Alternate Wikipedia Infoboxes VI (Do Not Post Current Politics or Political Figures Here)

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Based on my 'WI: Richard, Duke of York only has daughters':

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Pitchfork Ben: fuck Cleveland
1892 DNC: Y E S

The 1892 Presidential election was held on November 8th, 1892. Incumbent President Benjamin Harrison declined to run for re-election to a second term, still wrestling with the intra-party civil war that occurred between the reformist and conservative factions of the Republican Party. When the Republicans convened for their convention in the Industrial Exposition Building in Minnesota, the "Hero of Chancellorsville" Joseph Hooker was widely seen as one of the top contenders for the nomination. However, he angered both the reformist and conservative factions within that ruined any chance of him being a realistic candidate. Although he freed up his pledged slate from New Jersey, attention soon turned from the Hero of Chancellorsville to the "Augustus McCllean", the former President that was all but reviled in both the Republican and Democratic parties. This small window of opportunity for McClean cracked open slightly when the delegation from Vermont began a stampede to nominate him, though in the confusion only a quarter of his most die-hard supporters pledged officially to the general.

McCllean's delegates booed and threatened to conduct a repeat of "Glorious '62" during his controversial military attempt in Washington D.C "protecting" American President Joseph Lane from assasination attempts. In the end the Convention's delegates and the country was not in the mood for another civil war centarian helming the country. Instead a steadily building Dark Horse candidacy of Senator Chauncey Depew snowballed upon the 45th Balloting and ran away with the nomination come the final 48th with an acclamation vote. Hoping to shore up perceived wavering loyalties of farmers within the great plains and midwestern states, and not wanting a mass defection to the nascent Populist faction under conspiracy theorist and Senator Ignatius L. Donnelly, the convention chose Iowa Senator D.P. Subbs as Depew's running mate.

The 1892 Democratic National Convention was as equally divided along sectional lines. The front runner, Missouri Congressman Richard P. Bland was initially seen as a viable nominee, until South Carolina Senator Benjamin Tillman lambasted him for his catholic family and vowed to bolt to the Populists should Bland be nominated. Indiana Governor Claude Matthews was next up, with a key intention to prevent mass defections to Donnelly's populist camp within the Democratic Party. However, Senator Tillman managed to narrowly edge him out in the margins. Upon hearing the news, Matthews was known to exclaim: "There goes the Democratic Party". Hoping for some sense of party unity, Tillman's presidential nomination was paired with Kentucky Senator Joseph Blackburn, a known moderate within the state. Tillman agreed to run with Blackburn, hoping that Blackburn would sell the professional look when contrasting pitchfork ben with "Grandfather Joe".

Tillman immediately set about blasting both the "cowardly Populists and traitorous Democrats". This turned to infuriate the anti-Tillman camp of opposition within the Democratic Party, with massive cross over for both the Republicans and to a lesser extent, the Populists. In spite of newspapers boasting that "Four more good years of the Ben", Democrats were quick to boast that "Pitchfork Ben had skewered poor Uncle Ben" upon Tillman's surprising landslide victory. Tillman managed to win 324 electoral votes in contrast to Depew's mere double digit Electoral count, one of the lowest for a major political party. The Populists swept seven states and wrangled one of Oregon's 4 electors with their new Congressional apportioned seat, one that the governor designed as a boon for Populist fortunes in the State.

It was the first election since Joseph Smith in 1844 that the winner of the popular vote won a plurality, though it would set a trend that would not be broken in American politics until President Alfred Landon's landslide victory over incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1940. This is known as the "Tillman Syndrome" of American Politics, which flares up in three distinct phases: Elections from 1892 to 1940, Elections from 1956 to 1996 and again from 2008 to 2016. The large influence of faithless electors in American Politics pushed for more contingent elections, seeing their zenith as from 1904 until the 1928 presidential election, every Presidential election in that period would be chosen by the House of Representatives and Senate.



kSlf8Mg.png
 
Pitchfork Ben: fuck Cleveland
1892 DNC: Y E S

The 1892 Presidential election was held on November 8th, 1892. Incumbent President Benjamin Harrison declined to run for re-election to a second term, still wrestling with the intra-party civil war that occurred between the reformist and conservative factions of the Republican Party. When the Republicans convened for their convention in the Industrial Exposition Building in Minnesota, the "Hero of Chancellorsville" Joseph Hooker was widely seen as one of the top contenders for the nomination. However, he angered both the reformist and conservative factions within that ruined any chance of him being a realistic candidate. Although he freed up his pledged slate from New Jersey, attention soon turned from the Hero of Chancellorsville to the "Augustus McCllean", the former President that was all but reviled in both the Republican and Democratic parties. This small window of opportunity for McClean cracked open slightly when the delegation from Vermont began a stampede to nominate him, though in the confusion only a quarter of his most die-hard supporters pledged officially to the general.

McCllean's delegates booed and threatened to conduct a repeat of "Glorious '62" during his controversial military attempt in Washington D.C "protecting" American President Joseph Lane from assasination attempts. In the end the Convention's delegates and the country was not in the mood for another civil war centarian helming the country. Instead a steadily building Dark Horse candidacy of Senator Chauncey Depew snowballed upon the 45th Balloting and ran away with the nomination come the final 48th with an acclamation vote. Hoping to shore up perceived wavering loyalties of farmers within the great plains and midwestern states, and not wanting a mass defection to the nascent Populist faction under conspiracy theorist and Senator Ignatius L. Donnelly, the convention chose Iowa Senator D.P. Subbs as Depew's running mate.

The 1892 Democratic National Convention was as equally divided along sectional lines. The front runner, Missouri Congressman Richard P. Bland was initially seen as a viable nominee, until South Carolina Senator Benjamin Tillman lambasted him for his catholic family and vowed to bolt to the Populists should Bland be nominated. Indiana Governor Claude Matthews was next up, with a key intention to prevent mass defections to Donnelly's populist camp within the Democratic Party. However, Senator Tillman managed to narrowly edge him out in the margins. Upon hearing the news, Matthews was known to exclaim: "There goes the Democratic Party". Hoping for some sense of party unity, Tillman's presidential nomination was paired with Kentucky Senator Joseph Blackburn, a known moderate within the state. Tillman agreed to run with Blackburn, hoping that Blackburn would sell the professional look when contrasting pitchfork ben with "Grandfather Joe".

Tillman immediately set about blasting both the "cowardly Populists and traitorous Democrats". This turned to infuriate the anti-Tillman camp of opposition within the Democratic Party, with massive cross over for both the Republicans and to a lesser extent, the Populists. In spite of newspapers boasting that "Four more good years of the Ben", Democrats were quick to boast that "Pitchfork Ben had skewered poor Uncle Ben" upon Tillman's surprising landslide victory. Tillman managed to win 324 electoral votes in contrast to Depew's mere double digit Electoral count, one of the lowest for a major political party. The Populists swept seven states and wrangled one of Oregon's 4 electors with their new Congressional apportioned seat, one that the governor designed as a boon for Populist fortunes in the State.

It was the first election since Joseph Smith in 1844 that the winner of the popular vote won a plurality, though it would set a trend that would not be broken in American politics until President Alfred Landon's landslide victory over incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1940. This is known as the "Tillman Syndrome" of American Politics, which flares up in three distinct phases: Elections from 1892 to 1940, Elections from 1956 to 1996 and again from 2008 to 2016. The large influence of faithless electors in American Politics pushed for more contingent elections, seeing their zenith as from 1904 until the 1928 presidential election, every Presidential election in that period would be chosen by the House of Representatives and Senate.



kSlf8Mg.png
Ah a fellow Donnelly connoisseur I see 😂
 
The Great War Wikibox.png

The Great War was an international conflict that began on 12 April 1861 and ended on 11 November 1868. It involved much of Europe (including all its major powers), as well as the United States, Mexico, and Canada, and was fought throughout both Europe and North America. One of the deadliest conflicts in history, an estimated 1.8 million combatants had died by the war’s conclusion.

Although the war would originally start in April 1861 as solely a war between the United States and the Confederacy, before mushrooming to consume all of the world’s great powers, the root causes for the war can be traced back to at least the end of the Napoleonic War and the Congress of Vienna, which failed to establish a system to resolve tensions and conflicts between the Great Powers despite aspirations to do so. This left most European nations closely monitoring their neighbors to ensure no one country or alliance system amassed too much power. For the United States, most of the conflict came as a result of sectional tensions between the northern and southern halves of the country over the expansion or restriction of newly-acquired territories.

Ultimately, the spark that ignited the war would be the election of Republican Abraham Lincoln to the presidency of the United States in 1860, triggering a secession of 11 southern, slave-holding states from the Union. Taking a firm stance against the rebellion and hoping to swiftly quell it, Lincoln would quickly raise troops to restore the Confederacy to the Union, as well as taking other measures to curb their viability as a nation. As such, on November 8, 1861 a Union vessel halted a British vessel suspected of harboring Confederate ambassadors, and seized them when found. This move sparked fierce anger within Great Britain, and with the Liberal majority in London agitating for a retaliatory blow, Prime Minister Lord Palmerston took the opportunity to attempt to weaken the United States and declared war, shipping tens of thousands of troops to Canada. Hoping to exploit the United States’ distraction, Emperor Napoleon III of France seized the opportunity to declare war on Republican Mexico for their suspension of payments of debts owed to France. Napoleon’s ultimate objective was the installation of the Austrian Maximilian to the throne of a second Mexican empire, which he believed would be his puppet and foothold on the American continent. Encouraged by Napoleon and hoping it would serve as a further distraction to the Americans, Britain agreed to also declare war on Republican Mexico, although they never committed more than 500 troops to that theater. In return, Napoleon agreed to join the war against the United States, although there would be no direct conflict between American and French troops throughout the conflict (although by 1867 Americans were beginning to face Imperialist Mexicans on the field).

The Empire of Russia, led by Czar Alexander II, was disturbed by these actions by his enemies from the recent Crimean War, and thus began indirectly supporting the American cause as early as 1861, before ultimately joining the conflict in 1862 following France’s declaration of war against the Union. Alexander would commit no land troops to join those beside the Americans, but he dispatched naval vessels to protect the western coast of the United States with their American counterparts, as well as launching a diversionary attack into western Canada. He also began applying diplomatic pressure on his ally the North German Confederation to declare war on France, a move he knew that they were already considering. Catching wind of this, Napoleon III decided to preemptively strike and declared war on the North German Confederation on July 14, 1863, beginning the European theater of the war. Although both Kaiser Wilhelm I and Chancellor Otto von Bismarck had hoped to avoid conflict, they embraced it when it occurred, and quickly began the deploying of their troops against France, striking in a lightning offensive that caught the empire unbalanced. A steady drive towards Paris followed soon after, causing Napoleon such great consternation that he began attempting to influence other powers, namely Austria-Hungary and Denmark, to enter into the war to prevent the Confederation amassing too much power.

Ultimately both nations would enter the war in mid-1864, but only after the downfall of the French Empire seemed certain and the Confederation’s power seemed to have the potential to grow unchecked. Meanwhile, in the North American theater, the Union would make slow but steady progress against dogged Confederate resistance, while stalemating in the barren lands of Canada to the north. Republicans in Mexico, meanwhile, had been overrun and drove almost across the northern border, leaving them to ferment the remains of their resistance in the northern provinces. Maximilian assumed power in Mexico City soon thereafter on September 15, 1863, ruling relatively unchallenged until mid-1867.

As the Empire of France was defeated, dismantled, and replaced with the 3rd Republic, which was nominally allied with the Grand Alliance, the North German Confederation turned its attention north and east. Denmark was quickly overwhelmed when the focus was placed on it, and Russia’s declaration of war against Austria-Hungary and deployment of troops to the region had been enough to keep the dual monarchy at bay with minimal German defenses until the full military concentration of the Confederation could be brought to bear against it. Joined by Italy in 1864 as well, the three nations were able to drive forward on their respective fronts. Not prepared for a three-front war and denied requests for reinforcements by Britain, Emperor Franz Joseph I soon was forced to sue for peace, to which comparatively generous terms were given. Russia, meanwhile, had also been conducting a campaign in the Balkans against the Ottoman Empire, hoping to finally make the gains denied to them in the Crimean War, particularly control of Constantinople. Joined in this effort by Serbia, the Romanian United Principalities, and later Greece Russia would drive relatively easily through the Balkans. Ultimately, their advance would only be halted at the gates of Constantinople itself. Here, Great Britain finally was convinced to intervene on the behalf of the Ottomans. Hoping to avoid a costly siege and take advantage of his strong upper hand, Alexander agreed to peace with the Ottomans on the condition of independence for Serbia and the Principalities, as well navigation rights on the Bosphorus Strait. This would mark the end of active fighting in the European Theater, although the war itself would continue for roughly three more years.

Finallying crushing the Confederacy in early 1867, the United States was presented with the choice of either committing the newly available troops to Canada or Mexico. Judging the Empire of Mexico to be the larger threat, Lincoln would direct them south, where they linked up with the Republicans and revitalized their cause. Experienced and in large numbers, the United States defeated the Empire of Mexico in a series of maneuvers reminiscent of the Mexican-American War. Ultimately, Mexico City was captured along with Maximilian on March 13, 1868, resulting in the restoration of the Mexican Republic and the execution of Maximilian. This brought to a close the last active theater in the Great War. Out of allies but still in a relatively good position considering the circumstances, Great Britain decided not to press their luck any further and sue for peace on April 17, 1868. Meeting in Madrid, delegates from the Grand Alliance led by Secretary of State William H. Seward, Foreign Minister Alexander Gorchakov, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, Foreign Minister Jules Simon, and Prime Minister Luigi Federico Menabrea (of America, Russia, the North German Confederation, the 3rd French Republic, and Italy, respectively) met their British counterparts. The result was the Treaty of Madrid, which finally brought the Great War to a close on November 11, 1868

The Great War would mark the end of the period of Western History generally known as “the Concert of Europe” and begin the period commonly referred to as “The Age of Blood, Iron, and Reform”. It also temporarily marked an end for the balance of power system, as the Grand Alliance would hold into the 20th Century. This also marked the removal of France and Austria-Hungary from recognition as “Great Powers”, and the ascension of Germany, the United States of America, and Italy to their place (although the latter was often designated “The Least Great Power” for its lack of influence and military strength in comparison to the others). It also began a period of British isolationism and the decline of their empire as they pulled back from competition with other great powers in fear of fighting an outnumbered war again.
 
