A Darker World War II: A Timeline Reboot by Zoidberg12

The Immediate Post War Era and the Start of the Cold War

(1947-1952)

The Immediate Post-War Era in Europe, as well as most of the rest of the world, was a time of for the reconstruction and restructuring of nations and peoples and the reorganization of the political and economic order of the world. This especially the case in the war-torn and devastated nations of Europe and Asia. Germany, the principal aggressor of the eight year-long Second World War, is divided into three occupation zones, an American, a British and a French occupation zone, while Japan is occupied by the United States of America. Tensions also begin between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, with the government of the Soviet Union feeling it did not gain enough from their war against the German Reich and supporting Communist movements in the civil wars in China, Yugoslavia, and Greece.

Out of the nations of the Allied Powers, four nations almost immediately fell into war once again, and these nations were the Soviet Union, the Republic of China, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and the Kingdom of Greece. The Soviet Union, due to political instability infighting, as well as the sheer destruction of the war, began to fight against numerous separatist rebellions, while the later three nations all fell into civil wars between their respective national governments and rebellious communist movements, all of which were supported by the Soviet Union.

Across Europe, as well as in Japan, several different trials were held for the perpetrators of crimes against humanity, war crimes and other atrocities. The largest of these atrocities was the Holocaust, the genocide of the Jews of Europe, with nearly 7.5 million Jews having been killed by the forces of the German Reich, and millions of others were killed including Roma and Sinti, homosexuals, the disabled and other so-called “undesirables.” Other victims included Polish, Czech, Slovak, Baltic, and Soviet civilians, Soviet POWs, and Bosnian Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia. The most famous of these trails were the Nuremberg Trails, which were held in the eponymous city against many of the major figures of the Nazi German regime throughout most of 1948.

In the Immediate Post-War Era, the decolonization of European colonies began in earnest, with some of the first nations to gain independence being Jordan, India, Pakistan, Israel, among others.

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August-December, 1947

August 24, 1947: One day after the end of World War II, in Yugoslavia, with the restoration of the government and monarchy of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, negotiations begin between the Yugoslav government of King Peter II and Prime Minister Ivan Šubašić and the National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia of Josip Broz Tito.

August 25, 1947: With the re-annexation of the Baltic States by the Soviet Union, the Guerrilla war in the Baltic states begins with the Forrest Brothers insurgents fighting against the Soviet forces in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. Meanwhile, in Ukraine, the UPA insurgency continues.

August 26, 1947: Just a few days after the end of the Second World War in Europe and after an over year-long ceasefire that was in place since the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War and the War in the Pacific, and after months of numerous small-scale skirmishes, the truce between the Nationalist/Kuomintang government of China in Nanjing and the Chinese Communist Party, which controls a lot of Northern China, collapses. As a result, the Chinese Civil War resumes.

August 29, 1947: With the resumption of the Chinese Civil War, the United States and the United Kingdom begin sending military supplies and aid to the Republic of China, while the USSR gives sending military supplies and aid to the forces of the CCP and the People’s Liberation Army. In spite of the Republic of China still having half a million soldiers in Europe, the government of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek still has the tactical and numerical advantage over the CCP and PLA of Mao Zedong.

September 1, 1947: Just over a week after the end of the Second World War and the Great Patriotic War, Premier Molotov and Premier Beria both begin vying and plotting for power within the Soviet government, with each one planning to overthrow the other and assume sole power of the Soviet government. Molotov, a hardline Stalinist, has the support of Georgy Malenkov, Lazar Kaganovich and Antanas Mikoyan, among others, while Beria, a “reformer” and Orthodox Leninist, has the support of Nikita Khrushchev, Nikolai Bulganin, and Leonid Brezhnev, among others. Premiers Molotv and Beria also begin actively campaigning for domestic support and support from the international community, especially from the governments of the Allied nations of the United States, United Kingdom, France, and China.

Meanwhile, Field Marshall Georgy Zhukov, the hero of the Great Patriotic War, is recognized by all sides as the key to the post-war Soviet Union, and he has made little secret of his disdain for the Molotov-Beria regime. It is unknown whether he will side with one faction against the other or take matters into his own hands.

September 9, 1947: After weeks of talks, the negotiations between the Yugoslav government and the Yugoslav partisans breaks down.

September 10, 1947: After a series of skirmishes between the soldiers of the Yugoslav partisans the soldiers of the newly re-established Royal Yugoslav Army, Josip Broz Tito proclaims the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia from his headquarters in the Bosnian town of Dvrar and declares war on the government of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. As a result, the Yugoslav Civil War begins, and it will be one of the bloodiest civil wars in Post-World War II Europe.

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Peter II of Yugoslavia

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Josip Broz Tito

September 12, 1947: With the start of the Yugoslav Civil War, the Yugoslav government begins to receive military supplies and aid from the United States and United Kingdom. The US and UK also help with the resettling of Yugoslav refugees which escape into Italy and Allied-Occupied Austria.

September 14, 1947: The Yugoslav Partisans begins receiving military supplies and aid from the Soviet Union, all of which is secretly airdropped by the Soviet Air Forces.

September 21, 1947: Lebanon becomes independent from France.

September 29, 1947: Syria becomes independent from France.

October 1, 1947: Less than two months after the end of the Second World War, numerous arrests take place throughout the Soviet Union on the orders of both Molotov and Beria, thus leading to a lot of confusion throughout the country on whose orders to follow.

As a result of this domestic instability within the Soviet Union, the country is at a standstill, with some government officials and regions of the country following the orders of Molotov and others the orders of Beria. As a result, to both domestic and outside observers, the Soviet Union seemed to be on the brink of Civil War and collapse.

October 3, 1947: With the decline in the authority of the Soviet government in Moscow, Ukrainians begin rioting and revolting throughout in the newly annexed Soviet Ukrainian region of Galicia, especially in Lviv.

October 6, 1947: Inspired by the revolts in Ukraine, Belarussian civilians begin rioting and revolting in major cities, especially the capital of Minsk.

October 8-October 12, 1947: Numerous riots breakout throughout the major cities of the Baltic states, such as Vilnius, Kaunas, Riga, and Tallinn.

October 15, 1947: The remnants of the Russian Liberation Army, led by former Red Army officer Andrey Vlasov, and other former groups that collaborated with the German Reich during the Second World War, rise in revolt throughout the many rural regions of Western Russia, all in an effort to crush the Soviet regime once and for all.

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Andrey Vlasov

October 21, 1947: The Postdam Agreements are signed between President James F. Byrnes of the United States of America, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom, Secretaries Vyacheslav Molotov and Lavrentiy Beria of the USSR and President Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque of France in Potsdam, Germany.

October 26, 1947: The Republic of Ukraine, also known as West Ukraine, declares independence with Andriy Melnyk, leader of the moderate faction of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, as the interim-President in the temporary capital of Lviv. The UPA, led by Stepan Bandera, also leader of the radical faction of the OUN, supports the proclamation of the new Ukrainian republic.

With the Soviet government in a weakened state, there is little the Soviet government can do about this.

