Welcome to 50 years. The discussion thread can be found here: https://www.alternatehistory.com/discussion/showthread.php?t=116332 The Sixties: January 1st 1960: In an event that shocked the world, the French President Charles de Gaulle was assassinated while preparing to "officially" grant independence to the French Colony of Cameroon. Labeled as the "Cameroon Loon" by British Tabloids, Gaulle's lone Assassin had no apparent reasons for his actions, and was believed to be insane by French, American, and Soviet Officials. Still, the Assassination caused the French government to delay independence for Cameroon and to deploy troops into the country. Massive Riots spread across the colony, and both U.S. and Soviet Officials condemned France's "Actions of Revenge." January 4th 1960: Gaston Monnerville is sworn in as President of the French Fifth Republic and Co-Prince of Andorra January 15th 1960: At campaign stops in Eugene, OR and then again in Portland, OR Republican Presidential candidate Richard Nixon speaks innuendo that Democratic Presidential candidate Adlai Stevenson is "fruity". February 1st 1960: 4 black students are forcefully removed from a segregated lunch counter in Greensboro North Carolina. February 4th 1960: Albert Camus is not killed in an automobile accident in Sens, choosing instead to travel by train. February 18th 1960: The VIII Winter Olympics open in Squaw Valley, California. March 14th 1960: Unusually heavy rain storms flood the state of Illinois. Five people die. April 9th 1960: Hendrik Verwoerd, the Prime Minister of South Africa is assassinated by David Pratt. South African government passes laws giving the police extended rights for surveillance and holding people under arrest. April 30th 1960: A Soviet Spy plane is shot down over Alaska. May 25th 1960: Turkish president Celal Bayar gets word of a planed coup against him and arrests those behind it. June 24th 1960: Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. announces in Birmingham, AL major protests at both Republican in Chicago, IL and Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles, CA. July 4th 1960: General Curtis Lemay US Air force Vice Cheif of Staff is forced to stay at home during Independence Day due to a mild case of the flu, rendering him unable to attend Richard Boutelle's combination Fourth of July and Birthday Celebration. July 12th 1960: Senator John F. Kennedy (D-MA) meets with NAACP/SNCC leaders outside the Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena, preventing any violence or civil unrest. July 25th-28th: SNCC/NAACP leaders clash with police outside the Republican National Convention in Chicago, IL, sparking international attention and concern. August 14th 1960: Director George Pal, after signing a contract with Paramount Studios in Hollywood, California, has announced a 5-picture deal, which will start with his adaptation of After Worlds Collide, based on the Philip Wylie novel, and sequel to the film When Worlds Collide (1951). Wehrner von Braun who has consulted for NASA has said that he will act as a scientific advisor for the film. The cast is selected in secret, and filming starts soon after. Film release is scheduled to takes place March 15th 1961. Also on this day Marianna Liu of Hong Kong, reveals to the San Francisco Chronicle that she allegedly had an affair with the Vice-President during a visit to Hong Kong in 1958. August 25th 1960: The XVII Summer Olympics open in Rome, Italy. September 8th 1960: Pvt. Elvis Presley preforms at an officers club at the request of one of the officers. A German officer in attendance likes it so much, that he later has a lengthy dinner time conversation about it with his family. Later, his son, starts the first "Army influenced garage band" or "Fuhrpark" (motor pool) band. October 12th 1960: Japanese Socialist Party leader Inejiro Asanuma survives the assassination attempt made on him by 17 year old rightist-extremist Otoya Yamaguchi. He gets away with a mere flesh wound but not long after makes a speech on the need to crack down on extremist groups. November 1960: Democrat Adlai Stevenson and his running mate John Fitzgerald Kennedy beat out Republicans Nixon and Goldwater. December 5th 1960: The United States Supreme Court rules against segregation in public transportation. December 1960: The coup against Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia is successful and his son, Crown Prince Asfaw Wossen, becomes emperor as Amha Selassie. ***** January 1961: Adlai Stevenson sworn in as the 35th president of the United States. February 9th 1961: The Moondogs perform for the first time. March 29th 1961: Despite delays caused by the weather and location filming in Hawaii, the film After Worlds Collide directed by George Pal, starring Russell Johnson, Jeffrey Hunter, Kit Smith, and Nancy McCarty is released, with much fanfare. A young producer named Gene Roddenberry helps to infuse social commentary into the sci-fi epic April 12th 1961: Bad weather forces the postponement of the launch of Vostok 1 until the first week of May. April 17th-18th 1961: Bay of Pigs Invasion; Despite U.S. air strikes to aid the rebels, due to poor planning and poor weather conditions, the anti-Communist