View attachment 702643
The Great War was an international conflict that began on 12 April 1861 and ended on 11 November 1868. It involved much of Europe (including all its major powers), as well as the United States, Mexico, and Canada, and was fought throughout both Europe and North America. One of the deadliest conflicts in history, an estimated 1.8 million combatants had died by the war’s conclusion.

Although the war would originally start in April 1861 as solely a war between the United States and the Confederacy, before mushrooming to consume all of the world’s great powers, the root causes for the war can be traced back to at least the end of the Napoleonic War and the Congress of Vienna, which failed to establish a system to resolve tensions and conflicts between the Great Powers despite aspirations to do so. This left most European nations closely monitoring their neighbors to ensure no one country or alliance system amassed too much power. For the United States, most of the conflict came as a result of sectional tensions between the northern and southern halves of the country over the expansion or restriction of newly-acquired territories.

Ultimately, the spark that ignited the war would be the election of Republican Abraham Lincoln to the presidency of the United States in 1860, triggering a secession of 11 southern, slave-holding states from the Union. Taking a firm stance against the rebellion and hoping to swiftly quell it, Lincoln would quickly raise troops to restore the Confederacy to the Union, as well as taking other measures to curb their viability as a nation. As such, on November 8, 1861 a Union vessel halted a British vessel suspected of harboring Confederate ambassadors, and seized them when found. This move sparked fierce anger within Great Britain, and with the Liberal majority in London agitating for a retaliatory blow, Prime Minister Lord Palmerston took the opportunity to attempt to weaken the United States and declared war, shipping tens of thousands of troops to Canada. Hoping to exploit the United States’ distraction, Emperor Napoleon III of France seized the opportunity to declare war on Republican Mexico for their suspension of payments of debts owed to France. Napoleon’s ultimate objective was the installation of the Austrian Maximilian to the throne of a second Mexican empire, which he believed would be his puppet and foothold on the American continent. Encouraged by Napoleon and hoping it would serve as a further distraction to the Americans, Britain agreed to also declare war on Republican Mexico, although they never committed more than 500 troops to that theater. In return, Napoleon agreed to join the war against the United States, although there would be no direct conflict between American and French troops throughout the conflict (although by 1867 Americans were beginning to face Imperialist Mexicans on the field).

The Empire of Russia, led by Czar Alexander II, was disturbed by these actions by his enemies from the recent Crimean War, and thus began indirectly supporting the American cause as early as 1861, before ultimately joining the conflict in 1862 following France’s declaration of war against the Union. Alexander would commit no land troops to join those beside the Americans, but he dispatched naval vessels to protect the western coast of the United States with their American counterparts, as well as launching a diversionary attack into western Canada. He also began applying diplomatic pressure on his ally the North German Confederation to declare war on France, a move he knew that they were already considering. Catching wind of this, Napoleon III decided to preemptively strike and declared war on the North German Confederation on July 14, 1863, beginning the European theater of the war. Although both Kaiser Wilhelm I and Chancellor Otto von Bismarck had hoped to avoid conflict, they embraced it when it occurred, and quickly began the deploying of their troops against France, striking in a lightning offensive that caught the empire unbalanced. A steady drive towards Paris followed soon after, causing Napoleon such great consternation that he began attempting to influence other powers, namely Austria-Hungary and Denmark, to enter into the war to prevent the Confederation amassing too much power.

Ultimately both nations would enter the war in mid-1864, but only after the downfall of the French Empire seemed certain and the Confederation’s power seemed to have the potential to grow unchecked. Meanwhile, in the North American theater, the Union would make slow but steady progress against dogged Confederate resistance, while stalemating in the barren lands of Canada to the north. Republicans in Mexico, meanwhile, had been overrun and drove almost across the northern border, leaving them to ferment the remains of their resistance in the northern provinces. Maximilian assumed power in Mexico City soon thereafter on September 15, 1863, ruling relatively unchallenged until mid-1867.

As the Empire of France was defeated, dismantled, and replaced with the 3rd Republic, which was nominally allied with the Grand Alliance, the North German Confederation turned its attention north and east. Denmark was quickly overwhelmed when the focus was placed on it, and Russia’s declaration of war against Austria-Hungary and deployment of troops to the region had been enough to keep the dual monarchy at bay with minimal German defenses until the full military concentration of the Confederation could be brought to bear against it. Joined by Italy in 1864 as well, the three nations were able to drive forward on their respective fronts. Not prepared for a three-front war and denied requests for reinforcements by Britain, Emperor Franz Joseph I soon was forced to sue for peace, to which comparatively generous terms were given. Russia, meanwhile, had also been conducting a campaign in the Balkans against the Ottoman Empire, hoping to finally make the gains denied to them in the Crimean War, particularly control of Constantinople. Joined in this effort by Serbia, the Romanian United Principalities, and later Greece Russia would drive relatively easily through the Balkans. Ultimately, their advance would only be halted at the gates of Constantinople itself. Here, Great Britain finally was convinced to intervene on the behalf of the Ottomans. Hoping to avoid a costly siege and take advantage of his strong upper hand, Alexander agreed to peace with the Ottomans on the condition of independence for Serbia and the Principalities, as well navigation rights on the Bosphorus Strait. This would mark the end of active fighting in the European Theater, although the war itself would continue for roughly three more years.

Finallying crushing the Confederacy in early 1867, the United States was presented with the choice of either committing the newly available troops to Canada or Mexico. Judging the Empire of Mexico to be the larger threat, Lincoln would direct them south, where they linked up with the Republicans and revitalized their cause. Experienced and in large numbers, the United States defeated the Empire of Mexico in a series of maneuvers reminiscent of the Mexican-American War. Ultimately, Mexico City was captured along with Maximilian on March 13, 1868, resulting in the restoration of the Mexican Republic and the execution of Maximilian. This brought to a close the last active theater in the Great War. Out of allies but still in a relatively good position considering the circumstances, Great Britain decided not to press their luck any further and sue for peace on April 17, 1868. Meeting in Madrid, delegates from the Grand Alliance led by Secretary of State William H. Seward, Foreign Minister Alexander Gorchakov, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, Foreign Minister Jules Simon, and Prime Minister Luigi Federico Menabrea (of America, Russia, the North German Confederation, the 3rd French Republic, and Italy, respectively) met their British counterparts. The result was the Treaty of Madrid, which finally brought the Great War to a close on November 11, 1868

The Great War would mark the end of the period of Western History generally known as “the Concert of Europe” and begin the period commonly referred to as “The Age of Blood, Iron, and Reform”. It also temporarily marked an end for the balance of power system, as the Grand Alliance would hold into the 20th Century. This also marked the removal of France and Austria-Hungary from recognition as “Great Powers”, and the ascension of Germany, the United States of America, and Italy to their place (although the latter was often designated “The Least Great Power” for its lack of influence and military strength in comparison to the others). It also began a period of British isolationism and the decline of their empire as they pulled back from competition with other great powers in fear of fighting an outnumbered war again.
Sweet Christ on a stick. This is beyond crazy. It reminds me of Peter Tsouras's Britannia's Fist trilogy which had a similar premise about WWI starting over the ACW. I've always been fascinated with the idea ever since. It's always cool to see someone try to tackle the idea. I can only begin to imagine the amount of truly cataclysmic battles that must have taken place in this war in North America alone, not to mention Europe. The amount of history books that must cover this conflict would be enormous.

Anyway, in case you can't tell, I find this to be very cool 👍 Great work!
 
This is a sort of sequel to a map I made several months ago. Initially, I planned for a map that had the classic Free States of America, but it is composed of US states in Mexico seceding against a slavocratic US government. This map is what I ended up with. Though I have not intentionally tried to copy anything, this series takes some inspiration from the timeline TFS. This TL is not meant to be incredibly plausible but hopefully it is interesting. Questions and comments are, of course, welcome.

angloamerican.png


New England

The conclusion to the American Revolution (also referred to as the First Anglo-American War) did not satisfy anyone in New England. Though handily defeated militarily, there was still considerable revolutionary sympathy in the region. No one would call it truly pacified, and that showed in the riots that engulfed Boston and several other major cities at least once or twice a decade. Even if many of the riots had racial, sectarian, and tax disputes as their immediate causes, it was obvious that anti-British sentiment had a hand in starting the fighting.

Revolutionary sentiment was very dependent on class. The 1775 Revolt was led by aristocrats and burghers. With some of their number executed and others gone into exile, this class had become disillusioned in the years following the Treaty of Paris. In their place, cells of revolution popped up among the middle class artisans of New England’s cities. Groups with names like the Order of the Nine Stripes, the Spartacists, and Sons of Montgomery were active as early as 1784, just one years after peace was agreed to. In the late 1780s, a New England branch of the Illuminati was founded by Pierpont Edwards in New Haven. This group exploded in popularity and within three years, the sons of the greatest families in the colony had joined. The official line was that the Illuminati had no interest in governing, but it was clear from early on that its members largely favored a Second Revolt against Britain. The British stance of letting the Illuminati be was notable, especially given that they were driven underground in Europe during this period. In 1798, the New England Illuminati nearly fractured as pro-independence factions attempted to take over the organization and turn it into an overtly political organization. The revolutionary faction was ultimately defeated by Ezekial Whitman of Maine, who then led the New England Illuminati. In response, the most ardently pro-revolution members of the Illuminati revived the old Sons of Liberty and with the help of several aging Patriots set up a revolutionary network. The Sons of Liberty, like the Illuminati before it, grew rapidly and early on, plotted to blow up the capital in Portsmouth. After the discovery of this plot, the rapid growth was checked but membership did increase throughout the following decades. Meanwhile, the Illuminati lived on, but primarily as a social organization in which loyalists and patriots rubbed elbows.

For their part, the British did what they could to prevent a future revolt. The old colonial governments were dissolved and a single government of New England was established in the smaller and more easily defensible town of Portsmouth. The dissolution of the state governments has had mixed results. The counties had only small militias that often cooperated poorly with neighboring counties. On the other hand, the sheer number of county councils meant the British administrators were unable to keep tabs on all of their happenings and more than a few revolutionists made it onto the councils.

Prior to the 1820s, the closest the Sons of Liberty came to actual revolt was during the Second Anglo-American War in 1808. That undeclared war saw fighting on the seas over the issue of impressment and trade disputes regarding the Wars in Europe. Both Britain and America feared the other side might launch and invasion on land, though neither side had the nerve to make the first move. Accounts from the time detail significant American sympathies in New England and any invasion would likely have been greeted by popular support

By the middle of the 1820s, New England was nearly unrecognizable in relation to the New England of 1775. Waves of immigrants from Ireland had flooded the coastal cities while escaped slaves from the United States also settled in New England. The landscape changed too as factories and mills sprouted up along rivers in the colony. Racial and ethnic tensions were high as old line Protestant New Englanders blamed newcomers for the rapid changes in their homeland.

New England was also ground zero for the Great Awakening. Starting in the 1790s, Anglo America experienced a period of religious revival. The Great Awakening was characterized by itinerant preachers who brought with them Postmillennialism, spiritualism, and other new notions. The Great Awakening is best seen as a reaction to the rationalism and deism of the Enlightenment. Ironically, the Great Awakening was most successful in the heartland of the North American Enlightenment: New England. The Great Awakening was strong in the New England interior and along the Hudson Valley, where roving ministers could attract large crowds in every town. It was weaker in the coastal cities where the Congregationalists still dominated and took steps to prevent revivals from being held there.

The most popular of the Great Awakening sects was the Evangelical Baptist Church, founded in 1805 as an offshoot of the minor Six-Principle Baptists. The Evangelical Baptists became the face of the Great Awakening because of their raucous revivals where attendees would Speak in tongues while loud music blared and crowds sang. In addition to Baptism, Methodism, and various forms of Restorationism, Swedenborgianism and other spiritual sects exploded in popularity. The Swedenborgian Church of America was particularly popular in Maine and New Scotland. The Brownites were the primary spiritualist sect of the day. Founded by Adam Brown, the Brownites were radically anti-hierarchy (though this would change as they gained in numbers) and believed in direct communication with God with the aid of Guides. One of the most divergent beliefs of the Browites was their push for vegetarianism and temperance, which contributed to the persecution they faced in New England. The mid-1820s were not the end of the Great Awakening but by that time most of the major players had already emerged.

The immediate causes of the Second Revolt can be traced to the industrialization and diversification of New England. The village of Orford, Connecticut was one of the boomtowns of the industrial revolution in New England. In the fall of 1825, it became known that a textile factory in the town was using young women as labor. What’s more, these young women were many of them immigrants from Europe that spoke little English and practiced Catholicism. On several occasions, these young women were harassed by a WASP mob of locals angry at the fact the factory’s low wages essentially made it impossible for any New Englander to become employed there and support a family. In the winter of 1825, these incidents of harassment had grown to become a serious problem for the factory and in order to forestall trouble getting out of hand, the colonial government sent a detachment of Irish troops. The opposite occurred. Folklore tells us that an Irish soldier became friendly with an Irishwoman that worked in the mill so when a mob began throwing rocks, one of which hit the Irishwoman, her suitor became angry and fired into the crowd from which the rock had been thrown. Very few shots were actually fired, and no one was killed at Orford, but rumors spread more quickly than the truth and the WASPs of New England flew into a rage. The soldiers were acquitted by a military court, which only added fuel to the fire. The spring of 1826 saw tensions rise even higher.

Canada and Rupertsland​

To the north of New England were the sparsely-populated colonies of Canada and Rupertsland. Outside of the Ontario Peninsula, Canada remained much as it had been before the British conquest in 1763. The colony was overwhelmingly French, with English-speakers few and far between. Canada experienced some spillover from the Great Awakening centered in New England. Though French-speaking Protestant evangelists visited Canada, they had little success in their mission of converting the locals to a new faith.

The British government took a laissez-faire approach to governing Canada. Rightfully assuming English settlement would be limited, the colonial authorities allowed the land-owning seigneurs considerable cultural and political autonomy. Though Canada boasted a semi-democratic legislature, it was dominated by the seigneurial Institutionalist Party. The overwhelming majority of Canadiens approved of this government and backed it even when it was not in their best interests.

The exception to this was the Ontario Peninsula and lands to its north. There, English-speaking settlers from New England and even American New York settled. Their numbers were few, given that most loyalists fleeing American territory were satisfied in New England’s maritime north. However, Anglo settlement in the early years of the 19th century led to an English majority there by the start of the 1820s. Though the British government ordered the colonial authorities to tolerate English customs, it was clear that the Anglos of the peninsula were at the bottom of Canada’s social structure. Tensions there were high in the first quarter of the century and up to half a dozen revolutionary brotherhoods organized in that period.

