, would formally abolish slavery within its borders a full thirteen years prior to the slow phase-out originally signed into law. Perhaps more importantly, there was to be no reimbursement to the owners.

This was a terrible development to the slavocracy, perhaps just as devastating as the secession of the western counties. This meant that only five Dominions - Virginia, Maryland, South Carolina, North Carolina and Delaware - did not possess legislation to ban the institution entirely. And Delaware only possessed a nominal amount of slaves.

Violence within these Dominions (excluding Delaware) would escalate through 1802 into 1803 as slave rebellions and mass escapes into Pennsylvania, the western Dominions and Georgia would become common. Abolitionists would be attacked in the streets. Several Quaker and Methodist towns were burned by Night-riders.
 
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List of British North American Dominions - 1802
List of North American Dominions:

Quebec
Montreal
Nova Scotia
Charlottia (New Brunswick, former Acadia west of the Isthmus of Chignecto)
Newfoundland
Vermont (including the contested Hampshire Grants and the western portion of the former district of Maine under the colony of Massachusetts)
Sagadahock (formerly the eastern portion of the district of Maine under the colony of Massachusetts)
Massachusetts
Rhode Island and Providence Plantations
Connecticut
New York
Long Island
Manhattan
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
Delaware
Maryland
Virginia
Kanawha
North Carolina
Catabwa
South Carolina
Wateree
Georgia
West Florida
Mississauga
Maumee
Shawnee
Westsylvania
Watauga
Tennessee
Indiana
Hanover

List of named North American Territories:

Hudson
Grand Bahama
Arkansas
Caledonia
Aethiopia
Miami
Marquette
Chicago
Michigan
East Florida
Cappadocia
Belgica
Thracia
Lusitania
Aquitania
Hiberia
Dacia
 
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Chapter 156: Crumbling from Within
1802

Vienna

Emperor Francis II was a rather bland personality. He wasn't beloved and feared like his grandmother, Maria Theresa. He wasn't as idealistic as his uncle Joseph II. He wasn't as coldly pragmatic as his late father, Leopold II.

Francis long desired to reform...though at a moderate pace.

He desired a strong central government...but feared the dizzying array of local diets in the Empire's constituent parts which opposed even the most reasonable and well-intentioned of legislation.

He was a German first...and the Emperor of a diverse ethnic and religious corporation second.

Like his predecessors, Francis considered the Germans to be a superior people based upon the level of economic development, scientific and technological advances as well as the obvious desire by the German people to continue along a "rationale" path. This was supported not only by German Royals of the "Enlightenment" but the common people and intellectuals as well.

Nowhere else in his domains did Francis II see any particular desire for parting with archaic, obsolete and counterproductive institutions, traditions and other remnants of the past. Reforms sponsored by the last three Emperors had been stillborn as the peasants whom the legislation had been intended to aid would rally behind the local Hungarian, Bohemian, Transylvanian, Serbian, etc nobility which had oppressed them socially, politically and economically for centuries.

It was as if the other peoples of the Habsburg Empire WANTED to remain ignorant, poor and backwards.

On more than one occasion, Francis wondered why he bothered trying to help these damn people. On no occasion did he compare them favorably to his German subjects. On the contrary, he began to hold them in contempt.

Only the fear of a repeat of the mass-scale rebellion of a few years prior would stay Francis II's hand in pressing for more reform. Not a particularly courageous man, Francis would opt to forsake any particularly aggressive reform legislation, at least until the Empire's shattered economy recovered and Francis was certain of his control over key territories.

What he did not expect was that resistance to his rule would continue even in absence of these provocative actions. He did not realize just how much the Hungarians, Serbs, Transylvanians, Bohemians, etc absolutely hated him. Throughout 1802 and 1803, no less than three assassination attempts were made and his secret police would foil another half-dozen plots. No longer hopeful of bringing the Habsburg Empire into the 18th century, the Emperor took his chastening with ill-humor and was content to let the Empire drift for a few years.

But the Empire was no longer content (even if the nobility of the assorted ethnicities were) to allow things to drag on. Peasants would continue to rise up despite the nobility happy to retain their own positions in the age-old power scheme. Cities would become hotbeds of political radicalism and nationalism. The countryside would seethe with discontent.

A few years of peace led some to believe that normality had returned.

It would seem that it did not.

London

King William IV of England (Wessex) had reached his sixtieth year (quite the accomplishment given the lifespans of the era) and was visibly fading after a lifetime of worry and defeats. Though he was the rightful ruler of all of Britain, Ireland and America, only the southeast of Britain (the best part of the island) remained under his rule. Six other monarchs reigned on Britain...naturally all recognized by the King of France. By 1803, it was so obvious that France's only interest in Britain was to keep the island from reuniting (naturally under William IV's rule) that no one bothered to comment upon it.