invasion collapses. April 19th 1961: President Adlai Stevenson publicly denies on national television broadcast support for the "Bay of Pigs Invasion", claiming that it was an "independent movement which deserves our support". April 20th 1961: Cuban guerillas launch mortar attack at Guantanamo Bay U.S. Naval Base in retaliation for the air strikes at the Bay of Pigs. April 23rd 1961: U.N. Ambassador Robert McNamara resigns from office after feeling "betrayed by the White House" which doctored photographs for his presentation before the U.N. Security Council. April 25th 1961: Seán Cronin, IRA guerilla leader, bomb the Gough barracks in County Armagh, killing 23 British troops. May 27th 1961: Tunku Abdul Rahman, Prime Minister of Malaya announces his plans to form the Federation of Malaysia. It will one day Include Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak, Brunei and North Borneo. May 30th 1961: Trujillo survives attempted assassination. He blames this attempt on the Haitians and the Americans. June 13th 1961: Bertolt Brecht's response to the 1953 worker's uprising in East Berlin is made public for the first time. Its most inflammatory passage: "Would it not be simpler if the government dissolved the people and elected another?" June 17th 1961: Small gatherings of East Berliners commemorating the anniversary of the uprising are beaten and arrested. Walter Ulbricht, General Secretary of the GDR's communist party, decries the protesters as 'hopelessly counter-revolutionary warmongers' and the 1953 uprising as 'a western-inspired attempt at a fascist coup.' In reality, both the 1953 uprising and the 1961 commemorations are made up mostly of factory and construction workers tired of the terrible conditions imposed by the "Worker's State." July 4th 1961: The Soviet Sub K-19 has a reactor leak. There are no survivors. It is later found by a Soviet diesel sub. August 1st 1961: Construction begins on the Berlin Wall (two weeks ahead of schedule than in OTL due to the recent unrest). August 4th 1961: Conrad Schumann, a soldier of the GDR's Nationale Volksarmee, is shot dead while attempting to leap over the barbed-wire barrier between East and West Germany. (OTL, Schumann was captured mid-jump in a famous photo called Der Mauerspringer, and was not shot) August 8th 1961: Volkspolizei shoot three people dead and wound several dozen others as they attempt to disperse a vigil held on the site of Schumann's murder. Ulbricht appeals to Moscow for help to quash the unrest. August 28 1961: African-American Robert F. Williams of Monroe, North Carolina begins broadcasting "Radio Free Dixie" calling for armed resistance against racist policies. His show ends every week with the line "Freedom! Freedom! Freedom now, or death!" August 31st 1961: Civil rights worker Robert Moses travels to Amite County Courthouse in Liberty, Mississippi brandishes a shotgun while registering 2 African-Americans to vote. Bill Caston, cousin of the sheriff, is shot in the leg after Caston leads a small lynch mob against the civil rights worker. September 6th 1961: Marshal Tito and Chinese Foreign Minister Zhou En-Lai announce the formation in of the "Third Bloc" in Belgrade, uniting over 118 countries under the call for "the national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of non-aligned countries" in their "struggle against imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, racism, and all forms of foreign aggression, occupation, domination, interference or hegemony as well as against great power and bloc politics..." September 20th 1961: Guy Debord, Attila Kotànyi & Raoul Vaneigem, with later contributions from Alexander Trocchi publish the Hamburg Theses which becomes the manifesto of counterculture. September 25th 1961: African-American Herbert Lee of Liberty, Mississippi is beaten and eventually hung outside the Amity County Courthouse. Herbert Lee is one of the African-American men who had been registered by Robert Moses. Although in the middle of the town square, no witnesses are found. October 2nd 1961: During a courtesy visit to a UN base in the Congo, the brakes on the airplane carrying UN General Secretary Dag Hammarskjöld failed during a landing at Leopoldville Airport. Two UN officials died and several members of the crew were injured. Hammarskjöld himself was badly injured, but his life was saved by the decisive action of a young UN doctor quickly alerted to the accident site. The General Secretary was hospitalized for an extended period of time: even though he eventually made a sound recovery, he only assumed his full duties again over two years later. Historians have later agreed that the energetic Swede's outlook to life was changed by the crash, and he began to eventually withdraw to a silent, private life religious mysticism and contemplation. November 9th 1961: Ager Jorn performs "Chaosmic Music" in Silkeborg, Denmark, sparking 12 arrests after fights break out in the auditorium. December 23rd 1961: Ruairí Ó Brádaigh defeats Cathal Goulding in his campaign for the role of IRA Quartermaster General in Belfast, calling for a radical guerilla campaign of reunification. December 30th 1961: Copies of the Hamburg Theses are seized by the New