Lusitania

Donor
A Portuguese intervention in South Africa looks set.
Oh it’s been approved. Now we may ask would US not be able to it is because they are not only stuck in the Vietnam quagmire but South and Central America America exploded during the 1960s. While South American situation is required to understand Africa context, Africa is the crucial continent for Portuguese and one they need to pacify or better control to guarantee their safety.

So the commonwealth intervention has collapsed, and SA / Rhodesia whites have decided to teach blacks a lesson and also reduce the potential for future trouble.

UN figures out the number of people evacuated from SA - United áreas at 1.5 million. This did not include the 1 million in Portuguese refugees. 1/3 of all whites in South Africa had left either living in Federation refugee camps or evacuated by UN / commonwealth. Canada did what it did best accommodate those fleeing and migrants. Taking in a massive 750,000 SA people with remaining going to US, Britain and Australia / New Zealand. Brazil accepted just 60,000 while Federation took in 25,000.

So now the world eyes turned its eyes to the Federation. While the agreement was not publicized there was growing speculation that the federation would take action. Just not known when.

Pressure within the Federation for the government to intervene was growing with marches and Portuguese legislature passing non-bidding motions for the Portuguese government to intervene.

Portuguese historian Alberto Costa published in 1985 a paper that while internationally authorization and support was important the Portuguese government could not afford to wait any longer and western world authorization occurred 1 day before operation Bartolomeu Dias was to commence.

Pink Map time!

edit: also, how did the Commonwealth do so poorly? they should have clear numeric, material, and technological superiority over the nationalist revolt.
The commonwealth countries, Britain, Canada, Indian countries, Australia and New Zealand never led the fight but supported the United SA government plus there were huge constraints on their deployment. Canadá through a lack of manpower resources and equipment, Britain through a reluctancy to fully support the operation as its Socialist government were at odds with Military who felt a SA nationalist government best suited you deal with communist. While Indian states (mainly DUI) lacked the technology and weapons while Australia was locked into Vietnam war and NewZealand lacked both manpower and weapons.

So at best it was a lackluster attempt at supporting a government they not really trusted or beloved capable of winning but one they had to give an appearance to support because it was defending partial equality and more importantly commonwealth.

Also the United side lacked the strength and conviction with over 1/2 its forces African and many members sympathetic to communism and Africa for African dream.

The Nationalist side was fighting what it saw as right to live many we’re afraid of loosing since it would mean what they believed their property and lives.

Now as for your comments about pink map. The dreams of 19th century Portuguese but now too late. But what Portuguese had learned was that government in Guinea Boke snd Galicia Along with two in south East Asia had given the Portuguese with economic, political and military power. So maybe something if the same sort be in the works but first it not only needed to win against SA / Rhodesia but also the Pan African forces arrayed against it.

Perhaps Portugal takes over Rhodesia when this is all over...
Not officially. Remember all countries were to be left alone that was the guarantee the Portuguese federation provided the west. Now if the new government prefers to be aligned to the federation all the best.

Isn't Portugal kind of having to intervene anyway from an amoral rationalist perspective, owing to the fact that it'd be highly problematic if a large Communist state bordered them on two fronts?
While at the time it was intervening communist forces were on the verge of loosing the problem for the government was internally it could not afford to be seems being complacent or supporting a nationalist win. Therefore with the federation just over 15 years old it needed to show it was in support of a multi ethnicity SA. Being prohibited by commonwealth and America from intervening in the SA civil war (a fact that was well publicized with Portuguese newspaper headlines “América e Britânica Ameaça Federação sobre intervenção na África do Sul.” America and Britain warn federation against intervening in SA.

Therefore being “Threatened” by west to stay out the situation in SA has become a political nightmare to the US and British government that they were forced to “beg” Portuguese government to save the situation a fact that was exploited by both the American and british government critics saying after bungling SA crises was forced to beg for Portuguese assistance.

The Portuguese being “requested to save SA” was a huge boost to its international prestige and legitimacy. Now what will it do with all eyes on it. Note: even soviets were receptive to Federation intervening because it was viewed the best way to save Communists in SA.

Not going to lie, this whole debacle is going to make the British commonwealth look bad around the world...talk about a total cluster of a mess they left behind for Federation to clean up.
Yes it did result in the placing a huge black eye on the commonwealth with Britain suffering the most humiliation but what happen after was even a greater strain on the organization as it struggled for over 2 decades to rehabilitate its name.
 
The commonwealth countries, Britain, Canada, Indian countries, Australia and New Zealand never led the fight but supported the United SA government plus there were huge constraints on their deployment. Canadá through a lack of manpower resources and equipment, Britain through a reluctancy to fully support the operation as its Socialist government were at odds with Military who felt a SA nationalist government best suited you deal with communist. While Indian states (mainly DUI) lacked the technology and weapons while Australia was locked into Vietnam war and NewZealand lacked both manpower and weapons.

So at best it was a lackluster attempt at supporting a government they not really trusted or beloved capable of winning but one they had to give an appearance to support because it was defending partial equality and more importantly commonwealth.

Also the United side lacked the strength and conviction with over 1/2 its forces African and many members sympathetic to communism and Africa for African dream.

The Nationalist side was fighting what it saw as right to live many we’re afraid of loosing since it would mean what they believed their property and lives.ommunists in SA.
I think you're overestimating the strength of the Nationalists (especially if they are doing things like attacking civilians, which are liable to alienate their supporters). The Afrikaner population is a mere 1.6 million, it would be hard pressed to sustain any sort of war effort fought on its own territory, let alone offensive actions (same mistake the Boers made in the Second Boer War). 50,000 commonwealth soldiers in addition to United party loyalists and non-communist black paramilitaries would be a vastly larger force than the nationalists could hope to muster.