Instead, each local monarch had grown skilled at playing up the differences between each region with the intent of fortifying his own power. Scotland, Northumberland, Mercia, Anglia, Wales and Cornwall (Devon) each viewed themselves as unique nations with local crowns, laws, economies, dialects (or languages like Welsh), etc.

As the only legitimate monarch (in his own mind) of the bunch, William IV was experienced enough to know he remained the most hated man on the isle of Britain (including his own Kingdom) and that was unlikely to change. With his health in decline, Willian would begrudgingly turn over more and more decisions to his son and heir, Prince William. It had been the Prince whom had pressed for the reopening of Oxford and Cambridge as he viewed the loss of these Universities as detrimental to the nation's economy which had long been dependent upon manufacturing and science.

But the nation remained mired in depression (no mere recession here) as inter-British trade with the other Kingdoms would be opposed by William IV. Manufacturers in the south often had trouble gathering raw materials from coal mined in Wales (for heat and many forms of manufacturing) to soda ash produced from Scottish kelp (which was required for glass, paper and soap), dyes, cotton and wool (obviously textiles), etc, etc, etc.

Prince William even spoke of reopening Parliament, arguing that the autocratic reign of his father had proven deeply unpopular throughout the island. But the King refused to countenance this while he lived.

Instead, the Prince would assume greater and greater authority (though with limits) and found the problems intractable. With a continued drop in tax revenues, the Prince was forced to lease one of the great castles still under his family's control, Kensington, to a...new money manufacturer. Society was scandalized to an extent not seen since the rich nabobs of India returned home to Britain with their ill-gotten gains.

This was not the only Royal Palace lost to the family for lack of funds. Another old Royal Palace, the Dutch House at Kew, had burned to the ground in the war. The Banqueting House at Whitehall (the last remnant of the palace which had been destroyed by fire a century earlier) had been segregated into offices for the bureaucracy while the Tower of London now served as barracks for those soldiers withdrawn from the courtyards of Oxford and Cambridge. The old House of Parliament, Westminster Palace, had burned in the riots of previous years.

Only St. James (the London center of government), Hampton Court (the residence of Prince William) and Windsor (the King's country residence) remained of the great Royal Residences of England.
 
Chapter 157: Invasion
1803

Manhattan


"What do you mean the River is clogged?" First Lord John Adams muttered at the bizarre report coming from New Orleans, Hanover Dominion. "Isn't is the largest river on Earth? How can it be clogged?"

The report for Governor Lewis of Hanover would detail that the "water hyacinth" which had been gifted to the then-Territory of Hanover's Governor George Washington by passing Dutch traders whom had dealings in Nippon (the origin of the noxious weed) and somehow was distributed throughout the southern Mississippi region. This beautiful plant proved too adaptable and swiftly overran huge swathes of the river, assorted tributaries and even inland ponds. The plant would block off light to the lower depths, killing the aquatic plants which produced oxygen. In a short time, the river fish died in great numbers, removing a significant source of food to locals. More importantly, the water hyacinth would clog up vital arteries on the river, making transport much more difficult. Barges were trapped going south and the polemen pushing the barges north via pure muscle were even harder put upon.

While the plant did not do as well in the north as it seldom survived the winter cold, the problems continued to grow by the year. This was the fifth report in as many years from the western governors and something plainly had to be done. Not one to ignore any problem, Adams had already sought out opinions to solve it. The first suggestion was shipping in manatees from East Florida, the Caribbean or West Africa. However, it was pointed out that manatees already had access to the Mississippi as they ranged all over the Caribbean but had rarely to never been seen as far north as the Mississippi River. This suggested that the animals could not survive in the relative cold.

An alternative had been suggested by several emissaries to the freedmen colonies of West Africa comprised of former western slaves. Another, more robust, option may be the "river cow" called hippopotamus. The animals were herbivores, thus no threat to humanity. More importantly, the large animals were ravenous consumers of plants like the water hyacinth. The solution seemed obvious.

Though the trade with the French-controlled (though lightly governed) West African colony was light for Americans, there remained a steady flow of several ships a year bearing American goods and American freedmen (their passage paid for by generous benefactors and, occasionally, Dominions whom didn't want too many black freedmen around, particularly Virginia). The returned trade goods tended to be less bulky items like sugar, cocoa, ivory, gold, groundnuts, etc. Several traders had been returning from Africa with less than full holds and this appeared to be an opportunity to make additional profit.

Adams would use his discretionary funds to contract these traders to bring a large number (100) of these young "Hippos" over to the Mississippi Delta over the next several years. The traders had adequate contacts with the local tribesmen to capture the young beasts.