To Canada’s west was Rupertsland. Under the control of the Hudson’s Bay Company, the colony was loosely organized and had few permanent settlers. A “government” of several dozen Company representatives technically ruled over the vast region that was Rupertsland but had little political power. Much of the land remained under native control, though the mixed-race Métis and Anglo-Métis were prominent and ruled over large stretches of the continent. Later on the Métis would become hostile to British rule, but in the early 19th century British rule over their homeland was not nearly pronounced enough to warrant any serious resistance. The Métis were heavily influenced by the Great Awakening. Though few in number, French-speaking preachers became highly sought-after in the period and were wildly successful in breaking the Catholic Church in Rupertsland.

Haudenosaunee​

The American Revolution divided the Haudenosaunee just as it divided their colonist neighbors. Both sides tried to woo the Haudenosaunee but it was ultimately the British that succeeded in bringing the bulk of the Confederacy to its side, though the Oneida and Tuscarora threw in with the Americans. The Haudenosaunee lands were home to intense fighting, but a string of British and allied victories in 1779 and 1780 brought the American-aligned tribes to their knees. After the Treaty of Paris in 1783, two major players emerged in the political life of the Confederacy. Both Cornplanter and Joseph Brant served as commanders in the war and were natural leaders around which the Confederacy gathered. Their personal rivalry would continue until Brant’s death in 1811 while the political parties that formed around them would continue on.

Cornplanter was a member of the Seneca and initially an advocate of neutrality in the American Revolution. Cornplanter went along with the majority of the Seneca that favored war, but in its aftermath he supported reconciliation with the Oneida and Tuscarora. In the early postwar years Cornplanter favored the adoption of Euro-American culture and technology but gradually distanced himself from that view and fell in line with the traditionalist views of his brother, Handsome Lake. Joseph Brant (also known as Thayendanegea) was a Mohawk who had distinguished himself as an able commander during the American Revolution. He had a reputation as a serious Anglophile and wore European-style clothes and was a devout Anglican. This was only strengthened by a visit to London in 1775 in which Brant met with King George III. After the war, Brant favored a strong alliance with Britain, a move towards agriculture, and punishing the Oneida and Tuscarora with expulsion.

In the period between 1783 and 1826, neither the Cornplanterites nor the Brantists were truly dominated. Decisions taken at the time indicated that the people of the Haudenosaunee favored a mixture of both of their platforms. In 1798, a constitution was devised, codifying the old Great Law of Peace. Though it had no change on the day-to-day operations of the Confederacy, the 1798 Constitution was an important step. In 1822, a new constitution was created that gave the Haudenosaunee a truly western government. The town of Onondaga (OTL Manlius, New York), which had traditionally served as capital, was officially made capital of the Confederacy. Each of the six nations was given defined borders and authority to govern within those borders. The Grand Council was transformed into a true legislature. An executive branch was established under a Grand Protector, who was elected by the Grand Council for a year-long term. British-style war and foreign ministries and treasuries were established, with provisions preventing any single nation from dominating the government.

On these issues most Haudenosuanee agreed. On cultural issues, there was much more division. Cornplanter and his brother Handsome Lake (often referred to as the intellectual power behind Cornplanter, which is a vast oversimplification) pushed for a society influenced by the American Quakers. They sought the creation of a new society taking the best of European and native traditions. Handsome Lake established a religion referred to as Gaihwi:io. It opposed factory farming, overconsumption, the sale of land and alcohol. Though the religion itself was not adopted by all Cornplanterites, its teachings influenced every member of the party. The Brantists did not feel the same connection to their history as the Cornplanterites. They favored the adoption of Christianity and Euro-American styles of living including a sedentary lifestyle. The Haudenosaunee were not immune to the Great Awakening and were heavily influenced by Baptism, Swedenborgism, and the growing Spiritual movement. In the late 1810s, several mills were established by Mohawks on the Kooyahura River. This triggered a debate over industrialization, with Cornplanterites opposed and Brantists in favor. On only one issue were both parties were in agreement. Nearly everyone agreed that the Haudenosaunee would be better off keeping out new white settlers.

White migration into the lands of the Haudenosaunee remained a serious issue. Both British and Haudenosaunee authorities cooperated to keep Americans out, but immigration from New England was a much trickier issue. Throughout the early 19th century British subjects moved west into the Mohawk Valley. Though the Imperial government in London issued proclamations ordering the punishment of these settlers, New England’s ruling class turned a blind eye as Westward migration helped solve issues of overpopulation and potentially restless landless youth. This led to a realignment in Haudenosaunee politics. The Mohawk Brant and his followers soured on cooperation with Britain (though Brant held dreams of George III coming to his senses and expelling white settlers until the day he died) The Brantists moved away from Anglophilia and instead sought closer relations with the United States. Meanwhile, Cornplanter and his followers became friendly with Britain.

By the middle of the 1820s, the Cornplanterite nations of the Confederacy were the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, and Tuscarora, while the Brantists were comprised of the Mohawk and Oneida.

United States​

Less than a decade after the Treaty of Paris, it had become clear that the United States’ initial constitution, the Articles of Confederation, were insufficient. They granted states considerable autonomy, leading to a toothless central government. In 1789, delegates of the nine states gathered in Philadelphia to create a new system of governance. The plan presented by James Madison and the Virginia delegation was, from the start of the convention, the most popular plan. Madison proposed two houses of Congress. The lower house, the House of Delegates, would be elected by the residents of each state, while the upper house, the Senate, would be elected by the Delegates from lists submitted by the states. The Senate would be responsible for the election of a Protector, frequently referred to as the National Executive. The most important piece of this puzzle was the fact that Congressional apportionment was decided by the Contributory Quota, an arcane formula which took into account tax, military, and other contributions from each state that was left to the House of Delegates to calculate. In addition, the federal government would be drastically strengthened. This move was supported heavily by the slaveholding southern states, which made up a large fraction of the convention’s delegates. When the convention adjourned, the nine states had a new constitution (pedants will, however, say that this is not technically true, given that states had to ratify the Constitution) The Constitution specified the creation of a new capital. The Federal District was established on a plot at the mouth of the Susquehanna River and head of the Chesapeake Bay. This space was occupied by a hamlet called Harmer’s Town but the new settlement was named Graceport after a comment made by the French General de Lafayette.

The Madisonian Constitution was created by an honorable man who truly believed he had created a free and fair government and, for a time, he was correct. Madison became the second Prime Minister, the head of the House of Delegates and most powerful man in the country. (The first Prime Minister, James Wilson, served for just over a year and before being elected to the ceremonial post of Protector) Madison and his Nationalist Party ruled for a decade and a half before being thrown out by the Whigs, a coalition of southern planters and northern merchants. This faction was headed by John Randolph of Roanoke, a fellow Virginian.

The Nationalists were not exactly clean but they paled in comparison to the Whigs. Under Randolph, the Whigs cooked the books and adjusted the Quota to give southerners an outsized say in Congress. By 1820, the system was markedly unfair and in the following decades the Whigs further entrenched themselves to the point where they could retain power even with a majority of voters opposing them. Despite promises of small government, the Whigs governed much like their predecessors and set the groundwork for a clientilistic network that would expand over the next several decades.

Throughout this period, anti-British sentiment remained high. The Peace of Paris was not particularly satisfying to either Britain or the American rebels and massive population transfers of English-speakers had taken place in the aftermath of the treaty. Both sides felt they had a very legitimate claim on the other side’s territory. The most jingoistic rhetoric of this period came from families displaced by the war. Some members of the Adams family were active in New York in this time, while Benjamin Franklin’s loyalist son William became a Bostonian and advocate for a war of reconquest against the United States. Neither government truly wanted war but was forced to prepare defenses in case the other side attacked.

Westward expansion remained a constant through the early years of the new republic. The British proved a challenge in the 1810s as they provided aid to native groups opposed to American settlers. The strongest of these groups was the Shawnee under the chiefs Cheeseekau and Tecumseh. These two led the Shawnee and a group of allies against American settlers and the regular army. Though the natives fought spiritedly, Tecumseh’s defeat in 1819 marked the end of serious resistance to American settlement.

The first major test of the Randolph Ministry came in 1808 as British impressment and naval interference reached a fever pitch at the height of the Illuminist Wars in Europe. American leaders were loath to take up arms despite a clear casus belli. Their hand was forced in September of that year when cadets from the Army and Navy academies at Locust Point near Baltimore marched on Graceport in a not so subtle show of force. Within days, the United States had declared war on the United Kingdom. The War of 1808 or Second Anglo-American War saw fighting on the seas and skirmishes in the lands west of the Ohio but ultimately no major land actions occurred and the war ended with a whimper in 1810.

The Randolph Ministry looked unpopular following America’s inability to defeat Britain and it actually appeared the Nationalist Party might return to power. This did not pan out as the government successfully negotiated an end to the Louisiana Crisis, in which American-born settlers along the Mississippi threatened to revolt against the French government. The crisis ended with a peaceful resolution as the United States purchased the entire Louisiana Territory from the cash-strapped French monarchy. Several years later, the US acquired Florida from Spain. These two acts of relatively cheap and peaceful expansion helped the Randolph Ministry survive into the 1820s.

As 1826 rolled around, the United States was in a good place. It had a popular government intent on expansion to the west and the introduction of agricultural and light industrial slavery into new territories. While any loyal American would have said that New England was rightfully American, there were few Americans that seriously considered the possibility of war.

The War

1826

On March 8, 1826 forces loyal to the Sons of Liberty seized several key forts and raised their flag over a number of cities. Though this event is often described as being a wildly successful surprise attack, it was obvious to the British authorities that open violence would begin at some point and for weeks the colonial forces had been prepared for an attack. Because of this, the Sons of Liberty actually failed to take many of their objectives because of a higher-than-average number of British sentries. However, the Sons of Liberty saw many New Englanders flock to their banners and they quickly regained the initiative. Throughout March and April 1826, they overran most of the country and held the key cities of Boston, Salem, and Providence. British forces held on in a number of coastal cities like Portsmouth, Falmouth, and New Haven. Portsmouth, capital of the colony, was besieged by Patriot forces between May and July of 1826 and the desperate fighting around the city was frequently referenced in Britain to drum up popular support for war.

Things were looking up for the Patriots in the summer of 1826. In the United States, support for the New Englanders was high and intervention was debated in Congress. War was supported by a coalition of westerners angry at British support for various Indians as well as easterners with romantic notions of a greater American state. Notably, then-Prime Minister John Randolph of Roanoke and his aristocratic faction opposed war. In May of 1826, public pressure mounted as demonstrations were held in all of America’s major cities. When news came that the cadets from the Military Academy at Locust Point near Baltimore planned to repeat their March on Graceport, John Randolph finally gave in. On June 2, 1826, the United States declared war on the British Empire.

By this time, a provisional Republic of New England had been established in Worcester. The Patriots were overjoyed by news of the American declaration of war, but the joy was short-lived as news came that a British fleet carrying 30,000 men under Sir Willoughby Cotton had landed at Portsmouth. New England suffered a series of setbacks as their poorly-trained irregulars were no match for Cotton’s army. An influx of better-trained American troops in the summer of 1826 was particularly beneficial for the Patriots, who won battles at Chelmsford and Nashua, preventing British forces from capturing Worcester, and allowing the Patriots to survive until 1827.

The entrance of the Americans into the war might have spelled doom for British Canada. The Ontario Peninsula remained full of English-speaking settlers. Many had sympathy towards the US while others might be persuaded to back an English-speaking invading army rather than side with the French-speaking Canadian government. To prevent this, a small British force under a Colonel Robert MacDowell advanced out of their base in the peninsula and laid siege to the American city of Detroit. Detroit was a tough nut to crack, but fell after a week-long siege in July. Simultaneously, British and colonial detachments to the north and west attacked American forts in the Great Lakes, but those battles were only a sideshow to the real war, which was waged along the Atlantic coast.

In the late summer of 1826, the British Empire asked the Haudenosaunee to honor their alliance and declare war on the United States. This was met with mixed reactions in Onondaga. The aged Cornplanter reluctantly felt the Confederacy must honor its word and join the war. Some of his followers broke with him and advocated for full neutrality in the affairs of the white men. The Brantites also favored neutrality. Things looked bad for Britain but at the last moment Cornplanter delivered an impassioned speech to the Grand Council. Impressed by oratory from one of the fathers of the nation, the Grand Council narrowly voted in favor of war (Importantly, the 1822 Constitution reduced the number of required votes to pass legislation from 75% to 66% Under pre-1822 rules the Confederacy would have remained neutral)

In September of 1826 the forces of the Haudenosaunee marched off to war. Absent in their ranks were the Mohawk and Oneida. Several weeks prior, Joseph Brant’s son John had presided over a convention of Mohawk and Oneida leaders and both nations signed a treaty agreeing that they would stay neutral in the war against the United States. This would later become known as the Treaty of Canajoharie and the signatories known as the League of Canajoharie. Opinion in the other nations was split on how to respond. Some supported the use of coercion against the Mohawk to make them join the war while other suggested they be left alone. Despite attempts by both sides within the Confederacy to defuse tensions, the massacre of 450 Mohawk at Tionondogen by New England militia in the winter of 1826 forced the League’s hand.

The League sought recourse from the New England colonial government but their request was shrugged off. The Tionondogen Massacre was just the first of a series of brutalities committed by British and colonial troops that lead up the League of Canajoharie declaring for the United States in July of 1827.

The fall of 1826 saw few pitched battles as both sides amassed forces. The British army under General Cotton was successful in carving out a zone of loyalist control in New Hampshire and Southern Maine and the port of Portsmouth was vastly expanded to accommodate shipments of soldiers from the metropole. Skirmishes occurred there and around some of the other coastal cities that remained in British hands. In addition, the Haudenosaunee army was actively raiding in northern Pennsylvania.

In Michigan, an American force under the Virginia-born William Henry Ashley attacked Detroit in October. Ashley, a frontiersman and businessman, launched his attack late in the year and use unconventional, frontier tactics to take Detroit with little bloodshed. He proved too ambitious for his men. His force was comprised of regulars from the east and only a small contingent of midwestern militia. The regulars refused to travel on muddy backroads and the attack on the city was disorganized and turned into a rout. The disgusted Ashley was hauled before a hearing and took a verbal beating from its aristocratic easterners. He resigned his commission by year’s end.

