A fractured HRE (a map of a WI)

I was bored at work and created this little gem (see below) of what might have happened had the Hohenstauffens not been able to (or maybe by design) to keep the HRE empire together and seen it drift into various component parts.

Map circa 1200 ad.

HRE - circa 1200 ad.PNG
 
Very well done. Just to nitpick a bit:
- Sardinia cannot be just a Duchy.
Either you leave it as "Judicates", which would be fine: the Italian king would be overlord of the Sardinian Judicates, or you convert the island in "Marches".
Maybe you might do both: Sardinian Judicates and Corsican Marches.

- Venice should hold certainly Zara, and probably Ragusa too.

- I think you have been a bit generous with the territories governed by the Pope in Northern Italy. The border should probably coincide with the old Roman border between Italia and Gallia (the Rubicone river)
 
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LordKalvan said:
Very well done. Just to nitpick a bit:
- Sardinia cannot be just a Duchy.
Either you leave it as "Judicates", which would be fine: the Italian king would be overlord of the Sardinian Judicates, or you convert the island in "Marches".
Maybe you might do both: Sardinian Judicates and Corsican Marches.

- Venice should hold certainly Zara, and probably Ragusa too.

- I think you have been a bit generous with the territories governed by the Pope in Northern Italy. The border should probably coincide with the old Roman border between Italia and Gallia (the Rubicone river)
Alrighty I changed the Sardinia to what you recommended (and when I get back to work tomorrow I'll fill in what each of the internal provinces/duchies/marches are, such as Corsica).

Venice holds Ragusa in this map (At least according to the map I used...my free handing a bit of the borders might be a little off but I'm sure I got it.) however that same map showed Zara as Hungarian...I could of missed it but I'll check tomorrow.

Is that border for Papal control better? I'm trying to go with the idea of that whoever was able to become King of Italy had to promise the Pope some things.

Anyone have any ideas anyone who would be the most likely candidates for the King of Italy, Arles, Bohemia (this one I'm thinking of a Polish/relative of a Polish King), and Germany would be if the Hohenstauffens were displaced (or maybe just the King of one said territories)?

HRE - circa 1200 ad.PNG
 
Good work. As far as Ragusa is concerned, you may be right.

Who might be king of Italy: a good question, and one that possibly requires an additional POD (btw, when the Houenstaufen fail? I would assume that the Norman dinasty in Southern Italy goes on without problems, no marriage with the Houenstaufen).
My best bet - if the Houenstaufen POD is in the 11th century - might be Bonifacio of Canossa (father of the more famous Mathilda, and married to Beatrice of Lorraine, daughter of Frederick II, duke of Upper Lorraine). Bonifacio died in 1052, in a hunting accident, and Mathilda, his only child, inherited all the Canossa possessions, under the regency of the mother. The Canossa feudal possessions were huge, and included Tuscany, most of Emilia and a good chunk of Lombardy, up to Brescia. If Bonifacio does not have this hunting accident, he might sire a male heir. Or Mathilda might be male intead of female. Or marry, maybe reinforcing the ties with Lorraine and Burgundy.
The Canossas were a Guelph family, supporters of the Pope against the Houenstaufen. It would make sense for them to increase the lands under the control of the Papacy, in exchange for a support in their bid for the throne of Italy.
 
LordKalvan said:
Good work. As far as Ragusa is concerned, you may be right.

Who might be king of Italy: a good question, and one that possibly requires an additional POD (btw, when the Houenstaufen fail? I would assume that the Norman dinasty in Southern Italy goes on without problems, no marriage with the Houenstaufen).
My best bet - if the Houenstaufen POD is in the 11th century - might be Bonifacio of Canossa (father of the more famous Mathilda, and married to Beatrice of Lorraine, daughter of Frederick II, duke of Upper Lorraine). Bonifacio died in 1052, in a hunting accident, and Mathilda, his only child, inherited all the Canossa possessions, under the regency of the mother. The Canossa feudal possessions were huge, and included Tuscany, most of Emilia and a good chunk of Lombardy, up to Brescia. If Bonifacio does not have this hunting accident, he might sire a male heir. Or Mathilda might be male intead of female. Or marry, maybe reinforcing the ties with Lorraine and Burgundy.
The Canossas were a Guelph family, supporters of the Pope against the Houenstaufen. It would make sense for them to increase the lands under the control of the Papacy, in exchange for a support in their bid for the throne of Italy.
Well it appears you know far more about the time period than I do so all suggestions are welcome (If you want we could collaborate.). So let us take a Hohenstauffen POD in the 10th Century. (What about this?) Let's say Frederick I, Duke of Swabia, has all his sons die before they can sire heirs of their own leaving only daughters (whether through war, plague, or someothe mishap).