York Police Department (NYPD) and the Port Authority of New York as "obscene material", sparking international attention. Also on this day, Maharishi Mahaesh Yogi launches a World Tour of the "Third Bloc" nations starting in Rangoon, Burma, warning of the danger of "spiritual contamination by the West." ******** January 19th 1962: "Rajneesh" Chandra Mohan Jain (a.k.a. Acharya Rajneesh) launches rally in Jalalapur, India, condemning both the Communist Warsaw Pact and the West as "soulless and corrupt" coalitions. January 26th 1962: Archbishop Burke of New York City, NY forbids Catholic school students from dancing to "The Twist." Burke considers R&B music, and its associated dances, to be "lewd and un-Christian". Burke leads record burning rally in Central Park. February 5th 1962: Cao Dai leader Phạm Công Tắc returns to Saigon, after exile in Cambodia for 3 years, at the request of the Hiệp Thiên Đai, in an effort to protest the actions of the government against Cao Dai followers. February 9th 1962: Pope John XXIII launches an encyclical condemning Communism in Metz, France after learning that Catholic cardinals will be banned by the Politburo. February 12th 1962: SNCC Civil rights workers Dion Diamond, Chuck McDew, and Bob Zellner are arrested in East Baton Rouge, Louisiana on charges of "fomenting criminal anarchy" after brandishing weapons during a voter registration rally. Also on this day, Jan Karel van Baalen of Holland, Michigan warns of "spiritual warfare" by forces of the Soviet Union and the Third Bloc against the United States. February 13th 1962: British Medical Association (BMA) reports unusual intelligence levels associated with children born with Thalidomide, sparking concerns about the drug. February 26th 1962: Ruairí Ó Brádaigh, Sinn Fein leader, calls for a "Second Five-Year Cammpaign" to reunite Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic in Belfast, sparking international attention. March 2nd 1962: Ne Win's military coup de etat fails and supporters of Sao Shwe Thaik rally and Burma descends into civil war. March 15th 1962: Katangan Prime Minister Moise Tshomba refuses to begin negotiations to rejoin the Congo and asks for aid from the British and the Belgians. April 6th 1962: The Belgian government does not reestablish diplomatic relations with the Congo. May 1st 1962: Reverend Ted McIlvenna of San Francisco, CA launches Operation Bethany, in an effort to "raise homosexuals to the light of Jesus. Also on this day, Stan Lee unveils The Rampaging Hulk (DC Comics) in New York City, New York. May 14th 1962: At an academic summit to discuss the March 19 Evian Accords which ended the Algerian War and affirmed Algerian Independence, Camus and Jean-Paul Sartre engage in a fist fight on stage. A hooting, jeering crowd of leftist students bars university security from intervening. Following the summit, a bruised Camus re-affirms his opposition to Algerian Independence. His words will be selectively quoted by the OAS to justify its vicious campaign of terrorism and assassinations in the newly independent country. Although Camus specifically condemned any violence against civilians, somehow the OAS will manage to forget this. For the rest of his life, Camus will be shunned by the western left, and his unique brand of Absurdist philosophy will be endlessly analyzed for "crypto-fascist" tendencies despite his actions in the French resistance during the German occupation of WWII. June 11th 1962: Frank Morris and John and Clarence Anglin are caught trying to escape from Alcatraz. June 25th 1962: The US Supreme Court rules that nude photographs are not obscene, so long as the subject is over 18 and gave written, legal consent. July 1st 1962: African-American Reverend Charles Koen is shot and killed by Cairo Police after fears of "brandishing a firearm" during a NAACP rally in Cairo, IL. Also on this day, the Belgians refuse to grant Rwanda or Burundi independence. July 11th 1962: J.Oswald Sanders warns of the dangers of "Eastern cults" from the Third Bloc during a rally in Virginia Beach, Virginia. July 17th-18th 1962: Lt. Geraldine "Jerrie" Cobb becomes the first female American astronaut launched from Cape Canaveral, FL. July 20th 1962: The French government announces its success in breaking the back of the resistance in their "eternal colony" of Cameroon. July 22nd 1962: Stan Lee and Jack Kirby introduce "Comrade Doom", the Communist nemesis of the Challengers of the Unknown in Challengers of the Unknown (DC Comics). August 1st 1962: Stan Lee unveils Thor, Protector of Midgard (DC Comics) in New York City, New York. August 5th 1962: Nelson Mandela is killed in Howick, in a firefight with South African police while resisting arrest. August 6th 1962: Jamaica narrowly decides to stay in the West Indies Federation. August 10th 1962: Stan Lee published his first comic book about Arachnid Man (DC Comics) September 4th 1962: Algerian President Ahmed Ben Bella is assassinated by OAS die hards. September 10th 1962: Algerian mobs attack French individuals throughout the country in revenge for the assassination of the president. The Algerian government turns a blind eye to this. September 14th 1962: The French President declares that France