And even if you completely eliminate the commonwealth contingent, arms shipments and advisors would be all that's needed to keep the mountainous Anglo-Zulu stronghold of Natal going for quite a while.
 
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Lusitania

Donor
I think you're overestimating the strength of the Nationalists (especially if they are doing things like attacking civilians, which are liable to alienate their supporters). The Afrikaner population is a mere 1.6 million, it would be hard pressed to sustain any sort of war effort fought on its own territory, let alone offensive actions (same mistake the Boers made in the Second Boer War). 50,000 commonwealth soldiers in addition to United party loyalists and non-communist black paramilitaries would be a vastly larger force than the nationalists could hope to muster.

And even if you completely eliminate the commonwealth contingent, arms shipments and advisors would be all that's needed to keep the mountainous Anglo-Zulu stronghold of Natal going for quite a while.
If it was a one on one United and Nationalist fighting you are right. But the third component was the communists and they not only had an army fighting both nationalist and united forces but guerrilha forces in both nationalist and united territories. The nationalist were more ruthless in their attacks and counter attacks and used paramilitary forces comprising of older males and females to “cleanse areas” . While United tried playing by Geneva Conventions rules and were in many cases unable to root out the guerrilhas who blended into population.

Commonwealth forces lost as many troops to guerrilla attacks as they did against nationalist forces.

The other thing is that nationalist called up all men ages 18-55 to fight with women volunteer. While United had the potential for largest army it army was about same with more than 1/2 been African. The biggest downfall of the United armed forces was the whites did not trust the blacks and there were no black officers or trained in advanced roles. The Africans were suffered from low morale and some units suffered from high desertion.

Lastly the united forces did not try to fight as guerilla force but fought a very conventional war.
 
If it was a one on one United and Nationalist fighting you are right. But the third component was the communists and they not only had an army fighting both nationalist and united forces but guerrilha forces in both nationalist and united territories. The nationalist were more ruthless in their attacks and counter attacks and used paramilitary forces comprising of older males and females to “cleanse areas” . While United tried playing by Geneva Conventions rules and were in many cases unable to root out the guerrilhas who blended into population.
Seems quite out of characters for the Malayan Emergency/Mau Mau Uprising era Commonwealth. Also for the Zulus, who iOTL were quite willing to massacre civilians affiliated with the ANC.

The other thing is that nationalist called up all men ages 18-55 to fight with women volunteer.
How though? They aren't the government, and seeing as how they've lost both referendums they don't even have the full support of the Afrikaners.

Lastly the united forces did not try to fight as guerilla force but fought a very conventional war.
Which really should have been enough. A conventional campaign to blitzkrieg the Nationalist strongholds should have settled matters long before the insurgents' bite is felt.

IMO the Commonwealth winning a quick victory, then flaking out when the reality of trying to occupy a country as vast as SA,* starts to hit home would be a much more logical way to reach the same end point.

*especially if some black paramilitaries who had initially sided with the Commonwealth, and accordingly received weapons and training, switched sides thereby providing a professional core for the communists. Even more so if Britain's go-to, mass internment and liberal application of air power, alienates former allies and neutrals.
 
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Lusitania

Donor
Seems quite out of characters for the Malayan Emergency/Mau Mau Uprising era Commonwealth. Also for the Zulus, who iOTL were quite willing to massacre civilians affiliated with the ANC.


How though? They aren't the government, and seeing as how they've lost both referendums they don't even have the full support of the Afrikaners.


Which really should have been enough. A conventional campaign to blitzkrieg the Nationalist strongholds should have settled matters long before the insurgents' bite is felt.

IMO the Commonwealth winning a quick victory, then flaking out when the reality of trying to occupy a country as vast as SA,* starts to hit home would be a much more logical way to reach the same end point.

*especially if some black paramilitaries who had initially sided with the Commonwealth, and accordingly received weapons and training, switched sides thereby providing a professional core for the communists. Even more so if Britain's go-to, mass internment and liberal application of air power, alienates former allies and neutrals.
In conversation with SealTheRealDeal I realized that I had not provided enough background information to support the military and political situation in SA. Therefore I have added additional information to the previous section which is is linked to the political and geopolitical situation in Canada, Britain and Australia and Indian Subcontinent. The information about SA has been added to the proceeding TL post and more information regarding the Americas, South East Asia which greatly impacted British, Canadian and Australian responses will be given in the Americas and South East Asia following Africa. Additional information will also be provided in Foreign Affairs Section.
 

Lusitania

Donor
1960 – 1969

World (cont.)

Portuguese Intervention in SA
At 5:30 AM on 26th of May, 200,000 Portuguese Federation troops launched the largest military operations in Portuguese history.[1] Both Portuguese Navies (Atlantic and Indic) with their aircraft carriers joined in the attack. Portuguese air force and navy planes struck military targets deep within South Africa. Portuguese fighter jets and bombers flying over communist Botswana struck South African airbases destroying most of South Africa’s air force on the first day. Portuguese rockets both medium and short-range hit military and vital infrastructure crippling the Nationalists, Rhodesians and communist’s ability to respond to Portuguese attacks. In the west, Portuguese Marines landed and captured Walvis Bay cutting off all South African troops to the north while the Portuguese West Army consisting of 1 Portuguese armored division, 2 mechanized divisions and 3 infantry divisions attacked from Portuguese West Africa provinces against South African, Communist and Rhodesian forces. In the East, the Portuguese East Army consisting of 1 Portuguese armored division, 1 mechanized division and 4 infantry divisions attacked from Portuguese East African provinces against South African, Communist and Rhodesian forces.[2]

The attack caught all three opposing forces completely off guard, they had dismissed Portuguese Federation threats as only talk and both South Africa and Rhodesia continued to believe the US and British governments continued to support and protected them. The communists in the east crumbled under Portuguese attack while Rhodesian forces lost most of their vehicles and tanks in the first day and were in full retreat. On 27th of May, the Portuguese continued their attack; in the west both Communist and South African troops were overrun and by end of the day the Portuguese 1st Armored division had reached Walvis Bay. Portuguese supply line became the Portuguese armed forces major obstacle. Portuguese air force achieved complete air superiority and attacked and bombed the enemy with impunity. In the east, South African troops fought several major battles to stem the Portuguese advance but while they were able to slow the advance they were continually forced back.

