A Destiny Realized: A Timeline of Afsharid Iran and Beyond

@Nassirisimo

While I loved the update, I have a minor nitpick. You mentioned that Punjab was majority Muslim, while that wasn't the case in 1800. Even till the middle 20th century Hindu+Sikh were the majority in Punjab.

Also, you mentioned Sikhs were 8% of their empire, which is also inaccurate. That figure is from OTL late 19th century, after the Sikhs had already experienced a rapid decline in numbers. At the height of the Empire (OTL early 19th century) that figure is estimated to be anywhere between 13-18%.

Also it's important to remember how blurred the lines were. Whatever the teachings on Guru Nanak, by this time Sikhism was essentially a militant reform movement within Hinduism (perhaps a bit like the Sufis?).

My own caste as well as all the other Kshatriya castes had established a practice of 'daan' or 'giving away of' their eldest born sons to Sikhi, which was basically a military order by the Second Sikh Holocaust. Nanak's portrait hung from the wall of every home in our villages whether the inhabitants visited Gurudwaras or temples. There was no contradiction in being Hindu and Sikh at the same time.

As the decades pile on, the identities of the Punjabi language + Sikh Hinduism will become so entangled as to become inseparable. Most of the Muslims in Punjab are Jats and Rajputs who would have converted in large numbers if Sikh rule had lasted for a hundred or more yeara. Combine it with mass-education in Gurmukhi and Industrialization, a majority Sikh-Hindu Punjab would be the natural outcome.
Estimations in the pre-modern era are always a bit unreliable at best. I have another figure from the Cambridge History of India which gives a figure of the Punjab of Ranjit Singh being around 12% Sikh. Based on the sources available to me, some of them seem to suggest the Sikh Empire had a Muslim majority, others a Muslim plurality (at least if one separates Hindus from Sikhs). Of course further sources would always be welcome, and if you do have any recommendations please feel free to recommend.
It depends how big Punjab is, doesn't it? I have no doubt that Punjab including Haryana, Himachal, and Jammu would be majority Hindu+Sikh, but without them (though I think they were considered as Punjabi as, say, Multan back then), Punjab would even back then be majority-Muslim, wouldn't it?

By the time of Guru Gobind Singh, surely the line became more drawn? Wasn't he the one who established the Five Ks and the Khalsa which explicitly defined Sikhism? Guru Nanak was arguably a Bhakti Hindu saint along the lines of others, but nine gurus later, I was under the impression that Sikhism was a highly organized religion that merely shared much culture with Hindus.

I doubt Rajputs would convert en masse. Sikhism was very much a Jat religion, and Rajputs always hated the Jats for essentially stripping them of their power.

I also doubt Muslims would convert especially in an atmosphere where they're tolerated like TTL's (and OTL's) Sikh Empire.
This Punjab isn't quite the size of Ranjit Singh's. Some of the Muslim population that was part of the Empire in OTL is not there, as most of the Pashtuns have been under Persian rule for decades. On the other hand, areas like Jammu are not under Sikh rule as of 1804 ITTL, so the Sikh Empire is largely limited to the plains between the Indus and Chandigarh.

The thing is, while Sikhs tended to be overrepresented in the senior position Sikh Empire of OTL, the Empire was far more inclusive than most other states in the Indian Subcontinent. As you point out, discrimination against the Muslim subjects of the Empire is unlikely to be severe enough to prompt mass conversion if the Sikh Empire is run anything like its OTL counterpart, and the Sikh Empire remains surrounded by Muslim-run states. Were persecution to heighten, another expedition from Persia could be on the cards and the Sikh rulers are likely to be aware of that.
My view is that this more interconnected Islamic World will learn about the capabilities of the European Powers move quickly, and have more time to prepare and learn in the meantime.
Entirely possible. In addition, a greater amount of prosperity may well give various Islamic states a greater material base with which to pursue reforms. Considering the wholesale failure of most Islamic countries to meaningfully reform in OTL (the Ottoman Empire standing out as a particularly big exception, and this was in part due to luck), I'm not optimistic that it will be enough but they may have a fighting chance.
The distances are closing. I can only imagine the culture shock some Muslims experience when moving to a distant part of the world. XD
"No, when we say 'La ilaha illallah', we don't mean "there is no God but God and the local river deity..."