will reclaim her rightful place in the sun and rebuild her empire greater than ever before. He also states that the crimes that the Algerians are committing must stop or "not one stone shall be left upon another in Algeria". September 16th 1962: The French government indicates that it will not recognize Tunisia's independence. September 21st 1962: A border conflict between India and China erupts into war. The Soviets decide to begin open support of the Indians. October 1st 1962: Indonesia with support from the PRC invades West Irian. The Dutch resist this invasion and call for support from the international community October 3rd 1962: The Soviet government while initially in support of the Indonesians begin to feel that this may unduly help the third block. With the Indonesians apparently under Chinese influence the politburo begins to examine other options. October 5th 1962: Prime Minister Menzies declares that if the Indonesians do not immediately withdraw then Australia will intervene. He also reintroduces conscription, and seeks support for these actions from London and Washington, but states that he shall stop the Indonesians with or without their support. October 9th 1962: The British decide to delay Uganda's independence in the commonwealth of nations. October 11, 1962: Following the opening Mass for the Second Vatican Council, shots ring out as priests attempt to leave St. Peter's Basilica. Several priests are injured, but only Fr. Anibale Bugnini, best known for revising the Roman Breviary is killed. The assassin turns out to be a deranged escaped inmate from a Roman prison, despite rumors that the man was paid by the Soviets. October 31st 1962: The UN General Assembly asks the United Kingdom to suspend enforcement of the new constitution of Southern Rhodesia but the British refuse. November 1st 1962: Pope John XXIII, led by Bishop de Proença Sigaud and Cardinal Ferretto, launches catechism stating, "social Catholic doctrine should be exposed in all its clarity, and where the errors of Marxism, Socialism and Communism should be refuted on philosophical grounds. November 7th 1962: Richard M. Nixon wins the California governors race. November 20th 1962 The Chinese after occupying the disputed area unilaterally declare a cease fire. November 23rd 1962: Sathya Sai Baba is blocked entry into London after BBC-TV officials report on homosexual abuse of young male devotees, sparking international attention. November 26th 1962: The West German police continue there occupation of Spiegel's offices and Conrad Adenauer when pressed responded that the nation "could not afford a free press at this time" December 7th 1962: Rainer III Prince of Monaco decides against revising the principalities constitution, choosing to maintain his autocratic powers. December 8th 1962: The Indonesian backed North Kalimintan National Army revolted. They attempted to capture the Sultan, seize the oil fields and take European hostages. The Sultan escaped and begged for British help. Prime Minister Harold Macmillian sends British and Gurkha troops from Singapore to retake Bruenie. The British make preparations for a full scale war with Indonesia. December 17th 1962: Dutch and West Irian armed forces continue to be pushed back. While in Amsterdam a serious political crisis was brewing. December 19th 1962: The British deny the right of Nyasaland to secede from the Central African Federation. December 24th 1962 The United Arab Emirates discusses with the Indians steps that should be taken so that a revitalized Non Aligned Movement could counter the Third Bloc. December 30th 1962: Belgian troops with support of men and material from the Central African Federation begin a massive effort to support the Katangans. The Belgian government openly declares it's support of Katanga. December 31st 1962: The Democratic Republic of the Congo declares war on Belgium and announces it's support for the rebellion in Nyasaland. The Central African Federation begins a military build up on it's Congolese border. ******** January 1st 1963: The French begin blockade of Algeria. January 2nd 1963: Larry Lieber unveils the series The Grim Ghost(Marvel Comics) and Ironjaw (Marvel Comics) in New York City, New York. Also on this day, Larry Lieber sparks controversy by introducing the demonic seductress Devilina (Marvel Comics). January 4th 1963: In what has been called the "Miracle of Likasi" Katangan forces with support from Belgian paratroopers (who have been often described as angels coming from above by the Katangan's) smash a UN backed army outside the city. January 5th 1963: Both Britain and Belgium face censure from the UN General Assembly. January 7th 1963: Australia declares war on Indonesia. January 14th 1963: A coalition of five Third bloc nations including China and Yugoslavia land troops in West Irian. January 15th 1963: Australia declares war on China and it's allies. January 16th 1963: Larry Lieber unveils The Phoenix (Marvel Comics) in New York City, New York. January 17th 1963: In an internationally televised special address to congress, John F. Kennedy, vice president of the United States issues a speech that condemns the Third bloc as "hypocritical" since the invasion of West Irian would