Left - South Africa 26 May 1967
Right – South Africa 27 May 1967
Portuguese (Green), National Republic (Tan), Communist (Red), Portuguese occupied territory (Light Green)

By 30th of May the Portuguese army in the west had reached the Orange River, meanwhile in the east they had broken through the South African lines and were less than 20 kilometers from Johannesburg and Pretoria. In the North, the Portuguese had reached the outskirts of the Rhodesian capital Harare.



South Africa 30 May 1967
Portuguese (Green), National Republic (Tan), Communist (Red), Portuguese occupied territory (Light Green)

On 1st of June, the Portuguese crossed the Orange River and entered western South Africa reaching the Berg River in the Cape Province by 4th of June. All of South west Africa and most of Botswana had fallen to the Portuguese and the remaining communist forces operated mostly in the rural areas using hit and run tactics forcing the Portuguese forces to clear many remote and difficult terrain areas before proceeding.

In the east, the city of Salisbury (Harare) fell to the Portuguese on 3rd of June, South African reinforcements were able to stop the Portuguese advance towards Johannesburg but in the south, Durban and all of Natal province was liberated. By 3rd of June the Portuguese were able to reach Lesotho and then using the neutral country as a barrier advance west towards East London.

On 5th of June, the Portuguese launched operation Mateus in the center of South Africa breaking the African front lines and pushing towards the cities of Polokwane, Pretoria, and Johannesburg. On 7th of June, the South African army suffered multiple breaches and the cities and surrounding territory were captured. While the Limpopo offensive cut Rhodesia from South Africa.


Left - South Africa 4 June 1967, Right – South Africa 7 June 1967
Portuguese (Green), Afrikaner (Tan), Communist (Red), Portuguese occupied territory (Light Green)

On June 8, the Portuguese advance in South Africa, Rhodesia and Botswana stopped. During the first few months of 1967 Soviet delivery of advanced military hardware had increased while training of African troops had intensified, and Portuguese Federation became increasingly worried about its border situation. Intelligence indicated that the Pan-African troops would be ready to launch an attack in August thus allowing for three months of fighting before the rainy season started in October. The Portuguese plan was to launch a preemptive attack in May, but the South African situation had spiraled out of control and the Portuguese were forced to deal with that first. Meanwhile both the Pan-African Alliance and Arab League Alliance looked on in alarm at the military strength and power of the Federation and realized that the only way to assure a victory was to attack it when it was preoccupied in another war so plans were hurriedly prepared for war. On 1st of June the Pan-African Alliance began mobilizing and moving troops to the border with the Federation while Arab League Alliance did same on 2nd of June. Disorganization, problems coordinating troop movements between several countries and poor infrastructure slowed the mobilization and it was only on the 7th of June that troops were in position and 9th of June was set as date of attack. The DGS kept track of troop movements and reported them to Belem where different scenarios and options were analyzed. During the 1st week of June mobilization of reserves began occurring although most were equipped with older recommissioned military hardware while Belem kept a close eye on situation in South Africa. The capture of Salisbury, Pretoria and Johannesburg had finally weakened the remaining Nationalist, Rhodesian and communist forces sufficiently to provide the Portuguese forces with enough leverage to reduce its forces in South African and Rhodesia and transport them north towards the massing Pan-African forces. The Portuguese moved 1 armored and 2 mechanized from western South Africa and 1 Armored and 1 mechanized division from eastern South Africa/Rhodesia and moved them north. The Portuguese navies also moved north in support of the Federation Provinces.[3]

The Pan African / Arab League - Portuguese War

On 9th of June, the countries of Tanzania, Republic of Congo, Mali and DMR Guinea launched attacks on the Portuguese Federation and Guinea Boke, while Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia attacked Katanga. Border battalions had been reinforced to 1,500 - 2,000 while in western Africa 1 regular and 2 reserve infantry divisions guarded the borders with Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia. In east Africa 1 regular infantry and 1 reserve infantry division guarded against both Uganda and Tanzania troops attacking from Tanzania while a second reserve infantry division guarded Tete against from Zambia and Malawi. Meanwhile Katanga armed forces were being attacked by both Democratic Republic of Congo in north and Zambia from south.

In Portuguese Equatorial Africa, no troop movement in Gabon or Cameroon were noticed and both governments continued neutral towards the Federation, therefore no mobilization was ordered. In Portuguese Guinea, the regular regiment and border battalions guarded against attack from Mali and Senegal while Guinea Boke was attacked by DMR Guinea. For two days the Pan-African forces battled Portuguese forces along the border while the Portuguese mobilized 10 additional reserve divisions including several mechanized divisions using equipment from the late 40s and 50s. While mobilization was happening in many cases Portuguese troops were pushed back from the border which encouraged the remaining countries of the Pan-African Alliance joined in the war on 10th of June. Supporting the Pan-African forces were Russian and Eastern Europe advisors, but the African forces were in many cases not disciplined and disregarded the advice of the advisors pressing the advance when advised against it. Benin overran and killed all Portuguese in the Portuguese enclave of Ajuda. In North Africa Nigeria and Ivory Coast joined in the war but did not participate in the fighting.

