Thankfully the coup failed! On Brazil it passed and the results were terrible
Actually there is a Lusito for every province and it is their responsibility to protect it from danger in addition there is 12 national Lusitos who travel around sometimes just a few of them sometimes all 12 and others from other parts of country to deal with more dangerous villains.I wonder who the other members of the Lusitos are? We need a Angolan, a Mozambican, a Portuguese-Chinese from Macau, a Timorese, and maybe a Brazilian and the resurrected Viriathus who secretly was an alien this whole time. Together, they act as the champions of Portugal and her christian values against a hostile world filled with demons, aliens, commies, and rival heros from other factions like the Americans.
@Lusitania now that I remember, didn't Portugal had a parody of superhero movies set during Salazar era with this premise? Because I recall been used for lots of Hearts of Iron 4 memes and such. I think it was... CAPTAIN FALCAO.No none of Lusitos are called Privado Portugal. Good try
Good guess but she is yellow.
Another good guess but he is another Lusito but this times from Azores.
Ah, you are getting Superhero figurines mixed up with your historical figures. Which Magriço is one.
Interesting but alas no one of the Lusitos
The ANSWER IS:
He is the leader of the Lusitos, which are the Portuguese superheroes from all the various regions of the Federation. The Lusitos are here to protect the country from evil communists, enemy agents and other bad guys plus a few aliens. They each have the attributes of the various regions and people of the federation.
His name is Colonel Barcelos and as mentioned is the leader of the Lusitos. While he is not the strongest, fastest or smartest of the Lusitos his attributes are honesty, integrity, trust and honor, and it is also believed to bring good luck when he is present in battles and conflicts.
The Lusitos operate out of a secret headquarters in the center of the country and also have bases in the various regions. Defending the country in the air, land and sea. Here is their coat of arms.
That division of Algeria makes little sense, it’s hard to believe France would mainly retain control on the constantinois which was the less controlled region of Algeria, this is particularly ludicrous when most of the coastal area of this french Algeria is in kabylia... i’d Suggest taking a look at partitions plans and Alain peyrefitte’s “faut il partager l’algerie” to get an idea of the partition plans their motivation and their limits.1960 – 1969Starting in 1960 the remaining French colonies in Africa gained their independence but all stayed within the French Community. The countries of Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Congo (Brazzaville), Gabon, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Togo, and Upper Volta all gained their tentative independence of France in the spring and summer of 1960. France kept these countries within its control and influence within the French Community. In addition, France still controlled Algeria, Tangier, French Somalia, and French Comoros although it was locked into a major war in Algeria with Algerian Muslims demanding independence.
The British for their part granted several of their colonies independence, Somalia and Nigeria gained their independence in 1960 while Sierra Leone and Tanzania gained their independence in 1961. Meanwhile the only other colonial owner in Africa Belgium granted the countries of Burundi, Congo (Kinshasa), and Rwanda independence in 1961.
The Portuguese Federation was suddenly surrounded by several African countries who by the very nature of Portuguese Federation’s existence on the continent were vehemently against it. The Portuguese government attempted to improve both these countries’ perception and attitude of the Federation. As the decade progressed these efforts failed as more and more of the newly independent countries hardened their attitudes towards the Federation.