As 1826 drew to a close, enthusiasm for the war was high in both Britain and the United States. The Patriots in New England were disappointed by their failure to conclude the revolution in a single stroke but remained cautiously optimistic.

1827​

As 1827 began, the Patriot cause received wind in its sails as the Kingdom of France declared war on Britain. The two states, age-old enemies, had colonial disputes over the Caribbean and Australia. While American propagandists chalked France’s joining the war up to a desire to help an age-old ally, France’s entrance was opportunistic, with the archconservative French Premier hoping for an opportunity to strike against undefended British colonies. Though the French were active on the high seas and even seized the Channel Islands for nine months, their actions largely did not affect the American side of the war.

The 1827 campaigning season opened with a British offensive. General Cotton had been given orders to relieve Boston, the largest city in New England. His 21,000 man army left Portsmouth on March 4th. Eight days later, they met an army of Americans and New Englanders under Jacob Brown at Wakefield. Superior British artillery won the day and Brown retreated. The British advanced cautiously but faced only scattered resistance. On March 17th they entered Boston and found the city abandoned by the Patriots. As the union jack was raised over Boston and the city was reintegrated into the British Empire the Patriots and Americans made several small assaults which became the battles of Brookline, Newton, and Jamaica. It quickly became clear that Boston was securely in British hands. Public opinion in Boston was mixed over this development. While Boston was under Patriot control a Royal Navy blockade had prevented traffic by sea. This was a serious concern for Boston’s merchants and the employees that relied on them. Within just days of Boston’s fall in 1827 merchant ships from the West Indies docked there in a symbolic gesture showing the old days of commerce had returned. While revolutionary sentiment remained high in certain quarters the return of trade gave many Bostonions a reason to tolerate the British.

April and May of 1827 saw a lull in fighting in lower New England but was eventful along the Pennsylvania front. There, the Haudenosaunee army under Oneida leader William Cornelius had been encamped in the Wilds and raiding territories across much of the commonwealth. With raiders sighted on the outskirts of the crucial port of Presque Isle, an American army under the Virginian Edmund Gaines was dispatched to defeat the Haudenosaunee. The unprepared Hamilton met the Haudenosaunee at Reed’s Fort, a wooden stockade built as protection against Indian raids in the late 18th century. Hearing of the American approach, William Cornelius marched his army south through the wilderness and attacked the American army late in the day as they finished their march. The Battle of Reed’s Fort was an unmitigated disaster as tired and confused American troops were massacred by their much more prepared opponents. Almost simultaneously, a force of Pennsylvania militia under Duncan McArthur marched on Presque Isle. Though only several thousand strong, McArthur’s force made it to the city with few casualties and actually won a victory over a much-larger Haudenosaunee force at French Creek. The Battle of Reed’s Fort was greeted with surprise in Graceport where American leaders expected the Haudenosaunee to fold quickly. Only the victory at French Creek prevented the mood at Graceport from turning to despair. Pennsylvanians and members of the opposition Nationalist Party pressured the government to send federal troops to fight under Duncan McArthur but the Randolph Ministry stood behind General Gaines.

In July, Willoughby Cotton marched out from Boston in an ambitious campaign meant to capture Providence 50 miles away. Cotton’s army won three major engagements that month at Walpole, Foxborough, and Pawtucket. Cotton’s victories in the first two battles were over New England patriot forces while Pawtucket saw him face American forces under the Virginian Thomas Griffin. All three battles were won because of the superior training of British regulars and years of experience fighting modern armies. After Pawtucket, the British occupied Providence with aid from the Royal Navy, which had controlled the Providence River since late spring. Though British forces would be forced to fight several battles in the pacification of Plymouth and Bristol Counties, the fall of Providence meant the British had control over the entirety of the Atlantic coast of New England and the only ports still in Patriot control were in Long Island Sound and essentially bottled up by British control of the eastern edge of the Sound.

The largest battle of the war so far occurred in August when an American army under Jacob Brown marched east from Connecticut in hopes of recapturing Portsmouth. Battle was joined at the town of Glocester. The battle was a close affair but the day was ultimately won by the British artillery, which kept on pumping shells into the advancing American lines throughout the battle. Brown’s defeat at Glocester led to his recall by the Ministry of War. The aging General was blamed for losses at Wakefield and Glocester and the fall of Boston. In addition, there was considerable debate over the fact that Brown did not block the route to Providence with his large army and instead left the defense of the city to poorly-trained New England forces. Brown was replaced as Commander of American forces in New England by Morgan Lewis of New York.

In the west, MacDowell and his British regulars occupied the city of Detroit, preventing American provocateurs from entering Ontario and inciting revolt among the English-speakers there. MacDowell’s opponent of the previous year, William Henry Ashley, had resigned and been replaced by George Tyler, another Virginian. Tyler took a much more cautious approach than his predecessor. Tyler and MacDowell’s forces skirmished throughout the early months of 1827. In July, the Americans moved. In a single battle, they overwhelmed Detroit and pushed the British back across the river into Canada. During the British retreat, American militiamen mercilessly pursued their opponents and brutalized many of them. Rumors of the Detroit River Massacre spread throughout Canada, leading to a cold welcome from Anglos that might have otherwise been happy to see the American army. Despite this, “Bloody” Tyler and his men advanced deep into Canada and wintered in the regional city of Muncie (OTL London) While news of Tyler’s advance was greeted well in the United States, his lack of haste allowed a force of Canadian militiamen to gather in the vicinity of Rouilleton (OTL Toronto)

Overall, the summer of 1827 was a dark time for the Americans as news came from Canada of a British army marching south to the Hudson in hopes of a march on New England. In July, they were granted a reprieve as the Mohawk and Oneida took up arms against the British and the rest of the Confederacy. Their luck continued when William Cornelius, the Oneida general that had been such a difficult opponent in Pennsylvania, resigned his post at head of a Confederacy army and returned to his homeland to fight for his nation. The civil war that had begun to rage within the Confederacy freed up American resources and much of Edmund Gaines’ army was redirected to the Hudson Valley where it joined with a force being raised by Alexander Hamilton Jr. In August, Hamilton would lead his army into Mohawk Country northwest of Albany and link up with forces under John Brant.

September saw the creation of a second major British army under Henry Clinton in Boston. Clinton was the son of Sir Henry Clinton, the British Supreme Commander in North America in the late 1770s and 1780s. Because of his name, Clinton was relatively disliked among Patriots that remembered the repression of the 1780s they had experienced under his father. In early September, Clinton and his army set out on a 40 mile march towards Worcester. The British were once again foiled in their attempt to take the Patriot capital as they were defeated at the Battle of Nobscot Hill, approximately twenty miles northeast of Worcester. The defeat of the British at Nobscot Hill was a complete surprise

By the end of 1827, things were looking bad for the Patriot cause. The loss of the Eastern Seaboard and the slow creep of British control into Connecticut had turned most of the new Republic’s government into fatalists believing the revolt was doomed. There was considerably more fight left in the New England military. Though scattered about the country, victories by inspiring leaders like Eleazer Ripley kept the army going.

Similarly, the Randolph Ministry in the United States was facing an increasingly dissatisfied public. The intervention in New England was supposed to be a quick and easy affair and it was decidedly not so. The combination of Indian raids on the northern border and marauding ships along the coast had turned Americans against the war. The government too had received a fright when in the fall of 1827 a Royal Navy flotilla in the Chesapeake bombarded Graceport and forced Congress to flee fifty miles inland to York, Pennsylvania. The failure of American forces to prevent these attacks was seriously concerning to the Nationalist Party, which was most popular in the north. This led to a number of party elders calling for an immediate end to the war. This proved disastrous to the party, which was accused of being unpatriotic.

In response to the setbacks experienced in 1827, Prime Minister Randolph dismissed his War Minister and called for 25,000 volunteers. He was greeted with less enthusiasm than hoped, but his orders were ultimately carried out and the US came into 1828 with fresh reinforcements.

1828​

The Americans were not the only ones that had brought in new troops over the winter. The British had sent another 10,000 men from the metropole and organized them into a third army in New England. The final defeat of the Worcester government came in April 1828 as the three British armies in New England converged on the rebel capital.

Cotton’s army advanced from the south and swept west through Connecticut and came at Worcester from the southwest. From Portsmouth, the new army advanced through New Hampshire, while Henry Clinton advanced straight west out of Boston, in a repeat of their route the previous fall. Against three armies the New Englanders simply did not stand a chance. The arrival of British forces to garrison coastal cities in southern Connecticut and militias from Canada encroaching on the northern parts of Vermont and New Hampshire had depleted Patriot forces. The defense of Worcester consisted of a series of battles fought across 100 miles yet the result was never in doubt. On May 28th, highlanders under Henry Clinton entered the city of Worcester. The government had simply evaporated, with many members simply returning home to face their fate. A minority fled west to Pittsfield, where they would reconvene and declared themselves the legitimate government. Among this group was Eleazer Ripley, who, though a military commander, came to wield outsize influence within the Patriot government. Despite the presence of the hero Ripley, the Pittsfield government was never recognized by most New Englanders, who were broken by the capture of Worcester.

The Patriot cause also suffered setbacks further west. George Tyler left his winter quarters in Muncie in late April and marched northeast towards Rouilleton. Against him was a force of British regulars, Canadian militiamen, and some contingents of Seneca and Cayuga. The two forces clashed at the Battle of Grand River (near OTL Cambridge) Tyler and his men were simply outfought and forced to retreat. They marched in poor order and were harassed by British soldiers and armed farmers. Arriving in Muncie, they found a local rising had destroyed most of their stores. This precipitated a general retreat that did not end until the Americans had arrived back in Detroit in October. The poor conduct of Tyler’s men in Canada ensured that any future American invasion would be greeted with hostility.

After the defeat at Worcester, the United States was thrown into a panic. With only scattered Patriot resistance in New England, there was nothing stopping Britain from advancing on New York, America’s largest city. Making this prospect especially dangerous was the fact the largest army in the region was under Alexander Hamilton Jr. fighting in the wilderness of the Mohawk country. In June, Hamilton was recalled to defend the city of New York, leaving the Mohawk and Oneida without significant American support. News of a declaration of war by the Dutch Republic against Britain brought little hope to the Americans, who felt their nation was truly in danger. In August, Britain struck.

The attack on the city was two-pronged. An army marched west from Bridgeport and from there down the Hudson. About the same time, an army was ferried to Long Island and moved slowly westwards on the island. Both prongs faced stiffer resistance than they had in New England and even when they had defeated American militias in battle they faced partisans behind the lines. The American regular army was outnumbered and forced to bolster its ranks with untrained militia and the forces under the command of Hamilton were kept in relatively close proximity to the city.

Battle was joined on August 26th north of New York City. The British force under Henry Clinton was advancing down the Hudson and was greeted by Alexander Hamilton Jr. Hamilton arranged his forces along a 2.5 mile front ranged between the Hudson and Bronx Rivers. On the eastern flank, Hamilton had the support of American gunboats. The west was lightly guarded by local militiamen. Hamilton’s army was a motley crew and composed of regulars, militiamen, New England patriot holdouts, and even two hundred Mohawk. On the other side, Henry Clinton’s army was much more impressive. Composed of well-trained men from the British Isles, the presence of New England militia was negligible as many previously loyal militament simply refused to cross the border and engage in offensive action against the Americans. The Americans had more men but the British had better men and days of preparation. It was a do or die moment for the United States and victory was by no means assured.

The battle began at 11am on the 26th as a regiment of highlanders advanced across the Van Cortlandt estate on the American center. The American line had a hill on its left and one in the center and the central hill. The central hill was the focus of the British assault and was under attack continuously between 11am and 2pm. The American left was fairly safe as British forces opted to stay far from the Hudson and the American gunboats on it. On the right, the British tried to cross the Bronx River but were greeted by American sharpshooters and became mired in the crossing. At 2pm, the center broke as a Lincolnshire regiment broke through with the help of several batteries of artillery. General Hamilton immediately charged into the breach at the head of his reserve. The hole was plugged but at great cost. Several hundred men, including Hamilton himself, died. The rout of the Lincolnshire men was a loss from which the British did not recover. By 5pm that evening General Clinton declared the day lost and retreated north. Though he vowed to return and take New York, he never would.

Hamilton’s death at Kingsbridge became a legendary moment in American history. Though in all likelihood the reserve would have fought just as hard if he had lived, the official line was that his death inspired them to fight on and plug the gap and if the gap had not been plugged the British would have burned New York and gone on to win the war. The cult of Hamilton Jr. grew after the war as paintings of the dying man came to adorn government buildings across the country. A frequent inclusion in these paintings was the adjutant Leonard O. Brooke delivering the news to the elderly Alexander Hamilton Sr. This came to symbolize the ideal of service to the state and sacrifice, if necessary. In addition, the elder Hamilton was reputed to have said his son’s death was vital to the defense of the city and in the wake of an unpopular war, this episode was used to legitimize the war and Randolph ministry.

The victory at Kingsbridge was, undoubtedly, an important victory for the United States, but whether it singlehandedly won the war was debatable. The fall of 1828 was not a good time for Britain between the American victories at Kingsbridge and Maspeth in Queens County and in the south the destruction of a British fleet en route to New Orleans by a hurricane. After these defeats, the British put plans to invade the United States on the backburner and shifted towards a focus on defeating the Mohawk and Oneida and launching another campaign against the Americans in 1829.

The campaign in the Haudenosaunee Confederacy was expanded by the addition of British troops from Canada in 1828. In December, the Oneida bowed out of the war, surrendering unconditionally to the Haudenosaunee central government. The Mohawk under John Brant fought on but lost control of most major settlements by the end of the year.

Very late in the year, news came from Graceport that the government of the United States was seeking peace and a delegation had departed for Europe to engage representatives of His Majesty’s government in discussion in the neutral Habsburg city of Brussels.

1829​

At the opening of 1829 the United States was in a precarious position. It had defeated the British assault on New York the previous year but aside from a few Mohawk bands holding on in the Adirondacks, the entire northern border was bristling with hostile forces.

In late January, the Mohawk folded. After heavy losses against British regulars,at the Battle of the Black River, John Brant gathered his followers for an ambitious tactical retreat. Over 200,000 Mohawk would march 100 miles to the south to Pennsylvania, where Brant had been assured the Mohawk would be allowed to resettle. What became known as Brant’s March was ultimately a success, though up to 40% of those that set out with Brant made it to Pennsylvania. Many died of exposure while others fell to parties of Haudenosaunee, British regulars, and vengeful white settlers.

