Between Portugal, Brazil, the Pink Map, Guinea, Macau, and East Timor you'll have a pretty big lusosphere.

Will we see Portugal gaining territory at the expense of other countries like Italy, Germany, and Spain? Maybe a bigger Macau here, more SE Asian bits there, etc.
 

Lusitania

Donor
Between Portugal, Brazil, the Pink Map, Guinea, Macau, and East Timor you'll have a pretty big lusosphere.

Will we see Portugal gaining territory at the expense of other countries like Italy, Germany, and Spain? Maybe a bigger Macau here, more SE Asian bits there, etc.
Gaining territory is difficult with the trend at this time was to get rid of their colonies but do not want to let too much out of bag.

Cheat. I had posted several maps in the maps section prior to starting posting TL.

POD takes effect in the 70s, so I would say unlikely.
Actually POD is in the 1920s.
 
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The Republic (2 of 2)

Lusitania

Donor
The Republic (cont.)
5 October 1910 Revolt

Following the 1908 Lisbon Regicide the instability of the two political parties (Progressive and Regenerador), the changing religious and social views and the regime's apparent inability to adapt to modern times continued to erode support for the monarchy and current government structure. The proponents of the republic, particularly the Republican Party, found ways to take advantage of the situation. The Republican Party presented itself as the only one that had a program that was capable of returning to the country its lost status and place Portugal on the way of progress, and the Portuguese Republican Party organized a coup d'état deposing the constitutional monarchy and established a republican regime in Portugal on 5 October 1910.

The revolt started on 3 October 1910 by soldiers and sailors in Lisbon, by 4th nearly two thousand soldiers and sailors held part the capital. The reluctance of the military to combat the rebelling soldiers and sailors doomed the monarchy and the Republic was proclaimed at 9 o'clock of the next day from the balcony of the Paços do Concelho in Lisbon. After the revolution, a provisional government led by Teófilo Braga directed the fate of the country until the approval of the Constitution in 1911 that marked the beginning of the First Republic. Among other things, with the establishment of the republic, national symbols were changed: the national anthem and the flag. The revolution produced some civil and religious liberties, although there was no advance in women's rights and in workers’ rights, unlike what happened in other European countries.

Political Instability

A Republican Constitution was approved in 1911, inaugurating a parliamentary regime with reduced presidential powers and two chambers of parliament. The constitution generally accorded full civil liberties, the religious liberties of Catholics being an exception.


Religion
The Republic was intensely anti-clerical. Under the leadership of Afonso Costa, the justice minister, the revolution immediately targeted the Catholic Church: churches were plundered, convents were attacked, and clergy were harassed. Scarcely had the provisional government been installed when it began devoting its entire attention to an anti-religious policy, in spite of the disastrous economic situation. On 10 October – five days after the inauguration of the Republic – the new government decreed that all convents, monasteries and religious orders were to be suppressed. All residents of religious institutions were expelled, and their goods confiscated. The Jesuits were forced to forfeit their Portuguese citizenship. A series of anti-Catholic laws and decrees followed each other in rapid succession. On 3rd of November, a law legalizing divorce was passed and then there were laws to recognize the legitimacy of children born outside wedlock, authorize cremation, secularize cemeteries, suppress religious teaching in the schools and prohibit the wearing of the cassock. In addition, the ringing of church bells to signal times of worship was subjected to certain restraints, and the public celebration of religious feasts was suppressed. The government also interfered in the running of seminaries, reserving the right to appoint professors and determine curricula. This whole series of laws authored by Afonso Costa culminated in the law of Separation of Church and State, which was passed on 20 April 1911.

Politics
Even the Portuguese Republic Party (PRP) had to endure the secession of its more moderate elements, who formed conservative republican parties like the Evolutionist Party and the Republican Union. In spite of these splits the PRP, led by Afonso Costa, preserved its dominance, largely due to a brand of clientelist politics inherited from the monarchy. In view of these tactics, a number of opposition forces resorted to violence in order to enjoy the fruits of power. Then in 1912 the Republic faced its first revolt; a royalist attack on Chaves was repelled by republican forces but it was a sign of what was to come for the young republic.