Having never laid eyes upon the animals beyond a few drawings, the First Lord assumed the "River Cow" would prove as docile as the dairy cows he'd milked since he was four years old. He envisioned vast herds (assuming that "River Cows" lived in herds, he really had no idea) of the animals ranging along the river banks like good-natured bisen. Maybe even when the herds get large enough and this water hyacinth (and other noxious weed) epidemic gets under control, then the locals can even hunt them for meat. Presumably, they tasted the same as beef cows.

What the First Lord did not know (and the Africans capturing the animals did) was that these were not docile, obedient herd animals but the most dangerous large animal on earth. As it was, it would take over a decade for this little fact to be known and, for the next several decades, the Dominion of Hanover would actually ban any hunting of the beasts in hopes of expanding their numbers as swiftly as possible. Orders for more of the young animals would continue for the next decade, some were imported from as far away as Egypt.

In truth, the "Hippos" would greatly aid in the reduction of such pests as the water hyacinth as Adams hoped.

Of course, they would create a very different problem, something that would not be widely known until long after Adams had departed office.

In the meantime, another deliberate introduction of large fauna would take place to the west in the disputed lands the Spanish called Tejas. The arid region would see the first camels, animals ideally suited for such an environment. Seeing too many horses die of thirst or heatstroke would prompt the use of camels as pack animals and transport. A secondary and very unexpected benefit would swiftly be seen as the local Indians would find the animals abhorrent. They spat, bit, growled and scared the living hell out of horses. Isolated farmsteads would soon switch over completely to the animals as they were more sturdy, stronger and the ubiquitous Indian horse-thieves like the Comanche (and many white horse-thieves) would avoid any farmstead or ranch bearing the beasts. Indeed, many Indian tribes swiftly regarded them as demons and refused to associate with anyone owning the animals.

While there was limited need for the camel along the western shores of the Mississippi, they became ever more common the further west they went. Indeed, the camel would prove instrumental for the Americans as they swept into regions barely populated by the Spanish over the past three centuries like Santa Fe, San Antonio de Bexar and Tucson.
 
That is all kinds of awesome - hippos were proposed in 1910, so having it actually happen a century earflier before much is known of the animals is hilarous. And camels in Texas to boot.
Yeah, that is what I based this one. The founder of the Boy Scouts proposed this and got some support from a Louisiana Congressman.

And Jefferson Davis actually had been a champion of introducing camels in the 1850's when he was Secretary of War but it was cancelled as the camels scared horses.
 
My God it's like the K of BNA is a patch work of the rest of the world in one country. Hippos in the rivers and swamp lands like in Subsaharan Africa, Camels in the desert like in the Sahara, and dominions named after Roman provinces throughout the Mediterranean. I wonder if someone will introduce bamboo forests to the Mississippi River, or even Himalayan Yaks or Peruvian Llamas to the Rocky mountains.
 
Chapter 158: Slow Disintegration
1803

Paris

King Louis XVI's gout was growing worse and worse. Though he'd reached his fiftieth year, the King's health was failing. Unlike his grandfather, Louis XVI had not allowed himself to gain overly much weight, largely due to his still-active lifestyle. However, the gout would swiftly prevent the King from his favorite activities and Louis XVI would swiftly put on pounds due to his "comfort eating".

His son, the Dauphin, was proving to be intelligent enough and seemed eager to please his father. The boy took over many official functions for the King including his fall procession through the country. Affable and popular, young Louis had perhaps more of a spine than his father. Yes, he listened to advisors and hardly wanted to spend 12 hours a day with affairs of state but certainly possessed his own opinions which, i the mind of his father, were a positive moderate place between the radical reformers and the stiflingly stubborn Royalists represented by the King's brothers.

Now married, the Dauphin had produced two daughters and the Dauphine was pregnant again. Hopefully a son would be next...followed by a couple of spares.

Unlike much of the rest of Europe, France's economy was plugging along well. The worst of the bitterly cold winters later termed the "Little Ice Age" were behind them and the nation's economy was shifting from the agricultural paradise to a nice blend with manufacturing along the coasts and in the north.

Prince Charles, the King's youngest brother, would advocate perhaps expansion of the French Empire. He suggested conquering the Moors of North Africa, seizing the Cape Colony of South Africa from the Dutch or even plucking off bits of the Spanish Empire in the Americas. This the King refused. While France's relations with Spain and the Dutch Republic had faltered over the years, the last thing the King wanted was a war that would likely bring in other European nations.