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Andriy Melnyk

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Stepan Bandera

October 28, 1947: With the fall of Vilnius and Kaunas to the Lithuanian Forrest Brothers rebels, the re-independence of the Republic of Lithuania is proclaimed.

October 30, 1947: The Republic of Lithuania declares re-independence in Vilnius with Stasys Lozoraitis as the interim President of Lithuania and Mykolas Krupavičius as the interim Prime Minister of Lithuania.

October 31, 1947: With the fall of Riga to the Lithuanian Forrest Brothers rebels, the re-independence of the Republic of Latvia is proclaimed.

November 2, 1947: With the fall of Tallin and Tartu to Estonian rebels, the re-independence of the Republic of Estonia is proclaimed.

November 3, 1947: The Republic of Latvia declares re-independence in Riga with Kārlis Reinholds Zariņšas the interim President of Latvia.

November 6, 1947: The Republic of Estonia declares re-independence in Tallinn with August Rei as the interim President of Estonia.

November 10, 1947: With the fall of Minsk to Belarussian rebels, the independence of Belarus is declared in Minsk.

November 13, 1947: Mikola Abramchyk, the leader of the Belarusian government in exile, arrives in Minsk and becomes the interim president of the newly re-established Belarussian People’s Republic.

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Mikola Abramchyk

November 19, 1947: After a year’s long insurgency against the German and Italian occupiers and the Turkish government, the Republic of Kurdistan is recognized as independent by the Republic of Turkey, with Mustafa Barzani as the first president of Kurdistan.

November 21, 1947: In the 1947 British general election, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the Conservative Party beats Clement Atlee of the Labor Party in one of the closest elections in British history.

November 25, 1947: The United Nations is officially established with the signing of the Treaty of Boston, with the United Nations being headquartered in New York City. The Five Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council are the United States of America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the French Republic, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Republic of China.

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Flag of the United Nations

November 30, 1947: Félix Gouin succeeds General Leclerc as provisional President of France.

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Félix Gouin

December 10, 1947: As a result of mounting American pressure, France gives independence to Vietnam and the Empire of Vietnam is officially established with Bảo Đại as Emperor.

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Bảo Đại

December 20, 1947: France gives independence to Loas, and the Kingdom of Laos is established.

December 30, 1947: France gives independence to Cambodia and the Kingdom of Cambodia is established.
 
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Why Germany would invade Sweden unless Sweden refuse to sell iron ore to Germans?

And invasion of Switzeland whilst they are fighing with Allies seems really stupid even for nazis.

I agree with Lalli, I don't think it is necessary to add an invasion of Switzerland or Sweden. It was not necessary for the Axis, both countries were isolated in the middle of a fascist sea and they were more useful to them being neutral than occupied.

However I think it would be good if you added what happened with Franco and Mussolini, as well as with Tito, MIhailovic and the Yugoslav partisans.

Oh and another thing that I think would change would be the fate of the Baltic States, considering the very precarious position of the USSR, I don't think the western allies would allow them to remain annexed.

Good points about Sweden and Switzerland. I might still write about them as a sort of "What-if" within a "What-if" later on though, but I don't think I'll change the main story.

The fate of Franco and Mussolini will be brought up later, same with Tito. The Baltic States regained independence in the last chapter.
 
1948

January 5, 1948: The Nuremburg Trials, held against many of the major figures of the Nazi German regime, begin in Nuremberg, Bavaria in the American occupation zone of Germany.

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The Judges Panel at the Nuremburg Trails

January 30, 1948: Pierre Laval is executed by firing squad by the French government for collaboration with the German Reich.

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Pierre Laval (6/28/1883-1/30/1948, aged 64)

February 8, 1948: Vidkun Quisling is executed by firing squad by the Norwegian government for collaboration with the German Reich.

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Vidkun Quisling (7/18/1887-2/8/1948, aged 60)

February 14, 1948: After months of government in-fighting, the Soviet Red Army led by Field Marshall Gregory Zhukov launches a “St. Valentine’s Day Coup” against the Soviet government and arrests Beria and Molotov in Moscow for “gross negligence during the Great Patriotic War, Stalinist subversion and the murder of Comrade Zhdanov.” Gregory Zhukov becomes Secretary General and Premier, the Supreme Leader, of the Soviet Union.

February 21, 1948: Premiers Molotv and Beria are executed by the Red Army in Lubyanka prison in Moscow.

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Vyacheslav Molotov (3/9/1890-2/21/1948, aged 57)

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Lavrentiy Beria (3/29/1899-2/21/1948, aged 48)

February 28, 1948: The Milan Trials, held against many of the major figures of the Fascist Italian regime and the Italian Social Republic, begin in Milan, Lombardy, Italy. The city was chosen as the site of the trails because Milan was one of the capitals of the Italian Social Republic.

March 1, 1948: The third and final phase of the Greek Civil War begins between the government of the Kingdom of Greece and the partisan armies of the Greek Communist Party (KKE). The Kingdom of Greece is supported by the United States and United Kingdom while the KKE partisans are supported by the Soviet Union.

March 15, 1948: The Barcelona Trails, held against many of the major figures of the Spanish Nationalist regime, during both the Spanish Civil War and the Second World War, begin.

March 30, 1948: The Paris Peace Conference begins.

April 1, 1948: The Tokyo Trails, held against many of the major figures of the Fascist Japanese regime, begin.

April 9, 1948: Premier Zhukov announces in a speech in Moscow that the Soviet Union will seek an amicable relationship with the Western nations, so long as the Western nation no longer impede on the borders of the Soviet Union. This speech is seen by the Western nations as a hopeful yet worrying statement, as the Soviet government continues to fund armed communist rebellion in China, Yugoslavia, and Greece. Most historians see this as the start of the Cold War.

April 22, 1948: The Kingdom of Hungary is abolished, and the Second Hungarian Republic is officially established. Zoltán Tildy is President and Ferenc Nagy is Prime Minister.

May 5, 1948: The Soviet government under Premier Zhukov reluctantly recognizes the independence of Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Belarus.

May 8, 1948: The United States of America, the United Kingdom, the French Republic all recognize the independence of Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Belarus. The former Western Allies had previously been reluctant to diplomatically recognize these nations in fear of antagonizing the Soviet Union.

May 16, 1948: The 1948 Spanish institutional referendum is held. In a close vote, the referendum, 51% of the voters vote for Spain to become a monarchy, while 49% of voters vote for Spain to become a republic.

June 1, 1948: The Kingdom of Spain is officially re-established after seventeen years of having been defunct. Infante Jaime, Duke of Segovia, the oldest surviving son of the late King Alfonso XIII, becomes King Jamie III of Spain, while Diego Martínez Barrio becomes interim Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Spain. In the coming months, many Spanish Republican exiles from France, Mexico, the United States, and other countries begin returning to Spain with the restoration of democracy, while Spanish leftists largely remain in exile to the republic not having been restored.

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Jamie III of Spain

June 22, 1948: The term “Cold War” is first coined by English writer George Orwell, who stated in an essay that a Cold War had begun between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union over the civil wars in China and the Balkans.