I like the Canossa idea for it fits well. According to wikipedia (for all that is worth) it says that Mathilda had a brother. So let's say that was true and he survived to manhood (we can let Bonifacio survive longer to have this son if wikipedia is wrong or if true he can die on time but his son survive).

What about the other Kingdoms?

Might Germany fall to the Welf family (like Henry the Lion)?

What about Bohemia?

The Kingdom of Arles?

Updated map (some of the regions I couldn't find names for so I guessed)

HRE - circa 1200 ad.PNG
 
First of all, a couple of points on the map:
  • I have found some maps of the HRE, including both the kingdoms of Arles and of Italy. I think that both the western and the eastern borders of Italy are a bit off.
  • I've forgotten that Pisa is at the top of her fortunes in the late 11th century. Actually, she has suzerainity over both Corsica and Sardinia, and has conquered Tunis in 1088. Pisa controls also most of the coast of Tuscany, and is locked in war with Lucca (which is the capital of the Marches of Tuscany, under the Canossa). I'll talk more about this in the next post
  • Lombardy was never a Duchy. Gian galeazzo Visconti bought the title of duke of Milan at the end of the 14th century. Lombardy and the plains of the Po river are divided into counties (a good number of the eastern and southern ones belong to the Canossa). However, the cities are already proclaiming their freedom (and in this period the are pro-HRE, to curb the feudataries)
  • In the NW corner adiacent to Arles there are the marches of Monferrato, which control the Alpine passes to Provence
  • Venice got Zara in 1202, during the 4th crusade. If your map is dated 1250, it should still be Venetian
  • there is no more a marquis of Friuli. All the N-E of Italy is comprised in the Marches of Verona (or Brenner Mark)
 
I am not sure that I can devote all the necessary time to the creation of a TL (even if this looks like to be interesting). However, i'll help you as much as possible.

I may have found a suitable POD, with very interesting possible futures: everything goes on as per OTL until the death of Bonifacio in 1052. Beatrice of Lorraine remarries in 1054 to the former duke of Lower Lorraine, Godfrey the Bearded (who has been dispossessdof his duchy after the revolt against the emperor Conrad). Around 1066, the heiress to all the Canossa lands, Mathilda, marries Godfrey the Hunchback (an unfortunate nickname), son of first marriage of her stepfather Godfrey the Bearded. In OTL, the marriage was quite a failure. There might have been or not a daughter born in 1071 (Beatrix). In TTL, Mathilda and Godfrey have more luck: Bonifacio is born in 1068, Beatrice in 1071, and Laura in 1072. However, the marriage does not last much longer: Godfrey cannot bear the bossing attitude of his wife, and around 1075 goes back to Lorraine, where succeeds in becoming duke of Lower Lorraine. Except for Mathilda's progeny, all as per OTL. Again similar to OTL are the fights between imperial supporters and papal supporters on the matter of investitures. Henry IV comes to Italy, and has the famous meeting in Canossa on schedule, in 1077. There is a fence mending with the pope, and Mathilda manages to have her son Boniface recognised as heir to Lower Lorraine. In 1080, Henry rebels again against the pope, and descends into Italy again. This time, he bypasses Mathilda's lands, and goes to Rome along the Adraitic road. Contrary to OTL, Mathilda is slightly more successful in her wars (she was successful also in OTL: here things are better). She's not defeated at Volta Mantovana, it's a draw. The revolt of Lucca, her capital in Tuscany, fizzles. Henry appoints his anti-pope, and goes back to Germany.
Mathilda keeps the field: in 1084 routes Henry's italian supporters at Sorbara, in 1085 is again warring in support of Pope Victor. In the meantime, Godfrey the Hunchback dies, and Boniface is crowned duke of Upper Lorraine.
Mathilda marries Welf of Bavaria in 1090, as per OTL. Henry IV once again descends into Italy in 1090, and the final battle is fought in front of the Canossa castle in 1092: Henry defeat is even worse than OTL, and Mathilda gets better conditions of peace: Boniface becomes duke of both Upper and Lower Lorraine, the Canossan county of Mantua is elevate to dukedom, and granted again to Boniface, together with the title of Imperial Vicar in Italy.
In the same treaty, the free city of Pisa mends some fences with Mathilda, and is no more a menace to Lucca nad the Tuscia lands.
 
