I wonder who the other members of the Lusitos are? We need a Angolan, a Mozambican, a Portuguese-Chinese from Macau, a Timorese, and maybe a Brazilian and the resurrected Viriathus who secretly was an alien this whole time. Together, they act as the champions of Portugal and her christian values against a hostile world filled with demons, aliens, commies, and rival heros from other factions like the Americans.
 

Lusitania

Donor
I wonder who the other members of the Lusitos are? We need a Angolan, a Mozambican, a Portuguese-Chinese from Macau, a Timorese, and maybe a Brazilian and the resurrected Viriathus who secretly was an alien this whole time. Together, they act as the champions of Portugal and her christian values against a hostile world filled with demons, aliens, commies, and rival heros from other factions like the Americans.
Actually there is a Lusito for every province and it is their responsibility to protect it from danger in addition there is 12 national Lusitos who travel around sometimes just a few of them sometimes all 12 and others from other parts of country to deal with more dangerous villains.

In 1968 the publisher BD Comics came out with special edition a 12 part “Guerra da Liberdade” War of Liberty commemorating the Portuguese victory over the SA, Pan African and African Arab forces that were supported by SA, African, Arab and Soviet villans. It was first time real persons were featured in comics. You had Actual politicians, officers and soldiers all conversing and fighting alongside the heroes.

The final edition had King Duarte II giving the country highest medal to the Lusitos alongside real beneficiaries.

It was the most sought after comic book series of time and each edition was sold out. The last triple size volume edition was largest ever and was sold out before hitting the stands with copies going forward 10,000 escudos. They published 6 editions of the last comic in the special edition.
 

Lusitania

Donor
1960 – 1969

World

Africa
Starting in 1960 the remaining French colonies in Africa gained their independence but all stayed within the French Community. The countries of Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Congo (Brazzaville), Gabon, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Togo, and Upper Volta all gained their tentative independence of France in the spring and summer of 1960. France kept these countries within its control and influence within the French Community. In addition, France still controlled Algeria, Tangier, French Somalia, and French Comoros although it was locked into a major war in Algeria with Algerian Muslims demanding independence.

The British for their part granted several of their colonies independence, Somalia and Nigeria gained their independence in 1960 while Sierra Leone and Tanzania gained their independence in 1961. Meanwhile the only other colonial owner in Africa Belgium granted the countries of Burundi, Congo (Kinshasa), and Rwanda independence in 1961.

The Portuguese Federation was suddenly surrounded by several African countries who by the very nature of Portuguese Federation’s existence on the continent were vehemently against it. The Portuguese government attempted to improve both these countries’ perception and attitude of the Federation. As the decade progressed these efforts failed as more and more of the newly independent countries hardened their attitudes towards the Federation.[1]


The Algerian War of Independence

In 1961 the world was shocked by the assassination of French President de Gaulle. This was followed by an intensification of the Algerian War of Independence with both sides stepping up their attacks against not only military targets but also against civilians. Without De Gaulle leadership the French resolve hardened, and the French military and French civilians stepped up their attacks against the main Algerian Muslim group fighting for independence, Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) and its supporters. But for all the French military might by 1962 the French control of Algeria was tenuous with Oran enclave and Eastern Algeria being the areas it had been able to establish greater control. Meanwhile in Switzerland negotiations between the French and FLN intensified and in June a tentative agreement was finally reached. On 1 July 1962 a ceasefire was declared. Prior to the cease fire in March 1962 hundreds of French citizens living in western Algeria and its capital Algiers were massacred and majority of French citizens not feeling safe in western Algeria either fled to the French enclave of Oran or French controlled eastern Algeria. Meanwhile thousands of Muslim Algerians in eastern Algerian cities Tizi Ouzou and Bougie were also massacred and fled to Muslim control areas in western Algeria. Following the ceasefire, the movement of French citizens and Algerians allied with France began, tens of thousands of French citizens and Algerians wishing to live under French rule moved to Oran enclave or eastern Algeria, where the French controlled the most territory. Attempts to negotiate a referendum on the future of Algeria and permanent peace treaty was unsuccessful due to the French demand that regions of Algeria wishing to stay under French rule be allowed to while the FLN demanded the referendum apply to all of Algeria. By end of 1962, all French citizens and Algerians wishing to remain part of France were evacuated by the French military to Oran and Eastern Algeria.[2] On 1 January 1963 Algeria declared independence from France with Algiers as its capital. Meanwhile French Algeria encompassed all land 15 miles east of capital of Algeria and the enclave of Oran remained part of France. The FLN refused to recognize French Algeria and border clashes continued along the French - Algerian border. Both the Muslim countries and the Independent French speaking African countries reacted angrily to the French decision. The Muslim countries announce an oil embargo on France and the French Community collapsed with the withdrawal of the French speaking countries in protest to the French actions.

The Congo Crisis

Following the independence of Congo (Kinshasa) from Belgium it was rocked by internal fighting between the various groups and tribes. The Congolese Army mutinied, and violence erupted between black and white civilians. Belgium sent troops to protect fleeing whites and two areas of the country Katanga and South Kasai unilaterally seceded from Congo with Belgium support. The UN sent peacekeepers to the country but refused to use these troops to help the central government in Léopoldville fight the secessionists. Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba, the charismatic leader of the largest nationalist faction, reacted by calling for assistance from the Soviet Union, which promptly sent military advisors and other support.
The involvement of Soviet Union and communist advisors in Congo spurred the Portuguese government which till then only had offered low level support, in recognizing the government of Moise Tshombe Republic of Katanga and providing it with military and economic aid. During 1960-1962 Portuguese Federation had over 5,000 troops and military advisors in Katanga advising the government and training the Katangan army meanwhile in September 1960 Belgium troops withdrew from Katanga and the remainder of Congo. They were replaced by Portuguese troops who provided much needed military and political support to the Tshombe government whose capital was in Elizabethville. The stabilization of the government of Katanga kept the UN troops out of the country. Several incursions into Katanga by the military of Congo were beaten back resulting in thousands of casualties’ majority being civilians attacked by Congolese troops.

The UN became alarmed at Portuguese involvement in Congo and demanded that the Portuguese Federation withdraw its troops, but the Portuguese did not respond. During spring and summer of 1961 there were several clashes between UN peacekeepers and Katangan forces resulted in many countries condemning the Portuguese Federation. Then in the summer of 1961 the government of Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba was overthrown in a military coup backed by Congolese President Joseph Kasa-Vubu. Lumamba escaped and fled east reestablishing himself in Stanleyville. The Soviet Union continued to support Lumamba while President Kasa-Vubu appealed to western countries especially the US for support.



The three factions in the Congo Crises of 1960 -1964

From 1962 to 1964 Congo was afflicted by civil war between the three factions each supported by a different group. The UN troops came under fire from all three groups and suffered several casualties forcing it to withdraw from Congo in October 1962. The Communist forces of Lumamba slowly gained on both Katanga and Kasa-Vubu troops during 1963. The Kasa-Vubu forces suffered a major defeat in Coquilhatville in September 1963 resulting in the loss Northern Congo leaving Genema as the last Kasa-Vubu stronghold in the north. Meanwhile Katanga lost both Albertville and Baudouiville to Lumamba forces. The allied state of South Kasai fell to Kasa-Vubu troops and the remaining whites and many blacks fled south into Katanga. In November 1963 Lumamba troops began attacking Kasa-Vubu forces at Banningville. When the city fell the government of Kasa-Vubu seemed on the verge of collapse.