July 9, 1948: Anton Mussert is executed by firing squad by the Dutch government for collaboration with the German Reich.

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Anton Mussert (5/11/1894-7/9/1948, aged 54)

July 14, 1948: Ferenc Szálasi is executed in by hanging in Budapest for collaboration with the German Reich, war crimes and his role in the Holocaust.

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Ferenc Szálasi (1/6/1897-7/14/1948, aged 51)

July 28, 1948: The Paris Peace Conference ends.

August 1, 1948: The Republic of the Philippines becomes independent from the United State of America.

August 15, 1948: After twenty-eight years of existence, the League of Nations is officially disestablished in Geneva, with the purpose of the LON having been replaced by the United Nations.

September 5, 1948: The 1948 Italian institutional referendum is held. In the referendum, 56% of the voters vote for Italy to remain a monarchy, while 44% of voters vote for Italy to become a republic. One of the reasons that the Italian monarchists won the referendum was due to the amount of sympathy that the Italian people held for Umberto II and the House of Savoy after Mussolini’s betrayal of the royal family and the death of King Victor Emmanuel III.

September 19, 1948: Ion Antonescu is executed in by firing squad in Bucharest for collaboration with the German Reich, war crimes and his role in the Holocaust.

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Ion Antonescu (6/15/1882-9/19/1948, aged 66)

October 8, 1948: After almost a year of insurgency, the Russian Rebellion ends in a defeat for the Russian Liberation Army and the other anti-Communist Russian rebels, with the death in battle of Andrey Vlasov in the countryside outside of Voronezh.

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Andrey Vlasov (9/14/1901-10/8/1948, aged 47)

November 2, 1948: In the United States presidential election of 1948, Republicans Thomas E. Dewey, former Governor of New York and Earl Warren, Governor of California, defeat Democrats President James F. Brynes and Massachusetts Governor Paul A. Deverand Dixiecrats Strom Thurmond and Benjamin Travis Laney to become President and Vice President of the United States of America. One famous photo from the day after election night shows Thomas Dewey holding up a newspaper with a headline reading "Brynes defeats Dewey", with the newspaper having printed the incorrect prediction that Byrnes would win the election.

November 12, 1948: The Paris Peace Treaties are signed in Pairs, France, thus officially establishing the new territorial changes in Europe after World War II.

November 29, 1948: The Nuremberg Trails end and the verdicts of the trails are decided. Hermann Göring, Rudolf Hess, Heinrich Himmler, Martin Bormann, Joseph Goebbels, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Wilhelm Keitel, Alfred Jodl, Walther von Reichenau, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Alfred Rosenburg, Hans Frank, Adolf Eichmann, Heinrich Müller, Odilo Globocnik, Theodor Eicke, Kurt Dalauge, Robert Ley, Roland Freisler, Frtiz Sauckel, Wilhelm Frick, Arthur Seyss-Inquart and Julius Streicher are all sentenced to death. Reinhard Heydrich is sentenced to death in absentia, as he had yet to located by Allied authorities. Albert Speer and Walter Funk are sentenced to life imprisonment. Konstantin Von Neurath is sentenced to fifteen years imprisonment and Baldur Von Sirach is sentenced to twenty years imprisonment. Hjamlar Schacht and Franz Von Papen are all acquitted.

December 14, 1948: Hermann Göring, Rudolf Hess, Heinrich Himmler, Martin Bormann, Joseph Goebbels, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Wilhelm Keitel, Alfred Jodl, Walther von Reichenau, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Alfred Rosenburg, Hans Frank, Adolf Eichmann, Heinrich Müller, Odilo Globocnik, Theodor Eicke, Kurt Dalauge, Robert Ley, Roland Freisler, Frtiz Sauckel, Wilhelm Frick, Arthur Seyss-Inquart and Julius Streicher are all executed by hanging in Nuremberg.
 
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1949

January 20, 1949: President Dewey is inaugurated. Dewey is the first Republican President of the United States of America in almost sixteen years since Herbert Hoover left office in 1933.

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Thomas E. Dewey

February 1, 1949: The Subsequent Nuremburg Trials begin.

February 25, 1949: The Kingdom of Jordan becomes independent from the British Mandate of Palestine.

March 6, 1949: The Free Territory of Trieste, under the authority of the United Nations and American and British Commonwealth administrators, is officially established. The question of how to divide the Free Territory of Trieste between Italy and Yugoslavia is planned to be resolved through American and British mediation at some later point after the end of the Yugoslav Civil War.

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Flag of the Free Territory of Trieste

March 15, 1949: On the ides of March, the Milan Trails end and the judgements are handed down. Benito Mussolini, Rudolfo Graziani, Achille Starace, Alessandro Pavolini, Roberto Farinacci and Pietro Mannelli are all sentenced to death.

March 30, 1949: Benito Mussolini, Rudolfo Graziani, Achille Starace, Alessandro Pavolini, Roberto Farinacci and Pietro Mannelli are all executed by hanging in Milan.

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Benito Mussolini (7/29/1883-3/30/1949, aged 65)

April 17, 1949: The Barcelona Trails end and the judgments are handed down. Francisco Franco, Gonzalo Quipo de Llano, Juan Yagüe, Fidel Dávila Arrondo and Carlos Asensio Cabanillas are all sentenced to death.

May 9, 1949: Francisco Franco, Gonzalo Quipo de Llano, Juan Yagüe, Fidel Dávila Arrondo and Carlos Asensio Cabanillas are all executed by hanging in Barcelona.

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Francisco Franco (December 4, 1892-May 9, 1949, aged 56)

June 5, 1949: In Czechoslovakia, Emil Hácha, Jaroslav Krejčí and other Czech and Slovak collaborators are executed by firing squad in Prague for collaboration with the German Reich. Rudolf Beran is sentenced to life in prison.

June 16, 1949: The first of the Newfoundland Referendums are held.

July 22, 1949: In Belgium, Leon Degele, Hendrik Elias and Jef van de Wiele are executed in Brussels for collaboration with the German Reich.

August 4, 1949: The second of the Newfoundland referendums are held. In the referendum, 53% of voters vote for Confederation with Canada.

August 19, 1949: Dr. and Monsignor Jozef Tiso, former President of the Slovak Republic, is executed for collaboration with the German Reich in Bratislava, Slovakia, Czechoslovakia for collaboration with the German Reich.

September 1, 1949: Ten years after the start of World War II, several Polish collaborators with the German Reich, such as Wacław Krzeptowski and Ludwig Kalkstein, are executed in Warsaw for collaboration with the German Reich. Władysław Studnicki and Stanisław Trzeciak are sentenced to life imprisonment due to their advanced age.

October 14, 1949: The partition of India, long planned in advance between the government of the British, the Indian National Congress and the All-India Muslim League, begins, with a lot of population exchanges, along with violence, deaths and chaos as a result.

October 15, 1949: The Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan become independent from the United Kingdom, both as Dominions of Great Britain. The partition of India thus goes into affect.