LordKalvan said:
First of all, a couple of points on the map:
  • I have found some maps of the HRE, including both the kingdoms of Arles and of Italy. I think that both the western and the eastern borders of Italy are a bit off.
  • I've forgotten that Pisa is at the top of her fortunes in the late 11th century. Actually, she has suzerainity over both Corsica and Sardinia, and has conquered Tunis in 1088. Pisa controls also most of the coast of Tuscany, and is locked in war with Lucca (which is the capital of the Marches of Tuscany, under the Canossa). I'll talk more about this in the next post
  • Lombardy was never a Duchy. Gian galeazzo Visconti bought the title of duke of Milan at the end of the 14th century. Lombardy and the plains of the Po river are divided into counties (a good number of the eastern and southern ones belong to the Canossa). However, the cities are already proclaiming their freedom (and in this period the are pro-HRE, to curb the feudataries)
  • In the NW corner adiacent to Arles there are the marches of Monferrato, which control the Alpine passes to Provence
  • Venice got Zara in 1202, during the 4th crusade. If your map is dated 1250, it should still be Venetian
  • there is no more a marquis of Friuli. All the N-E of Italy is comprised in the Marches of Verona (or Brenner Mark)

Here is the map I've been using: See Here

As you can see it is bit hard to read in some places from all the clutter. I was shooting for it to be around 1200 (maybe a little before).
 
LordKalvan said:
I am not sure that I can devote all the necessary time to the creation of a TL (even if this looks like to be interesting). However, i'll help you as much as possible.
That's okay I don't exactly have a whole lot of time myself, but whatever help you can give would be most appreciative.

LordKalvan said:
I may have found a suitable POD, with very interesting possible futures: everything goes on as per OTL until the death of Bonifacio in 1052. Beatrice of Lorraine remarries in 1054 to the former duke of Lower Lorraine, Godfrey the Bearded (who has been dispossessdof his duchy after the revolt against the emperor Conrad). Around 1066, the heiress to all the Canossa lands, Mathilda, marries Godfrey the Hunchback (an unfortunate nickname), son of first marriage of her stepfather Godfrey the Bearded. In OTL, the marriage was quite a failure. There might have been or not a daughter born in 1071 (Beatrix). In TTL, Mathilda and Godfrey have more luck: Bonifacio is born in 1068, Beatrice in 1071, and Laura in 1072. However, the marriage does not last much longer: Godfrey cannot bear the bossing attitude of his wife, and around 1075 goes back to Lorraine, where succeeds in becoming duke of Lower Lorraine. Except for Mathilda's progeny, all as per OTL.
Okay I can go with that but just for arguments sake what would happen if Godrey failed in his bid (If he dies okay but would he have come crawling back if he failed and lived?)

LordKalvan said:
Again similar to OTL are the fights between imperial supporters and papal supporters on the matter of investitures. Henry IV comes to Italy, and has the famous meeting in Canossa on schedule, in 1077. There is a fence mending with the pope, and Mathilda manages to have her son Boniface recognised as heir to Lower Lorraine. In 1080, Henry rebels again against the pope, and descends into Italy again. This time, he bypasses Mathilda's lands, and goes to Rome along the Adraitic road. Contrary to OTL, Mathilda is slightly more successful in her wars (she was successful also in OTL: here things are better). She's not defeated at Volta Mantovana, it's a draw. The revolt of Lucca, her capital in Tuscany, fizzles. Henry appoints his anti-pope, and goes back to Germany.
Okay, but I may hold off on what happens to Lorraine.