simply "replace white imperialism with brown imperialism." However, he also condemns the action taken by Australia as "an overreaction". He goes on to say that the United States should "seek a path of neutrality" and should, as much as possible, "aid in the negotiation of a peaceful resolution" and challenges other NATO member states to do the same. January 30th, 1963: In Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia, peaceful protests calling for the end of the CAF's unique 'petty apartheid' policy turn violent when an overzealous police officer fires into the crowd, sparking off week-long nationwide riots. February 1st 1963: Martial law is declared over large parts of Southern Rhodesia and government forces clamp down. Similar actions occur in other parts of the Central African Federation. February 2nd 1963: Larry Lieber, Steve Ditko and Archie Goodwin unveil the series The Destructor (Marvel Comics) and Morlock 2001 (Marvel Comics) in New York City, New York. February 3rd 1963: Uprising in Rwanda, Belgian forces (with significant support from Tutsi's) put the revolt down with great loss of life February 4th 1963: India refuses to take part in Java war. Prime minister Nehru issues a speech where he says "China and Yugoslavia seem to care more about spreading communism then stopping colonialism" many historians view this as the beginning of the split in the third bloc between communist and independent wings. In reality however the split had it's roots in the Sino-Indian border conflicts. Also on this day, Central African Forces suffer a stinging defeat in Nyasaland prompting many to call for the kid gloves to be taken off. February 5th 1963: The UN threatens to eject Belgium however the British with some support from the French make an effort to block this. February 9th 1963: Larry Lieber unveils The Brute (Marvel Comics) in New York City. February 14th 1963: George Brown is elected leader of the British Labour Party, and therefore Leader of the Opposition, following the death of Hugh Gaitskell on January 18, 1963. February 16th 1963: Larry Lieber and Joe Kubert unveils The Tarantula and Sgt. Stryker and his Death Squad (Marvel Comics) in New York City, New York. February 19th 1963: Feminist Betty Friedan in her best-selling book The Feminine Mystique publishes her theory that homosexuality in men is the result of misogyny. February 21st 1963: "Aux poubelles de l'histoire! (Into the Trashcan of History!)" is performed by Henri Lefebvre in Paris, but ultimately banned by French authorities for its "anarchist tendencies". February 27th 1963: Jan Strijbosch & Raoul Vaneigem perform the "Chaosmic Music" hit "GEEN DIALOOG MET IDIOTEN...(No Dialogue with Suspects, No Dialogue with Idiots)" in Paris as a counterculture anthem. March 16th 1963: The United Kingdom declares war on Indonesia. March 28th 1963: Stan Lee unveils Atomic Knight (DC Comics) in New York City, New York April 5th 1963: Vice President Kennedy gives his infamous speech "Blood and Empire" condemning European colonialism both historically and in the modern day. Needless to say it is not well received in most of Europe, and led to him being privately censured by Stevenson as he sought to repair the damage. April 8th 1963: Prime Minister Menzies issues his famous "British to the Bootstraps" speech saying "while some have told us to look to treacherous America for protection, when the time came it was our motherland which came to our defense while they cowered behind there walls". This is seen by some historians as the turning point in Australia's history. April 19th 1963: Nehru publicly declared the birth of a new resurgent League of Non-Aligned States. April 20th 1963: Larry Lieber and Steve Ditko unveil the series Tiger-Man (Marvel Comics) in New York City, New York. May 2nd 1963: Thousands of blacks, many of them children, are arrested while protesting segregation in Birmingham, Alabama. Sheriff Eugene "Bull" Connor later unleashes fire hoses and police dogs on the demonstrators. June 2nd 1963: The Civil War in Burma heats up as the PRC and the USSR step up support for their respective factions while the Indian army enters the country to "restore peace and order and the legitimate president". June 7th 1963: Larry Lieber unveils Lucard, Son of Dracula (Marvel Comics) in New York City, New York. June 11th 1963: Alabama Governor George C. Wallace stands in the door of the University of Alabama to protest against integration, refusing to step aside and allow black students James Hood and Vivian Malone to enroll. June 13th 1963: Larry Lieber unveils the series Hands of the Dragon (Marvel Comics) in New York City, New York. July 11th 1963: Stan Lee introduces Doctor Strange (DC Comics) in New York City, New York. July 20th 1963: Larry Lieber unveils the series The Scorpion (Marvel Comics) in New York City, New York. July 21st 1963: DC Comics orders Marvel Comics to "cease and desist" in its publication of The Brute (Marvel Comics) citing similarities to The Rampaging Hulk (DC Comics), sparking national attention. July 31st 1963: The Peerage Reform Act fails to gain Royal Assent and fails to become law. August 4th 1963: James Meridith is found murdered in a bathroom in the University