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Map of the Partition of India

November 29, 1949: The Greek Civil War ends in a victory for the monarchist and democratic government with the official surrender of the political and partisan leaders of the KKE, although some sporadic resistance in rural areas will last until 1953. Most of the Greek communists are either executed or imprisoned by the Greek government or flee to the Soviet Union.

December 19, 1949: The United Nations proposes a plan or the partition of Palestine into Israel, a Jewish state, and Palestine, an Arab state. However, neither the Jewish or Arab delegations are entirely satisfied by the plan and reject the plan as a result.

1950

January 26, 1950: In the 1950 British general election, Clement Atlee, leader of the Labour Party, defeats Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the Conservative Party and Clement Davies of the Liberal Party.

February 8, 1950: Inspired by the monarchist referendums in Italy and Spain, and with the power vacuum in the Estado Novo regime since the death of Salazar, President Francisco Craveiro Lopes announces that within a few years a referendum will be held on whether the Estado Novo regime should restore the Portuguese monarchy or maintain Portugal as a republic.

March 12, 1950: Frits Clausen is executed by firing squad in Copenhagen by the Danish government for collaboration with the German Reich.

April 9, 1950: The Republic of Burma becomes independent from Great Britain.

April 13, 1950: Newfoundland becomes a province of Canada.

May 5, 1950: The Dominion of Ceylon becomes independent as a Dominion of Great Britain.

May 17, 1950: In Greece, Konstantinos Logothetopoulos and many other surviving Greek collaborators with Italy and Germany are sentenced to life in prison for collaboration with the Axis Powers.

June 14, 1950: The State of Israel becomes independent from Great Britain with Chaim Weizmann as President and David Ben-Gurion as Prime Minister. The British Mandate of Palestine is disbanded as a result. The First Arab-Israeli War also begins, with Egypt, Jordan, Iraq and Syria declaring war on Israel.

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Flag of Israel

June 15, 1950: President Dewey and the government of the United States of America diplomatically recognize the State of Israel, becoming the country to do show.

July 14, 1950: After almost four years of American occupation and preparation for self governance, the American military occupation of Korea comes to an end. As a result, the Republic of Korea becomes independent and is established with Syngman Rhee as President and Lee Beom-seok as Prime Minister. The Korean government-in-exile is disbanded as a result.

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Flag of the Republic of Korea

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Syngman Rhee

July 30, 1950: In a reformist move, the Soviet government of Premier Zhukov elevates the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics of Turkestan, Bashkortostan, Chechnya and Dagestan to the level of Soviet Socialist Republics.

August 22, 1950: Josip Broz Tito, along with many of his bodyguards, is killed in combat in his headquarters in Drvar, Bosnia during a firefight against soldiers of the Royal Yugoslav Army. His body is then buried in an unmarked grave.

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Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892-August 22, 1950, aged 58)

August 25, 1950: After almost three years of resistence, the Yugoslav Civil War ends in a victory for the monarchist government of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, with the surrender of Arso Jovanović, Ivan Ribar and Edvard Kardelj and other remaining partisan leaders, although sporadic resistance in rural areas will last until 1956. Most of the Yugoslav communists are either executed or imprisoned by the Yugoslav government or flee to the Soviet Union.

September 12, 1950: After a series of brief trails, Arso Jovanović and Edvard Kardelj, along with other partisans were who members of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia before WWII, are executed for treason in Belgrade, while Ivan Ribar and other partisans who joined the partisans during WWII are imprisoned for life.

September 28, 1950: The Sarajevo Trails, held against many of the major figures of the Croatian Ustashe regime, the Serbian Government of National Salvation and other Axis collaborators, as well as German and Italian personnel who committed war crimes in Yugoslavia, begin in Sarajevo, Drina Banovina, Yugoslavia. The trails were delayed somewhat to the ongoing Yugoslav Civil War and are a held by a joint American, British and Yugoslav tribunal.

October 1, 1950: After over three years of Allied occupation, Germany and Austria are split in up into numerous different German nations under the influence of different Allied nations. These new German nations include the Kingdom of Prussia and the Kingdom of Hannover under British influence, the Republic of Rhineland, the Kingdom of Baden-Württemberg and the Republic of Tyrol under French influence and the Kingdom of Bavaria and the Kingdom of Saxony under American occupation. The Kingdom of Austria is established under joint American and British influence.

The balkanization of Germany is considered a temporary by the American, British and French governments. Within a year, the governments of the USA, UK and France will decide whether or not to allow these different nations to unite into a single federal German nation or whether to keep these nations separate.

November 9, 1950: The Tokyo Trials come to an end are the judgments are handed down. Hideki Tojo, Kōki Hirota, Iwane Matsui, Kenji Doihara, Akira Mutō, Seishirō Itagaki and Heitarō Kimura are sentenced to death.


December 21, 1950: Hideki Tojo, former Prime Minister of Japan during much of the Second World War, along with Kōki Hirota, Iwane Matsui, Kenji Doihara, Akira Mutō, Seishirō Itagaki and Heitarō Kimura, are executed in Sugamo Prison in Tokyo, Japan.

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Hideki Tojo (December 30, 1884-December 21, 1950, aged 65)
 
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1951

January 10, 1951: In attempt to gain more support from the Soviet Union, Mao Zedong prematurely declares the People’s Republic of China in Beijing. The PRC is only recognized by the Soviet government and the Mongolian government.

February 27, 1951: The subsequent Nuremburg Trails end.

March 21, 1951: With the People’s Republic of China losing the Chinese Civil War, the Soviet Union invades East Turkestan and goes to war with the Republic of China.

March 24, 1951: The American government of President Dewey and the British government of Prime Minister Atlee condemn the Soviet invasion of China.

April 7, 1951: With the Soviet invasion of East Turkestan and the increase in Soviet support to the PRC, the armies of the Republic of China launch a major offensive to capture Beijing and eventually defeat the forces of the Chinese Communist Party.

May 1, 1951: Mikhail Meandrov and other Russian and Soviet collaborators with the Third Reich are executed by hanging in Moscow.

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Mikhail Meandrov (October 22, 1894-May 1, 1951, aged 56)

May 26, 1951: Israel wins the First Arab-Israeli War. As a result, the independence and territorial integrity of the State of Israel is preserved. The West Bank is occupied by Jordan and the Gaza Strip is occupied by Egypt.

June 4, 1951: After numerous clashes between the Vietnamese Army and Vietnamese communist paramilitaries, the Vietnamese imperial government bans the Vietnamese Communist Party. As a result, the VCP goes underground and starts a low-level guerilla war against the Vietnamese government.

June 18, 1951: With years of tensions between the Western powers and the USSR, and with the Soviet invasion of China, the Allied Defensive Treaty Organization or ADTO is established by the USA, UK, France and other former Allied nations in Brussels, Belgium. ADTO is established as a military and political alliance meant to ally the democratic nations of Europe and the world to counter Soviet Influence over Europe and Asia. The founding members of the alliance are the United States of America, the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands, Belgium, Portugal, Denmark, Norway, and Luxembourg.