That being said, I'm fairly sure that a modern Muslim would have a culture shock visiting most Muslim societies prior to the 19th and 20th Centuries.
 
Africa - 1784 to 1804
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A Pre-Modern Integration? The Economy of Africa Prior to the 19th Century

An increase in economic and population growth across much of the world had increased the demand for various goods abundant in East Africa such as slaves and ivory. With the establishment of stability on the East African coast, European, Indian and Arab Merchants now began to visit the ports of the Sultanate of Zanzibar with increased frequency, keenly interested in both of the main exports. However, as demand for slaves in particular began to increase following economic growth in various parts of the Indian Ocean, previous sources of slaves were quickly proving to be insufficient to meet demand. By the end of the 18th century, peoples of the East African interior were regularly trading ivory with the coast, though dense enough populations to fulfil the demand for slaves could only be found deeper into the interior. Arab and Swahili Merchants now ventured as far as the Great Lakes in search of slaves, and found an obliging supplier in the Kabaka, or King of Buganda. More centralised than the other kingdoms of the Great Lakes, the Buganda were able to use their superior organizational skills to capture slaves from surrounding tribes, weakening their enemies even as they brought more material wealth to Buganda.


The commercial influence of Zanzibar in Buganda soon began to translate into cultural and religious influence as well. The spread of Islam in particular was slow at first, and the population of Buganda may have been only 5% Muslim by 1800. There was a great momentum behind its spread however, as Islam seemingly allowed justification for the increased slave-raiding of the Buganda, as well as another way of ideologically connecting themselves with the wider world. While Buganda’s contact with the outside world was still nearly entirely through the medium of their trading partners in Zanzibar, this nevertheless represented a significant opening of a previously isolated region to the rest of the world. Slowly but surely, parts of interior Africa were beginning to be integrated into the increasingly interconnected global economy.


By contrast, West Africa was already an important part of the global economy, and was of particular importance to Western Europe. West African slaves were a crucial part of the sugar economy of the Caribbean and Brazil which produced massive amounts of capital for European plantation owners, and slaves were also of great importance to colonies such as those of the English in North America. The consequences of the slave trade for West Africa however were depopulation and in some cases, problems stemming from imports such as alcoholism [1]. Although other parts of the West African Coast saw an increased tendency toward the strengthening of larger states and the further integration of their economies, the importance of the slave trade in this integration proved ultimately to be a hindrance to development in Coastal West Africa.


Despite the importance of slavery to the peoples of the interior of West Africa, the trade far less of a detrimental effect. Firstly, slaves in this region were not exported to the Americas but tended to stay within the Sahel region, contributing to both the urban and rural economies of the region. While the economies of the region remained far less integrated than those of the coastal regions, far more dependent on domestic manufactures and less reliant on exports, they were nevertheless more in tune than Central Africa. Trans-Saharan trade remained important as gold, slaves and salt went one way and guns and other manufactures went the other. An increase in conflict as the 18th century drew to a close paradoxically only increased the demand for goods such as weapons, which ensured that in terms of trade, the region was little affected by the seismic political changes of the era.

[1] – This was especially pronounced in the case of the Akwamu in OTL’s Ghana, where the ruler and his "smart boys" would spend most of the proceeds from selling captured slaves on booze.

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State Consolidation in Islamic Africa at the Close of the 18th Century

Toward the end of the 18th century, the pace of economic, social and political change on the Swahili Coast was quickening. As the smaller Swahili city-states began to come under the ever-heavier influence of either Zanzibar or Mombasa, conflict for dominance of the coastline appeared increasingly inevitable. Eventually when war broke out in 1787, it proved to a violent if sharp war. Whereas previous conflicts had been slow and indecisive, Zanzibar’s military and economic advantage was more pronounced in this later war, and Mombasa’s ruler formally submitted to the Sultan of Zanzibar in 1789. Zanzibar’s stronger trade links in the Indian Ocean, her larger navy and her superior ability to acquire firearms had all contributed toward her victory over Mombasa, leaving her with dominance over all the states of the Swahili Coast. With her main rival subdued and the rest of the city-states on the coast subject to her, the construction of a true empire ruled from Zanzibar could now begin in earnest.