of Mississippi. August 5th 1963: Richard M. Nixon, Governor of California, is assassinated by a gay activist in San Francisco. August 14th 1963: The Second Sino Indian War begins. September 11th 1963: Revolutionary fever sweeps the streets of Santo Dominigo. Trujillo barely escapes the city in time, he flees north quickly rallying the military behind him. September 19th 1963: Larry Lieber unveils the series Demon Hunter (Marvel Comics) in New York City, New York. September 24th 1963: Stan Lee unveils The Children of the Atom (DC Comics) in New York City, New York September 25th 1963: The threatened scandal involving Profumo is successfully covered up. Many breathe a sigh of relief. October 15th 1963: A revolution starts in Radfan, South Yemen against British colonial rule. October 18th 1963: Iain Macleod becomes leader of the British Conservative Party and therefore Prime Minister, after the resignation because of ill health of Harold Macmillan. Macleod is a liberal Conservative - he supports the legalization of abortion and homosexuality and the abolition of the death penalty. He appoints leading liberal Conservatives such as R. A. Butler, Edward Boyle, Hugh Fraser and Edward Heath to top level cabinet posts. Also on this day, Mexico City is selected as the host city for the XIX Summer Olympics October 19th 1963: British forces in South Yemen authorized to use any means they deemed necessary to put down the uprising. November 21st 1963: Adlai Stevenson, president of the United States dies of a massive heart attack. John F Kennedy becomes acting president. December 4th 1963: President Kennedy makes his famous "Fall of Sodom" speech condemning homosexuality and other acts of "perversion". December 8th 1963: Larry Lieber has several characters (incl. Demon Hunter, Grim Ghost, Destructor, Phoenix, Tiger-Man, and Targitt) unite as a team as The Avengers (Marvel Comics) in New York City, New York. December 10th 1963: In the United States, the X-20 Dyna-Soar spaceplane program is not cancelled. Kennedy also promises them nearly twice of their previous budget. Also on this date: Chuck Yeager, while testing an NF-104A rocket-augmented aerospace trainer, was killed when his aircraft went out of control at 108,700 feet (nearly 21 miles up) and crashed. December 14th 1963: President Kennedy pledges to send another thirty thousand men to reinforce ONUC to restore peace and order in the Congo. This is the day that "Kennedy Doctrine" is generally considered to have come into effect. The doctrine was generally to oppose European (and to an even greater extent Soviet and Chinese) influence in Latin America, Africa and the Pacific. While simultaneously seeking to maintain NATO and a common alliance against the Soviets in Europe. December 23rd 1963: Phạm Công Tắc meets with CIA officials in Tay Ninh, warning that Diem's government is considering an alliance with the "Third Bloc". ******** January 2nd 1964: Premier Nguyen Ngoc Tho is assassinated by Cao Dai guerillas at the Xa Loi Pagoda, after religious confrontation. January 4th 1964: Attempted assassination of Kennedy by a homosexual, on the White House grounds. The attempted assassin is cut down by the President's bodyguards. Also on this date, The (London) Times reports on the "disturbing" growth of the Union Movement, led by Sir Oswald Mosley, also on this date, in a surprising (and somewhat controversial move) Pope Paul VI chooses Frenchman Marcel Cardinal Lefebvre, C.S.Sp. to head a council considering potential revisions to the liturgy. January 14th 1964: Skirmishes in Kashmir between Pakistani and Indian forces. January 23rd 1964: The NAACP condemns the failure to pass the 24th amendment which would have outlawed the use of poll taxes. January 28th 1964: Lahti, Finland is chosen as the host city for the X Winter Olympics. January 29th 1964: The IX Winter Olympics open in Innsbruck, Austria. February 11th 1964: Greeks and Turks begin fighting in Limassol Cyprus. February 12th 1964: Leftist guerilla, Giuseppe Pinot Gallizio, is shot by police during the Cosio d'Arroscia conference in Alba, Italy. February 13th 1964: The first American reinforcements for ONUC disembark at Banana. February 15th 1964: Greece formally declares war on Turkey citing the Turkish attack upon a Greek destroyer, and the Turkish preparations to invade Cyprus. March 6th 1964: Constantine II becomes King of Greece, upon the death of his father. He declares that he shall soon liberate the city of Constantine. March 8th 1964: Malcolm X leader of the Nation of Islam says in New York city that "the war of liberation will be soon". March 9th 1964: Doctor Corneliu E. Giurgea predicts the creation of "nootropic", narcotics with the ability to expand a person's intelligence in Bucharest, Romania. March 15th 1964: Larry Lieber re-introduces the character Captain America in Avengers #4, becoming the leader of the organization. March 18th 1964: The Civil rights act is passed. April 1st 1964: The Pakistani army invades the Kashmir region of India and the local people rise up in support of the Pakistani's. April 9th 1964: The United Nations Security Council adopts by a 7-2 vote a resolution deploring a British air attack on a fort in Yemen 12 days