In the United States, the year was fairly uneventful though tensions remained high as rumors flew of a potential British invasion. Aside from coastal raids and brief occupations the country was for the most part safe. The exception was in Georgia, where Royal Marines from Bermuda seized Cockspur Island at the mouth of the Savannah River in March. Believed to be a prelude to an assault on the city of Savannah, the expected invasion never came as the Marines departed the island in early May. A month later, news came from Europe that peace had been agreed to in Brussels. Under the terms of the Treaty, the United States was forced to drop all claims to New England and pay a small sum to the British government. The pre-war borders were reaffirmed and a clause regarding a prohibition on the arming of native tribes on the opponent’s side of the border was included (though this clause was broken even before the treaty was ratified) On May 29th, Delegates of all 18 states voted overwhelmingly in favor of the treaty and the war came to an end.

The Dutch and French sent delegates to Brussels but signed a separate treaty several weeks later at the Palace of Charles of Lorraine. Like the Treaty of Brussels, the Coudenberg Treaty (named for the hill on which the Palace lies) changed very little and left all parties unsatisfied.

Aftermath

1828 marked the end of the old order in New England. Facing retribution and ostracism by their loyalist peers, many Patriots left New England to settle in the United States. The overwhelmingly majority of these Patriots were the descendants of early English settlers. Their departure led to the growth of the power of more recent immigrant groups like the Irish and Germans. Just fifty years after the flight of the so-called Twenty-Niners, the cultural and political landscape of New England was nearly alien.

The Twenty-Niners spread out across the United States. Many of them (particularly the richer and more urban of them) settled in New York City, Baltimore, and Graceport, enriching those cities with wealth brought from New England and adding to their growth. The poorer of the Twenty-Niners settled the frontier lands to the west, particularly in the northerly states of Metropotamia, Assenissippia, and Sylvania as well as the unorganized territories west of the Mississippi. The urban Twenty-Niners would quickly lose their cultural heritage and assimilate into greater American society. The more rural Twenty-Niners retained some of their differences and eventually become the nucleus of the Yankee and Free Soil political parties.

Among those that remained in New England, the failure of two wars and innumerable plots in the interim had broken the will of the people for independence. Though revolutionary organizations would continue to organize and commit terroristic acts, like the assassination of the Governor-General in 1854, they would nver again pose a serious threat to continued British rule. In the United States, most people wrote off New England as a lost cause. The exception was the New England emigre community, which continued to push for an invasion of the colony. Through the presence of rich Twenty-Niners in important cities like New York, Philadelphia, and Graceport, this view became known to members of Congress, who were socially familiar with the emigres. However, despite emigre lobbying, an invasion of New England was not seriously contemplated by the American government after 1829.

The Haudenosaunee did not survive the war completely intact. After John Brant’s march to the south in early 1829, the Mohawk nation was reconstituted with new leadership. This leadership was comprised of Cornplanterites and friendly with the nations that had remained loyal to the Confederacy during the war. Similarly, the Oneida nation’s leadership was changed by order of the other nations. By the start of 1830, the entire Confederacy was ruled by traditionalist Cornplanterites. The Treaty of Manchester was signed that year, setting the new border between the Haudenosaunee and New England at a point further west than the pre-war border, starting at the mouth of the Salmon River and then running west and south to the Upper Susquehanna, where it went south to the American border. This move cut out most of the old Mohawk territory. Loyal Mohawk were permitted to remain but many chose to flee and join John Brant. The legacy of the Third Anglo-American War in the Haudenosaunee Confederacy is unity. The defeat of the Brantists led to a political consensus as all the nations came under the rule of the Cornplanterites.

The Mohawk and hardcore Brantist Oneida spent several years in northern Pennsylvania. During this time many died of exposure or were killed by American farmers. John Brant spent several years in Graceport, where he worked to convince the American government to cede lands in the west to the Mohawk nation. In 1832, Brant succeeded and the Mohawk were awarded control of the northern half of the Michigan Peninsula. The Mohawk settled this new land and Brant was appointed Governor of the Saratoga Territory. In 1839, the Territory was admitted to the union and Brant elected to the House of Delegates as a Whig, where he would serve in a variety of cabinet positions until his retirement at the end of the 1860s. The state of Saratoga was intended as a loyal buffer against British invasion and it lived up to its reputation as an anti-British state as Saratogan Delegates to Congress proved the most Anglophobic of any state. Starting in the middle of the 1830s, several Mohawk regiments joined the United States army. Their unique garb quickly became a fashion and for decades after, white “Mohawk” units were maintained in the US army clad in feathered helmets reminiscent of the Gustowah headdress and leather breeches.

The United States came out of the war in a better position than expected given the number of military defeats it had suffered. The Americans had unequivocally failed in their goal of securing New England independence and had even seen their Mohawk and Oneida allies driven from their homes. The only serious American victory had been the defense of New York and even that had been at the loss of the American general. Domestically, the Randolph Ministry suffered very little. The average American did not blame the Prime Minister for the war, seeing it as something begun by forces outside his control. The old Nationalist Party was not so lucky. Despite opposing the war, they collapsed as the westerners in the party bolted under party leader Henry Clay to found the Democrats, a more populist party based in the west. This left the Nationalists with just a handful of seats and little support and within a decade the party had withered away.

The causes of American defeat in the war did not go unnoticed. In September 1829, the House of Delegates overwhelmingly voted to establish a special committee to investigate the failings of the army and present its recommendations to the House. The committee was chaired by the zealous anti-British Patrick Calhoun Jr. of South Carolina. The Calhoun Report was published in the summer of 1831 and detailed widespread disorganization within the army and a lack of coordination between the regular army and state militias. Starting in 1832, the Randolph Ministry took steps to create a more prepared America. An ambitious series of coastal and border defenses was erected with the help of French engineers. The army was radically reorganized, with a beefed up General Staff. The Randolph Reforms broke many careers but created a much stronger national army. Though the Prime Minister would die just one year later of tuberculosis, the strong state he created lived on and stood up to the test in the Texas Intervention, Conquest of Mexico, and Conquest of Cuba.
 
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World of the Continued United Front

* Second Sino-Japanese War
* Asia after the Second Sino-Japanese War, around 1940
* Chinese Leaders, 20s and 30s
*
Sino-Soviet Relations, 1930s to 1950s
* United States Politics, to 1960
* Indochina and the Second Indochina War
*
Indonesia, 1965 to 1989
* Central America, 1989-1990
* Russia, 1990s and 2000s
* Chinese Politics, 1990s
* Himalayan Crisis, 2005-2006
* Aftermath of the Himalayan Crisis
* Pakistan, late 2000s
* LGBT Rights in China (and elsewhere), to 2010

Chinese Domestic Affairs and International Relations after the First Cold War

The Communist Party of China had taken a stance of women's equality since before the establishment of the Socialist Republic of China. In the early years, however, the Party took a slow approach on such matters, putting most focus in this policy area on increasing women's participation in the labor force, with the idea that this would kill two birds with one stone, increasing economic productivity (giving some opportunity for reduction of backlash among traditionalists, by using some nationalistic messaging) while also naturally expanding women's status and opportunities in society at the same time. As the years and then decades passed, and the Party felt somewhat less constrained by the threat of conservative opposition and traditionalist dissent, pro-woman policy would be expanded. The 60s and 70s, for example, saw sizable anti-discrimination initiatives and a greater push for equality in education and the workplace

In the mid-1990s, China experienced a wave of feminist protests. The spark was a series of public accusations of sexual misconduct by military officers against female soldiers, as well as by law enforcement officers, with incidents of potential cover-ups or minimal treatment for offenders. Other incidents of misconduct got attention as well, as did broader factors of inequality in society. The Communist Party was not particularly opposed to the protesters, but was somewhat caught off-guard by the intensity of the protests and how quickly they'd bubbled up from a small number of victims making public demands to being mass protests in the streets. There had been a growing weariness among women regarding gender role expectations in society and culture, inequality in parenting and other domestic affairs, and so on - a trend that the Party had noticed and was gradually acting on, but the Party had underestimated the strength of that sentiment among the public

The Party was overall sympathetic to the protesters and their goals. The Party established committees and opened up increased dialogue with women's groups and protesters and eventually investigations were launched, military and law enforcement reforms were passed, greater campaigns on the cultural/social engineering front were enacted, offenders were increasingly held accountable, and protesters gradually went home, largely satisfied with the increased efforts. Some more conservative members of the Party and society spoke out against some or many aspects of the protests and the response, but the outright opposition (contrasted to a larger sort of apathy or mixed opinion) was not a strong force, and the elements in the Party with opposition saw further isolation from relevance (with opposition within the Party being seen primarily among the RDVL and CPFL, which had already long been in decline in regards to their influence within the Party)

The whole incident was not a particularly shocking or immensely polarizing one within China itself. But by the end of the incident, many in the rest of the world felt... at least some concern...



Some conspiracy theories emerged among the "west" that the incident was nothing but a false flag by the Party in order to institute a purge along the lines of the Great Soviet Purge of the 1930s. The Party response to the protests certainly included increased efforts at legally combating sexual misconduct, which resulted in a sizable amount of arrests, including some high profile figures in Chinese society - conspiracy theorists, however, would suggest that the Party abandoned any concept of rule of law and had actually arrested and possibly killed millions of people. Initially, these theories gained some traction among the general public in the "west". The Chinese government managed to assuage most of the concerns by ensuring measures of transparency were in place, but even with all that, a degree of western concern remained, with some worry about just how far the Chinese government was going to take their ideas of social equality, and concerns as to whether the conspiracy theories were necessarily completely wrong about the potential for the government to have done away with some dissidents using the protesters' demands as cover

There was another noteworthy factor, as well. When the protests began, there had been a lot of western media and pundit suggestions that the protests may be the beginning of the end of the Chinese government - that Communist Party rule may end in the Chinese bloc as it had half a decade earlier in the Soviet bloc. But as things progressed, it became clear that the Chinese government wasn't really in any danger at all, and that if anything the protests in this case were actually to a large degree aligned with the overall ideological leaning of the Party. There was thus something of a disappointment in the west with how things turned out. China had been seen as the less worrisome of the two major communist blocs, with the lack of human rights abuses seen in the USSR, so it wasn't so demoralizing that it survived. But the disappointment of its survival, combined with some concerns over the sort of social change occurring in China, vague insinuations of purges like those in the USSR (even though those insinuations were largely debunked), and certain economic developments, helped ensure that relations between China and the west would remain cordial enough to avoid significant conflicts but also somewhat awkward and chilled

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The 1997 United Kingdom general election can serve as an example for some broader political trends in Europe around the turn of the millennium

Europe remained somewhat to the left of places like the United States, but had seen a similar trend towards "neoliberalism" and a more market-oriented and deregulating center-left as the US had. At the same time, various Eurosocialist and Eurocommunist organizations and parties remained existent and with at least some support from the population. The Eurocommunists had taken something of a hit from the fall of the USSR, but had on the other hand already been shifting away from the USSR in decades prior, and had also (before and after the fall of the USSR) had some trends towards pro-China stances, with some among them critical to China and merely presenting it as a better alternative to the USSR, and others among them seeing China as more of an outright positive example of a Communist Party managing to bring major social and economic change to a large part of the globe. With this, the Eurocommunists tended to be able to maintain a base of representation in various national legislatures, and weren't utterly despised by the rest of the public, but still tended to be shunned to some degree by the rest of the public due in part to continued western concern over China, and with the more mainstream left-leaning parties generally being unwilling to form coalitions with the Eurocommunists and instead forming grand coalitions or other more center/center-right oriented coalitions

Such was seen with the 1997 UK election. After some years in the political wilderness and suffering from some splits, the Labour party, led by Tony Blair, had taken a polling lead with a centrist "New Labour" campaign and was poised to become the largest party in Parliament. When election day came, Labour did indeed end up the largest party, but came somewhat short of a majority. Labour could theoretically have formed a majority coalition with the Red-Green party, itself an alliance between some ex-Militant and other former-Labour leftists along with various other Marxists, environmentalists, and other leftists. But the aforementioned discomfort towards the further left was as strong in Britain as elsewhere in Europe, and Blair was genuinely committed to his "New Labour" project. So Blair instead negotiated with and formed a coalition with Paddy Ashdown and his Liberal Democrats, who themselves had seen a major breakthrough in the election and had a stronger than expected performance considering Britain's "first past the post" electoral system


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When the Communist Party initially took power in China, the country had a largely agrarian economy that lagged far behind the "west". But the Chinese economy has grown to be not just the world's largest in terms of raw GDP (something it could do with population alone), but also one with a fairly high level of individual wealth and quality of life. In addition, while the economy initially held a NEP-like embrace of markets, it has shifted over time in a rather more socialistic direction

At present, private employment still exists in China, but a mix of state-operated enterprises and cooperatives combined make up a significant majority of employment in China. The People's Federation of Cooperatives is the largest coop in China, being a massive coalition of worker-self-managed businesses from various different sectors, and its employees make up a little over 70% of the total number of Chinese employed in coops. The federation began focused in China, but has expanded overseas with nearly 7 million employees in other countries. This sort of overseas expansion has also occurred with Chinese Unions. The People's International Federation of Trade Unions started off as the primary Chinese trade union. But over time, some in the Chinese government began pushing more for the "one big union" concept, and sought to expand the Chinese union federation abroad, with a fair amount of success. the PIFTU not only includes the vast majority of Chinese workers, but also over a hundred million workers overseas

The expansion of Chinese coops and unions abroad (as well as business from various state-owned enterprises) is an example of the growth of Chinese 'soft power' abroad. It is also something that has mixed reception, with some appreciating the Chinese support for workers' rights and ethical businesses abroad, but others fearing the expansion of these Chinese institutions abroad, with their association with and support from the Chinese government. Some countries outright ban these institutions from operating within their borders, some others haven't taken it that far but have seen political pressure to ban such institutions, have passed regulations on them, have put increased intelligence focus on them, or have even seen anti-Chinese riots, boycotts, and other incidents. But in much of the world, these examples of Chinese economic soft power continue to slowly expand, despite the grumbling from some circles



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(and a note or clarification... about halfway through making this, it occurred to me that there might be a chance that the whole "some folks in the west think China did an atrocity but actually that was just a conspiracy theory" thing, with the protests and the rejected info-box edit and all, might potentially look like some sort of comparison or dog whistle to current events in China. Just in case there's any doubt, this China is a very different China from OTL, and any potential resemblances to or suggestions of real-life denialism of human rights violations in Xinjiang are unintended. The conspiracy theory ITTL is just a conspiracy theory without being commentary on OTL in any such sort of way, I had the idea of showing an AH event through different perspectives via different edits of a wikipedia page and that's what's going on there. Maybe I'm being overly cautious in saying this, and maybe those of you who read this post had no suspicions of anything along those lines and think it would be a stretch to make such a comparison: if so, cool. But I am perhaps a bit prone to anxiety so I am just saying this anyway)

protests or purge question marx ib.jpg


1997 uk election ib.jpg


coops and unions ib.png
 
91-E8984-C-2-E4-D-4-A23-8617-CB07-C1-E450-C6.jpg

Decided to post it here as it has no current politics whatsoever.