On 11th of June, the Arab League Alliance declared war on the Portuguese Federation and France. Mauritania which till then had remained neutral joined the Pan-African Alliance and attacked Portuguese Sahara. Facing the Moroccan and Algerian forces were 2 infantry and 2 mechanized divisions plus 4 reserve divisions. News of the widening war in Africa and multiple battles occurring in all Portuguese African territory had the world anxiously waiting to see if the war would expand to Asia and India but those theatres remained calm. The Portuguese general mobilization and movement of troops to the border areas continued around the clock. Portuguese air force attacked African and Arab fighter jets entering Portuguese airspace but did not initiate any attacks on African or Soviet airbases.[4] On 12th of June, the Portuguese forces and reservists were ready and over 500,000 troops amassed along its borders with Pan African and Arab League attacking countries and the Portuguese Federation launched their counter attack.

In Morocco, the Portuguese air force’s superior planes and fighters entered Moroccan airspace and gained air superiority and began bombing military and government bases and infrastructure. Included in the attacks were government offices including the sultan’s palace. The initial Moroccan advance from the demilitarized area was stopped and Portuguese forces pushed the Moroccan forces back. By 14th of June the cities of Rabat, Fez and Marrakesh had fallen to the Portuguese as the Portuguese armored and mechanized divisions were able to shatter the Moroccan forces and take the cities before Moroccan authorities had been able to react to the fast-moving Portuguese forces. The destroyed and demoralized Moroccan army was in full retreat into the Atlas Mountains. In Eastern Morocco, the Algerian forces were beaten back, and the Moroccan city of Oujda was captured, and Portuguese forces reached the Algerian border by the 13th of June.

In Portuguese Sahara, the Mauritanians small army along with Mali troops were defeated by the reserve infantry division and were also in full retreat.

In Guinea, the Portuguese forces now organized into 2 divisions moved into Senegal reaching Gambian border by end of the 12th of June, but Gambia refused both Senegal’s and Portuguese request to use its territory. The Mali and Guinea attacks on Portuguese and Guinea Boke were stopped and a joint Portuguese / Guinea Boke counterattack pushed the Pan-African forces back to the Sierra Leone border.

In West Africa, the Portuguese launched an attack on Republic of Congo, DR Congo and Zambia. The Portuguese air force which had used restrain till then proceeded to attack both forward and rear units including command units. Behind the African troops Portuguese rockets destroyed airport and other infrastructure. From the province of Cabinda Portuguese infantry divisions pushed the Congolese troops back into Congo inflicting heavy casualties. In western DMR Congo the Portuguese infantry divisions found little resistance to their advance as most of the country’s forces were engaged along the Katanga border. Along the Zambian border Portuguese armored, mechanized and infantry troops stormed into the country decimating the Zambian and Ugandan forces attacking Portuguese border. By the 12th of June Zambian and Ugandan troops along the West Africa border were complete destroyed and the Portuguese faced no organized opposition in western Zambia. News of Portuguese victories caused panic amongst the Zambian troops fighting in southern Katanga and they withdrew south towards Zambian capital during the night leaving Congo alone to face the Katanga forces.

In East Africa, Mali was overrun by 3rd reservist division easily defeating the country’s troops and Zambian forces there, by evening of the 12th of June the capital was captured and most of the country’s leaders and government officials were arrested. Malawi became the first country to surrender to the Portuguese. With the remaining Zambian troops in the east defeated and Portuguese marched into the country unopposed. Along the Tanzania – Niassa/Cabo Delgado border the Portuguese faced its strongest adversary. Portuguese naval ships and aircraft carrier planes joined in attack on the Ugandan and Tanzanian forces. By evening of the 12th of June, the Pan-African forces were on the defensive and the Portuguese were advancing north.

Meanwhile in South Africa the Portuguese forces continued to reorganize as newly arrived reserve divisions took up rear duties, in the west the Portuguese forces were able to restart the Portuguese offensive in the Northern Cape province.

The world’s reaction to the Portuguese offensive was a mixture of relief as well as dread to the increased domination and militarization of the African continent. On 12th of June at 21:00 the Soviet Union demanded that Portuguese Federation stop all offensive attacks. It proposed the UN send troops to protect the African countries from Portuguese aggression. It also gave Portuguese Federation a vague warning that it would protect African allies from Portuguese aggression (which some people interpreted it was willing to use nuclear weapons against Portuguese Federation).

In Northern Zambia Portuguese rockets damaged two soviet military and air force bases. The Portuguese rockets hit soviet runways and air defenses also limiting the Soviet’s ability to defend against Portuguese bomber and fighter attacks. Meanwhile Portuguese paratroopers landed south of the bases and launched an attack at dawn on the 13th of June capturing the bases and most of the Soviet equipment and thousands of Soviet and Eastern European advisors who had been caught unprepared.

Portuguese Nuclear Deterrence and Collapse of Pan African / Arab League fronts

At 6:00 on 13th of June, the city of Bir Moghrein in Mauritania (which had fallen to Portuguese forces the previous day and been evacuated) was destroyed when the Portuguese dropped a 11-megaton nuclear bomb on the city. The nuclear explosion was broadcast live on Portuguese television and transmitted to rest of the world. King Duarte II appeared on television at 6:30 AM and stated that the Portuguese Federation was prepared to defend itself from all attacks and aggressions. He also stated the Portuguese government was ready to enter into peace negotiations with all countries of the Pan-African and Arab League Alliances on condition that those responsible for the invasion of Portuguese Federation and murder of Portuguese citizens be brought to trial on charges of war crimes. The detonation of the Portuguese nuclear bomb caused massive diplomatic and public repercussions throughout world. In the Portuguese Federation, it caused much celebrations and the fear many felt was replaced by optimism and pride.[5] On 13th of June an emergency UN meeting was convened to discuss the situation in Africa.