During the second half of 1963 the government Kasa-Vubu received substantial military and financial support from western countries especially the USA. The Republic of Katanga continued to build up its troops and in December 1963 launched two major offensives. In the east, its forces defeated Lumamba troops and captured Albertville on 17 January 1964. Meanwhile in the west its troops defeated the Kasa-Vubu forces and captured Bakwanga but the fighting in the south weakened Kasa-Vubu forces and Lumamba troops captured Leopoldville in March 1964.

The fall of Kasa-Vabu forced the US to switch its allegiances to Katanga and it recognized the country on 1 March 1964 this was followed by Britain and France as well as most of the western world. During spring and summer of 1964 Lumumba forces attempted to stamp out any remaining opposition meanwhile repeatedly clashing with Katanga troops along the border. In October 1964 representatives from Congo (Stanleyville) and Katanga along with major powers and Portuguese Federation met in Switzerland for peace negotiations. In December 1964, a peace treaty was signed recognizing Katanga and Congo (Stanleyville).[3]



In 1964 the remainder of Africa both independent countries and colonies responded to what they perceived as European colonial interference with anger. Demonstrations against Portuguese Federation and Europeans in general spiked and Britain scrambled to contain the violence in its remaining colonies and protect its white settlers. In 1964 – 1965 the remainder of British colonies declared their independence. Botswana, Gambia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius and Zambia all became independent and for most part these countries’ governments turned against western Europeans.
Other than the Portuguese Federation and French Africa (Tangiers, Oran, French Algeria, French Somalia and French Comoros) only the countries of South Africa and Rhodesia which were ruled by white minority governments stood apart from the new black African countries.

In the newly independent African countries surrounding the Portuguese Federation its leaders increasingly became hostile to the Portuguese Federation and advocated and supported Africans living in the Portuguese Federation to revolt against the Portuguese. The countries of Congo (Brazzaville), Tanzania, Mali and Senegal along with Congo (Stanleyville) began providing weapons, bases and protections to independence forces who wanted to expel the Portuguese from Africa. From 1961 to 1965 “rebel groups” in these countries launched raids into the Portuguese Federation attacking both civilian and government targets. This was followed by Portuguese retaliation strikes and on many occasions’ clashes with the African countries’ military.[4]



Africa in 1965

In 1965 three major events would transform Africa: i) formation of the Pan-African Alliance and the Arab League Alliance, ii) the escalation of violence against white Europeans and Indians in newly independent African countries iii) the South African Civil War.

In 1963 the Organization of African Union (OAU) was established in Addis Ababa.[5] Its objective was:

  • To co-ordinate and intensify the co-operation of African states in order to achieve a better life for the people of Africa;
  • To defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of African states;
  • The eradication of all forms of colonialism and white minority rule as, when it was established.
The biggest dividing issue for the organization was the Portuguese Federation. Its continued presence in Africa angered most Africans but the attempts to integrate blacks in the country and the continued rising standard of living for blacks in the Federation differentiated it from white minority rule of Rhodesia and South Africa. The Congo Civil War made many of the member states of the OAU decide that a stronger and more active organization was needed to deal with conflicts and foreign intervention in Africa. In 1965 the Pan-African Alliance was established with its capital in Dar es Salaam Tanzania. Led by Tanzania’s president Julius Kambarage Nyerere it opposed both white minority rule of Rhodesia and South Africa as well as Portuguese Federation and the presence of non-Africans in Africa. In March 1965 Tanzania, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo, Peoples Democratic Republic of Guinea, Benin and Mali became the founding members of the Pan African Alliance. During the remainder of 1965 several other African countries also joined, with Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Senegal and Guinea joining in June and Zambia, Malawi, Botswana and Swaziland joining in August 1965.

This coincided with Zambia and Malawi stopping all work on the half-finished Portuguese railway and pipeline between East and West Africa resulting in the Portuguese Federation being forced to evacuate all Portuguese citizens working in the two countries. Tensions in Africa rose between the countries supporting and belonging to the Pan-African Alliance and Portuguese Federation. Benin demanded Portuguese Federation hand over Ajuda which the Portuguese refused. Benin then placed a blockade on Ajuda causing Portuguese Federation to move its Atlantic Fleet including the aircraft carrier Vasco da Gama to the gulf forcing it to back down. In first half of the 1960s following the CIA involvement in the attempted coup of the Portuguese government the USA was weary of openly arming groups or countries who were opposed to the Federation and the USA demands that American weapons not be used against the Federation was rejected by majority of the African countries. The Soviets had no problems in supporting these countries and actively encouraged them to confront the Federation. They provided the Pan-African Alliance with large quantity of weapons and sent thousands of military advisors to the countries gaining much leverage on the continent with several countries such as Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo, Mali and Senegal aligning with Soviet bloc and openly adopting communist policies and economic models.

Meanwhile the split of Algeria as well as continued French and Portuguese occupation of parts of Morocco angered the Arab League and Egypt’s President Nasser formed the Arab League Alliance in Africa with the aim of repulsing both France and the Portuguese Federation from Africa. The member states were Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco and it’s capital was in Cairo.



Africa Alliances 1965

Anti-white and anti-non-African violence in Pan-African Alliance countries escalated during 1965 with several countries such as Uganda and Tanzania expelling all non-Africans some with nothing more than what they could carry (Whites, Indians and Asians were all targeted). Even in neutral OAU countries violence against non-Africans grew resulting in over 500,000 whites, Indians and other non-Africans being forced to flee OAU and Pan-African nations. The British Commonwealth countries of Canada, Australia and New Zealand accepted 80% of the refugees with the Portuguese Federation accepting over 50,000 refugees and remainder fleeing to other countries.


[1] The majority of the newly independent leaders were at best leery of the Federation or worse vehemently opposed to it. They viewed the success of the Federation as a threat of African for black Africans that had gained popularity during the late 1950s. Regardless of the rights that blacks had in the Federation or their economic situation (much higher than majority in the newly independent countries. As for the remaining colonies the aspiring independent the black leaders felt that a successful Federation was a threat to their independence and power.

[2] With negotiations stalled and continued attacks by insurgents in Algiers the French decided to abandon the remaining half of the city they continued to control. During the month of December all French citizens and thousands of Algerians bid goodbye to their homes and businesses and were evacuated. iOTL the evacuation to France by French colonist and Algerians loyal to France caused much discord and social problems.

[3] As part of the peace treaty Katanga was forced to withdraw its forces from South Kassai and provide Congo with 15% of its revenue from Mining concessions.
[4] Mali and Senegal provided support and bases for the PAIGC group fighting Portuguese forces along the Portuguese Guinea border. The Republic of Congo supported FNLA while the Democratic Republic of Congo supported MPLA allowing it to operate in its territory and both insurgent groups attacked Portuguese provinces in Portuguese West Africa. In East Africa, Tanzania provided support to FRELIMO who used based in Tanzania to attack Portuguese border areas. From 1961 to 1965 the Portuguese captured several hundred insurgents either during their border attacks on as part of Portuguese commando attacks on the insurgent bases in the neighboring countries. Two thirds of the insurgents killed or captured were identified as Europeans, Arabs or Africans from outside Portuguese Federation allowing the Portuguese to portrait the insurgents as foreign invaders instead of Africans demanding independence from Portuguese Federation.

[5] The Portuguese Federation and both Guinea Boke and Katanga were barred from joining the OAU. The OAU was shocked by the Portuguese Federation application to join the UAO and refused it on the basis that Portuguese Federation capital was not in Africa. While Guinea Boke and Katanga were classified as foreign controlled (Portuguese Federation) and also barred.