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Flag of ADTO

July 2, 1951: The judgments of the Sarajevo Trials are handed down.

July 9, 1951: In Zagreb, Nikola Mandić, Andrija Artuković, Slavko Kvaternik, Mladen Lorković, Mile Budak, Vjekoslav Luburić and Džafer Kulenović are executed by hanging for crimes against humanity in the Independent State of Croatia.

August 8, 1951: In Yugoslavia, Milan Nedic and Dimitrije Ljotić are executed by hanging in in Belgrade.

September 5, 1951: In Yugoslavia, Johan Fortner, Artur Phleps, Karl von Oberkamp and Alexander Lohr are executed by hanging for war crimes in occupied Yugoslavia.

September 24, 1951: The Soviet Union conducts the first Soviet first atomic bomb test in the deserts of Kazakhstan.

September 28, 1951: The governments of the USA, UK and France decide to allow the different German nations under their influence to unite into a single federal German nation, aside from Austria, with Tyrol becoming an autonomous region of Austria. On the recommendation of former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, it is decided by these governments that the new German nation will be a monarchy under the House of Hohenzollern, with Churchill's idea inspired by the stability bought on by the restoration of the Spanish monarchy, the referendum to maintain the Italian monarchy and the potential restoration of the Portuguese monarchy.

October 1, 1951: Under American, British and French oversight, the Kingdom of Germany is established, with King Louis Ferdinand I, the grandson of Kaiser Wilhelm II and an opponent of Nazism, as King of Germany and Konrad Adenauer as Chancellor of Germany. The Kingdom of Germany is made up of the following eighteen semi-autonomous federalized provinces, Berlin, Brandenburg, Mecklenburg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia, Hamburg, Bremen, Schleswig-Holstein, Lower Saxony, Westphalia, Palatinate, Wurttemberg, Baden and Hohenzollern, Hesse, and Bavaria. Bavaria, Saxony, Wurttemberg, and Baden are all autonomous monarchies within the Kingdom of Germany.

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Flag of the Kingdom of Germany

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Louis Ferdinand I

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Konrad Adenauer

October 9, 1951: With the fall of Beijing imminent, Mao Zedong commits suicide in his headquarters during the battle of Beijing.

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Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893-October 9, 1951, aged 57)

October 10, 1951: After months of sieging, the city of Beijing falls to the Kuomintang armies of the Republic of China, with the remnants of the CCP and PLA under General Zhu De fleeing to Xi’an in Shaanxi Province. The body of Mao is discovered by Kuomintang soldiers and is then cremated with his ashes thrown into the Yongding River.

October 13, 1951: As a result of the fall of Beijing and the imminent defeat of the Chinese communists, the Soviet Union annexes Manchuria and establishes the Manchurian Soviet Socialist Republic.

November 5, 1951: With the imminent end of the Chinese Civil War, the Soviet Union annexes East Turkestan and establishes the East Turkestan Soviet Socialist Republic. A peace treaty is never officially signed between the USSR and the Republic of China, with China still claiming sovereignty over Manchuria, East Turkestan, Mongolia, and Tuva.

December 1, 1951: Germany joins ADTO.

December 28, 1951: The Republic of China wins the Chinese Civil War with the final surrender of General Zhu De and his armies to President Chiang Kai-Shek and the Kuomintang armies outside of Xi’an. Zhu is immediately arrested and imprisoned by the Chinese army.

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Zhu De

1952

January 27, 1952: The Republic of India is established with Rajendra Prasad as the first president of India. Pakistan remains a British dominion.

January 28, 1952: The Andaman Islands are handed by Great Britain to the Republic of India and become an Indian territory.

February 1, 1952: Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary join ADTO.

February 24, 1952: The Portuguese monarchist referendum is held in Portugal, including amongst the Portuguese residents of the overseas colonies in Africa and Asia.

March 23, 1952: The Kingdom of Jordan annexes the West Bank of Palestine.

March 31, 1952: The Kingdom of Portugal is re-established after almost forty-two years of Portugal being a republic, with Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza becoming King Duarte II of Portugal.

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Duarte II

April 15, 1952: In fear of potential Soviet aggression Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Finland join ADTO.

April 30, 1952: Fulgencio Batista is assassinated in Havana, Cuba by Abel Santamaría Cuadrado, a university student and socialist revolutionary. Santamaría is subsequently gunned down and killed by Cuban soldiers who were guarding Batista. Rafael Guas Inclán becomes interim President of Cuba.

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Fulgencio Batista (January 16, 1901-April 30, 1952, aged 51)

May 3, 1952: Cuban socialist revolutionaries rise-up throughout the rural regions of Cuba, calling for the overthrow of the Cuban government. The Cuban War begins.

May 8, 1952: With the civil war in Cuba, President Dewey calls for an American police action in Cuba to help keep the peace and restore stability to the nation.

May 15, 1952: The United States of America enters the Cuban War and sends an expeditionary force to Havana to help quell the revolutionary uprisings. The American government also sends military aid to the Cuban government.

June 8, 1952: The National Health Service is established in the United Kingdom by Prime Minister Clement Atlee and Nye Bevan.

June 24, 1952. Pass protests begin in Vietnam calling for free elections and a democratic government.

July 3, 1952: The Vietnamese government of Emperor Bao Dai refuses to hold free elections.

July 20, 1952: After almost five years of tensions between different political parties in Vietnam, the Vietnamese Civil War begins between the Vietnamese Imperial government, the Vietnamese Communist Party, and the Vietnamese Kuomintang. With the start of the Vietnamese Civil War, the Cold War enters a new three-way phase between the United States of America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the Republic of China.

August 10, 1952: Romania, Bulgaria and Greece join ADTO.

August 24, 1952: Five Years and one day after the end of World War II, the Schuman Declaration is made by French foreign minister Robert Schuman, which proposes a French and German production of coal and steel under a single authority, with the goal of gradual political integration and eliminating the age-old animosity between the two nations.

September 16, 1952: At the behest of Mongolian President Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal, and with the support of Premier Zhukov, the USSR annexed the People's Republic of Mongolia, with Mongolia becoming the Soviet Socialist Republic of Mongolia.

September 29, 1952: The United States of America lays the keel for the USS Nautilus, the first nuclear-powered submarine.

October 25, 1952: The Kingdom of Libya is established with King Idris II Senussi as the king of Libya.

November 4, 1952: In the United States presidential election of 1952, Republicans Thomas Dewey and Earl Warren defeat Democrats Estes Kefauver and Hubert Humphrey to become President and Vice President of the United States of America.

December 30, 1952: On the second to last day of the year, Operation Hurricane, the first British nuclear weapons test, takes place in Trimouille Island, Montebello Islands, Australia, thus making the United Kingdom the world’s third nuclear power.

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The mushroom cloud from Operation Hurricane
 
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I'm working on the epilogue chapters, but here are some leader lists in the meantime.