Portuguese Nuclear Bomb dropped on Bir Moghrein in Mauritania 13 June 1967

Even as the UN met to discuss the African War on 13th of June, the Portuguese forces continued their advance, in the north the Portuguese forces moved into Algeria for first time and continued their attacks on the remaining Moroccan troops. The country of Mauritania became the second country to agree to surrender and its capital Nouakchott was occupied along with half the country, its president Moktar Ould Daddah along with most senior government and military officials were turned over to the Portuguese for trial. In Senegal, Portuguese marines landed north of the capital, Dakar, and by end of the day had captured majority of the city and many of the country’s leaders. In southern Senegal, the Portuguese forces went around Gambia and occupied most of southern Senegal with little or no opposition. Meanwhile with most of its armed forces destroyed Mali was unable to resist Portuguese invasion who easily captured the city of Kayes. In DR Guinea, Portuguese and Guinea Boke forces continued to push forward deeper into DR Guinea.

From 12 – 13 June the Republic of Congo forces lost Pointe Noire and Mdingo-Kayes along the coast, but the government of Alphonse Massamba-Debat in Brazzaville continued to be defiant. That all changed when Portuguese troops took over the DR Congo city of Kinshasa (Léopoldville) and the city of Brazzaville became surrounded. Attempts on the 14th of June by Republic of Congo troops to break through the Portuguese force’s lines surrounding Brazzaville proved unsuccessful.

The Portuguese troops continued to advance into Zambia taking the capital Lusaka on 13th of June, thus ending Zambian resistance. A military coup toppled President Kenneth Kaunda and his government as the Portuguese approached Lusaka. By the 14th of June only the city of Kasama under the control of Alice Lenshina in the north was the only Zambian city not under Portuguese control. The Portuguese troops continued their attack against Pan-African forces in Tanzania, with the Portuguese forces occupying both the provinces of Mtwara and Ruvuma.

In South Africa, the Portuguese continued their advance in Cape province in the east and central South Africa the Portuguese offensive was finally able to restart and most of the North-West Province along with half of Free State came under Portuguese occupation. The Nationalist Republic of South Africa collapsed as blacks rose up against the remaining Nationalist / Afrikaners government. Requests by the nationalist government, which had relocated to Cape Town following the loss of Pretoria, for Portuguese assistance was ignored and thousands of new refugees streamed towards Portuguese controlled areas including tens of thousands of white Afrikaners.


Left - South Africa 10 June 1967
Right – South Africa 12 June 1967

Portuguese (Green), National Republic (Tan), Communist (Red), Portuguese occupied territory (Light Green), Pan-African occupied Portuguese Territory (Orange)
At the UN a resolution was agreed demanding cease fire and peace negotiations on the African continent. The Portuguese stalled the debate on the resolution but on 14th of June finally agreed to Resolution 258 but stipulated that the UN cease fire would only take effect on 15 of June at 24:00. While waiting for the cease fire was to take effect, the Portuguese forces continued attacking Arab League and Pan-African forces throughout the day. In Morocco, General Ben Hammu deposed the monarchy and proclaimed himself as President. He rejected any peace with Portuguese Federation and France while they continued to occupy any part of Morocco. To the south the governments of both the Republic of Senegal and Republic of Mali were overthrown, and new leaders agreed to a cease fire with Portuguese Federation. The last remnants of the DR Guinea withdrew into the jungle with the capture of its capital.

The Republic of Congo collapsed with the capture of Brazzaville along with President Alphonse Massamba-Debat. While DR Congo troops withdrew further inland away from both Portuguese Federation and Katanga forces. In Tanzania, the Portuguese defeated and captured the Uganda army exposing the entire right flank of the Tanzania forces who retreated north towards capital Dadoma and Dar es Salaam. Meanwhile the Portuguese Indic Navy attacked and seized the islands of Mafia, Zanzibar, Pemba and several smaller islands off the coast of Tanzania.

On 15th of June, minor border clashes along the Republic of Congo and DR Congo fronts were reported but for most part the major fighting was over in those areas. At 14:00 a Portuguese task force supported by Portuguese Atlantic Navy attacked the country of Benin. The capital of Porto Novo fell to a Portuguese amphibious attack within an hour of landing and by nightfall the Portuguese had moved as far north as Zagnanado and west to the Togo border. The capital of Porto Novo suffered Portuguese rage over the killing of the Portuguese in Ajuda and many Benin troops and government officials including President Émile Derlin Zinsou were captured, convicted and executed at judiciary trials held during the night. The invasion of Benin and the judiciary trials and executions were condemned by most governments throughout the world, but the Portuguese Federation used it as a strong message of what would happen to any country who moved against the Federation or its people.


Southern Africa 15 June 1967
Portuguese (Green), National Republic (Tan), Communist (Red), Portuguese occupied territory (Light Green)

At same time that Portuguese Federation was battling most of Africa, the French were defending their overseas provinces in Africa. The split of Algeria had infuriated the Arab league who organized an oil embargo against France. The embargo had little to no effect on the French who had hurriedly developed the huge oil and gas fields in French Algeria. During 1964 - 1967 the Arab League Alliance led by Egypt convinced the rest of the Arab countries to Embargo France along with Portuguese Federation and Brazil. Supported by Soviets the Arab League Alliance (Egypt, Sudan, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, and Somalia) built up their armies. Tunisia also became the staging area for Egyptian and other Islamic soldiers. Meanwhile Sudan sent half its army to Somalia to “protect” it from continued French aggression.