LordKalvan said:
Mathilda keeps the field: in 1084 routes Henry's italian supporters at Sorbara, in 1085 is again warring in support of Pope Victor. In the meantime, Godfrey the Hunchback dies, and Boniface is crowned duke of Upper Lorraine.
Mathilda marries Welf of Bavaria in 1090, as per OTL. Henry IV once again descends into Italy in 1090, and the final battle is fought in front of the Canossa castle in 1092: Henry defeat is even worse than OTL, and Mathilda gets better conditions of peace: Boniface becomes duke of both Upper and Lower Lorraine, the Canossan county of Mantua is elevate to dukedom, and granted again to Boniface, together with the title of Imperial Vicar in Italy.
In the same treaty, the free city of Pisa mends some fences with Mathilda, and is no more a menace to Lucca nad the Tuscia lands.
Ooo, just got an idea that the young Boniface (24 at the time of the battle) personally captures Henry at the battle in front of Canossa castle.

Some good ideas there LordKalvan, thanks!

Just need to clarify a few things though. Such as what would happen had Godfrey not succeeded in reclaiming his Dukedom? (Lives or Dies in the attempt could be interesting either way.)

What are some plausible options should the young Boniface (Would his mother still be in charge or would he now be old enough to take the reigns himself as it were? It could very well be that he is in charge but relies upon his mother and maybe his sisters for advice.) actually capture Henry IV and maybe hold him hostage?
 
Mathilda is ruler of all the Canossa lands in her own right, she's not a regent in the name of her son: by the time of the battle of Canossa, she's just 47 years old, and I doubt she's ready to give all the power to Boniface. Which was the reason I preferred Boniface to go gallivanting in Lorraine, rather than stay all the time under the thumb of his mother (who, from what I read, must have been quite a lady: someone like Eleanor of Aquitaine, but without even a strong husband to keep her busy).

Godfrey the Hunchback succeded in OTL in securing the Duchy of Lower Lorraine. I don't know what he might have done if his bid had been unsuccessful, but I doubt very very much that he might have come back to his wife. Probably he's have died trying.

The reason for which I'm so eager to keep Lorraine linked to the Canossas (as it was in OTL, btw) is that one of my pet ideas is recreating Lotharingia, sooner or later: a rich kingdom stretching from Flanders to Tuscany, and including Provence, Burgundy, Savoy and all of northern Italy.

Another idea: in the late 11th century, say around 1085, both the (fictional) Canossa daughters should be marriageable: given the traditional support the Canossa give to the Pope, and the meteoric raise of Norman power in Southern Italy (again with the blessing - more or less - of the Pope, a marriage between the house of Hauteville and the Canossas would not come amiss.
 
Wendell said:
Those borders are drawn on there by Shadow Knight?
Yep those borders where drawn by me free hand, so if they are slightly off its the best I could do at the time.

@LordKalvan

You've given me some good ideas I'll probably get started on writing something up tomorrow when I get some free time.

Anyone else care to chime in?
 
Part I

POD – Godfrey the Hunchback is not so distraught over his father’s death in 1069 and he and Matilda successfully have several children. In 1068 Boniface is born, Beatrix in 1071, Godfrey in 1072, and Laura in 1074.

1075 AD -

Godfrey although adoring of his children, if not his wife’s overbearing demeanor, decides he can no longer wait to reclaim his title to the Duchy of Lower Lorraine. He sets forth from Canossa to just that.

(June) The First Battle of Langensalza: Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV and several rebellious Saxon noblemen clashed on the River Unstrut near Langensalza. The battle was a complete success for Henry.

Pope Gregory VII declared in the Dictatus Papae thus begins Henry IV’s struggle with Church over who may invest ecclesiastical positions, particularly bishops, commonly called the Investiture Conflict.

Henry IV responds by sending a letter to the Pope that effectively removes him as Pope and calls for new Papal elections.