The PRP viewed the outbreak of the First World War as a unique opportunity to achieve a number of goals: putting an end to the twin threats of a Spanish invasion of Portugal and of foreign occupation of the colonies and, at the internal level, creating a national consensus around the regime and even around the party. These domestic objectives were not met, since participation in the conflict was not the subject of a national consensus and since it did not therefore serve to mobilize the population. Quite the opposite occurred: existing lines of political and ideological fracture were deepened by Portugal's intervention in the First World War. The lack of consensus around Portugal’s intervention in turn made possible the appearance of two dictatorships, led by General Pimenta de Castro (January – May 1915) and Sidónio Pais (December 1917 – December 1918).

On 14th of December Sidónio Pais' assassination led to a power vacuum and led the country to a brief civil war. The monarchy’s restoration was proclaimed in the north of Portugal, as the Monarchy of the North (Monarquia do Norte), on 19 January 1919 and, four days later, a monarchist insurrection broke out in Lisbon. A republican coalition government, led by José Relvas, coordinated the struggle against the monarchists by loyal army units and armed civilians. After a series of clashes the monarchists were definitively chased from Porto on 13 February 1919. This military victory allowed the PRP to return to government and to emerge triumphant from the elections held later that year, having won the usual absolute majority.

It was during this restoration of the "old" Republic that an attempted reform was carried out in order to provide the regime with greater stability. In August 1919 a conservative President was elected – António José de Almeida (whose Evolutionist party had come together in wartime with the PRP to form a flawed, because incomplete, Sacred Union) – and his office was given the power to dissolve Parliament.

In all during its nine years of existence the Republic saw seven presidents and 19 ministries and has been described as consisting of "continual anarchy, government corruption, rioting and pillage, assassinations, arbitrary imprisonment and religious persecution”.

Economic Stagnation

Along with new national symbols, a new currency was adopted. The "escudo" was introduced on 22 May 1911 to replace the real (Portuguese for "royal"), at the rate of 1,000 réis to 1 escudo. The escudo's value was initially set at 4$50 escudos = 1-pound sterling, but after 1914 its value fell, and by 1919 its value was fixed at 103$00 to the pound.


Under the nine-year parliamentary regime of the republic, with its 19 governments, growing fiscal deficits, financed by money creation and foreign borrowing, climaxed in hyper-inflation, all made possible by the introduction of paper money after leaving the gold standard as did many other countries during the First World War, and a moratorium on Portugal's external debt service. The cost of living around 1920 was fifteen times higher than what it had been in 1914. Fiscal imprudence and accelerating inflation gave way to massive capital flight, crippling domestic investment. Burgeoning public-sector employment during the Republic was accompanied by a perverse shrinkage in the share of the industrial labor force in total employment.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
This concludes the short history of the Portuguese Republic. As we can see it arose as a reactionary movement attempting to right the wrongs of the country but instead it plunged Portugal into a an even greater precarious situation. iOTL the country would continue suffering for six more years under the republic "anarchy" but iTTL the forces and political will marshalled in an attempt to fix the country's woes (again). Question/ Comments?? Return July 8 for part one of the 1920s.
 
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Lusitania

Donor
MEMORANDUM
NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL
SECRET/SENSITIVE/EYES ONLY
URGENT ACTION
July 1, 2018

MEMORANDUM FOR: SECRETARY POWEL

FROM: J. D. NEGROPONT

SUBJECT: World Defense Alliance Update

As per your request, updated analysis of World Defense Alliance political, economic and military analysis has been completed and the report is herby attached.

This report was completed using all available intelligence resources both in the US and from our allies as such we cannot verify all information. Due to limited time constrains estimates were also made in the reports which are identified.

Special Note: While no specific conclusions are made in the report it is important to underline that the World Defense Alliance continues to grow both economically and in size. Current strategies to contain its strength have clearly not worked and new strategy needs to be decided otherwise several additional countries are subject to fall under its influence and control.


_________________________________________________________________________________

Diary entry July 1 2018

Continuing to integrate myself in the "Norman Rockwell" America. Been working as a mechanic a Al Garage in town and dating girl in town named Abbey. Ignorant as a door nob but at least she fun to be with. Today for example I just wanted to just hang around my place and relax but was dragged to "Space Day" celebrations in town as folks all over US celebrate American Space glory. The Speech by the mayor praising the sacrifice of the brave American Astronauts who were the first to visit both the Moon and Mars made me almost gag. Every year the Americans commemorate the first human landing on the planet Mars 25 years ago (too bad they all died on the red planet). The Americans though never gave up and five years later landed another group of astronauts and this time all returned home. That the feat was copied by both the stupid communists and the Lusitania space programs is ignored. All that is important is that the Americans were the first.

