Honestly, I haven't turned it into a whole world yet -- this is just a scenario based on a bit of trivia about my local area.I'd like to hear more about your world. Do you have any ideas about what the Ohio River Valley (and the rest of the Midwest) is like?
However, I did develop a few scenarios based on obscure failed colonisation attempts, which you can read here. Here's my favourite:
The Saadi Sultanate of Morocco: Sultan Ahmed al-Mansour (r.1578-1603) was known to have an interest in seizing Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the New World. The idea wasn't ludicrous; Morocco had built up a substantive navy largely made up of Moorish refugees, and many of the adventurers known to Christians as Barbary Corsairs were essentially privateers on behalf of Morocco, the Ottoman Empire, or both. Ahmed al-Mansour also pursued relations with the great naval powers of the Ottoman Empire, France, and most famously England against Spain. In the latter case, he and Queen Elizabeth I established the Anglo-Moroccan alliance, which established trade relations dominated mainly by the sale of English arms, munitions, and naval-grade timber to Morocco. Numerous attempts at direct military cooperation with England were made, but none of them were seen through. Additionally, Ahmed al-Mansour invaded and conquered the Songhay Empire and established lasting Moroccan rule over Timbuktu, for two main reasons -- 1) to control the trans-Saharan trade routes and guarantee Moroccan access to things like gold and salt, but also 2) to control the trans-Atlantic slave trade as well. The Sultan knew that the Christian colonies in the New World needed African slaves to exist, and so he sought to control this commodity as much as he could. Ahmed al-Mansour's long-term goals included the reconquest of Andalusia from the Christians, and I don't know that this is beyond the realm of possibility.
If Ahmed al-Mansour and his successors seriously tried to establish Moroccan colonies in the New World, Morocco could have benefited from the Triangle Trade as well as the Trans-Saharan Trade and become extremely powerful. However, I don't believe it's possible for Morocco to conquer New Spain, and it'd be very difficult for Morocco to establish colonies anywhere without English or other Christian cooperation. The conquest of one or two Caribbean islands, the construction of fortified ports and trading-posts in Guyana or along the Brazilian coast, and incentivising Barbary Corsairs and Moorish refugees to settle these small fortified colonies would probably be the best way to start. The Caribbean is wealthy, and already home to pirates and privateers of all stripes; surely, Moors and other Muslim corsairs would be enticed by the prospect of wealth and jihad as well, especially against the Spanish. And while Moroccans may feel squeamish about using African Muslims as plantation slaves, who knows? Maybe European Christians could serve as slaves on Moroccan plantations, alongside African pagans.
Feedback much appreciated!! ^^