Likewise a process of consolidation appeared to be taking place in areas of West Africa as well. Various “Jihad States” had formed in the Sahel region throughout the 18th century, but the seemingly unstoppable trend was halted at the fabled battle of Tusure, in which the gunpowder-wielding forces of Ahmad Ibn Babba, the Sultan of Kano, halted the forces of a Fulani Leader, Muhammadu Ibn Umar. The victory had enabled the Sultan to accrue enough power internally to reform Kano and transform it into the dominant state of Hausaland. By 1800, he had forced the Hausa States into a loose confederation under the dominance of Kano [2]. Rather than some attempt at a national Hausa state however, he saw it as necessary to defend against encroachment from Jihadists as well as other threats to the security of Kano. Nevertheless, the creation of the Confederation proved to be an important forerunner for later states, as well as a crucial factor in the decline of endemic warfare in Hausaland in the early 19th century.

[2] – This confederation is more limited in scope than the Sokoto Empire of OTL, and is looser. On top of this of course more traditional elements such as the worshiping of fetishes and other pagan practices are still retained.

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Author's Notes - A bit of a shorter update, but I didn't want to cover too much ground that had already been tread on. With the next cycle we are likely to see some hitherto-ignored territories getting a look-in, both in Africa and outside. As I said, the frequency of updates will likely be lessened due to work commitments, but I will try and keep a pulse going for the timeline.
 

Deleted member 67076

So we get the Fulani Jihads a but earlier but less damaging while East Africa and the Iron Kingdoms cement themselves as part of the Islamic world due to trade ties.

Meanwhile everything east of Kivu is now part of the Muslim world.

Bet you in about 20 years the economy will shift from exporting slaves to cash crops once people figure out the land is excellent for growing cloves, coffee, tobacco, and exporting raw minerals like gold and iron. Would be a pretty easy switch for the big slave dribers and merchant captains to set up plantations and mines.

Sounds bad, but the bright side is paradoxically the population will boom come the introduction of newer farming methods and crops.
 
Toward the end of the 18th century, the pace of economic, social and political change on the Swahili Coast was quickening. As the smaller Swahili city-states began to come under the ever-heavier influence of either Zanzibar or Mombasa, conflict for dominance of the coastline appeared increasingly inevitable. Eventually when war broke out in 1787, it proved to a violent if sharp war. Whereas previous conflicts had been slow and indecisive, Zanzibar’s military and economic advantage was more pronounced in this later war, and Mombasa’s ruler formally submitted to the Sultan of Zanzibar in 1789. Zanzibar’s stronger trade links in the Indian Ocean, her larger navy and her superior ability to acquire firearms had all contributed toward her victory over Mombasa, leaving her with dominance over all the states of the Swahili Coast. With her main rival subdued and the rest of the city-states on the coast subject to her, the construction of a true empire ruled from Zanzibar could now begin in earnest.

A lot of timelines I have seen involving Zanzibar usually see becoming the African equivalent to Russia. Will that happen here as well?
 
It's nice to see TLs shows some more love on Africa. It's sad that Africa is often forgotten or little known. Still, it's good to see Africa being more relevant.

Any Persian influence or expats in Africa?
 
A lot of timelines I have seen involving Zanzibar usually see becoming the African equivalent to Russia. Will that happen here as well?

Personally, I doubt it. It seems to me like this Zanzibar will be a coastal-centred trade federation like a monarchical East African Hanseatic League.
 
Just curious if any of the Somali sultanates will join this federation in the future.
Well unless Nassirissimo say otherwise i think Somali sultanates at least (if not outright conquered) will be under someone else protection. I can see southern one will be under Zanzibari, more Northern one under Ottoman, and some under European power.
 