The late 18th century and early 19th Century had been a Golden Age for France filled with easy conquest, expansion and economic prosperity. The worst of the resistance to tax reform (i.e. the nobility and church) had fallen off, thus reducing one of the major drivers of peasant resentment. The budget had been balanced for ten years and the future Louis XVII would inherit a solvent Kingdom.

The bland Louis XVI would be remembered in the years after his death as a man whom kept the peace, put the nation's finances back in the black and took the initial steps towards treating the peasants as citizens instead of "residents". Taxes on peasants had dropped, rents lowered, tithes reduced, education expanded and legal protections enforced.

On the whole, the unimpressive young man whom had inherited the nation from Louis XV had done a good job over the past two decades.

And Louis XVI was adamant that the status quo continue. He would reject any further encouragement to act in an aggressive nation against the Dutch (whom were allying with the Northern Confederacy) and Spain. He would similarly act as a friend to the assorted little states set up in Britain. The mere threat of French intervention had frequently halted potential wars on the island.

France was prosperous and relatively happy compared to the seething political problems in Austria or even the increasingly uppity Spanish colonies. Louis XVI merely hoped this would last for the remainder of his reign.


Vienna

Emperor Francis II witnessed the expansion of the Northern Confederation to more and more Protestant members. While still nominally giving allegiance to the Imperial throne, it was obvious that this was a military-economic block in North German intended to challenge his authority.

And there was nothing the Emperor could do about the matter.

The Habsburg Empire barely survived the rebellions in Hungary, Serbia and Bohemia. Just returning to the status quo had bankrupted the Empire. Francis would have been willing to slow his pace of reforms but sporadic peasant rebellions would spring up again and again throughout the Empire. Riots became common even in his German cities.

Francis simply didn't know what to do.

Turin

King Victor still could not believe that this crass conquest of Northern Italy and the southern Swiss Canton had gone unpunished. By 1803, he was already plotting the unification of the Italian Peninsula.

The Papal State did not possess an army worthy of the name. While the most recent Pope had gone to far greater efforts than most over the years to reform the tax system and temporal government, resentment at Papal rule in central Italy remained a constant. Victor was quite certain he would gain a great deal of support should the Papal States and the "Kingdom of Italy" (as he called Northern Italy) come to blows.

The bigger question would be how Spain would react. Spain still possessed Sardinia, Sicily and Nables, half of the Italian population. No one ever accused the House of Bourbon or House of Habsburg of being good rulers for the Italians. Victor believed that the new nationalist feelings throughout the region would supercede that French diplomat's belief that "Italy was merely a geographic concept".

The Italians, the King was convinced, desired unification...and Victor was just the man to achieve this.

With so many of his top Generals in the past wars retiring, a new generation was rising up led by that Corsican Bonaparte. The previous year, King Victor had approved General Bonaparte's "pilgrimage" to the Papal States....particularly the military fortifications....such as they were. Bonaparte's return came with a promise that the Pope's dominion would fall in a single summer campaign. King Victor need only give the order.

More concerned with Spain, Austria and France, the King hesitated in 1803...1804...1805...and continued to hesitate even as Bonaparte grew ever more resentful at the man's lack of spine.

Madrid

King Carlos IV was perhaps the most pathetically weak and inept major European monarch in a century. Completely dominated by his wife and advisors, he merely signed what was put before him.

With his wife's alleged lover, Manuel de Godoy, now living the life of a potentate on the subcontinent, Carlos would see a brief reprieve in his wife's power. New advisors, not chosen by the Queen, would advise the King of potential aggression by the Savoyards of Northern Italy and the House of Hanover in America.

The latter the King could not comprehend. Spain had done nothing with these inland regions for three centuries. Doesn't that mean that it would take the Americans three centuries to populate? Why was this such a threat?

The doddering King would instead look to his son and heir as a potential advisors. While deficient in many ways, at least the son was not an utter imbecile.

Saigon

The King of Vietnam, having seen his forces crushed by the Chinese Army despite French Imperial aid and advisors, would have no choice but to flee the Kingdom with thousands of his subjects, largely on French and BEIC ships destined for Bourbonia.

The Chinese Navy had effectively thrown the French, Dutch, Spanish and BEIC from the South China Sea. Manila remained under Chinese control and now the Kingdom of Vietnam had been overrun as well. Other southern states like Siam and Burma would quickly kowtow to the Emperor and forsake any western alliances. Satisfied, the Chinese opted against any further encroachment south now that the round-eyed devils had been whipped like curs.

Instead, the Emperor's ministers chose to look upon the Nipponese islands. The defeat centuries ago still rankled Chinese memory and the court considered it wise to occupy the islands to forge a stronger bulwark against foreign invasion.

Plans were made to reestablish the long-lost tributary status of Nippon to China.
 
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