But my mind is on a different anniversary today, the start of the 9th National Union Party Congress 43 years ago. That congress was the catalyst in which the National Union was able to reform just enough to fool the country and continue its domination and control of the Federation which in turn led it to dominate and control the Lusitania Commonwealth that in the 1990s became the World Defense Alliance. If only those stupid conservatives had won then the whole apple cart would of come crashing down, instead it grew and prospered.

CLIP
 

Lusitania

Donor
Don't see how it's possible that Portugal, Angola and Mozambique could have Moon/Mars landing program?
Ok my apologies when I said multi country I should of explained it. It included the Portuguese federation (which is much larger than just Portugal and what you consider Portuguese colonies) but also included countries in South America, Europe, Indian sub continent and Asia).

The federation is one of the largest economies in the Alliance but not the dominant. Just one of several large economies in the Alliance.
 
1920s

Lusitania

Donor
1920 - 1929
The 1920s is frequently referred to as the "Roaring Twenties" or the "Jazz Age" in North America, while in Europe the period is sometimes referred to as the "Golden Age Twenties" because of the economic boom following World War I. French speakers refer to the period as the "Années folles" (“Crazy Years”), emphasizing the era's social, artistic, and cultural dynamism.

The economic prosperity experienced by many countries during the 1920s was the result of a paradigm shift in global affairs in part as the result of the conclusion of World War I and Spanish flu.

The 1920s saw foreign oil companies begin operations throughout South America. Venezuela became the world's second largest oil producing nation.

The 1920s saw the development of many new inventions such as penicillin, televisions, liquid fuel rocket and Iron lung.

In some countries, the 1920s saw the rise of radical political movements, especially in regions that were once part of empires. Communism spread as a consequence of the October Revolution and the Bolsheviks' victory in the Russian Civil War. Fear of the spread of Communism led to the emergence of far-right political movements and fascism in Europe. Economic problems contributed to the emergence of dictators in Eastern Europe and the Balkans, to include Józef Piłsudski in the Second Polish Republic, and Peter and Alexander Karađorđević in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

The devastating Wall Street Crash in October 1929 is generally viewed as a harbinger of the end of 1920s prosperity in North America and Europe.

In Portugal, the 1920s saw the fall of the Portuguese Republic and after some uncertainty the installation of Dictatorship under President Carmona. The people tired of the anarchy which had been come to symbolize the Republic welcomed the stability and security even if it came at the expense of certain freedoms. During the 20s the Portuguese economy expanded spurred in part by the discovery of oil in Algarve. The 1920s also saw a decrease in personal liberties but for many individuals it was a small price to pay for the security it finally afforded the populace following over a decade of anarchy and violence. The 1920s witnessed the emergence of several major political and business individuals that would go on to shape the country in the following decades.

___________________________________________________________________________________

The historical information on Portugal and the major events impacting the country are presented in the following sections:

The sections above will be linked to the appropriate posts as they are published.
 
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1920s - Country

Lusitania

Donor
1920 - 1929 (cont.)
Country

In 1920 Portugal encompassed the western most part of the Iberian Peninsula in Europe and the two Atlantic island groups Azores and Madeira. In Africa the Portuguese had retained its historical territory during the scramble for Africa; with the exception of Angola and Mozambique which were large territories the remaining with small holding (Cape Verde Islands, Portuguese Guinea, Sao Tome and Principe as well as small enclave of Ajuda on Gold Coast. Meanwhile its possessions in India and Asia were small undeveloped enclaves (Goa, Daman and Diu in Indian Subcontinent, Macau in the Pearl River Estuary and Portuguese Timor in East Indies.


Map of world showing relative position and size of Portugal and its possessions in the 1920s


Map of Portugal (Iberian Peninsula)


Map of Portuguese possessions and colonies

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This section was a visual introduction to the country and its possessions during the 1920s. Question/ Comments?? Return July 22 for part one of the 1920s - politics as we introduce the major POD.
 