Well unless Nassirissimo say otherwise i think Somali sultanates at least (if not outright conquered) will be under someone else protection. I can see southern one will be under Zanzibari, more Northern one under Ottoman, and some under European power.

...Hmm the Ottomans looking south for conquest, now there is an interesting idea.
 
So we get the Fulani Jihads a but earlier but less damaging while East Africa and the Iron Kingdoms cement themselves as part of the Islamic world due to trade ties.

Meanwhile everything east of Kivu is now part of the Muslim world.

Bet you in about 20 years the economy will shift from exporting slaves to cash crops once people figure out the land is excellent for growing cloves, coffee, tobacco, and exporting raw minerals like gold and iron. Would be a pretty easy switch for the big slave dribers and merchant captains to set up plantations and mines.

Sounds bad, but the bright side is paradoxically the population will boom come the introduction of newer farming methods and crops.
To say that everything east of Kivu is part of the Muslim world is still a bit much at this point, but to say that it's gradually falling into its orbit is pretty on the ball. When the ball does drop in regards to cash crops, Zanzibar is going to start looking like some East African analogue to Brazil, though possibly with worse footballers in the future. To some extent this happened later on in OTL, but with a head start of a few decades Zanzibar will be making a different and in many ways, a bigger impact on Africa and the world economy in general.

This economic boom of course will be pretty crap for the millions of slaves who are likely to suffer and possibly die in its making, but with an agricultural boom the demographic effect may be lessened somewhat.
That Zanzibar isn't part of Oman any more is it?
Note that one of Nader Shah’s conquests was of the Sultanate of Muscat (coastal Oman), or at least its capital. Looks like it was permanently shattered ITTL and Zanzibar is picking up the pieces.
A lot of timelines I have seen involving Zanzibar usually see becoming the African equivalent to Russia. Will that happen here as well?
Indicus is right. Zanzibar ITTL is more or less the effort of those Omanis who could not resign themselves to Persian rule and who fled to Zanzibar. This of course is likely to be beneficial in the long run, as Zanzibar and the East African coast is a far richer base than Oman itself, something the al-Busaidis realised in OTL a bit later on.

As I'd said earlier, a good analogue for Zanzibar is likely to be Brazil economically speaking, though it will remain far more mixed in terms of languages and the relationship of interior peoples to the Coast (which is likely to become heavily Arab-Swahili by the mid-19th century). Its relationship with Europe may well be very different from OTL depending on what happens in terms of colonialism and issues such as the anti-Slavery movement.
Personally, I doubt it. It seems to me like this Zanzibar will be a coastal-centred trade federation like a monarchical East African Hanseatic League.
Just curious if any of the Somali sultanates will join this federation in the future.
Well unless Nassirissimo say otherwise i think Somali sultanates at least (if not outright conquered) will be under someone else protection. I can see southern one will be under Zanzibari, more Northern one under Ottoman, and some under European power.
...Hmm the Ottomans looking south for conquest, now there is an interesting idea.

Politically speaking things will be rather interesting. As trade and the economic importance of Zanzibar itself relative to the other city-states increases, then the concept of a Zanzibari Nation with a kind of Swahili-Arab identity may well emerge considerably later on, assuming that things remain rosy politically speaking. The other cities maintain a great deal of self-rule at this point, though everything is a bit more coerced than a regular federation.

The Somali States are outside Zanzibari influence, at least for the time being, and are making a bit of a killing at the moment slave-raiding in Ethiopia. Future Ottoman Influence certainly isn't out of the question, even if Ottoman efforts are focused in Arabia and to the north for the time being.
Missed threadmark on one of the china chaptera (pg 13 i think)
Well spotted! I have added that now.
Will the really swol Ethiopia from the old TL still develop?
Ethiopia isn't really doing too brilliantly. The conflict between the Oromo and the Amharic peoples, as well as slave raiding on the part of Somali rulers on the coast to satisfy increased demand, is taking its toll on Ethiopia. When the Age of Princes ends, Ethiopia may be more denuded of people than OTL and possibly more antagonistic toward Muslims.
 