The Portuguese Federation has has a major impact on African continent and not one for the better. While the Federation was much more capable of handling itself and defending it territory the forces arrayed against it had grown considerably since 1960. Not only did it face adversary in south with SA and newly independent Rhodesia both minority white controlled feeling threatened by Federation and hostile to it. Around it the newly independent African countries almost all with exception of two countries it had helped was surrounded by enemies. Only their relative weaker military strength prevented them from acting on their animosity towards the federation. But the Soviet Union had stepped in where a constrained US had been afraid of stepping in and was arming Federation neighbors to its teeth. Meanwhile the French had also compounded their actions of alienating the French speaking African states by keeping Oran and Easter Algeria causing the French community to turn its backs to the French and align itself with the Pan African forces. Lastly the Arabs in North Africa were getting ready to fight two countries France and Federation. Questions/ Comments?

Return in 2 weeks on August 30 when we delve into the next part of the World section, the SA Civil War.
 
No none of Lusitos are called Privado Portugal. Good try

Good guess but she is yellow.

Another good guess but he is another Lusito but this times from Azores.

Ah, you are getting Superhero figurines mixed up with your historical figures. Which Magriço is one.


Interesting but alas no one of the Lusitos


The ANSWER IS:
He is the leader of the Lusitos, which are the Portuguese superheroes from all the various regions of the Federation. The Lusitos are here to protect the country from evil communists, enemy agents and other bad guys plus a few aliens. They each have the attributes of the various regions and people of the federation.

His name is Colonel Barcelos and as mentioned is the leader of the Lusitos. While he is not the strongest, fastest or smartest of the Lusitos his attributes are honesty, integrity, trust and honor, and it is also believed to bring good luck when he is present in battles and conflicts.

The Lusitos operate out of a secret headquarters in the center of the country and also have bases in the various regions. Defending the country in the air, land and sea. Here is their coat of arms.

@Lusitania now that I remember, didn't Portugal had a parody of superhero movies set during Salazar era with this premise? Because I recall been used for lots of Hearts of Iron 4 memes and such. I think it was... CAPTAIN FALCAO.
But I could be wrong.
 
1960 – 1969

World

Africa
Starting in 1960 the remaining French colonies in Africa gained their independence but all stayed within the French Community. The countries of Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Congo (Brazzaville), Gabon, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Togo, and Upper Volta all gained their tentative independence of France in the spring and summer of 1960. France kept these countries within its control and influence within the French Community. In addition, France still controlled Algeria, Tangier, French Somalia, and French Comoros although it was locked into a major war in Algeria with Algerian Muslims demanding independence.

The British for their part granted several of their colonies independence, Somalia and Nigeria gained their independence in 1960 while Sierra Leone and Tanzania gained their independence in 1961. Meanwhile the only other colonial owner in Africa Belgium granted the countries of Burundi, Congo (Kinshasa), and Rwanda independence in 1961.

The Portuguese Federation was suddenly surrounded by several African countries who by the very nature of Portuguese Federation’s existence on the continent were vehemently against it. The Portuguese government attempted to improve both these countries’ perception and attitude of the Federation. As the decade progressed these efforts failed as more and more of the newly independent countries hardened their attitudes towards the Federation.[1]


The Algerian War of Independence

In 1961 the world was shocked by the assassination of French President de Gaulle. This was followed by an intensification of the Algerian War of Independence with both sides stepping up their attacks against not only military targets but also against civilians. Without De Gaulle leadership the French resolve hardened, and the French military and French civilians stepped up their attacks against the main Algerian Muslim group fighting for independence, Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) and its supporters. But for all the French military might by 1962 the French control of Algeria was tenuous with Oran enclave and Eastern Algeria being the areas it had been able to establish greater control. Meanwhile in Switzerland negotiations between the French and FLN intensified and in June a tentative agreement was finally reached. On 1 July 1962 a ceasefire was declared. Prior to the cease fire in March 1962 hundreds of French citizens living in western Algeria and its capital Algiers were massacred and majority of French citizens not feeling safe in western Algeria either fled to the French enclave of Oran or French controlled eastern Algeria. Meanwhile thousands of Muslim Algerians in eastern Algerian cities Tizi Ouzou and Bougie were also massacred and fled to Muslim control areas in western Algeria. Following the ceasefire, the movement of French citizens and Algerians allied with France began, tens of thousands of French citizens and Algerians wishing to live under French rule moved to Oran enclave or eastern Algeria, where the French controlled the most territory. Attempts to negotiate a referendum on the future of Algeria and permanent peace treaty was unsuccessful due to the French demand that regions of Algeria wishing to stay under French rule be allowed to while the FLN demanded the referendum apply to all of Algeria. By end of 1962, all French citizens and Algerians wishing to remain part of France were evacuated by the French military to Oran and Eastern Algeria.[2] On 1 January 1963 Algeria declared independence from France with Algiers as its capital. Meanwhile French Algeria encompassed all land 15 miles east of capital of Algeria and the enclave of Oran remained part of France. The FLN refused to recognize French Algeria and border clashes continued along the French - Algerian border. Both the Muslim countries and the Independent French speaking African countries reacted angrily to the French decision. The Muslim countries announce an oil embargo on France and the French Community collapsed with the withdrawal of the French speaking countries in protest to the French actions.

The Congo Crisis

Following the independence of Congo (Kinshasa) from Belgium it was rocked by internal fighting between the various groups and tribes. The Congolese Army mutinied, and violence erupted between black and white civilians. Belgium sent troops to protect fleeing whites and two areas of the country Katanga and South Kasai unilaterally seceded from Congo with Belgium support. The UN sent peacekeepers to the country but refused to use these troops to help the central government in Léopoldville fight the secessionists. Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba, the charismatic leader of the largest nationalist faction, reacted by calling for assistance from the Soviet Union, which promptly sent military advisors and other support.
The involvement of Soviet Union and communist advisors in Congo spurred the Portuguese government which till then only had offered low level support, in recognizing the government of Moise Tshombe Republic of Katanga and providing it with military and economic aid. During 1960-1962 Portuguese Federation had over 5,000 troops and military advisors in Katanga advising the government and training the Katangan army meanwhile in September 1960 Belgium troops withdrew from Katanga and the remainder of Congo. They were replaced by Portuguese troops who provided much needed military and political support to the Tshombe government whose capital was in Elizabethville. The stabilization of the government of Katanga kept the UN troops out of the country. Several incursions into Katanga by the military of Congo were beaten back resulting in thousands of casualties’ majority being civilians attacked by Congolese troops.

The UN became alarmed at Portuguese involvement in Congo and demanded that the Portuguese Federation withdraw its troops, but the Portuguese did not respond. During spring and summer of 1961 there were several clashes between UN peacekeepers and Katangan forces resulted in many countries condemning the Portuguese Federation. Then in the summer of 1961 the government of Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba was overthrown in a military coup backed by Congolese President Joseph Kasa-Vubu. Lumamba escaped and fled east reestablishing himself in Stanleyville. The Soviet Union continued to support Lumamba while President Kasa-Vubu appealed to western countries especially the US for support.



The three factions in the Congo Crises of 1960 -1964

From 1962 to 1964 Congo was afflicted by civil war between the three factions each supported by a different group. The UN troops came under fire from all three groups and suffered several casualties forcing it to withdraw from Congo in October 1962. The Communist forces of Lumamba slowly gained on both Katanga and Kasa-Vubu troops during 1963. The Kasa-Vubu forces suffered a major defeat in Coquilhatville in September 1963 resulting in the loss Northern Congo leaving Genema as the last Kasa-Vubu stronghold in the north. Meanwhile Katanga lost both Albertville and Baudouiville to Lumamba forces. The allied state of South Kasai fell to Kasa-Vubu troops and the remaining whites and many blacks fled south into Katanga. In November 1963 Lumamba troops began attacking Kasa-Vubu forces at Banningville. When the city fell the government of Kasa-Vubu seemed on the verge of collapse.