1076 AD –

Late February Pope Gregory VII, in response to the letter Henry VI sent him, excommunicates Henry. Effectively doing what Henry did to him, deposing him from his positions as King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor.

Using this as an excuse many nobles and aristocrats begin to ferment rebellion against Henry’s rule.

1077 AD –

In an attempt to stem the rebellion Henry journeyed during the winter to Italy to make amends with the Pope and remove his excommunication.

Outside the castle of Canossa Henry paid homage to Pope Gregory and in return for his penance had the excommunication removed.

Plotters back in Germany were not dismayed by the lifting of Henry’s excommunication and declared Rudolf von Rheinfeld, Duke of Swabia, King of Germany.

Events do not go well for Rudolf as Mainz, where he was crowned, rebels forcing him to flee Saxony for Swabia.




1078 AD –

(August) Henry and Rudolf square off at the battle of Mellrichstadt which proves indecisive.

1080 AD –

(January) Rudolf wins the battle of Flarcheim but fails to defeat Henry IV’s forces completely.

(March) Rudolf successfully convinces the Pope to recognize him and again excommunicate Henry.

(October) Henry IV and Rudolf von Rheinfeld meet once again near the Elster River. However this time Rudolf does not meet with success as he is mortally wounded and dies soon after the battle from his wounds thus leaving the now fractured anti-royalists with no leadership.

1081 AD –

Henry IV gathers his forces and makes his way to Italy to confront the Pope Gregory VII.

Matilda of Canossa as usual flocks to the papal banner. Since she controls the western passes of the Apennines Henry is forced to march to Rome through Ravenna.


Part II tomorrow
 
Good start S-K.
I found another interesting tidbit, btw: Robert Curthose, the eldest son of William the Conqueror, revolted against his father in 1077, and tried (unsuccessfully) to take Rouen. After 3 years of battles and sieges, Robert's mother (Matilda of Flanders) was successful in establishing a truce. Robert left Normandy, and travelled across Provence and Italy: in 1082, he was at Canossa, and remained as a guest of Mathilda for over a year. It is not clear what really happened, but it is certain that Robert proposed to Mathilda (Godfrey the Hunchback was dead by this time). According to the chronicles, Mathilda was quite partial to Robert; however, politics (as a widow she could bargain very well - in OTL this resulted in a marriage with Fulk the Fat of Bavaria, which marriage might never have been consummated) counselled her to refuse. Exit Robert Curthose from her life, but what would have happened if Mathilda had listened to her heart rather to her advisors? A link between the house of Canossa and the house of Normandy? Mathilda at the time was 37 years old, and, according to the chronicles again, quite beautiful: slim, blonde, very fit (she commanded her armies in the field, in full armor, so no way she would have let herself go fat).
 
Another thing: whatever happens to the HRE, Italian events have to take into consideration the growing power of the cities. There are free Comuni across all the Padan plains, and in Tuscany (including Pisa, Lucca and Florence). OTL, Mathilda remained more concentrated on the Northern side of the Appennines, and this had bad effects on her holding the cities of Tuscany. Maybe this time is different.

Second other thing: under the influence of Mathilda, Conrad, the elder son of Henry IV, revolted against his father and was crowned king of Italy in Milan in 1095. Conrad supported the pope, and swore fealty to him; as a recompense, Urban II promised him the imperial crown, and arranged a marriage with Constance, daughter of Roger I of Sicily (the Normans, either from Normandy or from Southern Italy pop up a lot in Italian history in these years).
Henry IV finally managed to convene a diet in Mainz, in 1198; Conrad was deposed, and finally died in Florence in 1101 (almost certainly by poison). Another opportunity lost.
 
Good information LordKalvan thanks!

A interesting tidbit of information: Apparently while Henry IV was having his investiture conflict in Germany the Henry in England was having one as well but the Pope needing the English Henry's support for a Crusade (and wanting to lay the German one low) was more willing to negotiate with the English Henry. Hmm this gives me a good idea of where I think I want to go.

Sadly I will probably not get to work on Part II today...stupid work getting in the way of good AH.
 
Okay I did get some time to work on it today, yeah!