Based off of my premise of “What if the original Connery films got adapted into the Craig era?”
 
Wallace.png

Just randomly came up with this idea and decided to a wikibox of it, basically George Wallace is a character actor who plays a fictionalized version of himself who is governor of Alabama.
 
This is a sort of sequel to a map I made several months ago. Initially, I planned for a map that had the classic Free States of America, but it is composed of US states in Mexico seceding against a slavocratic US government. This map is what I ended up with. Though I have not intentionally tried to copy anything, this series takes some inspiration from the timeline TFS. This TL is not meant to be incredibly plausible but hopefully it is interesting. Questions and comments are, of course, welcome.

View attachment 702727

New England

The conclusion to the American Revolution (also referred to as the First Anglo-American War) did not satisfy anyone in New England. Though handily defeated militarily, there was still considerable revolutionary sympathy in the region. No one would call it truly pacified, and that showed in the riots that engulfed Boston and several other major cities at least once or twice a decade. Even if many of the riots had racial, sectarian, and tax disputes as their immediate causes, it was obvious that anti-British sentiment had a hand in starting the fighting.

Revolutionary sentiment was very dependent on class. The 1775 Revolt was led by aristocrats and burghers. With some of their number executed and others gone into exile, this class had become disillusioned in the years following the Treaty of Paris. In their place, cells of revolution popped up among the middle class artisans of New England’s cities. Groups with names like the Order of the Nine Stripes, the Spartacists, and Sons of Montgomery were active as early as 1784, just one years after peace was agreed to. In the late 1780s, a New England branch of the Illuminati was founded by Pierpont Edwards in New Haven. This group exploded in popularity and within three years, the sons of the greatest families in the colony had joined. The official line was that the Illuminati had no interest in governing, but it was clear from early on that its members largely favored a Second Revolt against Britain. The British stance of letting the Illuminati be was notable, especially given that they were driven underground in Europe during this period. In 1798, the New England Illuminati nearly fractured as pro-independence factions attempted to take over the organization and turn it into an overtly political organization. The revolutionary faction was ultimately defeated by Ezekial Whitman of Maine, who then led the New England Illuminati. In response, the most ardently pro-revolution members of the Illuminati revived the old Sons of Liberty and with the help of several aging Patriots set up a revolutionary network. The Sons of Liberty, like the Illuminati before it, grew rapidly and early on, plotted to blow up the capital in Portsmouth. After the discovery of this plot, the rapid growth was checked but membership did increase throughout the following decades. Meanwhile, the Illuminati lived on, but primarily as a social organization in which loyalists and patriots rubbed elbows.

For their part, the British did what they could to prevent a future revolt. The old colonial governments were dissolved and a single government of New England was established in the smaller and more easily defensible town of Portsmouth. The dissolution of the state governments has had mixed results. The counties had only small militias that often cooperated poorly with neighboring counties. On the other hand, the sheer number of county councils meant the British administrators were unable to keep tabs on all of their happenings and more than a few revolutionists made it onto the councils.

Prior to the 1820s, the closest the Sons of Liberty came to actual revolt was during the Second Anglo-American War in 1808. That undeclared war saw fighting on the seas over the issue of impressment and trade disputes regarding the Wars in Europe. Both Britain and America feared the other side might launch and invasion on land, though neither side had the nerve to make the first move. Accounts from the time detail significant American sympathies in New England and any invasion would likely have been greeted by popular support

By the middle of the 1820s, New England was nearly unrecognizable in relation to the New England of 1775. Waves of immigrants from Ireland had flooded the coastal cities while escaped slaves from the United States also settled in New England. The landscape changed too as factories and mills sprouted up along rivers in the colony. Racial and ethnic tensions were high as old line Protestant New Englanders blamed newcomers for the rapid changes in their homeland.

New England was also ground zero for the Great Awakening. Starting in the 1790s, Anglo America experienced a period of religious revival. The Great Awakening was characterized by itinerant preachers who brought with them Postmillennialism, spiritualism, and other new notions. The Great Awakening is best seen as a reaction to the rationalism and deism of the Enlightenment. Ironically, the Great Awakening was most successful in the heartland of the North American Enlightenment: New England. The Great Awakening was strong in the New England interior and along the Hudson Valley, where roving ministers could attract large crowds in every town. It was weaker in the coastal cities where the Congregationalists still dominated and took steps to prevent revivals from being held there.

The most popular of the Great Awakening sects was the Evangelical Baptist Church, founded in 1805 as an offshoot of the minor Six-Principle Baptists. The Evangelical Baptists became the face of the Great Awakening because of their raucous revivals where attendees would Speak in tongues while loud music blared and crowds sang. In addition to Baptism, Methodism, and various forms of Restorationism, Swedenborgianism and other spiritual sects exploded in popularity. The Swedenborgian Church of America was particularly popular in Maine and New Scotland. The Brownites were the primary spiritualist sect of the day. Founded by Adam Brown, the Brownites were radically anti-hierarchy (though this would change as they gained in numbers) and believed in direct communication with God with the aid of Guides. One of the most divergent beliefs of the Browites was their push for vegetarianism and temperance, which contributed to the persecution they faced in New England. The mid-1820s were not the end of the Great Awakening but by that time most of the major players had already emerged.

The immediate causes of the Second Revolt can be traced to the industrialization and diversification of New England. The village of Orford, Connecticut was one of the boomtowns of the industrial revolution in New England. In the fall of 1825, it became known that a textile factory in the town was using young women as labor. What’s more, these young women were many of them immigrants from Europe that spoke little English and practiced Catholicism. On several occasions, these young women were harassed by a WASP mob of locals angry at the fact the factory’s low wages essentially made it impossible for any New Englander to become employed there and support a family. In the winter of 1825, these incidents of harassment had grown to become a serious problem for the factory and in order to forestall trouble getting out of hand, the colonial government sent a detachment of Irish troops. The opposite occurred. Folklore tells us that an Irish soldier became friendly with an Irishwoman that worked in the mill so when a mob began throwing rocks, one of which hit the Irishwoman, her suitor became angry and fired into the crowd from which the rock had been thrown. Very few shots were actually fired, and no one was killed at Orford, but rumors spread more quickly than the truth and the WASPs of New England flew into a rage. The soldiers were acquitted by a military court, which only added fuel to the fire. The spring of 1826 saw tensions rise even higher.

Canada and Rupertsland​

To the north of New England were the sparsely-populated colonies of Canada and Rupertsland. Outside of the Ontario Peninsula, Canada remained much as it had been before the British conquest in 1763. The colony was overwhelmingly French, with English-speakers few and far between. Canada experienced some spillover from the Great Awakening centered in New England. Though French-speaking Protestant evangelists visited Canada, they had little success in their mission of converting the locals to a new faith.

The British government took a laissez-faire approach to governing Canada. Rightfully assuming English settlement would be limited, the colonial authorities allowed the land-owning seigneurs considerable cultural and political autonomy. Though Canada boasted a semi-democratic legislature, it was dominated by the seigneurial Institutionalist Party. The overwhelming majority of Canadiens approved of this government and backed it even when it was not in their best interests.

The exception to this was the Ontario Peninsula and lands to its north. There, English-speaking settlers from New England and even American New York settled. Their numbers were few, given that most loyalists fleeing American territory were satisfied in New England’s maritime north. However, Anglo settlement in the early years of the 19th century led to an English majority there by the start of the 1820s. Though the British government ordered the colonial authorities to tolerate English customs, it was clear that the Anglos of the peninsula were at the bottom of Canada’s social structure. Tensions there were high in the first quarter of the century and up to half a dozen revolutionary brotherhoods organized in that period.

To Canada’s west was Rupertsland. Under the control of the Hudson’s Bay Company, the colony was loosely organized and had few permanent settlers. A “government” of several dozen Company representatives technically ruled over the vast region that was Rupertsland but had little political power. Much of the land remained under native control, though the mixed-race Métis and Anglo-Métis were prominent and ruled over large stretches of the continent. Later on the Métis would become hostile to British rule, but in the early 19th century British rule over their homeland was not nearly pronounced enough to warrant any serious resistance. The Métis were heavily influenced by the Great Awakening. Though few in number, French-speaking preachers became highly sought-after in the period and were wildly successful in breaking the Catholic Church in Rupertsland.

Haudenosaunee​

The American Revolution divided the Haudenosaunee just as it divided their colonist neighbors. Both sides tried to woo the Haudenosaunee but it was ultimately the British that succeeded in bringing the bulk of the Confederacy to its side, though the Oneida and Tuscarora threw in with the Americans. The Haudenosaunee lands were home to intense fighting, but a string of British and allied victories in 1779 and 1780 brought the American-aligned tribes to their knees. After the Treaty of Paris in 1783, two major players emerged in the political life of the Confederacy. Both Cornplanter and Joseph Brant served as commanders in the war and were natural leaders around which the Confederacy gathered. Their personal rivalry would continue until Brant’s death in 1811 while the political parties that formed around them would continue on.

Cornplanter was a member of the Seneca and initially an advocate of neutrality in the American Revolution. Cornplanter went along with the majority of the Seneca that favored war, but in its aftermath he supported reconciliation with the Oneida and Tuscarora. In the early postwar years Cornplanter favored the adoption of Euro-American culture and technology but gradually distanced himself from that view and fell in line with the traditionalist views of his brother, Handsome Lake. Joseph Brant (also known as Thayendanegea) was a Mohawk who had distinguished himself as an able commander during the American Revolution. He had a reputation as a serious Anglophile and wore European-style clothes and was a devout Anglican. This was only strengthened by a visit to London in 1775 in which Brant met with King George III. After the war, Brant favored a strong alliance with Britain, a move towards agriculture, and punishing the Oneida and Tuscarora with expulsion.

In the period between 1783 and 1826, neither the Cornplanterites nor the Brantists were truly dominated. Decisions taken at the time indicated that the people of the Haudenosaunee favored a mixture of both of their platforms. In 1798, a constitution was devised, codifying the old Great Law of Peace. Though it had no change on the day-to-day operations of the Confederacy, the 1798 Constitution was an important step. In 1822, a new constitution was created that gave the Haudenosaunee a truly western government. The town of Onondaga (OTL Manlius, New York), which had traditionally served as capital, was officially made capital of the Confederacy. Each of the six nations was given defined borders and authority to govern within those borders. The Grand Council was transformed into a true legislature. An executive branch was established under a Grand Protector, who was elected by the Grand Council for a year-long term. British-style war and foreign ministries and treasuries were established, with provisions preventing any single nation from dominating the government.

On these issues most Haudenosuanee agreed. On cultural issues, there was much more division. Cornplanter and his brother Handsome Lake (often referred to as the intellectual power behind Cornplanter, which is a vast oversimplification) pushed for a society influenced by the American Quakers. They sought the creation of a new society taking the best of European and native traditions. Handsome Lake established a religion referred to as Gaihwi:io. It opposed factory farming, overconsumption, the sale of land and alcohol. Though the religion itself was not adopted by all Cornplanterites, its teachings influenced every member of the party. The Brantists did not feel the same connection to their history as the Cornplanterites. They favored the adoption of Christianity and Euro-American styles of living including a sedentary lifestyle. The Haudenosaunee were not immune to the Great Awakening and were heavily influenced by Baptism, Swedenborgism, and the growing Spiritual movement. In the late 1810s, several mills were established by Mohawks on the Kooyahura River. This triggered a debate over industrialization, with Cornplanterites opposed and Brantists in favor. On only one issue were both parties were in agreement. Nearly everyone agreed that the Haudenosaunee would be better off keeping out new white settlers.

White migration into the lands of the Haudenosaunee remained a serious issue. Both British and Haudenosaunee authorities cooperated to keep Americans out, but immigration from New England was a much trickier issue. Throughout the early 19th century British subjects moved west into the Mohawk Valley. Though the Imperial government in London issued proclamations ordering the punishment of these settlers, New England’s ruling class turned a blind eye as Westward migration helped solve issues of overpopulation and potentially restless landless youth. This led to a realignment in Haudenosaunee politics. The Mohawk Brant and his followers soured on cooperation with Britain (though Brant held dreams of George III coming to his senses and expelling white settlers until the day he died) The Brantists moved away from Anglophilia and instead sought closer relations with the United States. Meanwhile, Cornplanter and his followers became friendly with Britain.

By the middle of the 1820s, the Cornplanterite nations of the Confederacy were the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, and Tuscarora, while the Brantists were comprised of the Mohawk and Oneida.

United States​

Less than a decade after the Treaty of Paris, it had become clear that the United States’ initial constitution, the Articles of Confederation, were insufficient. They granted states considerable autonomy, leading to a toothless central government. In 1789, delegates of the nine states gathered in Philadelphia to create a new system of governance. The plan presented by James Madison and the Virginia delegation was, from the start of the convention, the most popular plan. Madison proposed two houses of Congress. The lower house, the House of Delegates, would be elected by the residents of each state, while the upper house, the Senate, would be elected by the Delegates from lists submitted by the states. The Senate would be responsible for the election of a Protector, frequently referred to as the National Executive. The most important piece of this puzzle was the fact that Congressional apportionment was decided by the Contributory Quota, an arcane formula which took into account tax, military, and other contributions from each state that was left to the House of Delegates to calculate. In addition, the federal government would be drastically strengthened. This move was supported heavily by the slaveholding southern states, which made up a large fraction of the convention’s delegates. When the convention adjourned, the nine states had a new constitution (pedants will, however, say that this is not technically true, given that states had to ratify the Constitution) The Constitution specified the creation of a new capital. The Federal District was established on a plot at the mouth of the Susquehanna River and head of the Chesapeake Bay. This space was occupied by a hamlet called Harmer’s Town but the new settlement was named Graceport after a comment made by the French General de Lafayette.