During the second half of 1963 the government Kasa-Vubu received substantial military and financial support from western countries especially the USA. The Republic of Katanga continued to build up its troops and in December 1963 launched two major offensives. In the east, its forces defeated Lumamba troops and captured Albertville on 17 January 1964. Meanwhile in the west its troops defeated the Kasa-Vubu forces and captured Bakwanga but the fighting in the south weakened Kasa-Vubu forces and Lumamba troops captured Leopoldville in March 1964.

The fall of Kasa-Vabu forced the US to switch its allegiances to Katanga and it recognized the country on 1 March 1964 this was followed by Britain and France as well as most of the western world. During spring and summer of 1964 Lumumba forces attempted to stamp out any remaining opposition meanwhile repeatedly clashing with Katanga troops along the border. In October 1964 representatives from Congo (Stanleyville) and Katanga along with major powers and Portuguese Federation met in Switzerland for peace negotiations. In December 1964, a peace treaty was signed recognizing Katanga and Congo (Stanleyville).[3]



In 1964 the remainder of Africa both independent countries and colonies responded to what they perceived as European colonial interference with anger. Demonstrations against Portuguese Federation and Europeans in general spiked and Britain scrambled to contain the violence in its remaining colonies and protect its white settlers. In 1964 – 1965 the remainder of British colonies declared their independence. Botswana, Gambia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius and Zambia all became independent and for most part these countries’ governments turned against western Europeans.
Other than the Portuguese Federation and French Africa (Tangiers, Oran, French Algeria, French Somalia and French Comoros) only the countries of South Africa and Rhodesia which were ruled by white minority governments stood apart from the new black African countries.

In the newly independent African countries surrounding the Portuguese Federation its leaders increasingly became hostile to the Portuguese Federation and advocated and supported Africans living in the Portuguese Federation to revolt against the Portuguese. The countries of Congo (Brazzaville), Tanzania, Mali and Senegal along with Congo (Stanleyville) began providing weapons, bases and protections to independence forces who wanted to expel the Portuguese from Africa. From 1961 to 1965 “rebel groups” in these countries launched raids into the Portuguese Federation attacking both civilian and government targets. This was followed by Portuguese retaliation strikes and on many occasions’ clashes with the African countries’ military.[4]



Africa in 1965

In 1965 three major events would transform Africa: i) formation of the Pan-African Alliance and the Arab League Alliance, ii) the escalation of violence against white Europeans and Indians in newly independent African countries iii) the South African Civil War.

In 1963 the Organization of African Union (OAU) was established in Addis Ababa.[5] Its objective was:

  • To co-ordinate and intensify the co-operation of African states in order to achieve a better life for the people of Africa;
  • To defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of African states;
  • The eradication of all forms of colonialism and white minority rule as, when it was established.
The biggest dividing issue for the organization was the Portuguese Federation. Its continued presence in Africa angered most Africans but the attempts to integrate blacks in the country and the continued rising standard of living for blacks in the Federation differentiated it from white minority rule of Rhodesia and South Africa. The Congo Civil War made many of the member states of the OAU decide that a stronger and more active organization was needed to deal with conflicts and foreign intervention in Africa. In 1965 the Pan-African Alliance was established with its capital in Dar es Salaam Tanzania. Led by Tanzania’s president Julius Kambarage Nyerere it opposed both white minority rule of Rhodesia and South Africa as well as Portuguese Federation and the presence of non-Africans in Africa. In March 1965 Tanzania, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo, Peoples Democratic Republic of Guinea, Benin and Mali became the founding members of the Pan African Alliance. During the remainder of 1965 several other African countries also joined, with Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Senegal and Guinea joining in June and Zambia, Malawi, Botswana and Swaziland joining in August 1965.

This coincided with Zambia and Malawi stopping all work on the half-finished Portuguese railway and pipeline between East and West Africa resulting in the Portuguese Federation being forced to evacuate all Portuguese citizens working in the two countries. Tensions in Africa rose between the countries supporting and belonging to the Pan-African Alliance and Portuguese Federation. Benin demanded Portuguese Federation hand over Ajuda which the Portuguese refused. Benin then placed a blockade on Ajuda causing Portuguese Federation to move its Atlantic Fleet including the aircraft carrier Vasco da Gama to the gulf forcing it to back down. In first half of the 1960s following the CIA involvement in the attempted coup of the Portuguese government the USA was weary of openly arming groups or countries who were opposed to the Federation and the USA demands that American weapons not be used against the Federation was rejected by majority of the African countries. The Soviets had no problems in supporting these countries and actively encouraged them to confront the Federation. They provided the Pan-African Alliance with large quantity of weapons and sent thousands of military advisors to the countries gaining much leverage on the continent with several countries such as Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo, Mali and Senegal aligning with Soviet bloc and openly adopting communist policies and economic models.

Meanwhile the split of Algeria as well as continued French and Portuguese occupation of parts of Morocco angered the Arab League and Egypt’s President Nasser formed the Arab League Alliance in Africa with the aim of repulsing both France and the Portuguese Federation from Africa. The member states were Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco and it’s capital was in Cairo.



Africa Alliances 1965

Anti-white and anti-non-African violence in Pan-African Alliance countries escalated during 1965 with several countries such as Uganda and Tanzania expelling all non-Africans some with nothing more than what they could carry (Whites, Indians and Asians were all targeted). Even in neutral OAU countries violence against non-Africans grew resulting in over 500,000 whites, Indians and other non-Africans being forced to flee OAU and Pan-African nations. The British Commonwealth countries of Canada, Australia and New Zealand accepted 80% of the refugees with the Portuguese Federation accepting over 50,000 refugees and remainder fleeing to other countries.


[1] The majority of the newly independent leaders were at best leery of the Federation or worse vehemently opposed to it. They viewed the success of the Federation as a threat of African for black Africans that had gained popularity during the late 1950s. Regardless of the rights that blacks had in the Federation or their economic situation (much higher than majority in the newly independent countries. As for the remaining colonies the aspiring independent the black leaders felt that a successful Federation was a threat to their independence and power.

[2] With negotiations stalled and continued attacks by insurgents in Algiers the French decided to abandon the remaining half of the city they continued to control. During the month of December all French citizens and thousands of Algerians bid goodbye to their homes and businesses and were evacuated. iOTL the evacuation to France by French colonist and Algerians loyal to France caused much discord and social problems.

[3] As part of the peace treaty Katanga was forced to withdraw its forces from South Kassai and provide Congo with 15% of its revenue from Mining concessions.
[4] Mali and Senegal provided support and bases for the PAIGC group fighting Portuguese forces along the Portuguese Guinea border. The Republic of Congo supported FNLA while the Democratic Republic of Congo supported MPLA allowing it to operate in its territory and both insurgent groups attacked Portuguese provinces in Portuguese West Africa. In East Africa, Tanzania provided support to FRELIMO who used based in Tanzania to attack Portuguese border areas. From 1961 to 1965 the Portuguese captured several hundred insurgents either during their border attacks on as part of Portuguese commando attacks on the insurgent bases in the neighboring countries. Two thirds of the insurgents killed or captured were identified as Europeans, Arabs or Africans from outside Portuguese Federation allowing the Portuguese to portrait the insurgents as foreign invaders instead of Africans demanding independence from Portuguese Federation.