Revolution in Europe! 1794 to 1804
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Radicalism in Late 18th Century Europe

Were it not for the exhaustion of the European Great Powers following the War of Sardinian Succession, the declaration of a Polish Constitution and the threat that it presented to the Status Quo in Eastern Europe may have been a major destabilisation to the system. As it was, Russia was still busy fighting the Iranians in the Caucasus, and the Austrians had greatly exerted themselves in their victory over France. Indeed, with France’s influence in Central/Eastern Europe smashed, Austria looked to the Polish state not as a possible area for expansion but rather a check on Russian ambitions to the West. Leopold II was aware that he had secured advantage for Austria, but the continued maintenance of her pre-eminence in Central Europe depended on alliance with Great Britain as well as keeping Russia safely outside of East-Central Europe. So began the “Balancing Act” of Austrian diplomacy, which saw her change alliances with smaller powers both within and without the Holy Roman Empire in order to maintain the balance of power as it stood.


In France, the Status Quo was anything but desirable. The great cost of the defeat against Austria in the war of Sardinian Succession left France close to bankruptcy. Although the economy of France had indeed grown by a significant measure in the 18th century, the administrative structure of the country was inefficient, and the taxation system was not suitable to support the demands of the state. Her rival Austria could be partially supported by the wealth of Britain, but France had to pay for her own efforts. Attempts such as the “Council of Notables” in 1797 to secure sufficient funds for the state were failures, and the growing fiscal crisis did much to further blacken the monarchy in the eyes of the population of Paris.


Among the French population, pro-reform sentiment had been spreading for quite some time. The efforts of the new king Louis XVII to provide some kind of consensus in the French system appeared to be wholly inadequate when compared to the Polish as well as the (weaker) Austrian Constitutions which were written in 1794 and 1798 respectively. The latter had a hand in causing riots not only in Paris but in a number of French provinces, which in itself triggered a repressive response from the French government. Repression was not sufficient to quell the disturbances however, and it was only with the promise of the Estates General the following year that the rioters were halted. Although the violence had stopped, tensions continued to rise as it became apparent that the Estates, rather than being a representative body, would largely resemble the previous Estates of 1614, in which the Aristocracy and Clergy would have an equal say to the “Third Estate”, who comprised not only the commoners but the Bourgeoisie as well.


Riots began once again as the Estates were convened. King Louis XVII and his council hurriedly moved to first double, than triple the representation of the Third Estate in order to stem the quick rise of dissent among the French population. By the late summer of 1799 however, it appeared as though the momentum of radicalisation amongst the Third Estate was ever-increasing. By September, the Third Estate had now declared itself as the “People’s Assembly” and declared the other two estates defunct. A French Constitution was written and signed, restricting the privileges of the aristocracy and clergy. Although the adoption of a Constitution was hardly revolutionary at this point, the agency of the people in its formulation rather than the monarch was, and this not only worried the king and the aristocracy, but foreign monarchs as well who feared what they saw as the unleashed passions of the lower classes.


The French Constitution proved to be a mere speed bump in the road toward revolution. Voices supportive of a constitutional monarchy now began to move ever closer to Republicanism as King Louis continued to be an aloof figure who had only supported reform insofar as he had been coerced. Rumours of unseating the monarch now began to spread, and Emperor Leopold of Austria took the unprecedented step of secretly offering asylum for the French King. The offer was rejected but not the suggestion of escape, and the French king and his family left Paris incognito in the February of 1800. Once it was realised that the king was in flight, it was already too late for the mob to bring him back. With the escape of the king from Paris, revolutionaries began cracking down on Royalist elements within France, arresting and even summarily executing hundreds across the country. Such repression had predictable effects, and an armed movement rejecting the authority of the People’s Assembly arouse in Vendee in March, supported by a King who had resurfaced in Nantes.