The Madisonian Constitution was created by an honorable man who truly believed he had created a free and fair government and, for a time, he was correct. Madison became the second Prime Minister, the head of the House of Delegates and most powerful man in the country. (The first Prime Minister, James Wilson, served for just over a year and before being elected to the ceremonial post of Protector) Madison and his Nationalist Party ruled for a decade and a half before being thrown out by the Whigs, a coalition of southern planters and northern merchants. This faction was headed by John Randolph of Roanoke, a fellow Virginian.

The Nationalists were not exactly clean but they paled in comparison to the Whigs. Under Randolph, the Whigs cooked the books and adjusted the Quota to give southerners an outsized say in Congress. By 1820, the system was markedly unfair and in the following decades the Whigs further entrenched themselves to the point where they could retain power even with a majority of voters opposing them. Despite promises of small government, the Whigs governed much like their predecessors and set the groundwork for a clientilistic network that would expand over the next several decades.

Throughout this period, anti-British sentiment remained high. The Peace of Paris was not particularly satisfying to either Britain or the American rebels and massive population transfers of English-speakers had taken place in the aftermath of the treaty. Both sides felt they had a very legitimate claim on the other side’s territory. The most jingoistic rhetoric of this period came from families displaced by the war. Some members of the Adams family were active in New York in this time, while Benjamin Franklin’s loyalist son William became a Bostonian and advocate for a war of reconquest against the United States. Neither government truly wanted war but was forced to prepare defenses in case the other side attacked.

Westward expansion remained a constant through the early years of the new republic. The British proved a challenge in the 1810s as they provided aid to native groups opposed to American settlers. The strongest of these groups was the Shawnee under the chiefs Cheeseekau and Tecumseh. These two led the Shawnee and a group of allies against American settlers and the regular army. Though the natives fought spiritedly, Tecumseh’s defeat in 1819 marked the end of serious resistance to American settlement.

The first major test of the Randolph Ministry came in 1808 as British impressment and naval interference reached a fever pitch at the height of the Illuminist Wars in Europe. American leaders were loath to take up arms despite a clear casus belli. Their hand was forced in September of that year when cadets from the Army and Navy academies at Locust Point near Baltimore marched on Graceport in a not so subtle show of force. Within days, the United States had declared war on the United Kingdom. The War of 1808 or Second Anglo-American War saw fighting on the seas and skirmishes in the lands west of the Ohio but ultimately no major land actions occurred and the war ended with a whimper in 1810.

The Randolph Ministry looked unpopular following America’s inability to defeat Britain and it actually appeared the Nationalist Party might return to power. This did not pan out as the government successfully negotiated an end to the Louisiana Crisis, in which American-born settlers along the Mississippi threatened to revolt against the French government. The crisis ended with a peaceful resolution as the United States purchased the entire Louisiana Territory from the cash-strapped French monarchy. Several years later, the US acquired Florida from Spain. These two acts of relatively cheap and peaceful expansion helped the Randolph Ministry survive into the 1820s.

As 1826 rolled around, the United States was in a good place. It had a popular government intent on expansion to the west and the introduction of agricultural and light industrial slavery into new territories. While any loyal American would have said that New England was rightfully American, there were few Americans that seriously considered the possibility of war.

The War

1826

On March 8, 1826 forces loyal to the Sons of Liberty seized several key forts and raised their flag over a number of cities. Though this event is often described as being a wildly successful surprise attack, it was obvious to the British authorities that open violence would begin at some point and for weeks the colonial forces had been prepared for an attack. Because of this, the Sons of Liberty actually failed to take many of their objectives because of a higher-than-average number of British sentries. However, the Sons of Liberty saw many New Englanders flock to their banners and they quickly regained the initiative. Throughout March and April 1826, they overran most of the country and held the key cities of Boston, Salem, and Providence. British forces held on in a number of coastal cities like Portsmouth, Falmouth, and New Haven. Portsmouth, capital of the colony, was besieged by Patriot forces between May and July of 1826 and the desperate fighting around the city was frequently referenced in Britain to drum up popular support for war.

Things were looking up for the Patriots in the summer of 1826. In the United States, support for the New Englanders was high and intervention was debated in Congress. War was supported by a coalition of westerners angry at British support for various Indians as well as easterners with romantic notions of a greater American state. Notably, then-Prime Minister John Randolph of Roanoke and his aristocratic faction opposed war. In May of 1826, public pressure mounted as demonstrations were held in all of America’s major cities. When news came that the cadets from the Military Academy at Locust Point near Baltimore planned to repeat their March on Graceport, John Randolph finally gave in. On June 2, 1826, the United States declared war on the British Empire.

By this time, a provisional Republic of New England had been established in Worcester. The Patriots were overjoyed by news of the American declaration of war, but the joy was short-lived as news came that a British fleet carrying 30,000 men under Sir Willoughby Cotton had landed at Portsmouth. New England suffered a series of setbacks as their poorly-trained irregulars were no match for Cotton’s army. An influx of better-trained American troops in the summer of 1826 was particularly beneficial for the Patriots, who won battles at Chelmsford and Nashua, preventing British forces from capturing Worcester, and allowing the Patriots to survive until 1827.

The entrance of the Americans into the war might have spelled doom for British Canada. The Ontario Peninsula remained full of English-speaking settlers. Many had sympathy towards the US while others might be persuaded to back an English-speaking invading army rather than side with the French-speaking Canadian government. To prevent this, a small British force under a Colonel Robert MacDowell advanced out of their base in the peninsula and laid siege to the American city of Detroit. Detroit was a tough nut to crack, but fell after a week-long siege in July. Simultaneously, British and colonial detachments to the north and west attacked American forts in the Great Lakes, but those battles were only a sideshow to the real war, which was waged along the Atlantic coast.

In the late summer of 1826, the British Empire asked the Haudenosaunee to honor their alliance and declare war on the United States. This was met with mixed reactions in Onondaga. The aged Cornplanter reluctantly felt the Confederacy must honor its word and join the war. Some of his followers broke with him and advocated for full neutrality in the affairs of the white men. The Brantites also favored neutrality. Things looked bad for Britain but at the last moment Cornplanter delivered an impassioned speech to the Grand Council. Impressed by oratory from one of the fathers of the nation, the Grand Council narrowly voted in favor of war (Importantly, the 1822 Constitution reduced the number of required votes to pass legislation from 75% to 66% Under pre-1822 rules the Confederacy would have remained neutral)

In September of 1826 the forces of the Haudenosaunee marched off to war. Absent in their ranks were the Mohawk and Oneida. Several weeks prior, Joseph Brant’s son John had presided over a convention of Mohawk and Oneida leaders and both nations signed a treaty agreeing that they would stay neutral in the war against the United States. This would later become known as the Treaty of Canajoharie and the signatories known as the League of Canajoharie. Opinion in the other nations was split on how to respond. Some supported the use of coercion against the Mohawk to make them join the war while other suggested they be left alone. Despite attempts by both sides within the Confederacy to defuse tensions, the massacre of 450 Mohawk at Tionondogen by New England militia in the winter of 1826 forced the League’s hand.

The League sought recourse from the New England colonial government but their request was shrugged off. The Tionondogen Massacre was just the first of a series of brutalities committed by British and colonial troops that lead up the League of Canajoharie declaring for the United States in July of 1827.

The fall of 1826 saw few pitched battles as both sides amassed forces. The British army under General Cotton was successful in carving out a zone of loyalist control in New Hampshire and Southern Maine and the port of Portsmouth was vastly expanded to accommodate shipments of soldiers from the metropole. Skirmishes occurred there and around some of the other coastal cities that remained in British hands. In addition, the Haudenosaunee army was actively raiding in northern Pennsylvania.

In Michigan, an American force under the Virginia-born William Henry Ashley attacked Detroit in October. Ashley, a frontiersman and businessman, launched his attack late in the year and use unconventional, frontier tactics to take Detroit with little bloodshed. He proved too ambitious for his men. His force was comprised of regulars from the east and only a small contingent of midwestern militia. The regulars refused to travel on muddy backroads and the attack on the city was disorganized and turned into a rout. The disgusted Ashley was hauled before a hearing and took a verbal beating from its aristocratic easterners. He resigned his commission by year’s end.

As 1826 drew to a close, enthusiasm for the war was high in both Britain and the United States. The Patriots in New England were disappointed by their failure to conclude the revolution in a single stroke but remained cautiously optimistic.

1827​

As 1827 began, the Patriot cause received wind in its sails as the Kingdom of France declared war on Britain. The two states, age-old enemies, had colonial disputes over the Caribbean and Australia. While American propagandists chalked France’s joining the war up to a desire to help an age-old ally, France’s entrance was opportunistic, with the archconservative French Premier hoping for an opportunity to strike against undefended British colonies. Though the French were active on the high seas and even seized the Channel Islands for nine months, their actions largely did not affect the American side of the war.

The 1827 campaigning season opened with a British offensive. General Cotton had been given orders to relieve Boston, the largest city in New England. His 21,000 man army left Portsmouth on March 4th. Eight days later, they met an army of Americans and New Englanders under Jacob Brown at Wakefield. Superior British artillery won the day and Brown retreated. The British advanced cautiously but faced only scattered resistance. On March 17th they entered Boston and found the city abandoned by the Patriots. As the union jack was raised over Boston and the city was reintegrated into the British Empire the Patriots and Americans made several small assaults which became the battles of Brookline, Newton, and Jamaica. It quickly became clear that Boston was securely in British hands. Public opinion in Boston was mixed over this development. While Boston was under Patriot control a Royal Navy blockade had prevented traffic by sea. This was a serious concern for Boston’s merchants and the employees that relied on them. Within just days of Boston’s fall in 1827 merchant ships from the West Indies docked there in a symbolic gesture showing the old days of commerce had returned. While revolutionary sentiment remained high in certain quarters the return of trade gave many Bostonions a reason to tolerate the British.

April and May of 1827 saw a lull in fighting in lower New England but was eventful along the Pennsylvania front. There, the Haudenosaunee army under Oneida leader William Cornelius had been encamped in the Wilds and raiding territories across much of the commonwealth. With raiders sighted on the outskirts of the crucial port of Presque Isle, an American army under the Virginian Edmund Gaines was dispatched to defeat the Haudenosaunee. The unprepared Hamilton met the Haudenosaunee at Reed’s Fort, a wooden stockade built as protection against Indian raids in the late 18th century. Hearing of the American approach, William Cornelius marched his army south through the wilderness and attacked the American army late in the day as they finished their march. The Battle of Reed’s Fort was an unmitigated disaster as tired and confused American troops were massacred by their much more prepared opponents. Almost simultaneously, a force of Pennsylvania militia under Duncan McArthur marched on Presque Isle. Though only several thousand strong, McArthur’s force made it to the city with few casualties and actually won a victory over a much-larger Haudenosaunee force at French Creek. The Battle of Reed’s Fort was greeted with surprise in Graceport where American leaders expected the Haudenosaunee to fold quickly. Only the victory at French Creek prevented the mood at Graceport from turning to despair. Pennsylvanians and members of the opposition Nationalist Party pressured the government to send federal troops to fight under Duncan McArthur but the Randolph Ministry stood behind General Gaines.

In July, Willoughby Cotton marched out from Boston in an ambitious campaign meant to capture Providence 50 miles away. Cotton’s army won three major engagements that month at Walpole, Foxborough, and Pawtucket. Cotton’s victories in the first two battles were over New England patriot forces while Pawtucket saw him face American forces under the Virginian Thomas Griffin. All three battles were won because of the superior training of British regulars and years of experience fighting modern armies. After Pawtucket, the British occupied Providence with aid from the Royal Navy, which had controlled the Providence River since late spring. Though British forces would be forced to fight several battles in the pacification of Plymouth and Bristol Counties, the fall of Providence meant the British had control over the entirety of the Atlantic coast of New England and the only ports still in Patriot control were in Long Island Sound and essentially bottled up by British control of the eastern edge of the Sound.

The largest battle of the war so far occurred in August when an American army under Jacob Brown marched east from Connecticut in hopes of recapturing Portsmouth. Battle was joined at the town of Glocester. The battle was a close affair but the day was ultimately won by the British artillery, which kept on pumping shells into the advancing American lines throughout the battle. Brown’s defeat at Glocester led to his recall by the Ministry of War. The aging General was blamed for losses at Wakefield and Glocester and the fall of Boston. In addition, there was considerable debate over the fact that Brown did not block the route to Providence with his large army and instead left the defense of the city to poorly-trained New England forces. Brown was replaced as Commander of American forces in New England by Morgan Lewis of New York.

In the west, MacDowell and his British regulars occupied the city of Detroit, preventing American provocateurs from entering Ontario and inciting revolt among the English-speakers there. MacDowell’s opponent of the previous year, William Henry Ashley, had resigned and been replaced by George Tyler, another Virginian. Tyler took a much more cautious approach than his predecessor. Tyler and MacDowell’s forces skirmished throughout the early months of 1827. In July, the Americans moved. In a single battle, they overwhelmed Detroit and pushed the British back across the river into Canada. During the British retreat, American militiamen mercilessly pursued their opponents and brutalized many of them. Rumors of the Detroit River Massacre spread throughout Canada, leading to a cold welcome from Anglos that might have otherwise been happy to see the American army. Despite this, “Bloody” Tyler and his men advanced deep into Canada and wintered in the regional city of Muncie (OTL London) While news of Tyler’s advance was greeted well in the United States, his lack of haste allowed a force of Canadian militiamen to gather in the vicinity of Rouilleton (OTL Toronto)

Overall, the summer of 1827 was a dark time for the Americans as news came from Canada of a British army marching south to the Hudson in hopes of a march on New England. In July, they were granted a reprieve as the Mohawk and Oneida took up arms against the British and the rest of the Confederacy. Their luck continued when William Cornelius, the Oneida general that had been such a difficult opponent in Pennsylvania, resigned his post at head of a Confederacy army and returned to his homeland to fight for his nation. The civil war that had begun to rage within the Confederacy freed up American resources and much of Edmund Gaines’ army was redirected to the Hudson Valley where it joined with a force being raised by Alexander Hamilton Jr. In August, Hamilton would lead his army into Mohawk Country northwest of Albany and link up with forces under John Brant.