[5] The Portuguese Federation and both Guinea Boke and Katanga were barred from joining the OAU. The OAU was shocked by the Portuguese Federation application to join the UAO and refused it on the basis that Portuguese Federation capital was not in Africa. While Guinea Boke and Katanga were classified as foreign controlled (Portuguese Federation) and also barred.


The Portuguese Federation has has a major impact on African continent and not one for the better. While the Federation was much more capable of handling itself and defending it territory the forces arrayed against it had grown considerably since 1960. Not only did it face adversary in south with SA and newly independent Rhodesia both minority white controlled feeling threatened by Federation and hostile to it. Around it the newly independent African countries almost all with exception of two countries it had helped was surrounded by enemies. Only their relative weaker military strength prevented them from acting on their animosity towards the federation. But the Soviet Union had stepped in where a constrained US had been afraid of stepping in and was arming Federation neighbors to its teeth. Meanwhile the French had also compounded their actions of alienating the French speaking African states by keeping Oran and Easter Algeria causing the French community to turn its backs to the French and align itself with the Pan African forces. Lastly the Arabs in North Africa were getting ready to fight two countries France and Federation. Questions/ Comments?

Return in 2 weeks on August 30 when we delve into the next part of the World section, the SA Civil War.
That division of Algeria makes little sense, it’s hard to believe France would mainly retain control on the constantinois which was the less controlled region of Algeria, this is particularly ludicrous when most of the coastal area of this french Algeria is in kabylia... i’d Suggest taking a look at partitions plans and Alain peyrefitte’s “faut il partager l’algerie” to get an idea of the partition plans their motivation and their limits.


Tho looking at the map french control of the eastern Sahara is indeed more plausible since it was the hoggar and the Tuaregs were mostly indifferent to the struggle, i’d Probably extend french control more to the west in the Sahara even at this point
 
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Wow, Africa is going to be a major battleground for years to come. Portugal's situation isn't unfamiliar. I'm getting flashbacks of Israel and how it was isolated in the Middle East and how it had to defend itself repeatedly in conflicts like the Six Day War. I guessing Portugal and the PIDE will be busy keeping their hostile neighbors and their "rebel" armies at bay in the next coming years.

Maybe the PIDE can maneuver the Pan-Africans and the South African Alliance to fight each other while leaving Angola and Mozambique un-molested? Just an idea.
 

Lusitania

Donor
@Lusitania now that I remember, didn't Portugal had a parody of superhero movies set during Salazar era with this premise? Because I recall been used for lots of Hearts of Iron 4 memes and such. I think it was... CAPTAIN FALCAO.
But I could be wrong.
Yes it was of course produced many years after the Estado Novo was overthrown. But here we have a comic hero series (one of many centered in Federation) about Portuguese heroes. There was Portugal's own version of Tarzan except he was a black kid who was left orphan due to Arab slave traders. We had our own Buck Rogers in the 22nd century to provide a scenario that the Federation and Estado Novo would be able to continue into the future. We had alot of historical comics both about real Portuguese heroes and fictional characters set in Portuguese past.
 
Yes it was of course produced many years after the Estado Novo was overthrown. But here we have a comic hero series (one of many centered in Federation) about Portuguese heroes. There was Portugal's own version of Tarzan except he was a black kid who was left orphan due to Arab slave traders. We had our own Buck Rogers in the 22nd century to provide a scenario that the Federation and Estado Novo would be able to continue into the future. We had alot of historical comics both about real Portuguese heroes and fictional characters set in Portuguese past.
Wait, did I just travel forward in time or you inteded to say 21st instead of 22nd?
 

Lusitania

Donor
I get the feeling that the Six Day war equivalent is going to be more international in scope
hm.. it does happen in this TL like iOTL. maybe you right but we have more to write about before we get to war with the two alliances.

Good idea except here is no CPLP since only two countries in world speak Portuguese (Federation and Brazil) but that does not mean there could no be a British Commonwealth copy that would have the Federation as one of its principle countries. It could be something of a hybrid of British Commonwealth, EEC and NATO. Oh that would be freaky and dangerous if it happen. Hm.. who would be its members, both 1960s and beyond?

Wow, Africa is going to be a major battleground for years to come. Portugal's situation isn't unfamiliar. I'm getting flashbacks of Israel and how it was isolated in the Middle East and how it had to defend itself repeatedly in conflicts like the Six Day War. I guessing Portugal and the PIDE will be busy keeping their hostile neighbors and their "rebel" armies at bay in the next coming years.

Maybe the PIDE can maneuver the Pan-Africans and the South African Alliance to fight each other while leaving Angola and Mozambique un-molested? Just an idea.
PIDE, hmm not know what that is but Portugal has two very good intelligence organizations split like the USA (SIS for internal security and DGS for External) So we could be having the DGS meddling in the affairs of these African countries. We will discuss the working of the DGS in the Security section. As for them fighting each other they are physically far enough that it would be hard and we not sure how long or potent these alliances will be. We just have to wait a little longer.
 

Lusitania

Donor
That division of Algeria makes little sense, it’s hard to believe France would mainly retain control on the constantinois which was the less controlled region of Algeria, this is particularly ludicrous when most of the coastal area of this French Algeria is in kabylia... i’d Suggest taking a look at partitions plans and Alain peyrefitte’s “faut il partager l’algerie” to get an idea of the partition plans their motivation and their limits.


Tho looking at the map French control of the eastern Sahara is indeed more plausible since it was the hoggar and the Tuaregs were mostly indifferent to the struggle, i’d Probably extend French control more to the west in the Sahara even at this point
You are right that from iOTL perspective the French control went contrary to what Alain peyrefitte’s had written. But the biggest determining factor for the French was the Annexation of Tangier in the late 1950s which following the French participation in the Suez Crises had resulted in the the Arabs re-imposing an oil embargo on France and it became dependent on oil from the Federation and Venezuela. Therefore just as France made a plan to switch to nuclear power iOTL so it was not reliant on foreign oil and gas for its power generation iTTL it also made an effort to develop the only oil and gas fields under its control at the end of the 1950s that being the oil and gas in eastern Algeria. Thousands of French citizens moved there and eastern Algeria became "French". As the military and security issue became more acute for the French there was much debate about the future of French Algeria. The assassination of de Gaul removed the last obstacle to the division of Algeria.

While France negotiated with Algerian separatists it continued strengthening its presence it the two areas it planned on maintaining the Oran enclave and Eastern Algeria. Algiers was practically abandoned by French citizens with only military and government officials living and working there. Eastern Algeria was "cleansed" of non French supporters by the Muslims who wanted to stay under French control.

Of course this would lead France to future confrontations which we will get to soon. For it left it surrounded by angry and resentful neighbors.


Map of the Oil and Gas fields of Algeria with the eastern part having the most important and the ones started being explored in the later 1950s early 1960s.
Blue line the division of Algeria into French and independent Algeria (Oran enclave not shown)

Therefore national energy independence trumped other considerations and due to political considerations of controlling the territory instead of developing the oil and gas field in Algeria. This change came about due to FLN statement by Ahmed Ben Bella who stated that FLN wanted not only to expel France from Algeria but would have no dealing with the country while it held Tangier enclave. This was followed by additional hard line statements to kill all French and drench the Algerian soil with French blood. As the more radical and leftwing elements of the FLN gained more power it became apparent to the French they would have a hard time dealing with an independent Algeria. De Gaul was opposed to the separation of Algeria and thought that an agreement could be made with the FLN. He even flouted the idea that the future of Tangier could be negotiated if it was in France best interest. Many Historian and conspiracy believers have for years stated that this is what led to his assassination by more nationalist elements of the security forces.
 