earlier. April 20th 1964: US President John Kennedy in New York and Soviet Premier Nikita Krueshev in Moscow simultaneously announce plans to increase production of materials for making nuclear weapons. May 5th 1964: Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlar Nehru dies, Lal Bahadur Shastri succeeds him. May 13th 1964: Phạm Công Tắc demands the immediate release of pacifist leader Dang Sy in Saigon, sparking tensions between Catholics and Buddhists. May 14th 1964: In a by-election, the Conservative Party retains the marginal suburban Glasgow constituency of Rutherglen with a majority of 152 over Labour. However this is a swing of only 1.8 percent to Labour, less than they require to win a general election. In OTL it is gained by Labour with a swing of 7.6 percent. May 15th 1964: Prime Minister Macleod dissolves Parliament and calls a general election to be held on June 11, 1964. (In OTL the general election is held on October 15, 1964). May 20th 1964: Religious riots led by Cao Dai members erupt in Saigon and Cam Ranh Bay, sparking international attention and concern. June 4th 1964: Indian forces occupy all major Burmese population centers, fierce resistance continuous throughout the remainder of the country however. June 11th 1964: In the general election, the Conservative Party is returned with a majority of 38 in the House of Commons. MPs elected: Conservative 334, Labour 293, Liberal 3. The Liberal Party is reduced to one seat in Scotland - that of its leader Jo Grimond - and two seats in Wales. June 24th 1964: Soviet Vostok 7 under the command of Boris Valentinovich Volynov is launched from Baikonur, sparking international attention. July 9th 1964: Stan Lee introduces the world to the "Teen Titans" in Brave & the Bold #54 featuring the team of Arachnid Kid, Robin the Boy Wonder, Kid Flash, Aqua Boy, Speedy, and Wonder Girl. July 18th 1964- Soviet Vostok 8 under the command of Yevgeni Vassilyevich Khrunov is launched from Baikonur, sparking international attention. July 31st 1964: Major Ho Duc Trung, III Corps meets with Phạm Công Tắc in an effort to win military support for a possible Cao Dai government in Tay Ninh. August 3rd 1964: President Kennedy announces Albert Gore, Sr, will be his running mate for the 1964 election, against the Republican ticket of Barry Goldwater and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. August 5th 1964: British forces begin Operation Empire, the invasion of Sumatra. August 7th 1964: 9-year old Mandy Masters of Essex, England demonstrates a recorded IQ of 145, Dr. Cyril Burt links the high intelligence to thalidomide exposure. August 18th 1964: Indonesian forces pushed all the way to the coast of Borneo by the British. August 20th 1964: The Indian Prime Minister gives top priority to acquiring atomic weapons as soon as possible. August 29th 1964: CIA Intelligence suggests that Cao Dai leader, Phạm Công Tắc, may be planning a coup in Saigon. September 2nd 1964: Fernando Carballo Blanco assassinates Generalissimo Fernando Franco in Madrid, sparking international attention and concern. September 8th 1964: Phạm Công Tắc demands a greater power share for Cao Dai and Buddhist leaders within the government in Saigon, sparking international attention. September 9th 1964: Following discussions in the summer between the Conservative and Liberal Parties, and a substantial majority in favour at the Liberal Party Conference on September 5, 1964, the Liberal Party merges with the Conservative Party. The new party will be called the Liberal Conservative Party. Jo Grimond is appointed Home Secretary. October 10th 1964: The XVIII Summer Olympics open in Tokyo, Japan. November 1964: JFK "re-elected", beating out Goldwater. December 4th 1964: John Diefenbaker is sworn in as Prime Minister of Canada returning to power primarily because of public opposition to the Liberal plan to replace the Red Ensign. ******** January 1st 1965: King Javier I was crowned King of Spain after several months of chaos following the assassination of Franco. January 8th 1965: J.V. Martin, American Moral Rearmament movement, is arrested after attempting to assassinate the Danish royal family in Copenhagen, Denmark sparking international attention. January 11th 1965: Doctor Arnold M. Ludwig and Doctor Jerome Levine at the United States Public Health Service Hospital in Lexington, Kentucky report a majority of "nootropic" (smart drug) amongst college and university educated, primarily with a middle-class background. January 14th 1965: Canadian Medical Association (CMA) in Toronto, Ontario reports a "clinical link" between high intelligence and thalidomide exposure, but warns of the danger of massive birth defects. February 4th 1965 Prime Minister Diefenbaker pledges to begin support of Canada's friends and allies in the struggle in the Pacific. March 3rd 1965: Doctor Corneliu E. Giurgea, University of Bucharest, utilizing a thalidomide extract unveils "Piracetam" as a "nootropic" (smart drug) in Bucharest, Romania. April 13th 1965: Soviet Vostok 10 under the command of Aleksei Arkhipovich Leonov is launched from Baikonur, sparking international attention. April 17th 1965: 250,000 African-Americans march on Washington D.C. to protest