The Algerian War of Independence
In 1961 the world was shocked by the assassination of French President de Gaulle. This was followed by an intensification of the Algerian War of Independence with both sides stepping up their attacks against not only military targets but also against civilians. Without De Gaulle leadership the French resolve hardened, and the French military and French civilians stepped up their attacks against the main Algerian Muslim group fighting for independence, Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) and its supporters. But for all the French military might by 1962 the French control of Algeria was tenuous with Oran enclave and Eastern Algeria being the areas it had been able to establish greater control. Meanwhile in Switzerland negotiations between the French and FLN intensified and in June a tentative agreement was finally reached. On 1 July 1962 a ceasefire was declared. Prior to the cease fire in March 1962 hundreds of French citizens living in western Algeria and its capital Algiers were massacred and majority of French citizens not feeling safe in western Algeria either fled to the French enclave of Oran or French controlled eastern Algeria. Meanwhile thousands of Muslim Algerians in eastern Algerian cities Tizi Ouzou and Bougie were also massacred and fled to Muslim control areas in western Algeria. Following the ceasefire, the movement of French citizens and Algerians allied with France began, tens of thousands of French citizens and Algerians wishing to live under French rule moved to Oran enclave or eastern Algeria, where the French controlled the most territory. Attempts to negotiate a referendum on the future of Algeria and permanent peace treaty was unsuccessful due to the French demand that regions of Algeria wishing to stay under French rule be allowed to while the FLN demanded the referendum apply to all of Algeria. By end of 1962, all French citizens and Algerians wishing to remain part of France were evacuated by the French military to Oran and Eastern Algeria. On 1 January 1963 Algeria declared independence from France with Algiers as its capital. Meanwhile French Algeria encompassed all land 15 miles east of capital of Algeria and the enclave of Oran remained part of France. The FLN refused to recognize French Algeria and border clashes continued along the French - Algerian border. Both the Muslim countries and the Independent French speaking African countries reacted angrily to the French decision. The Muslim countries announce an oil embargo on France and the French Community collapsed with the withdrawal of the French speaking countries in protest to the French actions.
The Congo Crisis
Following the independence of Congo (Kinshasa) from Belgium it was rocked by internal fighting between the various groups and tribes. The Congolese Army mutinied, and violence erupted between black and white civilians. Belgium sent troops to protect fleeing whites and two areas of the country Katanga and South Kasai unilaterally seceded from Congo with Belgium support. The UN sent peacekeepers to the country but refused to use these troops to help the central government in Léopoldville fight the secessionists. Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba, the charismatic leader of the largest nationalist faction, reacted by calling for assistance from the Soviet Union, which promptly sent military advisors and other support.
The involvement of Soviet Union and communist advisors in Congo spurred the Portuguese government which till then only had offered low level support, in recognizing the government of Moise Tshombe Republic of Katanga and providing it with military and economic aid. During 1960-1962 Portuguese Federation had over 5,000 troops and military advisors in Katanga advising the government and training the Katangan army meanwhile in September 1960 Belgium troops withdrew from Katanga and the remainder of Congo. They were replaced by Portuguese troops who provided much needed military and political support to the Tshombe government whose capital was in Elizabethville. The stabilization of the government of Katanga kept the UN troops out of the country. Several incursions into Katanga by the military of Congo were beaten back resulting in thousands of casualties’ majority being civilians attacked by Congolese troops.
The UN became alarmed at Portuguese involvement in Congo and demanded that the Portuguese Federation withdraw its troops, but the Portuguese did not respond. During spring and summer of 1961 there were several clashes between UN peacekeepers and Katangan forces resulted in many countries condemning the Portuguese Federation. Then in the summer of 1961 the government of Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba was overthrown in a military coup backed by Congolese President Joseph Kasa-Vubu. Lumamba escaped and fled east reestablishing himself in Stanleyville. The Soviet Union continued to support Lumamba while President Kasa-Vubu appealed to western countries especially the US for support.
The three factions in the Congo Crises of 1960 -1964
From 1962 to 1964 Congo was afflicted by civil war between the three factions each supported by a different group. The UN troops came under fire from all three groups and suffered several casualties forcing it to withdraw from Congo in October 1962. The Communist forces of Lumamba slowly gained on both Katanga and Kasa-Vubu troops during 1963. The Kasa-Vubu forces suffered a major defeat in Coquilhatville in September 1963 resulting in the loss Northern Congo leaving Genema as the last Kasa-Vubu stronghold in the north. Meanwhile Katanga lost both Albertville and Baudouiville to Lumamba forces. The allied state of South Kasai fell to Kasa-Vubu troops and the remaining whites and many blacks fled south into Katanga. In November 1963 Lumamba troops began attacking Kasa-Vubu forces at Banningville. When the city fell the government of Kasa-Vubu seemed on the verge of collapse.