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1920s - Politics (1 of 2)

Lusitania

Donor
1920 - 1929 (cont.)
Politics (1 of 2)

Republic and 2 January 1920 Coup
As 1919 ended and a new decade emerged the Republic government of Alfredo de Sa Cardoso while one of the most long-lasting republican governments was unable to resolve the political and financial situation of Portugal. As with previous governments the Portuguese government was unable to control government expenditures and was running a large deficit. Dissatisfaction with the government grew as anarchy reigned in the country and capital. In 1919 alone, the city of Lisbon suffered over 50 bombings and political assassinations, terrorism griped not only the capital but also the country. It was under this setting that many Portuguese disillusioned with the Republic supported the overthrow of the government.

On 31 December 1919 as many of the country’s leading conservative and military officials and their families celebrated the coming new decade, final commitments and support was received to fix the political quagmire the country found itself in. It was after midnight when one of the leading military leaders in attendance, General António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona, was introduced to two new attendees, Admiral João Semedo and Pedro Magalhães Mai (May) both Portuguese by birth but educated and until recently residing in Great Britain. Admiral Semedo had recently relocated to Portugal but with the current political and economic situation of the country he was contemplating seeking his fortunes elsewhere; with Brazil topmost of his choices. Meanwhile Mr. Mai a British government secretary was scheduled to return to London at end of January. General António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona was very impressed with the two gentlemen and requested they meet again within next two weeks. Both Anglo-Portuguese men agreed although somewhat hesitatingly.

On 2 January 1920, the Portuguese Republic was overthrown by military leaders in what became known as the “2nd of January Coup”. The military action was celebrated by many in the country and large crowds greeted the news of the Republic’s demise.


Victorious Military Troop march through Lisbon on 2 January 1920

On 2nd of February José Mendes Cabeçadas became both Prime Minister and President. During the month of February, the 1st Republic Congress was dissolved, all political parties were banned, and all local leaders were replaced. President Cabeçadas, a believer in democracy came under fire by the more conservative members coup and on 16th of March was forced to resign. General Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa succeeded him and was proclaimed President on 20th of March. Under his leadership the monarchists gained considerable influence much to the chagrin of the conservative elements of the members and he was ousted by new coup on 29th of April. It was at this time that the conservatives, the strongest members of the “2nd of January Coup”, nominated General António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona as Prime Minister.

Carmona Dictatorship
While the political situation was confusing or as some portrayed it perilous in the first few months after the coup, General Carmona still made the time to meet with both Admiral João Semedo and Pedro Magalhães Mai (May) on 16 January 1920 as promised. In the meeting, he confided with both men on the need for strong leadership in dealing with the problems afflicting the country. He offered both men prominent positions in the Portuguese government to which they were both surprised and hesitant by the offer. General António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona received Admiral Semedo’s support and promised to remain in Portugal for the foreseeable future while Pedro Magalhães Mai (May) expressed interest in the offer, but he felt that at present he could not commit. He did promise that if circumstances changed he would consider further discussions. On 29 April 1920 General António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona led a countercoup and assumed dictatorial powers thus once and for all erasing the mistake of the Republic and guiding the nation in the right direction.

On 20 August 1920 António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona,[1] was elected President of Portugal during elections in which he was the only candidate. He appointed himself as Prime Minister but in a shock to other government officials he appointed to the government two “Anglophone” Portuguese. He appointed Admiral João Semedo as Minister of Defense[2] and recognizing the delicate financial and economic situation Portugal faced President Carmona contacted the most qualified individual he knew to head the finance department therefore, he appointed Pedro Magalhães Mai Minister of Finance and Economy.[3]

From 1922 to 1924 the government came under constant threat from revolutionaries and Republicans who sought to re-establish the Republic. Luckily, they were unorganized, but it forced the government of President Carmona to arrest many of the government’s most adamant enemies. The ongoing attacks even as the economy showed growth for first time in decades forced President Carmona to seek additional supporters and partners. For this he turned to conservatives and Catholic supporters. The foremost leading figure amongst these was Antonio Salazar[4] whom several publications and people called “one of the most powerful minds of the new generation”. Salazar at first was not interested in joining the government but President Carmona was able to gain his support by promising to support the creation of a new state “Estado Novo” espousing many of the topics he had advocated in “Academic Center for Christian Democracy” which he belonged to and his views published in the weekly “O Imparcial”. On 25 October 1924 Salazar was appointed as Prime Minister and he along with Admiral João Semedo the Minister of Defense and Pedro Magalhães Mai the Minister of Finance and Economy formed a triumvirate. Power was shared between the three senior ministers who became the Portuguese government’s senior ministers overseeing the rest of the cabinet and government.