Anywho I'm going to repost parts of Part I here too because I've updated a few parts, anyway on with the show:

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
1080 AD –

(January) Rudolf wins the battle of Flarcheim but fails to defeat Henry IV’s forces completely.

(March) Rudolf successfully convinces the Pope to recognize him and again excommunicate Henry.

(April) Godfrey the Hunchback dies suppressing a minor rebellion of anti-royalists within his duchy. Henry IV appoints a regent to rule the Duchy of Lower Lorraine.

(October) Henry IV and Rudolf von Rheinfeld meet once again near the Elster River. However this time Rudolf does not meet with success as he is mortally wounded and dies soon after the battle from his wounds thus leaving the now fractured anti-royalists with no leadership. Henry IV installs Frederick of Büren, the first Hohenstaufen, as Duke of Swabia.

Near Modena, Matilda confronts several allies of Henry IV. The battle known as Volta Mantovana comes off as a draw when her son Boniface, age 12, with only his few loyal retainers rallies a section of the field that was wavering allowing for an orderly withdraw from the field of battle. Many a man was shamed that a boy would go where they would not. [It is rumored that even though she rejoiced at the outcome young Boniface was unable to sit comfortably for a while thereafter.]

1081 AD –

Henry IV gathers his forces and makes his way to Italy to confront the Pope Gregory VII.

Matilda of Canossa as usual flocks to the papal banner. Since she controls the western passes of the Apennines Henry is forced to march to Rome through Ravenna.

Matilda having difficulty with several cities within her domain, her capital of Lucca included, is forced to make some concessions to the cities to maintain their loyalty. Immediate concerns are addressed but she vows on a Holy Bible that when the conflict with Henry IV is ended she will readdress the issue. However this distraction costs her valuable time that Henry IV uses to good cause.

(June) A council at Brixen pronounced Gregory VII deposed and Henry nominates the archbishop of Ravenna, Guibert to replace him.

(July) With a decisive victory proving elusive Henry as much as he would like to completely depose Matilda only strips her of her Imperial titles. Still she has significant holdings of her own and continues to be a source of trouble.

Henry IV marches on Rome but does not succeed in entering the city. Pope Gregory retires to Sant’Angelo, a fortified position on the other bank of the Tiber. Pope Gregory VII refuses to entreat any of Henry’s overtures even when he offers Guibert as a prisoner if he only crowns him emperor. Gregory prepares for a long siege.

Several more indecisive battles are fought between Henry’s allies and Matilda.

1082 AD –

With Pope Gregory VII besieged in Rome within the Citadel of Sant’Angelo Matilda become the focal point for all communication between Gregory and his allies throughout Northern Europe.

(Early) Robert Curthose, the eldest son of William the Conqueror, arrives in Canossa after accepting peace with his father over a year and half before.

(Late) Matilda accepts Robert’s offer of proposal, against the wishes of her advisors, however she actually is fond of him and her children are charmed with him, especially Boniface who looks up to this experienced Norman warrior.

1083 AD –

(June) Robert Guiscard is recalled from his war against Byzantium to aid Gregory VII against Henry IV.

(November) Matilda gives birth to a girl, Constance, but it was a difficult birth leaving Matilda sterile.

1084 AD –

(March) Henry succeeds in gaining the majority of Rome and bottles Gregory VII in the Citadel Sant’Angelo. With the capture of the Papal Seal Guibert is enthroned as Pope (called the anti-pope by Matilda and those forces loyal to Gregory VII) Clement III. Clement III quickly crowns Henry emperor.

Word reaches Henry that Robert Guiscard was arriving with 36,000 troops to come to the aid of Gregory he flees with Clement III.

Henry as he withdraws attempts to ravage Matilda’s lands but the efforts of Robert Curthose effectively blunt those efforts.

Henry is tempted to stay in Italy himself but decides to leave for Germany when rumors of rebellion come to him. He quickly leaves his allies to deal with ‘That blonde woman’ as Henry has begun to call her.

Norman troops sack sections of Rome and their actions cause the citizens of Rome to become incensed forcing Pope Gregory VII to flee to Monte Cassino and then by sea to Salerno under the protection of his Norman allies. All the while Henry’s forces again recapture Rome.