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Lusitania

Donor
1960 – 1969

World

South African Civil War
In 1960 longtime leader of the Nationalist Party Johannes Gerhardus Strijdom, died and was succeeded by Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd. Prime Minister Verwoerd a longtime republican demanded a new referendum to sever ties with the British Monarchy and establish a Republic.[1] The referendum was set 3 months before the 1961 election so that Verwoerd could become the country’s first President. But unlike the previous referendum 10 years before this one became a referendum on the Nationalist Party and their handling of the country security and economy. Since the late 1950s as tensions with the Portuguese Federation had risen so had the country defense costs at same time the economy continued to weaken as all economic ties cut off and investments in the Federation had been confiscated. In addition, the closing of emigration during the 1950s had contributed to the domestic economy growth dropping to less than 2% by 1960 with mining exports the only thing maintaining the country economy growing.[2] The referendum proved to be another nail biter and once again the commonwealth side won the referendum this time with a larger margin 52.5 to 47.5 leaving the country again deeply divided.

The 1961 election was a bitter campaign with the Nationalist Party and rightwing Nationalist Afrikaners lashing out at all those around them. The election went the way the referendum went with Nationalist Party losing several seats but maintained a slim majority of two. During the next four years the commonwealth continued to pressure SA to end white minority rule, much to the chagrin of many whites in South Africa, especially the Afrikaners. From 1963 Prime Minister Verwoerd refused to attend any commonwealth events and meetings. In 1965 the election was again very close with several Nationalist Party members at risk of losing their seats in what had been considered strong Nationalist ridings. The United Party advocated giving Asians and Mixed Race right to vote but to placate the whites fear of loosing control still advocated against Africans voting. To appeal to the business community and people hoping for better economic opportunities it promised to invest in infrastructure and public works and open emigration to Europeans. The Nationalist Party led by Hendrik Verwoerd was defeated by United Party who continued to be led by De Villiers Graaff. Even though the United Party only had a slim one seat majority, Prime Minister Graaff government made good on his party’s election promise and introduced legislation to grant Indians, and mixed-race South Africans with equal rights as white South Africans. The Afrikaners reacted angrily to the government announcement and demonstrations and violence broke out in many towns and cities. The government responded by ordering the police to arrest the demonstrators if they broke the law, but the police majority of which were Afrikaners refused, and the government was forced to call out the army in an attempt to keep order but several elements of the army and police revolted against the government. With the government paralyzed the Afrikaner supporters of the National Party within the military and police attempted to overthrow the government and establish a Republic. Prime Minister Graaff and his government were forced to flee to Cape Town which they made their capital, meanwhile the Nationalist party with support of military established their own capital in Pretoria with Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd proclaiming himself President of Republic of SA.

Troops and citizens supporting the United Party rallied against the Afrikaner revolt which most called the Nationalist Revolt. Joining the United supporters was several black groups most notably the Zulus.[3] The cities and areas around Natal, Port Elizabeth and Cape Town became the main areas of support for United forces. At same time, communist rebels from Southwest Africa and South Africa hoping to take advantage situation also became involved in the fighting. Facing two adversaries Prime Minister Graaff requested assistance from Britain and other members of the British Commonwealth. The Commonwealth assistance was held up due to British election which resulted in Labor party winning the election and the new Prime Minister James Harold Wilson was dealt with his first major test. Compounding the British ability to respond was the fact that it was already involved in two major theaters and both the British Navy and army were stretched thin. The two other major Commonwealth countries namely Canada and Australia had also a large portion of their military forces committed to fighting communism and were hard pressed to commit large number of troops.[4] At the Commonwealth emergency meeting Britain, Canada and Australia all committed to providing supplies, weapons and advisors but together could only provide about 5,000 troops the task of providing the majority of the commonwealth troops fell to the several Indian commonwealth countries. Democratic Union of India (DUI), Tamil Nadu, Mysore and Hyderabad all committed to providing over 150,000 troops but tensions in the Indian Subcontinent prevented the Mysore and Hyderabad from sending over the troops they promised and by only 65,000 troops from DUI and Tamil Nadu were sent. Another major issue was where these forces would be deployed with both countries demanding their forces be deployed in areas with large Indian migrants. Over the next several months thousands of British and Commonwealth troops arrived in South Africa and were deployed in Eastern SA between Durban and East London.[5]

The Commonwealth troops from the two Indian countries was not received with much enthusiasm by the South Africans and cooperation between them and Commonwealth troops was strained. In addition Britain, Canada and Australia struggled to support not only the United SA government but were negligent in supporting the Indian forces. The Nationalists and Communists specifically targeted the commonwealth troops and those they perceived as their supporters, Asians and Indians along with those allied with them were specifically targeted and both United and Commonwealth forces were hard-pressed to protect the unarmed civilians from attacks. Horrific images of dead and mutilated civilians filled world televisions as the South Africa Civil War took a turn for worse.

The countries of Botswana and Swaziland due to their weak armed forces soon became the primary bases for the communist rebels who operated in these countries with impunity. From these countries the communists were able to capture and occupy the northern half of Southwest African and all lands around Swaziland by end of 1965. Commonwealth/United troops held Western Cape, Eastern Cape and Natal including the major coastal cities. During January 1966 the Portuguese moved several units to the border with South Africa and South West Africa which prompted the UK backed by other commonwealth nations to send a strongly worded “request” that Portuguese Federation remain out of South Africa. By the end of August 1966, the Commonwealth had over 50,000 troops in South Africa fighting on the United Side.


South Africa August 1966,
Portuguese (Green), National Republic (Tan), Communist (Red), Commonwealth/United (Pink)

The commonwealth/United forces fought a two-front war as well as fighting insurgency from both Afrikaners and communists. As it struggled to hold the land it controlled thousands of refugees from both Afrikaners and communist held areas streamed into the United held territory straining its already stretched resources. In October 1966, a Nationalist offensive cut the commonwealth/United controlled land in half with Eastern Cape falling to Nationalist Republic forces.[6] The Commonwealth countries reacted by increasing their troops levels in South Africa but were unable to reverse the loses to the Nationalist and communists forces who captured part of eastern Natal province. To the north though the Nationalist did not fare as well, with much of the Nationalist forces concentrated in south fighting the United/Commonwealth the remainder of Southwest African fell to the communists including Walvis Bay which had to be evacuated by ship but even so over 1,000 white and black civilians died in the fighting.

At the start of the civil war a few hundred refugees began arriving along Portuguese border, but as the war continued the number of refugees arriving at the Federation border reached into the thousands. When Walvis Bay was captured by the communist and the Nationalist forces cut United/Commonwealth held territory into two section the number of refugees arriving in the Federation jumped with majority of new arrivals arriving by boat. Portuguese navy and other ships became involved in mass evacuation from affected areas. The Portuguese Federation responded to the sudden influx of refugees by opening several large refugee centers in both East and West African provinces. As the communists advanced in eastern South Africa thousands of white and blacks streamed into Portuguese East African provinces while Portuguese West African provinces also housed thousands of refugees fleeing the communists.