This counter-revolution picked up steam throughout the first half of 1800. Although the majority of the Army remained loyal to the People’s Assembly there were regiments, most of them foreigners, who remained loyal to the king [1]. Large portions of rural France, particularly to the West and the South, remained loyal to the king and saw little common cause with the revolutionaries in Paris. Nevertheless, in the emerging civil war it appeared as though the balance of forces favoured the revolutionaries. 1800 marked a number of great victories for the revolutionaries, and over the winter it appeared as though the king would have to go into exile as his supporters were being overcome. Fear in the other capitals of Europe however would come to save the king, as the British and Spanish overcame previous differences to unite against the revolutionary menace in Paris. Britain agreed to finance the Spanish King’s intervention to save his French relatives while the British would take responsibility for suppressing the growing slave rebellion in Saint Domingue which had been in-part motivated by the revolutionary tumult in the metropole.


Spain’s intervention showed how far her army had come since the dark days of the Seven Years War. Spanish forces crossed the Pyrenees and met with Royalist French troops on the other side. From now on, the Royalists could stem the tide and even win a number of victories against the Revolutionary forces. Although the latter largely held their own, a series of defeats in the South, including notably at Toulon when Royalist-Spanish forces supported by the British Royal Navy captured Toulon and cut off the Revolutionary’s access to the Mediterranean, the situation seemed to be decisively turning against the Revolutionaries. It was only the “Levée en Masse” which provided hope for the Revolutionaries, replacing the losses of professional soldiery with conscripts. The numbers in the Revolutionary army increased significantly, and by the February of 1802 they had an advantage of some 100,000 men over the Royalists. They were not afraid to use this advantage, and were so successful that they had captured Nantes on the 23rd of July 1802. This capture of the major Royalist centre of France now even made the Austrians put aside their long-standing enmity against the French Bourbons, and Austria declared war on the Revolutionaries in August.


The forces of the revolution fought bravely and even scored a number of impressive victories, but ultimately the forces of Austria proved to be decisive. 1803 saw the general collapse of Revolutionary armies across France, with Orleans falling in June and Paris under siege the following month. Renewed attempts at conscription by the People’s Assembly failed, and Paris was finally taken by the combined armies of the Coalition on the 17th of November 1803. By now, France had endured almost ten years of tumult, and the king had only been able to regain his throne with the considerable assistance of Austria, Spain and Great Britain. Defeated the revolution may had been, but it left in its wake a French king devoid of prestige, and a France which tasted an even more bitter defeat than that which it had suffered in the Sardinian War. The French Revolutionary War had left the country too exhausted to fight, but it did not put a rest to the forces which had caused it.


[1] – Foreigners in the French army around this point made up between ¼ and 1/3 of French forces in total, a figure not too dissimilar from OTL.


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"Once let out of the Bag" - Revolution in Europe's Colonies

Though often omitted from sweeping general histories, the first of the non-European Revolutions that were inspired in part by that of the French was in the French colonies of Saint Domingue. Prior to the revolution in Paris, Saint Domingue was perhaps one of the most profitable colonies in the world, rich not just in sugar exports but in other cash crops such as coffee. This booming economy was based primarily on chattel slave labour which required the constant import of slaves from West Africa to replace those who died in the unhealthy conditions of the plantations. Existence was miserable for the vast majority of slaves in Haiti, and it was this group that comprised the vast majority of Haiti’s population. Not all of those of African descent were slaves however, and there was a significant population of gens de couleur who were usually of mixed heritage, and who were significant slave-holders in their own right (possibly as many as a quarter of all slaves in Saint Domingue). Many of these men were active in politics and argued that citizenship should not be limited by race.