(July) Matilda’s forces with the aid of Robert Cuthose successfully crush Henry’s allies at Sorbara, near Modena.

1085 AD –

(May) Pope Gregory VII dies in Salerno.

1086 AD –

Dauferius is made the successor of Pope Gregory VII and is elected as Pope Victor III.

Pope Victor returns to Rome but only for a short time as a he holds a synod in Benevento.

(August) The synod that denounces Clement III and excommunicates him also calls a kind of Crusade against the Saracens in Africa.

Guiscard’s son, Bohemond, had lost all the gains his father had made in Greece and as he returned to Southern Italy in defeat he is killed when his ship is caught in a storm and sinks.

Robert Guiscard vows to return to Greece and finish what he started but is ‘obligated’ by Pope Victor III to lead this Crusade to Africa.

Boniface is engaged to Adelaide daughter of the Count Guilhem Betrand I of Provence and is married in October.

1087 AD –

(February) Robert Guiscard begins preparations to invade Tunis at the behest of the Pope.

(September) Unfortunately Pope Victor III’s time is short on the throne of Saint Peter for he dies shortly after falling ill at the Synod.

Robert hears of the death of Pope Victor III moments after the bulk of his troops and fleet had already set sail for Africa.

1088 AD –

(March) The cardinal and bishop of Ostia, Odo, is elected Pope Urban II.

Robert Guiscard begins the siege of Tunis

(April) Adelaide gives birth to Matilda’s first grandchild, Gregory.

(May) Robert Guiscard successfully completes the siege of Tunis and sends his captains to west of Tunis forth bringing much of Africa including the city of Bona under his control as he marches south to Tripoli stopping in June to siege the city of Kairwan.

(October) Forces under the command of Boniface defeat a group of Henry’s allies near Ravenna but are forced to retreat as reinforcements arrive from the city.

(November) Roger Borsa, son of Robert Guiscard, invests the city of Tripoli by landing troops to the east of the city as his father marches in from the west.

1089 AD –

Henry IV marries Eupraxia of Kiev, the daughter of Vsevolod I, Prince of Kiev and assumes the name of Adelaide upon her coronation.

(March) Robert Guiscard dies of a fever just as his troops under his son have begun the final assualt on Tripoli.

(April) Beatrix is married to a Norman count in the court of Sicily.
 
Good work, SK. I've always something to pick on, though:
  • Duchy of Lower Lorraine: OTL Godfrey the Hunchback (who, notwithstanding his name, appears to have been a fair general) died in 1072. In 1076 Henry IV gave the Duchy to his son Conrad. When Conrad was created King of Germany, in 1087, the duchy went to Godfrey of Bouillon (the conqueror of Jerusalem). If Godfrey dies in 1080, Conrad needs another title in Germany around 1076 (in Italy he became Margrave of Turin). Would not know which one, though. Upper Lorraine? Burgundy was not yet a Duchy, I think.
  • Beatrix marriage: a "Sicilian count" would not do. The legitimate daughter of the marchionness of Tuscany (among other titles) and the Duke of Lower Lorraine cannot marry under her status. Roger Borsa or Bohemond of Taranto (both sons of Robert Guiscard) would be a more proper choice. However, remember that Mathilda's most urgent need is to find allies in Germany, and to control as much as possible the Brenner pass (which is the normal route of invasion for the HRE emperors). In OTL she ended up marrying Fulk the Fat (26 years her junior) to get a firm alliance with the Dukes of Bavaria and Carniola. I believe that in TTL her daughter Beatrix will be the bargaining counter. Fulk V apparently was phisically disgusting (and likely impotent). Still he was a survivor: marriages between ruling house are not made for love. [neither Roger Borsa nor Bohemond of Antioch appear to have been great guys, mind]
  • Boniface's first claim to glory is a bit premature, possibly (and I'd bet that mathilda would have kept her precious son away from a messy battle like Volta Mantovana). Still it is well in line with medieval histories: the grandson of Boniface the elder and the son of Godfrey the Hunchback belongs to a battlefield.
 
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