As the Portuguese intervention in South Africa was underway the French reinforced their forces in both French Somalia and French Algeria. When the Pan-African Alliance declared war on the Portuguese Federation the French worried that they would be left alone on the African continent prepared to launch a preemptive strike against the Arab League Alliance. On 11th of June, on the same day the Arab League declared war against both the Portuguese Federation and France, the French launched their attack on Algeria, Somalia and Tunisia. The French overran Tunisia in two days and defeated the Tunisian, Egyptian armies and well as capturing most of the Islamic forces. In Somalia, the French overran the northern half of the country while its navy and marines captured Mogadishu. In Algeria where the French met the most resistance the French and Portuguese attacks proved too much for the Algerian forces and on 14th of June the capital Algiers was captured by France.

Nigeria with one of the largest militaries in Africa was neutered during the war by the outbreak of Nigerian civil war between the Biafara State against the government of Nigeria. It offered no resistance when Portuguese Federation landed troops in Benin and occupied part of the Nigerian border region. Meanwhile the rest of Africa and most of the world watched in awe at the speed in which the Portuguese not only defeated South Africa but also both the Pan-African and Arab League forces.

During the Portuguese intervention of South Africa, Pan-African Alliance, and Arab league Alliance wars the Portuguese suffered 6,258 deaths 34,589 casualties, lost 589 tanks and 126 planes. The Nationalist South Africa fighting the Portuguese suffered 5,589 deaths, 11,458 casualties 69,589 captured, lost 459 tanks and 258 planes. The Pan African Alliance suffered 32,588 deaths, 85,589 casualties, 259,000+ captured, lost 2,489 tanks and 589 planes. The Arab League Alliance suffered 9,589 deaths, 19,589 casualties 58,896 captured, lost 682 tanks and 230 planes.[6] [7]


African continent during Summer of 1967 after the African War Cease Fire


[1] In January 1965 the Portuguese armed forced intensified the reservist training and the number of reservists on duty tripled. Also, at same time the military began recommissioning thousands of older military equipment to supply the growing number of reservists.

[2] Included in the South African invasion force was 4 reserve infantry divisions.

[3] On 6th of June all border towns and villages were evacuated, and border defenses were reinforced. The Portuguese plan was for its forces along the border to delay Pan-African advances into the Federation while reservists and additional forces prepared for the Portuguese counterattack.

[4] Pan-African and Arab League air loses were 4-1 against the Portuguese and by the time the Portuguese launched their counter attack their respective air forces had been reduced to 50% of pre-war strength.

[5] In 1967 the Portuguese Federation became the 5th country and the only non-UN permanent member to publicly develop nuclear weapon. The US, Soviet Union, Britain, and France had all developed nuclear weapons in the 1940s and 1950s. The detonation of a nuclear weapon including the dropping of the weapon by Portuguese heavy bomber caused shock throughout the world and forced both the West and Soviets to greatly reassess Portuguese military and nuclear capabilities. When Israel launched their 6-day war on 10 of June against United Arab Republic (Egypt and Syria), Jordan, Iraq, and Lebanon the fear of further nuclear attacks increased. The US, Britain and France all had suspected Israel was developing nuclear weapon and had closely monitored uranium shipments to the country. They now realized that the Portuguese Federation was most likely Israel’s accomplice and that both countries had been manufacturing nuclear weapons for years, although Israel continued to neither deny nor confirm it had nuclear weapons.

[6] The Portuguese captured 10,234 and killed 8,256 Soviet and East European advisors during the war against the Pan-African Alliance and Arab League Alliance. Following the cease fire, the Portuguese released all captured advisors and the bodies of advisors killed during the war. The Portuguese refused the Soviets demand that all personal and military affects and equipment captured also be returned. Captured with the advisors was a treasure trove of documents, hardware and weapons detailing the massive extent of Soviet participation in arming the African and Arab countries in the war against the Portuguese. Included in the soviet army vehicles captured was some of the latest and best in Soviet military hardware such as Soviet Tanks T-62 and T-64, SA-5, S-125 and S-200 surface to air missiles, BTR-60 APC, ZU-23 anti-aircraft gun, Type 63 MLRS, BM-21, ZU-23-4, BPM-1, PT-76 and MT-LB. In addition to Soviet hardware captured from African/Arab armies was combat aircraft captured at two soviet airbases in Zambia and Tanzania. The Portuguese captured several Soviet Su-7B, Su-15, MiG-21 and Yak-28 fighter planes, TU-16 Bombers, TU-126 (damaged) along with Antonov transport planes and variety of helicopters including (Mil Mi-1 to Mil Mi-6).

[7] The rapid collapse of the African troops and their Soviet advisors to the Portuguese as well as the seizure of the Soviet bases by Portuguese commandos along with the vast number of Soviet weapons was a huge shock to the Kremlin. The inability or unwillingness of advisors to destroy the Soviet hardware and in specific cases commit suicide when captured was seen as huge failure by the Soviet authorities and military. Fear of retribution and execution led more than half the foreign advisors to request asylum in the west with US, Canada and Britain taking 90% of the advisors. The Portuguese did provide asylum to some Polish and Hungarian Catholic “advisors” though. Those that returned either had been captured injured or were adamant communists. Note: After the Soviet Union fracture it was learned that more than 80% of the advisors who returned were either executed or sent to the gulags as punishment for their failure.