During the second half of 1963 the government Kasa-Vubu received substantial military and financial support from western countries especially the USA. The Republic of Katanga continued to build up its troops and in December 1963 launched two major offensives. In the east, its forces defeated Lumamba troops and captured Albertville on 17 January 1964. Meanwhile in the west its troops defeated the Kasa-Vubu forces and captured Bakwanga but the fighting in the south weakened Kasa-Vubu forces and Lumamba troops captured Leopoldville in March 1964.
The fall of Kasa-Vabu forced the US to switch its allegiances to Katanga and it recognized the country on 1 March 1964 this was followed by Britain and France as well as most of the western world. During spring and summer of 1964 Lumumba forces attempted to stamp out any remaining opposition meanwhile repeatedly clashing with Katanga troops along the border. In October 1964 representatives from Congo (Stanleyville) and Katanga along with major powers and Portuguese Federation met in Switzerland for peace negotiations. In December 1964, a peace treaty was signed recognizing Katanga and Congo (Stanleyville).
In 1964 the remainder of Africa both independent countries and colonies responded to what they perceived as European colonial interference with anger. Demonstrations against Portuguese Federation and Europeans in general spiked and Britain scrambled to contain the violence in its remaining colonies and protect its white settlers. In 1964 – 1965 the remainder of British colonies declared their independence. Botswana, Gambia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius and Zambia all became independent and for most part these countries’ governments turned against western Europeans.
Other than the Portuguese Federation and French Africa (Tangiers, Oran, French Algeria, French Somalia and French Comoros) only the countries of South Africa and Rhodesia which were ruled by white minority governments stood apart from the new black African countries.
In the newly independent African countries surrounding the Portuguese Federation its leaders increasingly became hostile to the Portuguese Federation and advocated and supported Africans living in the Portuguese Federation to revolt against the Portuguese. The countries of Congo (Brazzaville), Tanzania, Mali and Senegal along with Congo (Stanleyville) began providing weapons, bases and protections to independence forces who wanted to expel the Portuguese from Africa. From 1961 to 1965 “rebel groups” in these countries launched raids into the Portuguese Federation attacking both civilian and government targets. This was followed by Portuguese retaliation strikes and on many occasions’ clashes with the African countries’ military.
Africa in 1965
In 1965 three major events would transform Africa: i) formation of the Pan-African Alliance and the Arab League Alliance, ii) the escalation of violence against white Europeans and Indians in newly independent African countries iii) the South African Civil War.
In 1963 the Organization of African Union (OAU) was established in Addis Ababa. Its objective was:
The biggest dividing issue for the organization was the Portuguese Federation. Its continued presence in Africa angered most Africans but the attempts to integrate blacks in the country and the continued rising standard of living for blacks in the Federation differentiated it from white minority rule of Rhodesia and South Africa. The Congo Civil War made many of the member states of the OAU decide that a stronger and more active organization was needed to deal with conflicts and foreign intervention in Africa. In 1965 the Pan-African Alliance was established with its capital in Dar es Salaam Tanzania. Led by Tanzania’s president Julius Kambarage Nyerere it opposed both white minority rule of Rhodesia and South Africa as well as Portuguese Federation and the presence of non-Africans in Africa. In March 1965 Tanzania, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo, Peoples Democratic Republic of Guinea, Benin and Mali became the founding members of the Pan African Alliance. During the remainder of 1965 several other African countries also joined, with Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Senegal and Guinea joining in June and Zambia, Malawi, Botswana and Swaziland joining in August 1965.
- To co-ordinate and intensify the co-operation of African states in order to achieve a better life for the people of Africa;
- To defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of African states;
- The eradication of all forms of colonialism and white minority rule as, when it was established.