List of Presidents of the United States of America

Franklin D. Roosevelt (D) (1933-1945)
James F. Brynes (D) (1945-1949)

Thomas Dewey (R) (1949-1957)
Harold Stassen (R) (1957-1961)

Lyndon B. Johnson (D) (1961-1962)††
Hubert Humphrey (D) (1962-1969)

Nelson Rockefeller (R) (1969-1977)
Robert F. Kennedy Jr. (D) (1977-1985)
Robert Dole (R) (1985-1993)
Paul Tsongas (D) (1993-1996)
Geraldine Ferraro (D) (1996-2001)

Alan Keyes (R) (2001-2009)
Albert Gore Jr. (D) (2013-2021)
Edward Cruz (R) (2021- )

† = Died of Natural Causes
†† = Assassinated

List of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom

Winston Churchill (Conservative) (1940-1950)
Clement Atlee (Labour) (1950-1956)
Herbert Morrison (Labour) (1956-1957)

Harold Macmillan (Conservative) (1957-1964)
Rab Butler (Conservative) (1964-1965)

Hugh Gaitskell (Labour) (1965-1967)
Harold Wilson (Labour) (1967-1976)

Enoch Powell (Conservative) (1976-1983)
George Brown (Labour) (1983-1986)
Margert Thatcher (Conservative) (1986-1993)
Michael Heseltine (Conservative) (1993-1996)

Neil Kinnock (Labour) (1996-2004)
Iain Duncan Smith (Conservative) (2004-2010)
Gordon Brown (Labour) (2010-2015)
William Hague (Conservative) (2015-2020)
Kier Starmer (Labour) (2020- )

† = Died of Natural Causes

List of Presidents of France

Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (Independent) (1946-1947)
Félix Gouin (SFIO) (1947-1948)

Léon Blum (SFIO) (1948-1949)†
Vincent Auriol (1949-1955) (SFIO)
Georges Bidault (MRP) (1955-1956)
René Coty (CNIP) (1956-1959)
Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1959-1969) (UNR)
Alain Poher (CD) (1968-1970)
Georges Pompidou (1970-1974) (UNR)
Jacques Chaban-Delmas (1974-1975) (UNR)

François Mitterrand (PS) (1975-1986)
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing (PD) (1986-1989)
Jacques Chirac (RPR) (1989-1995)
Lionel Jospin (PS) (1995-2001)
Jacques Chirac (RPR) (2001-2002)

Ségolène Royal (PS) (2002-2006)
Nicolas Sarkozy (UMP) (2006-2009)
Jean-Luc Mélenchon (PS) (2009-2015)
Jean-François Copé (UMP) (2015-2022)
François Hollande
(PS) (2022- )

† = Died of Natural Causes

List of Presidents of China

Chiang Kai Shek (Kuomintang) (1950-1973)

Yen Chia-kan (Kuomintang) (1973-1980)
Chiang Ching-kuo (Kuomintang) (1980-1986)†

Hsieh Tung-min (Kuomintang) (1986-1989)
Zeng Sheng (Independent) (1989-1991)
Fei Xiaotong (China Democratic League) (1991-1994)
Lu Jiaxi (Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party) (1994-1995)
Ding Shisun (China Democratic League) (1995-1999)
Jiang Zemin (Kuomintang) (1999-2001)
Hu Jintao (Kuomintang) (2001-2005)

Chen Zhu (Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party) (2005-2007)
Ma Ying-jeou (Kuomintang) (2007-2013)

Ding Zhongli (China Democratic League) (2013-2017)
Ma Ying-jeou (Kuomintang) (2013-2017)
Chen Zhu (Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party) (2017-2019)

Ding Zhongli (China Democratic League) (2019- )

† = Died of Natural Causes

List of General Secretaries of the Soviet Union and Presidents of the Russian Federation

Vladimir Lenin (VKP(b)) (1922-1924)†
Joseph Stalin (VKP(b)) (1924-1941)†
Lavrentiy Beria/Vyacheslav Molotov/Andrei Zhdanov† (VKP(b)) (1941-1944)
Lavrentiy Beria/Vyacheslav Molotov (VKP(b)) (1944-1948)
Georgy Zhukov (VKP(b)/CPSU) (1948-1972)†
Alexei Kosygin (CPSU) (1972-1980)

Yuri Andropov (CPSU) (1979-1983)
Konstantin Chernenko (CPSU) (1983-1984)†
Andrei Gromyko (CPSU) (1984-1989)†
Nikolai Tikhonov (CPSU) (1989-1992)

Mikhail Gorbachev (CPSU) (1992-2003)
Nikolai Ryzhkov (CPSU) (2003-2008)
Gennady Zyuganov (CPSU) (2008-2009)
Nikolai Ryzhkov (CPSU) (2009-2010)

† = Died of Natural Causes


Grigory Yavlinsky (RUDP) (2010-2016)
Dmitry Medvedev (UR) (2016- )
 
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Intresting map.

- Soviet Union collapsed even futher than in OTL.
- Yugoslavia still breaks up but it was probably inevitable. Hopefully it wasn't that horrible event as in OTL.
- Bit surprising that Czechoslovakia is divided. It almost survived in OTL.
- Strange that Iceland is not part of EU(?) since almost all other independent European nations excluding Switzerland and small ones are members.
 
1948

January 5, 1948: The Nuremburg Trials, held against many of the major figures of the Nazi German regime, begin in Nuremberg, Bavaria in the American occupation zone of Germany.

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The Judges Panel at the Nuremburg Trails

January 30, 1948: Pierre Laval is executed by firing squad by the French government for collaboration with the German Reich.

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Pierre Laval (6/28/1883-1/30/1948, aged 64)

February 8, 1948: Vidkun Quisling is executed by firing squad by the Norwegian government for collaboration with the German Reich.

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Vidkun Quisling (7/18/1887-2/8/1948, aged 60)

February 14, 1948: After months of government in-fighting, the Soviet Red Army led by Field Marshall Gregory Zhukov launches a “St. Valentine’s Day Coup” against the Soviet government and arrests Beria and Molotov in Moscow for “gross negligence during the Great Patriotic War, Stalinist subversion and the murder of Comrade Zhdanov.” Gregory Zhukov becomes Secretary General and Premier, the Supreme Leader, of the Soviet Union.

February 21, 1948: Premiers Molotv and Beria are executed by the Red Army in Lubyanka prison in Moscow.

View attachment 774511
Vyacheslav Molotov (3/9/1890-2/21/1948, aged 57)

View attachment 774512
Lavrentiy Beria (3/29/1899-2/21/1948, aged 48)

February 28, 1948: The Milan Trials, held against many of the major figures of the Fascist Italian regime and the Italian Social Republic, begin in Milan, Lombardy, Italy. The city was chosen as the site of the trails because Milan was one of the capitals of the Italian Social Republic.

March 1, 1948: The third and final phase of the Greek Civil War begins between the government of the Kingdom of Greece and the partisan armies of the Greek Communist Party (KKE). The Kingdom of Greece is supported by the United States and United Kingdom while the KKE partisans are supported by the Soviet Union.