The three senior ministers had a difficult time getting along; with the more conservative Salazar not supportive of the financial positions and policies advocated by Minister of Finance and Economy. The continuous support for Minister of Finance and Economy by the Minster of Defense made the Prime Minister threaten to resign on several occasions and President Carmona was forced to intervene on many occasions in an attempt to maintain all three men in government.

The Portuguese government first major nation test came in 1926 when a 5.8 earthquake hit the Azores, over 4,350 houses were destroyed or damaged, nine people were killed and 200 injured mostly in the city of Horta. The Portuguese government responded by organizing a large-scale relief mission providing food and shelter for the thousands left homeless. A plan was established to provide assistance in rebuilding homes and businesses in the Azores. In 1927 the Portuguese government also provided assistance to any Azorean wishing to migrate to another part of the country including the Ultramar provinces.[5] The government action and plan was publicized widely on Portuguese newspapers and featured prominently in all government communications and the relief effort and rebuilding effort given large coverage in all national and regional newspapers.

[1] General Carmona was born in 1869, in 1882 he entered military college and served in a variety of posts and rose to the rank of general in 1919. He was a republican and a freemason and was a supporter to the proclamation of the Portuguese Republic on 5 October 1910. He was, however, never a sympathizer of the democratic form of government and had never voted or participated in the Republic governments.

[2] Admiral João Semedo was born in 1880 to a Portuguese father and British mother in Lisbon. He attended school and university in Britain and at the age of 25 joined the British Navy. He participated in the WWI eventually assuming the rank of Captain and commander of British battleship HMS Canada. In 1919, he became romantically involved with the Admiral Madden’s middle daughter even though he was already married. She died in childbirth and Semedo’s career in the British Navy was finished so he resigned. In 1919, he moved to Portugal and accepted a position with the Portuguese Navy being given the rank of Admiral.

[3] Pedro Magalhães Mai (May) was born in 1882 to a British Industrialist and the Portuguese Ambassador’s daughter. Pedro Magalhães Mai attended Harvard Business School in the USA and received a PHD in economics and government. Eventually he returned to Britain where he worked for the British government in several departments including the Commonwealth Office, Board of Trade and finally Chancellor of the Exchequer. In 1920 the Portuguese Ambassador in London presented President Carmona’s personal invitation to become the country’s Minister of Finance and Economy.

[4] Antonio Salazar was born in 1889 in Vimieiro Portugal to a family of modest income. While in primary school he won a free placement at Viseu’s seminary. In 1910, he went to University of Coimbra to study Law and graduated in 1914 with degree in Law specializing in finance and economic policy. He graduated with 19 points out of 20 which earned him instant fame. He became assistant professor of economic policy at Coimbra and in 1917 was awarded his doctorate. He became a member of the non-politically affiliated Catholic movement “Centro Académico de Democracia Cristã” (Academic Centre for Christian Democracy). Salazar supported the social doctrines espoused by Pope Leo XIII and was a frequent contributor to journals concerned with social studies, especially the weekly “O Imparcial”. In 1919, Salazar was persuaded to stand as a candidate for election to parliament, though he did so reluctantly. He appeared once in the chamber and never returned, struck by the disorder he witnessed and a feeling of futility. Salazar was convinced that liberal individualism had led to fragmentation of society and a perversion of the democratic process

[5] Metropolitan Portugal was defined as Continental Portugal “Iberian Peninsula” and the Atlantic islands of Azores and Madeira. Ultramar Portugal encompassed all Portuguese colonies in Africa, India and Asia.


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To those not familiar with 20th century Portuguese history the overthrow of the republican government (anarchy) only happened in 1926. Here we have the major POD which is an earlier coup as well two new politicians who will become central to the TL. Question/ Comments?? Return Aug 5 for part two of the 1920s - politics as we continue detailing major political intrigue and developments of the 1920s.
 