The Portuguese Federation was able to defeat SA, Pan African Alliance and Arab African Alliance because they fought as a single force but several smaller and weaker forces. The two biggest losers are SA which is still fighting itself and a much weaker Nationalist Forces are finding it difficult to protect whites as the territory under its control is shrinking. Vengeful Africans are on the loose looking for whites and any whom they can extract their revenge. What this means for remaining whites in SA we will need to see. The Soviets have seen their dream of Communist Africa collapse like a house of cards. It had shipped it most advanced military material and thousands of advisors but they had suffered a humiliating defeat. One that will reverberate all the way to Moscow. The Africans were another casualty since it was them who suffered the most.

The French have been drawn into deeper quagmire as they continued to face repeated attacks and threats forcing them to also act against the countries against them. Somalia, Tunisia and Algiers government have all been toppled by the French who too so desperately search for way out of the mess they got themselves in by remaining in Africa,

Lastly the Federation who responded with a huge show of force and also put the world on notice that it would not be trampled on an bullied but will the win result in lasting peace?? Questions/ Comments?


Return in 2 weeks on September 27 as we attempt to answer some of those questions.

 
Well, friendly governments' the name of the game now. Dividing the nations by retaining their conquered territories as South Korea analogues will keep any raid out of Federation territory, Guinea Boke is already a working example that can now be reunited with Red Guinea. But by and large outside of the Political elite in the capitals most of Africa won't care to wage protracted guerilla campagna against South Africa due to some Ideology. Replacing the Leadership will do the trick in many nations, esp. in West Africa.

France has no choice but to cozy up with Portugal now, they are unwanted brothers in arm. A France resistant to immune to Oil blackmail makes some waves in the EU's politics. Russia can no longer throw her weight about and the US has to deal with an Nuclear Powered Regional Hegemon it is politically fraught with and recently tried to destabilize.
 
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Well Central Africa will now be a Portuguese playground for the foreseeable future. Portugal, in an indirect sense, finally got their Mapa cor-de-rosa after so many years. While I know that most of the territory will be given back to friendly regimes, I wonder what land Portugal will keep as a payment for their troubles. The Tanzanian Islands? More of the Sahara Desert?
 

Lusitania

Donor
Well, friendly governments' the name of the game now. Dividing the nations by retaining their conquered territories as South Korea analogues will keep any raid out of Federation territory, Guinea Boke is already a working example that can now be reunited with Red Guinea. But by and large outside of the Political elite in the capitals most of Africa won't care to wage protracted guerilla campagna against South Africa due to some Ideology. Replacing the Leadership will do the trick in many nations, esp. in West Africa.

France has no choice but to cozy up with Portugal now, they are unwanted brothers in arm. A France resistant to immune to Oil blackmail makes some waves in the EU's politics. Russia can no longer throw her weight about and the US has to deal with an Nuclear Powered Regional Hegemon it is politically fraught with and recently tried to destabilize.
Before the war the Portuguese government had some vague idea that once they defeated the Pan African and African Arab Alliances that peace would be possible. They figured that these countries Would sue for peace once portuguese victory was secure.

The issue was that none of these countries sued for peace after the Portuguese had defeated their invading army. Frankly much was written about the fact that once the invading force were defeated the Portuguese were racing the retreating disorganized soldier into their own country. The speed in which the Portuguese both defeated and invaded the Pan African and African Arab alliance forces surprised both the Portuguese who struggled to adapt to changing circumstances and those who watched from the sidelines.

Over the next decade much of the blame for the loss shifted from the Africans to the Soviets and their Eastern European allies. This was actually started by Portuguese historians and military investigators who followed the Portuguese government line of not wanting to blame the people it was trying to help and work with.

The communists defeat served to show both the Portuguese people and rest of world the pitfalls of both aligning with the Soviets and implementing communism in their countries. Many tactical errors were blamed on the Soviet advisors and by end of the 1970s the Portuguese portrayed the invasion of the federation as a Soviet plot in which they forced and tricked the Africans to participate. The Soviets had bribed and Coerced the inexperienced new African leaders into attacking the Federation.

At the same time the blame was being shifted then Soviets and their Eastern European cronies the federation was showing the world how it was able to help lift the millions of Africans in the new Portuguese aligned countries out of poverty and help these countries develop properly.

As for France it’s situation had gone from bad to worse during the 1960s. The Morocco -Tangier situation, Guiné Fiasco had left its reputation damaged in French speaking Africa by end of the 1950s. Then its decision to keep a chunk of Algeria for resource independence due continued Arab boycotting of France had left it with little influence in Africa and the French speaking countries had abandoned the French community and subsequently a large number of West African countries joined Pan African Alliance to drive the European from Africa.

The swiftness in which the Portuguese had defeated the Pan African countries and both the Federation and France defeated the Arab North African countries made the French African countries afraid.

French diplomats in private conversations with Both government officials and leaders of the remaining French Speaking African countries stated that any further alignment towards Soviet Union or other country would be dealt with in very stern manner by France. They also hinted that France was the only one able to guarantee their independence from the Federation or other foreign power.

Following the war there was a realignment in Africa as both Federation and France flexed their influence (muscle they already had done so) to increase their power projection and influence and bring as many countries under their influence and control.

All of these diplomatic endeavors were not guaranteed to lead to peace in Africa during the 1970s. For that we have to wait and see how peace or it’s lack of shapes Africa in next decade.

NOTE: Pan African Alliance existed iotl, but due to political differences and circumstances never really amounted to much. Here in this TL both the success of the Federation and its intervention in Morocco, Guinea and Katanga were the POD for its growth into an actual military alliance against the Federation. The Portuguese actions in late 1950s and early 1960s also served as the POD for expulsion of all non blacks from Pan African countries (similar to expulsion of non-Africans from Uganda in early 1970s IOTL except here the expulsion. Involved many countries). Ironically the expulsion wrecked the economies of the Pan African countries like it did in Uganda. These non Africans were the backbone of business and commerce in many of these countries at the time.