March 15, 1948: The Barcelona Trails, held against many of the major figures of the Spanish Nationalist regime, during both the Spanish Civil War and the Second World War, begin.

March 30, 1948: The Paris Peace Conference begins.

April 1, 1948: The Tokyo Trails, held against many of the major figures of the Fascist Japanese regime, begin.

April 9, 1948: Premier Zhukov announces in a speech in Moscow that the Soviet Union will seek an amicable relationship with the Western nations, so long as the Western nation no longer impede on the borders of the Soviet Union. This speech is seen by the Western nations as a hopeful yet worrying statement, as the Soviet government continues to fund armed communist rebellion in China, Yugoslavia, and Greece. Most historians see this as the start of the Cold War.

April 22, 1948: The Kingdom of Hungary is abolished, and the Second Hungarian Republic is officially established. Zoltán Tildy is President and Ferenc Nagy is Prime Minister.

May 5, 1948: The Soviet government under Premier Zhukov reluctantly recognizes the independence of Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Belarus.

May 8, 1948: The United States of America, the United Kingdom, the French Republic all recognize the independence of Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Belarus. The former Western Allies had previously been reluctant to diplomatically recognize these nations in fear of antagonizing the Soviet Union.

May 16, 1948: The 1948 Spanish institutional referendum is held. In a close vote, the referendum, 51% of the voters vote for Spain to become a monarchy, while 49% of voters vote for Spain to become a republic.

June 1, 1948: The Kingdom of Spain is officially re-established after seventeen years of having been defunct. Infante Jaime, Duke of Segovia, the oldest surviving son of the late King Alfonso XIII, becomes King Jamie III of Spain, while Diego Martínez Barrio becomes interim Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Spain. In the coming months, many Spanish Republican exiles from France, Mexico, the United States, and other countries begin returning to Spain with the restoration of democracy, while Spanish leftists largely remain in exile to the republic not having been restored.

View attachment 774507
Jamie III of Spain

June 22, 1948: The term “Cold War” is first coined by English writer George Orwell, who stated in an essay that a Cold War had begun between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union over the civil wars in China and the Balkans.

July 9, 1948: Anton Mussert is executed by firing squad by the Dutch government for collaboration with the German Reich.

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Anton Mussert (5/11/1894-7/9/1948, aged 54)

July 14, 1948: Ferenc Szálasi is executed in by hanging in Budapest for collaboration with the German Reich, war crimes and his role in the Holocaust.

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Ferenc Szálasi (1/6/1897-7/14/1948, aged 51)

July 28, 1948: The Paris Peace Conference ends.

August 1, 1948: The Republic of the Philippines becomes independent from the United State of America.

August 15, 1948: After twenty-eight years of existence, the League of Nations is officially disestablished in Geneva, with the purpose of the LON having been replaced by the United Nations.

September 5, 1948: The 1948 Italian institutional referendum is held. In the referendum, 56% of the voters vote for Italy to remain a monarchy, while 44% of voters vote for Italy to become a republic. One of the reasons that the Italian monarchists won the referendum was due to the amount of sympathy that the Italian people held for Umberto II and the House of Savoy after Mussolini’s betrayal of the royal family and the death of King Victor Emmanuel III.

September 19, 1948: Ion Antonescu is executed in by firing squad in Bucharest for collaboration with the German Reich, war crimes and his role in the Holocaust.

View attachment 774554
Ion Antonescu (6/15/1882-9/19/1948, aged 66)

October 8, 1948: After almost a year of insurgency, the Russian Rebellion ends in a defeat for the Russian Liberation Army and the other anti-Communist Russian rebels, with the death in battle of Andrey Vlasov in the countryside outside of Voronezh.

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Andrey Vlasov (9/14/1901-10/8/1948, aged 47)

November 2, 1948: In the United States presidential election of 1948, Republicans Thomas E. Dewey, former Governor of New York and Earl Warren, Governor of California, defeat Democrats President James F. Brynes and Massachusetts Governor Paul A. Deverand Dixiecrats Strom Thurmond and Benjamin Travis Laney to become President and Vice President of the United States of America. One famous photo from the day after election night shows Thomas Dewey holding up a newspaper with a headline reading "Brynes defeats Dewey", with the newspaper having printed the incorrect prediction that Byrnes would win the election.

November 12, 1948: The Paris Peace Treaties are signed in Pairs, France, thus officially establishing the new territorial changes in Europe after World War II.

November 29, 1948: The Nuremberg Trails end and the verdicts of the trails are decided. Hermann Göring, Rudolf Hess, Heinrich Himmler, Martin Bormann, Joseph Goebbels, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Wilhelm Keitel, Alfred Jodl, Walther von Reichenau, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Alfred Rosenburg, Hans Frank, Adolf Eichmann, Heinrich Müller, Odilo Globocnik, Theodor Eicke, Kurt Dalauge, Robert Ley, Roland Freisler, Frtiz Sauckel, Wilhelm Frick, Arthur Seyss-Inquart and Julius Streicher are all sentenced to death. Reinhard Heydrich is sentenced to death in absentia, as he had yet to located by Allied authorities. Albert Speer and Walter Funk are sentenced to life imprisonment. Konstantin Von Neurath is sentenced to fifteen years imprisonment and Baldur Von Sirach is sentenced to twenty years imprisonment. Hjamlar Schacht and Franz Von Papen are all acquitted.

December 14, 1948: Hermann Göring, Rudolf Hess, Heinrich Himmler, Martin Bormann, Joseph Goebbels, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Wilhelm Keitel, Alfred Jodl, Walther von Reichenau, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Alfred Rosenburg, Hans Frank, Adolf Eichmann, Heinrich Müller, Odilo Globocnik, Theodor Eicke, Kurt Dalauge, Robert Ley, Roland Freisler, Frtiz Sauckel, Wilhelm Frick, Arthur Seyss-Inquart and Julius Streicher are all executed by hanging in Nuremberg.
Can't see Dixiecrat breakaway with Byrnes President.
 
Post-War Epilogues

United States of America


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In the aftermath of the Second World War, the United States of America emerged as the most powerful nation and superpower in the world, this being despite the fact the United States of America had lost over one million lives during the war. For the United States of America, the 1950s were an era of lasting peace and newfound prosperity, as this was the decade which saw the birth of American suburbia in the form of so-called “Levittowns” and the emergence of a strong American middle class. The decade was dominated politically by the Republican Party under President Thomas Dewey and his successor President Harold Stassen, who succeeded Dewey after his victory in the 1956 election. After sixteen years of Democratic Party rule, the Republican Party and its platform of classical liberalism, social progressivism and fiscal conservativism representing the prosperity and hope of the era after the years of the Great Depression and the Second World War. Nevertheless, there were still some groundbreaking events which took part during this decade, such as the beginning Civil Rights Movement, which truly began to gain traction after President Thomas Dewey desegrated the armed forces in 1950. The Civil Rights Movements continued to gain traction after the Supreme Court case of Brown vs. The Board of Education in 1954, and again on July 16, 1956, after Claudette Colvin, an African-American teenager, was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white woman on a segregated bus in Montgomery, Alabama, with the resulting Montgomery Bus Boycott leading to the desegregation of public transportation in the city.