September saw the creation of a second major British army under Henry Clinton in Boston. Clinton was the son of Sir Henry Clinton, the British Supreme Commander in North America in the late 1770s and 1780s. Because of his name, Clinton was relatively disliked among Patriots that remembered the repression of the 1780s they had experienced under his father. In early September, Clinton and his army set out on a 40 mile march towards Worcester. The British were once again foiled in their attempt to take the Patriot capital as they were defeated at the Battle of Nobscot Hill, approximately twenty miles northeast of Worcester. The defeat of the British at Nobscot Hill was a complete surprise

By the end of 1827, things were looking bad for the Patriot cause. The loss of the Eastern Seaboard and the slow creep of British control into Connecticut had turned most of the new Republic’s government into fatalists believing the revolt was doomed. There was considerably more fight left in the New England military. Though scattered about the country, victories by inspiring leaders like Eleazer Ripley kept the army going.

Similarly, the Randolph Ministry in the United States was facing an increasingly dissatisfied public. The intervention in New England was supposed to be a quick and easy affair and it was decidedly not so. The combination of Indian raids on the northern border and marauding ships along the coast had turned Americans against the war. The government too had received a fright when in the fall of 1827 a Royal Navy flotilla in the Chesapeake bombarded Graceport and forced Congress to flee fifty miles inland to York, Pennsylvania. The failure of American forces to prevent these attacks was seriously concerning to the Nationalist Party, which was most popular in the north. This led to a number of party elders calling for an immediate end to the war. This proved disastrous to the party, which was accused of being unpatriotic.

In response to the setbacks experienced in 1827, Prime Minister Randolph dismissed his War Minister and called for 25,000 volunteers. He was greeted with less enthusiasm than hoped, but his orders were ultimately carried out and the US came into 1828 with fresh reinforcements.

1828​

The Americans were not the only ones that had brought in new troops over the winter. The British had sent another 10,000 men from the metropole and organized them into a third army in New England. The final defeat of the Worcester government came in April 1828 as the three British armies in New England converged on the rebel capital.

Cotton’s army advanced from the south and swept west through Connecticut and came at Worcester from the southwest. From Portsmouth, the new army advanced through New Hampshire, while Henry Clinton advanced straight west out of Boston, in a repeat of their route the previous fall. Against three armies the New Englanders simply did not stand a chance. The arrival of British forces to garrison coastal cities in southern Connecticut and militias from Canada encroaching on the northern parts of Vermont and New Hampshire had depleted Patriot forces. The defense of Worcester consisted of a series of battles fought across 100 miles yet the result was never in doubt. On May 28th, highlanders under Henry Clinton entered the city of Worcester. The government had simply evaporated, with many members simply returning home to face their fate. A minority fled west to Pittsfield, where they would reconvene and declared themselves the legitimate government. Among this group was Eleazer Ripley, who, though a military commander, came to wield outsize influence within the Patriot government. Despite the presence of the hero Ripley, the Pittsfield government was never recognized by most New Englanders, who were broken by the capture of Worcester.

The Patriot cause also suffered setbacks further west. George Tyler left his winter quarters in Muncie in late April and marched northeast towards Rouilleton. Against him was a force of British regulars, Canadian militiamen, and some contingents of Seneca and Cayuga. The two forces clashed at the Battle of Grand River (near OTL Cambridge) Tyler and his men were simply outfought and forced to retreat. They marched in poor order and were harassed by British soldiers and armed farmers. Arriving in Muncie, they found a local rising had destroyed most of their stores. This precipitated a general retreat that did not end until the Americans had arrived back in Detroit in October. The poor conduct of Tyler’s men in Canada ensured that any future American invasion would be greeted with hostility.

After the defeat at Worcester, the United States was thrown into a panic. With only scattered Patriot resistance in New England, there was nothing stopping Britain from advancing on New York, America’s largest city. Making this prospect especially dangerous was the fact the largest army in the region was under Alexander Hamilton Jr. fighting in the wilderness of the Mohawk country. In June, Hamilton was recalled to defend the city of New York, leaving the Mohawk and Oneida without significant American support. News of a declaration of war by the Dutch Republic against Britain brought little hope to the Americans, who felt their nation was truly in danger. In August, Britain struck.

The attack on the city was two-pronged. An army marched west from Bridgeport and from there down the Hudson. About the same time, an army was ferried to Long Island and moved slowly westwards on the island. Both prongs faced stiffer resistance than they had in New England and even when they had defeated American militias in battle they faced partisans behind the lines. The American regular army was outnumbered and forced to bolster its ranks with untrained militia and the forces under the command of Hamilton were kept in relatively close proximity to the city.

Battle was joined on August 26th north of New York City. The British force under Henry Clinton was advancing down the Hudson and was greeted by Alexander Hamilton Jr. Hamilton arranged his forces along a 2.5 mile front ranged between the Hudson and Bronx Rivers. On the eastern flank, Hamilton had the support of American gunboats. The west was lightly guarded by local militiamen. Hamilton’s army was a motley crew and composed of regulars, militiamen, New England patriot holdouts, and even two hundred Mohawk. On the other side, Henry Clinton’s army was much more impressive. Composed of well-trained men from the British Isles, the presence of New England militia was negligible as many previously loyal militament simply refused to cross the border and engage in offensive action against the Americans. The Americans had more men but the British had better men and days of preparation. It was a do or die moment for the United States and victory was by no means assured.

The battle began at 11am on the 26th as a regiment of highlanders advanced across the Van Cortlandt estate on the American center. The American line had a hill on its left and one in the center and the central hill. The central hill was the focus of the British assault and was under attack continuously between 11am and 2pm. The American left was fairly safe as British forces opted to stay far from the Hudson and the American gunboats on it. On the right, the British tried to cross the Bronx River but were greeted by American sharpshooters and became mired in the crossing. At 2pm, the center broke as a Lincolnshire regiment broke through with the help of several batteries of artillery. General Hamilton immediately charged into the breach at the head of his reserve. The hole was plugged but at great cost. Several hundred men, including Hamilton himself, died. The rout of the Lincolnshire men was a loss from which the British did not recover. By 5pm that evening General Clinton declared the day lost and retreated north. Though he vowed to return and take New York, he never would.

Hamilton’s death at Kingsbridge became a legendary moment in American history. Though in all likelihood the reserve would have fought just as hard if he had lived, the official line was that his death inspired them to fight on and plug the gap and if the gap had not been plugged the British would have burned New York and gone on to win the war. The cult of Hamilton Jr. grew after the war as paintings of the dying man came to adorn government buildings across the country. A frequent inclusion in these paintings was the adjutant Leonard O. Brooke delivering the news to the elderly Alexander Hamilton Sr. This came to symbolize the ideal of service to the state and sacrifice, if necessary. In addition, the elder Hamilton was reputed to have said his son’s death was vital to the defense of the city and in the wake of an unpopular war, this episode was used to legitimize the war and Randolph ministry.

The victory at Kingsbridge was, undoubtedly, an important victory for the United States, but whether it singlehandedly won the war was debatable. The fall of 1828 was not a good time for Britain between the American victories at Kingsbridge and Maspeth in Queens County and in the south the destruction of a British fleet en route to New Orleans by a hurricane. After these defeats, the British put plans to invade the United States on the backburner and shifted towards a focus on defeating the Mohawk and Oneida and launching another campaign against the Americans in 1829.

The campaign in the Haudenosaunee Confederacy was expanded by the addition of British troops from Canada in 1828. In December, the Oneida bowed out of the war, surrendering unconditionally to the Haudenosaunee central government. The Mohawk under John Brant fought on but lost control of most major settlements by the end of the year.

Very late in the year, news came from Graceport that the government of the United States was seeking peace and a delegation had departed for Europe to engage representatives of His Majesty’s government in discussion in the neutral Habsburg city of Brussels.

1829​

At the opening of 1829 the United States was in a precarious position. It had defeated the British assault on New York the previous year but aside from a few Mohawk bands holding on in the Adirondacks, the entire northern border was bristling with hostile forces.

In late January, the Mohawk folded. After heavy losses against British regulars,at the Battle of the Black River, John Brant gathered his followers for an ambitious tactical retreat. Over 200,000 Mohawk would march 100 miles to the south to Pennsylvania, where Brant had been assured the Mohawk would be allowed to resettle. What became known as Brant’s March was ultimately a success, though up to 40% of those that set out with Brant made it to Pennsylvania. Many died of exposure while others fell to parties of Haudenosaunee, British regulars, and vengeful white settlers.

In the United States, the year was fairly uneventful though tensions remained high as rumors flew of a potential British invasion. Aside from coastal raids and brief occupations the country was for the most part safe. The exception was in Georgia, where Royal Marines from Bermuda seized Cockspur Island at the mouth of the Savannah River in March. Believed to be a prelude to an assault on the city of Savannah, the expected invasion never came as the Marines departed the island in early May. A month later, news came from Europe that peace had been agreed to in Brussels. Under the terms of the Treaty, the United States was forced to drop all claims to New England and pay a small sum to the British government. The pre-war borders were reaffirmed and a clause regarding a prohibition on the arming of native tribes on the opponent’s side of the border was included (though this clause was broken even before the treaty was ratified) On May 29th, Delegates of all 18 states voted overwhelmingly in favor of the treaty and the war came to an end.

The Dutch and French sent delegates to Brussels but signed a separate treaty several weeks later at the Palace of Charles of Lorraine. Like the Treaty of Brussels, the Coudenberg Treaty (named for the hill on which the Palace lies) changed very little and left all parties unsatisfied.

Aftermath

1828 marked the end of the old order in New England. Facing retribution and ostracism by their loyalist peers, many Patriots left New England to settle in the United States. The overwhelmingly majority of these Patriots were the descendants of early English settlers. Their departure led to the growth of the power of more recent immigrant groups like the Irish and Germans. Just fifty years after the flight of the so-called Twenty-Niners, the cultural and political landscape of New England was nearly alien.

The Twenty-Niners spread out across the United States. Many of them (particularly the richer and more urban of them) settled in New York City, Baltimore, and Graceport, enriching those cities with wealth brought from New England and adding to their growth. The poorer of the Twenty-Niners settled the frontier lands to the west, particularly in the northerly states of Metropotamia, Assenissippia, and Sylvania as well as the unorganized territories west of the Mississippi. The urban Twenty-Niners would quickly lose their cultural heritage and assimilate into greater American society. The more rural Twenty-Niners retained some of their differences and eventually become the nucleus of the Yankee and Free Soil political parties.

Among those that remained in New England, the failure of two wars and innumerable plots in the interim had broken the will of the people for independence. Though revolutionary organizations would continue to organize and commit terroristic acts, like the assassination of the Governor-General in 1854, they would nver again pose a serious threat to continued British rule. In the United States, most people wrote off New England as a lost cause. The exception was the New England emigre community, which continued to push for an invasion of the colony. Through the presence of rich Twenty-Niners in important cities like New York, Philadelphia, and Graceport, this view became known to members of Congress, who were socially familiar with the emigres. However, despite emigre lobbying, an invasion of New England was not seriously contemplated by the American government after 1829.

The Haudenosaunee did not survive the war completely intact. After John Brant’s march to the south in early 1829, the Mohawk nation was reconstituted with new leadership. This leadership was comprised of Cornplanterites and friendly with the nations that had remained loyal to the Confederacy during the war. Similarly, the Oneida nation’s leadership was changed by order of the other nations. By the start of 1830, the entire Confederacy was ruled by traditionalist Cornplanterites. The Treaty of Manchester was signed that year, setting the new border between the Haudenosaunee and New England at a point further west than the pre-war border, starting at the mouth of the Salmon River and then running west and south to the Upper Susquehanna, where it went south to the American border. This move cut out most of the old Mohawk territory. Loyal Mohawk were permitted to remain but many chose to flee and join John Brant. The legacy of the Third Anglo-American War in the Haudenosaunee Confederacy is unity. The defeat of the Brantists led to a political consensus as all the nations came under the rule of the Cornplanterites.

The Mohawk and hardcore Brantist Oneida spent several years in northern Pennsylvania. During this time many died of exposure or were killed by American farmers. John Brant spent several years in Graceport, where he worked to convince the American government to cede lands in the west to the Mohawk nation. In 1832, Brant succeeded and the Mohawk were awarded control of the northern half of the Michigan Peninsula. The Mohawk settled this new land and Brant was appointed Governor of the Saratoga Territory. In 1839, the Territory was admitted to the union and Brant elected to the House of Delegates as a Whig, where he would serve in a variety of cabinet positions until his retirement at the end of the 1860s. The state of Saratoga was intended as a loyal buffer against British invasion and it lived up to its reputation as an anti-British state as Saratogan Delegates to Congress proved the most Anglophobic of any state. Starting in the middle of the 1830s, several Mohawk regiments joined the United States army. Their unique garb quickly became a fashion and for decades after, white “Mohawk” units were maintained in the US army clad in feathered helmets reminiscent of the Gustowah headdress and leather breeches.

The United States came out of the war in a better position than expected given the number of military defeats it had suffered. The Americans had unequivocally failed in their goal of securing New England independence and had even seen their Mohawk and Oneida allies driven from their homes. The only serious American victory had been the defense of New York and even that had been at the loss of the American general. Domestically, the Randolph Ministry suffered very little. The average American did not blame the Prime Minister for the war, seeing it as something begun by forces outside his control. The old Nationalist Party was not so lucky. Despite opposing the war, they collapsed as the westerners in the party bolted under party leader Henry Clay to found the Democrats, a more populist party based in the west. This left the Nationalists with just a handful of seats and little support and within a decade the party had withered away.

The causes of American defeat in the war did not go unnoticed. In September 1829, the House of Delegates overwhelmingly voted to establish a special committee to investigate the failings of the army and present its recommendations to the House. The committee was chaired by the zealous anti-British Patrick Calhoun Jr. of South Carolina. The Calhoun Report was published in the summer of 1831 and detailed widespread disorganization within the army and a lack of coordination between the regular army and state militias. Starting in 1832, the Randolph Ministry took steps to create a more prepared America. An ambitious series of coastal and border defenses was erected with the help of French engineers. The army was radically reorganized, with a beefed up General Staff. The Randolph Reforms broke many careers but created a much stronger national army. Though the Prime Minister would die just one year later of tuberculosis, the strong state he created lived on and stood up to the test in the Texas Intervention, Conquest of Mexico, and Conquest of Cuba.

Good write up for the timeline here to match the wikibox. Seems like one of those conflicts where they just walk away unhappy, but with a peace that they can live with.
 
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