The African Arab Alliance did not exist iOTL, it was the brainchild of Egypt’s leader Nasser who envisioned himself as the leader of Arabs both in North Africa and Middle East. His attempted union with Syria and Yemen along with support and leadership in the African Arab Alliance would influence Egypt for decades.
 
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Ironically the expulsion wrecked the economies of the Pan African countries like it did in Uganda. These non Africans were the backbone of business and commerce in many of these countries.
So where did they go after expulsion, were any accepted by the Federation?
 

Lusitania

Donor
Portugal Portugal pais da igualdade
Your comment strikes at the heart of the major federation problem in 1960. An internal SIS document written by the analytical and investigative division of the Portuguese internal surveillance system (SIS) stated that the equality dilema was the most important issue facing the Portuguese government.

The document stated that the country’s achievements and progress were in jeopardy of being undermined if non European ( & to a lesser extent non Portuguese Europeans) were not given the same ability and opportunities as Portuguese “whites”. It stated that those groups would start feeling both excluded and marginalized and the Federation ideal would be just that an ideal and not reality.

From a security perspective SIS also stated the biggest weapon the federation had in combating communist and foreign influence was the implementation of equality and equal opportunity. It showed in a series of graphs and comparisons that the less equality that existed in the Federation the greater the cost of surveillance, lower productivity and increased insurgency all of which would in reduce the country’s ability to grow and jeopardize the governments goal of the country becoming one of the top industrial countries.

Faced with these facts and assessment the leadership reiterated their support for the Federation ideals of equality and opportunity and set forth several actions to promote equality. Over the next decade it instituted programs to assist small businesses in non european business owners. The government continued to prioritize Education and provide resources and funding to expand the country’s education capacity. The value of education or training was emphasizes and support given to people so they be able to achieve their education or vocational training.

But all of that would of been for naught if discrimination was allowed to exist and run rampant in workplaces or that these newly trained or educated people did not get same employment opportunities as whites. To combat discrimination and promote equality the government both promoted the Federation’s equality ideas and inspected many work places. Both national and local companies were subject to workplace safety & equality inspections by government agents. Financial Penalties and in some cases jail sentences for business owners/managers who either just paid lip service or ignored the law. But in the end it was threat of boycott or loss of business that forced the business community to adhere to ideals of equality.

Many scholars later in the early 2000 wrote that the Federation had enacted laws and its society had witnessing equal opportunity and anti discrimination changes decades ahead of Europe and North America. The reasons given were many and each author had their own reason based on their personal views and opinions. What is true is that it was done out of sheer necessity not moral desire.

One of the first major tests for the Federation and its equality principle was its refusal to trade or deal with any country that government practiced discrimination. This came to the forefront when Central African Federation, (CAF) collapsed in 1961 and Rhodesia enacted similar apartheid laws as South Africa. All trade with Rhodesia was terminated and Portuguese companies forced to sell their holdings there (sometimes at a loss). The biggest contention was that Rhodesia being a landlocked country relied on transporting the majority of its imports and export through Portuguese ports. The Portuguese government increased The taxes and land rents on the railways from Rhodesia and their products had to be stored in special fenced areas of Portuguese ports. Ships could not carry both Portuguese and Rhodesian goods. This followed the breaking of trade relations There between the Federation and SA in the late 1950s and these measures had the effect of doubling transportation costs to Rhodesia. It forced Rhodesia to negotiate with both SA and Swaziland to build rail and road around the Federation through SA to Swaziland and expand Swaziland ports.

These measures against Rhodesia were done both to show its people and world that Portuguese adhered to their equality ideals in their constitution. During UN and other international conferences the Portuguese used these points to counter negative comments regarding the Federation. One country that suffered repeatedly from Portuguese criticism of its treatment of Non-whites was the US. Portuguese were quick to emphasize growing non-white education, higher wages and better standard of living for majority of non white portuguese when compared to minorities in the US (especially African Americans).

So where did they go after expulsion, were any accepted by the Federation?
Ah if you check out post 504 we state that commonwealth nations accepted 80% of the Non Africans who fled and that 50,000 settled in the Federation. In fact 50% of the people fleeing Pan African countries first went to the Federation since it was the closest safest country. The majority of these refugees though then left for other countries with Canada, DUI, Australia and NewZealand being the countries the majority emigrated to. Of those that fled to the Federation from Pan African countries many simply wanted to leave the continent afraid problems would eventually come to the Federation but some were enticed to stay.
 
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mas esta guerra mostra o ressurgimento de Portugal como uma potencia o USA pode gabar-se de ser o pais da liberdade mas a sua historia não inspira confiança foi preciso uma guerra e mesmo assim demorou perto de um seculo para os afro americanos terem e usufruir dos mesmos direito que os brancos
 

Lusitania

Donor
mas esta guerra mostra o ressurgimento de Portugal como uma potencia o USA pode gabar-se de ser o pais da liberdade mas a sua historia não inspira confiança foi preciso uma guerra e mesmo assim demorou perto de um seculo para os afro americanos terem e usufruir dos mesmos direito que os brancos
Translation for those not fluent in Portuguese.
This war demonstrates a resurgent powerful Portugal (Federation). The USA can say that it is a country of liberty but its does not inspire confidence. It took a war to free African and then it took another century for African Americans to receive the same rights as whites.

note: will comment later but let other make their own observations or comments first.

thanks Hudi
 
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