This decade also saw the United States of America get involved in some foreign wars, such as the Cuban War, also known as “the Forgotten War”, which began in 1952 after the assassination of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista and the ensuing leftist and socialist revolt throughout Cuba. Fearing a Soviet friendly leftist government just underneath Florida, the USA intervened in the civil war in Cuba, and the US armed forces were assisted by volunteers from all over the Americas. The war ended in 1954 in a victory for the Cuban government after Fidel Castro, one of the last-living leaders of the revolt, was killed in a firefight with American marines, with Cuba being forced to democratize by the American government, albeit under a lot of American influence. In October 1959, under the auspices of the United Nations, the United States of America pledged itself to the international peacemaking effort in the Indonesian War, which the saw the weakened Indonesian government fighting against the armies of the Indonesian Communist Party, the Islamist Dural Islam in Sumatra and Java and assorted separatist groups in Sulawesi, Borneo and Timor. The Indonesian War eventually ended in 1966 with the signing of the Jakarta Accords and the reunification of Indonesia under a federalized government.

In contrast to the previous decade, the 1960s were marked by a large amount of domestic social turmoil, which coincided with the Civil Rights Movement, which found a de-facto leader in the charismatic minister and Doctor of Theology Martin Luther King Jr. from Atlanta, Georgia. The 1960 election, which was contested between Lyndon Baines Johnson, a Democratic Senator from Texas, and incumbent Republican President Harold Stassen, saw the first live televised debate between the two candidates and civil rights was a key issue. Johnson, in going against the wishes of the other Southern Democrats in his party, promised to resolve the issue of civil rights and narrowly won the election, with Stassen being seen by most Americans as ineffective in solving the issue. Johnson’s support for Civil Rights and his meeting with Dr. Martin Luther King in May, 1961 would eventually make him a martyr. On October 27, 1962, less than two years into his presidency President Lyndon Baines Johnson was assassinated in Baltimore, Maryland by William L. Pierce, veteran of the Indonesian War and a right-wing extremist with ties to the American National Socialist Party of Francis Parker Yockey. Afterwards, Vice President Hubert Humphrey was immediately sworn in as President. Two days later, while in police custody and begin escorted to a federal prison outside of Baltimore, William L. Peirce was assassinated by James Jones, a fellow Indonesian War veteran and former army chaplain, with Jones claiming that he killed Peirce in revenge for his killing of President Johnson. On November 5, 1962, the funeral of Lyndon Baines Johnson was held in Washington D.C., with the photograph of the teenaged daughters of the late President Lynda and Luci Johnson taken by photographer Stan Stearns becoming one of the most famous photographs in 20th century American history. Meanwhile, James Jones would spend the rest of his life in prison until his suicide in prison in 1965, leading to numerous conspiracy theories about the Johnson assassination. Sadly, the Johnson Assassination was not the last assassination of the decade. On September 9, 1964, Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated in Jackson, Mississippi by Charles Manson, a failed former musician and career criminal who became ostracized from other musicians for his racist views. After a days-long manhunt, Manson was gunned down by FBI agents on September 26, 1964, while resisting arrest in a motel outside of Houston, Texas. One other infamous assassination would be the assassination Governor of Georgia and Presidential hopeful Jimmy Carter on June 9, 1967, with Carter being assassinated by John Patsalos, an American Communist militant, for his support of American intervention in the civil war in the Congo.

After the Johnson and King assassinations, and with the support of civil rights leaders., the Civil Rights Act was finally signed into law by President Hubert Humphrey on September 19, 1965, which made illegal within the United States of America any discrimination based on race, ethnicity, skin color, national origin, sex, among other categories. Thus, the era of Jim Crow came to an end. Other landmark legislation signed by President Humphrey included the Equal Pay Act of 1966 and the Hart-Javits Immigration Act of 1968. Humphrey also spent his presidency seeking to implement Johnson’s ideas for a “Great Society”, which including a war on poverty and a strengthening of the American welfare state, seen by the Johnson and Humphrey as the continuation of FDR’s New Deal. In 1969, the Republican Party returned to the White House under President Nelson Rockefeller, whose presidency saw the continuation of the Republican Party as an economically libertarian and classically liberal in the mold of Thomas E. Dewey. This direction in the party was heavily influenced by Barry Goldwater, a Senator from Arizona, and Ronald Reagan, a former actor and former governor and Senator from California, even though both men lost their runs for president. On the other hand, the Democratic Party became progressive and social-democratic in the mold of the Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

The Democratic Party returned to the White House in 1977 under Robert F. Kennedy Jr., the first Roman Catholic president and a scion of the famous Irish-American Kennedy family of Massachusetts. One of Kennedy’s older brothers Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. flew the plane that dropped the atom bomb on Hamburg, while his other older brother John F. Kennedy was a Congressman and Senator from Massachusetts. The Kennedy administration saw numerous accomplishments, such as in 1979 when President Kennedy signed the National Health Care Act into law, which established socialized medicine within the United States of America under the National Healthcare Bureau. The Kennedy administration also saw the admission of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands as states in the Union, taking place on July 25, 1980 and March 31, 1982 respectively. In spite of these victories, the Second Bill of Rights and the Equal Rights Amendment failed to pass congress in the 1980s due to Republican opposition and what they saw as an overreach of the Federal government. The Republican Party returned to the White House in 1985 under Robert Dole, a Senator from Kansas and a World War II veteran who fought in North Africa, Spain, and Italy, with the Dole presidency seeing the Republican Party take on a more socially conservative platform in support of traditional American and Judeo-Christian values and an opposition to elective abortions, while still staying true to the overall platform of the party, much to the chagrin of the Evangelical Christian lobby.

In 1993, the Democratic Party returned to office again under when Paul Tsongas, a former Senator from Massachusetts became President and the first Greek-American president. However, his presidency was short-lived as on October 15, 1996, President Tsongas died of a heart attack in the White House at the age of 55, and his Vice-President Geraldine Ferraro became the first female and Italian-American president of a result. In 2001, Alan Keyes, a Republican Senator from Maryland, became the first African-American President. In 2009, Albert Gore Jr., a Democratic Senator from Tennessee who helped to invent the World Wide Web with British computer scientist Sir Timothy Barnes-Lee, was elected President, and his presidency saw numerous pushes for green energy, as well as the federal legalization of same-sex marriage in 2014, although his later presidency was overshadowed by the Housing Crash of 2017. In 2021, Edward Cruz, the Republican Governor of Texas, became president and the first Spanish/Cuban-American president. Throughout the last six decades, the United States of America has been a major contributor to international peace-keeping operations, most of which have been under the auspices of the United Nations, although a number of of these operations have been fraught with controversy. The new decade sees many new challenges for the nation, such as an economic downturn resulting from the Housing Crash of 2017, the start of a new space race, the green energy debate and climate change and a resurgent Russia and China on the global stage, among others.
 
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