On 15th of October 1966 the Swaziland government which had been supportive of the communists till then was overthrown by the communists and all the country’s leaders including the country’s royals were executed. On 20th of October Botswana’s government which was leaning towards the communists was also overthrown and a united communist African government was formed with Southwest Africa.[7]



South Africa October-November 1966
Portuguese (Green), National Republic (Tan), Communist (Red), Commonwealth/United (Pink)

During the months of December 1966 and January 1967, the communists continued to make advances against the Nationalists, on 15th of December Rhodesia entered the war on the Nationalist’s side attacking the communists along its western border. During the months of February and March 1967 the Commonwealth/United forces despite having over 70,000 troops commonwealth troops in South Africa lost almost all its territory in Natal to two independent offensives; the Communists advanced from east while Nationalists advanced from west leaving only the city of Durban and surrounding lands under commonwealth/United control at end of March. Tens of thousands of whites and blacks fled both the communist and Nationalist advances, majority of which were being evacuated to Portuguese East African provinces. By end of March the number of refugees in Portuguese East African provinces surpassed 100,000 and both Portuguese Federation and Commonwealth ships were evacuating over 10,000 civilians a day from Durban. On 25th of March, the Portuguese navy entered the fight against the communists when Portuguese ships transporting refugees to Lourenco Marques came under attack from shore. In the Cape provinces, the Commonwealth/United troops continued to lose territory with the city of Port Elisabeth evacuated and the enclave of Cape Town reduced to half its size at beginning of year. Troop loses and injuries to insurgents continued to account for half of all loses and injuries. Unfortunately for all their advances in the south the Nationalists continued be pushed back in the north with the communists pushing towards Johannesburg and more troubling reversing the Rhodesian advance with Victoria Falls on the verge of falling to the communists. Nationalist forces and Afrikaner civilians also came under increasing communist insurgency attacks with rail and infrastructure suffering major attacks. The Nationalist capital Pretoria and city Johannesburg suffered repeated blackouts as communist bombed transmission lines repeatedly. The Nationalist forces responded by attacking and suppressing the black population and any other group if felt was a threat, resulting in thousands of civilians fleeing Nationalist army and security forces. Along the Limpopo River the communist made great advances almost reaching the communist forces from Eastern South Africa. Through all this the US, British and Commonwealth nations were adamant that the Portuguese Federation “not involve” itself in an internal South African / Commonwealth matter


Left - South Africa January 1967, Right – South Africa March 1967
Portuguese (Green), National Republic (Tan), Communist (Red), Commonwealth/United (Pink)

During the months of February and March local support for the United/Commonwealth decreased corresponding to loss of territory they controlled while at same time the number of refugees seeking shelter from Nationalist forces grew putting growing strains on United/Commonwealth government. People clamored to be evacuated and thousands were evacuated on specially sent ships by aid organizations or aboard empty ships just unloaded aid and supplies to the commonwealth and United forces. As the situation worsened many within the Commonwealth privately searched for way to extract themselves from the war but publicly continued to support the South African government. While the world wondered how the war could be saved the unimaginable happed, on 13th of March a bomber was able to gain access to the United Government compound and park a truck filled with explosives beside the government building where Prime Minister Graaff and his government were meeting. The explosion destroyed the building along and several others close by, killing 895 people and injuring 3,456. Amongst the casualties was most United government including Prime Minster De Villiers Graaff and all his cabinet and most of the government and military officials. With the United government leaderless the Commonwealth requested negotiations with the Nationalists and on 15th of March a cease fire was announced while negotiations between Commonwealth and Nationalists began. With US support the Commonwealth negotiated the withdrawal of all commonwealth troops along with any South African civilians and United government/forces who wished to leave South Africa. The biggest disagreement was the Nationalists who demanded all troops withdraw from South Africa be completed end of May. The Commonwealth wanted a longer timetable but the Nationalist government of Balthazar Johannes "B. J." Vorster was adamant that all rebels and foreign troops had to be evacuated within two months.[8] Faced with an impossible situation and no support back home for additional troops the Commonwealth agreed to the humiliating conditions. Thus, beginning one of the largest evacuations in modern history. News of the cease fire caused panic and rioting in the Nationalist / Commonwealth controlled areas with hundreds of thousands of civilians clamoring to be evacuated and the commonwealth troops struggled to maintain peace. A UN meeting was convened which the Federation participated to plan the civilian evacuation. It was agreed that to speed up the evacuation from South Africa several processing camps would be established in Brazil to facilitate the evacuation of people and the merchant marine fleets of most commonwealth, the US and other countries from Europe and South America were involved in the evacuation.[9]

Once the Nationalist Republican government was convinced that United/Commonwealth forces were no longer a threat and were solely occupied with evacuating it was able to transfer thousands of troops to both pacify the newly captured areas as well as fight the advancing communist forces to the north and east. The pacification took much longer than anticipated and was viciously brutal. Nationalist forces also stepped up their attack against insurgents and anyone the Nationalists perceived as their supporters. The number of displaced people and internal refugees increased, and thousands fled Nationalist areas to areas controlled by the communists and commonwealth areas.

By middle of April the Nationalists had re-deployed most of their troops and launched two different offensives against both the northern and eastern communist forces. The communists at first repulsed the Nationalist attacks but lacking air support and armored vehicles they were forced to retreat and by 25th of April had suffered major losses in the Northwest province and along the Limpopo River. This was followed by an attack into North West Africa and by 1st of May Walvis Bay had been liberated. In the East, the communists lost half their territory. As the fighting between Nationalist and communists intensified the number of refugees streaming into both Eastern and Western Portuguese Federation provinces overwhelmed local resources in those provinces. By the middle of May, the number of refugees fleeing the fighting in South Africa was close 20,000 a day. The Portuguese Federation marshalled additional military, government resources and civilian volunteers to the border regions to deal with the refugees. The communists continued to be pushed back and by 15th of May they had lost 2/3 of their territory in the east while in the north the Afrikaners had reached the province of Moçamedes in an attempt to surround the communist insurgents and cut off supply routes the sea while the Rhodesians had cut off their supply from Zambia in the north.[10]


Left - South Africa 1 May 1967
Right – South Africa 20 May 1967
Portuguese (Green), Nationalist Republic (Tan), Communist (Red), Commonwealth/United (Pink)

On 20th of May, the remaining Commonwealth troops withdrew from South Africa along with last of the evacuating South Africans. Portuguese Federation Navy and Merchant ships were involved in the evacuation of civilians from both Cape and Durban. On 20th of May, the two cities were turned over to the Nationalist Republican forces. The British and Australians joined the USA in supporting the Nationalist Republicans against the growing Communist threat, while Canada, New Zealand and Indian States continued condemning the Nationalist Republicans for atrocities against civilians.

Faced with a growing humanitarian crisis within its borders the Portuguese appealed for UN support but received little or no support so on 20th of May, the Portuguese Federation responded by closing its borders with South Africa, Rhodesia and South West Africa.[11] This caused a huge humanitarian situation along its border as tens of thousands of refugees were trapped between the sealed border and attacking Nationalist Republican and Rhodesia forces. At same time Nationalist stepped up their attacks on blacks and any other person who they perceived as supporter of the communists or United Party. Thousands of people fled by sea towards the Federation or Madagascar, hide within Nationalist controlled areas or flee into communist controlled areas.

On 21st of May at an emergency meeting of the UN the Portuguese Federation presented evidence of thousands of cases of Nationalist Republican and Rhodesians forcibly evicting blacks and whites opposed to Republican National / Minority white rule, killing men and boys, raping women and girls. A film was shown showing hundreds of black men and boys being massacred and buried in mass graves. Evidence was also provided of Nationalist forces transporting the survivors to the front and forcing them at gun point to cross across into Communist held areas. Those that refused were killed with children, women and elderly amongst the victims. The Portuguese Ambassador stated that the Portuguese Federation would not be party to “Genocide” and demanded the Nationalist and Rhodesian forces stop all actions against the civilians. News of the Portuguese evidence including videos along with copies of cases caused US public support for the Nationalist Republican to evaporate and South Africa became another place the growing American Public condemned and marched against. Both Brittan and Australia two of South African strongest supporters were rocked by massive public marches and demonstrations against the government support of the Nationalist Republic.