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Lusitania

Donor
Diary entry July 23 2018

This "Norman Rockwell" America is the biggest piece of garbage. The girl I was with Abbey, two weeks ago just up and left because her mother found out she has cancer and does not have insurance so Abbey went to look after her. What treatment she is getting at the local hospital is pitiful and too late after she ignored or could not afford to see a doctor sooner so now all they can do is try make her comfortable. So I thought I would just hang around by myself and try keep my nose clean. Then I went and met Betty at the local bar last week and next thing I know we are a thing. Don't get me wrong I miss Abbey but she was not the brightest girl in town (more ignorant than stupid really). Now Betty a little different and closer to my age with two kids a 10 year old boy and 7 year old girl.

Things were going fine enjoying being with her and her kids are ok. But yesterday while I was going through a couple of boxes of old time magazines at her house I froze when I saw the cover of the May 1984 Time Magazine. There was picture forever etched in most Portuguese memories the funeral of the Federation's Sa Carneiro. Murdered alongside the Portuguese Prime Minister Marcelo Caetano by Chinese Communists.[1] My hands shook for a few seconds seeing that picture. The whole nation mourned for a whole month, first Sa Carneiro funeral then Marcelo Caetano's funeral. Anger and bitterness was the general feeling of the whole country. The country's military was on high alert, its nuclear submarines out and its ICBMS ready to fire all that was needed was the order. Luckily diplomatic maneuvering by the world most powerful countries prevailed and the crises was averted but that event would forever scar the Portuguese and they swore to repay for the attack. The bombing that almost destroyed the world had reinvigorated the Portuguese and driven them and given the country new purpose. I woke myself from my daze afraid I had revealed too much but James, Betty's son was too absorbed in his video game to notice my momentary lapse.

CLIP



[1]
 
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Salazar's presence as the PM is a detrimental thing for the country, as was the ousting of Mendes Cabeçadas.
The mention of Sá Carneiro as a leading figure alongside Marcelo Caetano implies a late and slow transition to democracy.
 

Lusitania

Donor
Salazar's presence as the PM is a detrimental thing for the country, as was the ousting of Mendes Cabeçadas.
The mention of Sá Carneiro as a leading figure alongside Marcelo Caetano implies a late and slow transition to democracy.
Salazar role was vital in the early years of the dictatorship and estado novo (but would be determent as time went on, like iotl). History has a funny way of providing opportunity to make corrections that with a little twist can affect whole nation but we have to wait till after the 1920s for the story to unfold. Also the triumvirate helps to counter some of the most economic damaging aspects of the Estado Novo.

As for Sa Carneiro he played a huge part in Portuguese politics for over a decade and had he survived the attack, he could of become the Prime Minister. As for democracy it continues to this day as an illusion simply how the elections and parliament is allocated. But the opposition parties for all their lacking do keep the government accountable for the electorate whether on national level, provincial or local and they can turn against the National Union party as almost witnessed in the 1970s. Therefore the party has less control than a regular dictatorship be they right or left but democracy is not at same level as western democracies. (Although with the American system, it can hardly be declared a true democratic more a duopoly with different versions of the same story. Why CLIP hates being there even though it affords him the protection and anonymity he needs to stay ahead of the DGS and likewise allied spy services).
 
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1920s - Politics (2 of 2)

Lusitania

Donor
1920 - 1929 (cont.)

Politics (2 of 2)

Political Reforms and Elections
In 1928, António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona, was re-elected President of Portugal during elections in which he again was the only candidate. While the country was politically stable, the Portuguese government and their supporters were aware that broader political participation was needed otherwise political instability would rock the nation again. To that end that same year discussions began taking place regarding the future of the Portuguese government and nation’s constitution or lack of one.

In 1928 the Portuguese government led by Prime Minister Salazar organized several carefully organized meetings to discuss the shape of the country’s constitution and political participation by the populace. Invitations were provided to select individuals to present “ideas” on the shape of the country’s future. As a result of these consultations held in several large Portuguese cities the Nacional Union movement “União Nacional” was founded. Prime Minister Salazar along with President Carmona, Minister of Defense Admiral João Semedo, Minister of Finance and Economy Pedro Magalhães Mai as well as several other conservatives all members of the National Union guided the discussions and draft documents for the next year.[1]

In 1929 leaders of the Nacional Union movement drafted a new constitution which became known as “Estado Novo”. In the constitution executive authority was nominally vested in a president, elected by popular vote for a seven-year term.[2] A new legislature would contribute to the governance of the country. It would be a unicameral National Assembly, elected every four years. In addition, an advisory body, the Corporative Chamber, nominally represented economic, social and cultural organizations would also provide guidance and support to the government. The Estado Novo Constitution was presented to the people of the country and a referendum was scheduled for 3 March 1930 to approve it.