Initial resistance on the part of the People’s Assembly gave way when the increasing frequency of slave revolts on the island, as well as the threat of a royalist seizure of the island, led to an accommodation with the gens de couleur in Saint Domingue. For the time being, the island remained in the hands of the People’s Assembly, though the conflict on the island had soon grown into a multi-sided conflict, with those loyal to the Revolution in France fending off both slave revolts as well as the attempts of Royalists and other Europeans to unseat them. However, by 1802 it was the slaves who appeared to be gaining the upper hand after they had unified under their charismatic and well-educated leader Jean Biassou. Initially supported by the Spanish, they had turned against him after fears spread of slave revolts in Spain’s own colonies. Combined with the collapse of the position of the People’s Assembly in Saint Domingue, an accord was signed between the Slave Revolutionaries and those in Paris, abolishing Slavery throughout France and her colonies, and recognising Saint Domingue as an integral part of France. This accommodation was not to last long however as the position of the Revolutionaries back in France collapsed, and the Revolutionaries in Saint Domingue were defeated in a long struggle by Royalist forces and their Spanish and British backers.


Elsewhere in the Americas, the ideas articulated in the French Revolution made their impact, if not quite as dramatically as in Saint Domingue. In the British colonies of North America, the slave revolts in Saint Domingue inspired horror in the slave-holding southern colonies even as the Enlightenment ideas of the French revolutionaries inspired the curiosity of intellectuals from the northern colonies. This growing interest in the practice of enlightenment ideas combined with an increasing dissatisfaction with their position in the British Empire, especially as various measures to restrict the commerce of New England proved to be an increasing stranglehold on the economic growth of the region. The colonists were also increasingly sceptical of a need to rely on Britain for security as the chaos in France seemed to reduce the threat of the colonies of French North America. The question among the elite of British North America now was if independence was more desirable than a continuation of their colonial status.

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A map of the world circa 1804 (larger version here)​

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Author's Notes - Somewhat more limited in scope than OTL's revolution, the French Revolution of TTL has been successfully strangled in its cradle after only a few years of war. Demographic and diplomatic effects besides, the effect on the political culture of Europe will be nothing less than seismic. Although blood has been shed, the fact that this has not ended with the decapitation of kings is less likely to destroy the enthusiasm for Constitutionalism and Enlightenment thought that was present amongst the rulers of 18th century Europe. The Europe of the 19th century may not have to deal with the stark choice of "Republicans or Cossacks" to use Napoleon's phrase that she did in OTL. And the effects for the world outside of Europe may be no less significant.

Indeed, Saint-Domingue/Haiti is unfortunately back under the control of the French, though the memory of rebellion has not been forgotten, nor has the citizenship of the Gens de Couleur or free black population been revoked. Naturally this will affect race-relations to some extent going into the 19th century for the French at least, but the other affects of the failed Haitian Revolution are still yet to be seen in other parts of the Americas. The next cycle of updates will likely have an update focused solely on the Americas which will also take a look at what has gone on in other colonies.
 

Deleted member 67076

Saint Domingue is just gonna blow up later. Probably more brutally than before. Not gonna help once sugar takes off in Brazil and Coffee in Central America and the competition grows stiff
 
the enthusiasm for Constitutionalism and Enlightenment thought that was present amongst the rulers of 18th century Europe.

I don’t think there was an enthusiasm for constitutionalism in 18th century Europe. If anything, it went the other way, with kings smothering the feudal assemblies. The victory of the enlightened absolutist Bourbon over a would-be legislature ITTL vindicates absolutism.
 
The forces of the revolution fought bravely and even scored a number of impressive victories, but ultimately the forces of Austria proved to be decisive. 1803 saw the general collapse of Revolutionary armies across France, with Orleans falling in June and Paris under siege the following month. Renewed attempts at conscription by the People’s Assembly failed, and Paris was finally taken by the combined armies of the Coalition on the 17th of November 1803. By now, France had endured almost ten years of tumult, and the king had only been able to regain his throne with the considerable assistance of Austria, Spain and Great Britain. Defeated the revolution may had been, but it left in its wake a French king devoid of prestige, and a France which tasted an even more bitter defeat than that which it had suffered in the Sardinian War. The French Revolutionary War had left the country too exhausted to fight, but it did not put a rest to the forces which had caused it.

I am willing to believe that France will endure a 19th century comparable to that of OTL, a political seesaw with neverending defeats.
 
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