South Africa 25 May 1967
Portuguese (Green), Nationalist Republic (Tan), Communist (Red), Commonwealth/United (Pink)

On 23rd of May, the Portuguese Federation through its Ambassador to the UN sent an ultimatum to both Rhodesia and Republic of South Africa to stop their attacks against civilians and warned them that any attack on the Portuguese Federation would be considered an act of war. For two days, the world waited but the Portuguese Federation did not act on its warning and did not respond to the occasional border incursion other than to push the South African and Rhodesian forces back. Meanwhile the number of refugees along both its Western and Eastern African provinces border reached over 100,000 people, with majority starving and very little food and water available.

On 25 May 1967, Portuguese Prime Minister Dr. Antonio Rapazote held high level talks with British Prime Minister Harold Wilson, Australian Prime Minister Harold Holt and US President Humphrey over the phone regarding Portuguese Federation intervention in South Africa. At the meeting the western nations unable themselves to intervene and afraid of the growing humanitarian situation in the country consented to Portuguese intervention in South Africa. Portuguese Federation was given authorization to disarm the National Republican, Rhodesian and Communist forces. Portuguese Federation was not allowed to annex any territory and all countries (South Africa, Rhodesia, Namibia (South West Africa), Swaziland and Lesotho were to be left alone free from Portuguese interference. At 1:30 AM with an agreement in place, Prime Minister Rapazote telephoned Portuguese allies and friends foremost Brazil and Argentina and advised that Portuguese Federation would be launching an attack on the communists and white minority rule in Southern Africa within hours.[12]


[1] In 1950 the National Party had lost a similar referendum by less than 1%.

[2] The 1950s were a difficult decade for SA, it saw its place as the most industrialized nation on the African continent challenged by the Federation. The Federation’s granting of rights to blacks, contrasted with the apartheid instituted by the National Party stripping blacks of their limited rights. The number of whites in Portuguese Africa surpassed SA. Federation open immigration contrast to the closed emigration that SA endured during the 1950s. Lastly economic tensions led to political tensions and ultimately the breaking of relations due to expulsion of Portuguese emigrants from SA and the Federation confiscation of all property and holding owned by SA businesses and citizens.

[3] Premier De Villiers Graaff appealed to the leaders of the country’s African tribes to support his government. Cyprian Bhekuzulu Nyangayezizwe kaSolomon the king of the Zulus replied to his call and became a strong supporter of the United Party. While they were against the white minority rule, they fearing greater repression, violence and attacks by Nationalist, therefore king kaSolomon and many other black leaders reluctantly supported the United Party but a sizeable minority rallied to the Communists’ banner instead.

[4] The British were involved in two major theatres fighting communist rebels (the Caribbean, Guiana and British Honduras and Malaysia) while the Canadian had the bulk of the forces also fighting alongside the British communist guerillas in the Caribbean and Guiana. The Australians were heavily involved Vietnam. For additional Information see 1960s - World - Americas and the Communist Revolutions, South East Asia and the 1960s - Foreign Affairs.

[5] For Additional Information on the Indian Subcontinent see 1960s - Foreign Affairs

[6] Nationalist Leaders believed that the Commonwealth Forces were the weakest and reason the struct in the eastern SA.

[7] While the Portuguese were “prohibited” from intervening in the SA civil war it did not mean it was completely absent from SA affair. While several small incursions to rescue civilians and some foreigners occurred, they were kept out of press and public attention. In October 1966 when both Swaziland and Botswana governments were overthrown by communist forces was the first public Portuguese military action in the conflict. On 15th of October as the government of Swaziland was overthrown and most officials massacred in their offices or homes Portuguese Airforce supporting Portuguese Marines rescue of remnants of the Swaziland government and royal family along with several dozen foreigners caught in the fighting. Several members of the Swaziland Royal family including Prince Sozisa Dlamini and Prince Khuzulwandle Dlamini were rescued but king and rest of the riyal family were killed or went into hiding. This was followed by Portuguese intervention in Botswana. On October 19 the British Prime Minister telephoned Prime Minister Rapazote requesting assistance in rescuing both British/Commonwealth officials and remnants of the Botswana government. Portuguese marines abord Bristol-Lusitania transport planes supported by CACC fighter jets. The operation was successful with the extraction of 212 foreigners as well as over two dozen Botswana former government officials. Unfortunately, Botswana Prime Minister Philip Matante was not able to be rescued but Seretse Goitsebeng Maphiri Khama leader of the BDP and several other government officials were rescued. Three Portuguese soldiers died in the operations and eight were injured.

[8] In 1966 just one month into the civil war a white communist supporter assassinated Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd and the Nationalist Party nominated Balthazar Johannes "B. J." Vorster as its new leader.

[9] It would take the Commonwealth till October 1967 to close the last of the processing camps in Brazil and relocate the refugees. Offer by the Federation to setup processing camps in the Federation was rejected due to risk of war in Africa expanding to the Federation. Even so the Portuguese Merchant navy did participate in the evacuation.

[10 Nationalist strategy for North West Africa was to control the coast and surround the Communist in the desert.

[11] The Portuguese were caring for over 750,000 South African refugees, most of whom were suffering from health problems when they arrived at the border and with tens of thousands arriving every day it was struggling to feed, and house these refugees in the camps.

[12] During the month of May Portuguese armed forces assembled its military forces both regular and reservists along the border with South Africa-Rhodesia. To hide their presence many of the forces were camouflaged as refugee camps arrayed along the border.


While the Portuguese Federation continued to grow both economically and militarily the same could not be true for SA. What could of been of the Federation most important allies in the African continent had turned into one of biggest adversaries. People of SA were unfortunately caught in two different camps with one half wishing to emulate the Federation and another wanting to place greater restrictions on Africans and continue the rule of white minority. As we see the competing ideas resulted in an armed conflict that soon became a Civil War and turned into a international calamity. The lives of millions of people in SA were turned upside down and they lost everything they owned as they fled the war and anarchy. Meanwhile the Portuguese who were the most capable of intervening had been till the humanitarian situation in SA had caused the western world to request Portuguese assistance. Now how will the Portuguese handle the situation? What about the Pan African and Africa-Arab coalitions waiting to attack the Federation? I guess we will need to wait till next post for those answers. Questions/ Comments?

Return in 2 weeks on September 13when we delve into the next part of the World section, the SA Civil War - Portuguese Intervention.
 
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Pink Map time!

edit: also, how did the Commonwealth do so poorly? they should have clear numeric, material, and technological superiority over the nationalist revolt.
 
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I mean, refusing Portuguese aid even in the face of defeat? Why would Britain do that? British prestige would be at an all time low and the Commonwealth proven impotent. Also given that they were evicted on what ground can they state what the Portuguese can do once the Federation Army takes over, eps. with the international relations been as they are?
 
Isn't Portugal kind of having to intervene anyway from an amoral rationalist perspective, owing to the fact that it'd be highly problematic if a large Communist state bordered them on two fronts?
 
Not going to lie, this whole debacle is going to make the British commonwealth look bad around the world...talk about a total cluster of a mess they left behind for Portugal to clean up.
 
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