This coincided with Zambia and Malawi stopping all work on the half-finished Portuguese railway and pipeline between East and West Africa resulting in the Portuguese Federation being forced to evacuate all Portuguese citizens working in the two countries. Tensions in Africa rose between the countries supporting and belonging to the Pan-African Alliance and Portuguese Federation. Benin demanded Portuguese Federation hand over Ajuda which the Portuguese refused. Benin then placed a blockade on Ajuda causing Portuguese Federation to move its Atlantic Fleet including the aircraft carrier Vasco da Gama to the gulf forcing it to back down. In first half of the 1960s following the CIA involvement in the attempted coup of the Portuguese government the USA was weary of openly arming groups or countries who were opposed to the Federation and the USA demands that American weapons not be used against the Federation was rejected by majority of the African countries. The Soviets had no problems in supporting these countries and actively encouraged them to confront the Federation. They provided the Pan-African Alliance with large quantity of weapons and sent thousands of military advisors to the countries gaining much leverage on the continent with several countries such as Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo, Mali and Senegal aligning with Soviet bloc and openly adopting communist policies and economic models.
Meanwhile the split of Algeria as well as continued French and Portuguese occupation of parts of Morocco angered the Arab League and Egypt’s President Nasser formed the Arab League Alliance in Africa with the aim of repulsing both France and the Portuguese Federation from Africa. The member states were Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco and it’s capital was in Cairo.
Africa Alliances 1965
Anti-white and anti-non-African violence in Pan-African Alliance countries escalated during 1965 with several countries such as Uganda and Tanzania expelling all non-Africans some with nothing more than what they could carry (Whites, Indians and Asians were all targeted). Even in neutral OAU countries violence against non-Africans grew resulting in over 500,000 whites, Indians and other non-Africans being forced to flee OAU and Pan-African nations. The British Commonwealth countries of Canada, Australia and New Zealand accepted 80% of the refugees with the Portuguese Federation accepting over 50,000 refugees and remainder fleeing to other countries.
 The majority of the newly independent leaders were at best leery of the Federation or worse vehemently opposed to it. They viewed the success of the Federation as a threat of African for black Africans that had gained popularity during the late 1950s. Regardless of the rights that blacks had in the Federation or their economic situation (much higher than majority in the newly independent countries. As for the remaining colonies the aspiring independent the black leaders felt that a successful Federation was a threat to their independence and power.
 With negotiations stalled and continued attacks by insurgents in Algiers the French decided to abandon the remaining half of the city they continued to control. During the month of December all French citizens and thousands of Algerians bid goodbye to their homes and businesses and were evacuated. iOTL the evacuation to France by French colonist and Algerians loyal to France caused much discord and social problems.
 As part of the peace treaty Katanga was forced to withdraw its forces from South Kassai and provide Congo with 15% of its revenue from Mining concessions.
 Mali and Senegal provided support and bases for the PAIGC group fighting Portuguese forces along the Portuguese Guinea border. The Republic of Congo supported FNLA while the Democratic Republic of Congo supported MPLA allowing it to operate in its territory and both insurgent groups attacked Portuguese provinces in Portuguese West Africa. In East Africa, Tanzania provided support to FRELIMO who used based in Tanzania to attack Portuguese border areas. From 1961 to 1965 the Portuguese captured several hundred insurgents either during their border attacks on as part of Portuguese commando attacks on the insurgent bases in the neighboring countries. Two thirds of the insurgents killed or captured were identified as Europeans, Arabs or Africans from outside Portuguese Federation allowing the Portuguese to portrait the insurgents as foreign invaders instead of Africans demanding independence from Portuguese Federation.
 The Portuguese Federation and both Guinea Boke and Katanga were barred from joining the OAU. The OAU was shocked by the Portuguese Federation application to join the UAO and refused it on the basis that Portuguese Federation capital was not in Africa. While Guinea Boke and Katanga were classified as foreign controlled (Portuguese Federation) and also barred.
The Portuguese Federation has has a major impact on African continent and not one for the better. While the Federation was much more capable of handling itself and defending it territory the forces arrayed against it had grown considerably since 1960. Not only did it face adversary in south with SA and newly independent Rhodesia both minority white controlled feeling threatened by Federation and hostile to it. Around it the newly independent African countries almost all with exception of two countries it had helped was surrounded by enemies. Only their relative weaker military strength prevented them from acting on their animosity towards the federation. But the Soviet Union had stepped in where a constrained US had been afraid of stepping in and was arming Federation neighbors to its teeth. Meanwhile the French had also compounded their actions of alienating the French speaking African states by keeping Oran and Easter Algeria causing the French community to turn its backs to the French and align itself with the Pan African forces. Lastly the Arabs in North Africa were getting ready to fight two countries France and Federation. Questions/ Comments?