Colonial Reforms
Having gained control of all its colonies and overseas territories by 1921 the Portuguese government studied ways it could lessen the costs of the colonies administration and also increase its control. The two largest colonies Angola and Mozambique were almost complete under British economic control and the colonies’ administration and political control was greatly influenced by the British and the British companies operating in them.

On 1 October 1928, the Colonial Act was proclaimed, it changed the way each of Portugal’s colonies were governed and how trade was conducted. The act changed the status of the colonies to overseas provinces and replaced each colony’s governor general with a provincial governor. It also centralized the administration of the overseas territories and provided greater financial control of colonies’ finances. It proclaimed the need to bring indigenous peoples into western civilization and the Portuguese nation, assimilation was the main objective.[3]

Government Cabinet
In 1924 the Triumvirate was formed and at first, they oversaw all affairs of the government with all ministries reporting to them and managed by junior ministers. Over the years as needs of the country changed several ministers were given greater responsibility and autonomy.



Census
During the 1920s the Portuguese population grew by 13%. Several territories such as Cape Verde and Angola faced drought and the local population of the Africans living in those areas decreased.




[1] Prime Minister Salazar’s dislike of political parties led the National Union to be referred to during the 1st decade as an "organization of unity of all the Portuguese" instead of being a true political party.

[2] On paper, the president was vested with sweeping executive and legislative powers, making him a virtual dictator. In practice, however, the real power was held by the triumvirate.

[3] iOTL the colonial act was only proclaimed in 1930 and had the effect of stripping all Portuguese Indians of Portuguese nationality and the same rights as European Portuguese. iTTL the growing early industrialization and influences of Portuguese-Goans in Lisbon with both the Minister of Finance and Minister of Defense removed that portion from the act.

[4] José Magalhães was born in 1870, he graduated from “Escola Médico-Cirúrgica do Porto” in 1896. He then studied at the University of Paris and returned to Porto in 1901. In 1911 he became professor in the Faculty of Medicine of the newly founded University of Porto. During his time in Porto he balanced his social advocacy and his support for republican values. He was very active during the Portuguese Republic and in 1912 became governor of Mozambique. He worked on advancing education and medicine in Mozambique till 1916 when he was falsely imprisoned as supporter of “Revolta de Tomar”. He returned to Portugal and dedicated to teaching till 1926 when he was appointed as Portuguese Minister of Education.

[5] Armando Ochôa was born in 1877, he joined the Marines in 1898. He participated in WWI and was promoted to Lieutenant-Captain in 1918. He was involved in the 2nd of January 1920 Coup and in 1924 was appointed as Minister of Interior.

[6] António Ferro was born in 1895, in 1911 he was admitted to Camões Secondary School where be befriended several of Portugal greatest authors and poets of 20th century such as Mário de Sá-Carneiro and Tomás Cabreira Júnior. In 1913 he was admitted to Law school at University of Lisbon, but he abandoned it in 1918 instead dedicating to writing and together with several other authors and journalists publishing works and journals. He excels both as a journalist interviewing national and internal figures for various newspapers and magazines where his organizational skills and dedication draw the attention of many of Portugal’s elite. In 1928 he is nominated by Prime Minister Salazar as the new Minister of Interior, a post he accepted in 1929.

[7] The only remaining Portuguese possession not shown is Ajuda (fort in Benin) which had less than 25 inhabitants.

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This concludes the portrayal of the major political movements, government intrigue and political figures during 1920s in Portugal. We also provided the first population figures for the country and its various overseas provinces. Question/ Comments?? Return Aug 19 as we outline the precarious position of the Portuguese military during this decade. In the coming posts we then will discuss the economic, security, health and education, foreign Affairs and major international incidents or happenings that were of particular interest to the Portuguese.
 
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