Return in 2 weeks on August 30 when we delve into the next part of the World section, the SA Civil War.
Yes it was of course produced many years after the Estado Novo was overthrown. But here we have a comic hero series (one of many centered in Federation) about Portuguese heroes. There was Portugal's own version of Tarzan except he was a black kid who was left orphan due to Arab slave traders. We had our own Buck Rogers in the 22nd century to provide a scenario that the Federation and Estado Novo would be able to continue into the future. We had alot of historical comics both about real Portuguese heroes and fictional characters set in Portuguese past.
Wait, did I just travel forward in time or you inteded to say 21st instead of 22nd?Yes it was of course produced many years after the Estado Novo was overthrown. But here we have a comic hero series (one of many centered in Federation) about Portuguese heroes. There was Portugal's own version of Tarzan except he was a black kid who was left orphan due to Arab slave traders. We had our own Buck Rogers in the 22nd century to provide a scenario that the Federation and Estado Novo would be able to continue into the future. We had alot of historical comics both about real Portuguese heroes and fictional characters set in Portuguese past.
hm.. it does happen in this TL like iOTL. maybe you right but we have more to write about before we get to war with the two alliances.I get the feeling that the Six Day war equivalent is going to be more international in scope
Good idea except here is no CPLP since only two countries in world speak Portuguese (Federation and Brazil) but that does not mean there could no be a British Commonwealth copy that would have the Federation as one of its principle countries. It could be something of a hybrid of British Commonwealth, EEC and NATO. Oh that would be freaky and dangerous if it happen. Hm.. who would be its members, both 1960s and beyond?
PIDE, hmm not know what that is but Portugal has two very good intelligence organizations split like the USA (SIS for internal security and DGS for External) So we could be having the DGS meddling in the affairs of these African countries. We will discuss the working of the DGS in the Security section. As for them fighting each other they are physically far enough that it would be hard and we not sure how long or potent these alliances will be. We just have to wait a little longer.Wow, Africa is going to be a major battleground for years to come. Portugal's situation isn't unfamiliar. I'm getting flashbacks of Israel and how it was isolated in the Middle East and how it had to defend itself repeatedly in conflicts like the Six Day War. I guessing Portugal and the PIDE will be busy keeping their hostile neighbors and their "rebel" armies at bay in the next coming years.
Maybe the PIDE can maneuver the Pan-Africans and the South African Alliance to fight each other while leaving Angola and Mozambique un-molested? Just an idea.
You are right that from iOTL perspective the French control went contrary to what Alain peyrefitte’s had written. But the biggest determining factor for the French was the Annexation of Tangier in the late 1950s which following the French participation in the Suez Crises had resulted in the the Arabs re-imposing an oil embargo on France and it became dependent on oil from the Federation and Venezuela. Therefore just as France made a plan to switch to nuclear power iOTL so it was not reliant on foreign oil and gas for its power generation iTTL it also made an effort to develop the only oil and gas fields under its control at the end of the 1950s that being the oil and gas in eastern Algeria. Thousands of French citizens moved there and eastern Algeria became "French". As the military and security issue became more acute for the French there was much debate about the future of French Algeria. The assassination of de Gaul removed the last obstacle to the division of Algeria.That division of Algeria makes little sense, it’s hard to believe France would mainly retain control on the constantinois which was the less controlled region of Algeria, this is particularly ludicrous when most of the coastal area of this French Algeria is in kabylia... i’d Suggest taking a look at partitions plans and Alain peyrefitte’s “faut il partager l’algerie” to get an idea of the partition plans their motivation and their limits.
Tho looking at the map French control of the eastern Sahara is indeed more plausible since it was the hoggar and the Tuaregs were mostly indifferent to the struggle, i’d Probably extend French control more to the west in the Sahara even at this point
Left - South Africa 1 May 1967
Right – South Africa 20 May 1967