American involvement in the Congo. In his speech, Robert F. Williams , Radio Free Dixie, condemns the United States government for sending black men to die in a war against "our African Brothers". The famous protest phrase "out of Congo and into Greensbourgh" is born here. April 30th 1965: Thua Su Hue Tanh and Le Trung Cang establish the Institute to Spread Cao Dai Teachings (Co Quan Pho Thong Giao Ly Dai Dao) in Saigon. May 17th 1965: Tran Quang Vinh, under orders from Phạm Công Tắc, forms the Cao Dai Army in Saigon, sparking international attention and concern. May 29th 1965: Prime Minister Phan Huy Quant warns U.S. Embassy that Cao Dai guerillas led by Phạm Công Tắc are threatening to overthrow the government in Saigon. June 18th 1965: Soviet Soyuz A-1 under the command of Andrian Grigoryevich Nikolayev is launched from Baikonur as the first circumlunar mission, sparking international attention. June 29th 1965: Anarchist group, the Charlatans, launches a "nootropic (smart drugs) festival" in Virginia City, Nevada, sparking national attention. July 7th 1965: Kim Fowley leads a "brain-blast" party at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) calling for an "intellectual revolution". July 18th 1965: Soviet Soyuz A-2 under the command of Valeri Fyodorovich Bykovsky is the second circumlunar launched from Baikonur, sparking fears that the United States is falling behind in the "Space Race". August 15th 1965: Ernesto Miranda, Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria (MRI), seizes control of Santiago, Chile in a political coup d'etat. August 20th 1965: The Treaty of Bangkok is signed ending the Second Sino Indian War and the Second Kashmir War. By the terms of the treaty India was to never develop nuculeur weapons or the capacity to manufacture them, Indian ruled Kashmir was to be given to Pakistan. The Indians were to immediately withdraw from Burma, and East Pakistan was to be substantially enlarged with the precise borders to be determined later. The Indian government was also to pay a sizable indemnity to the Chinese, and northern India was to be demilitarized. September 1st 1965: The Autumn of Discontent begins in India with the country in chaos and the old government having lost it's legitimacy in the eyes of many Indians the country began to collapse with the military having to crush many revolts and riots. September 14th 1965: Marxist president of India Elamkulam Manakkal Sankaran Namboodiripad (a.k.a. E. M. S. Namboodiripad) is sworn in, after seizing power in a coup. He vows to restore India to it's former greatness and begins sending out feelers to the Soviets. October 24th 1965: PM Macleod travels to Rhodesia to begin negotiations for independence, over the protests of far right conservatives like the Marques of Salisbury and various African nations. November 5th 1965: Kim Fowley launches a "brain-blast" party at the California Polytechnical Institute in Pomona, California, sparking international attention. November 9th 1965: Catholic relief worker, Roger Allen La Porte, commits suicide by detonating a bomb, killing 8 people, at the United Nations in New York City, New York. November 10th 1965: Already terrified over the previous day's suicide bombing at the UN, New Yorkers are panicked even further when a lightning strike knocks out a transformer in the city's electrical grid and plunges the entire metropolitan New York area into total darkness lasting almost 36 hours, also on this day, Larry Lieber and Joe Gill introduce Judo Master (Marvel Comics) in New York City, New York. November 11th 1965: On Face the Nation (CBS-TV), in a televised debate between Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, King attacks X for his advocacy of violence, and X calls King a "coward" and a "house n*****", also on this day Hugh Romney(a.k.a. Wavy Gravy) launches a "brain blast" party at the University of California at Berkeley, sparking national attention. December 6th 1965: 250,000 members of the "Internationale Situationniste" led by Alexander Trocchi protest French military actions abroad in Paris, pledging their support for independence for Algeria and Cameroon. December 13th 1965: The worst blizzard to hit New England in a century dumps 21 inches of snow on Boston, paralyzing the city for nearly a week. December 17th 1965: The National Football League and the American Football League issue a joint press release announcing that the two leagues' respective champions will square off at the end of January 1966 in a special playoff game to determine America's best professional football team; the match up, modeled after the bowl games common in college football, is billed as a "Super Bowl". December 21st 1965: Timothy Clark, Christopher Gray & Donald Nicholson-Smith lead 325,000 students in protest at Trafalgar Square in London, protesting British military action abroad. December 22nd 1965: Nation of Islam minister Louis Farrakhan, head of the sect's Harlem mosque, is arrested on charges of conspiracy to commit murder after police receive an anonymous tip pointing to evidence that Farrakhan had a hand in the assassination of former NOI member and activist Malcolm X back in February. ******** January 10th 1966: American NASA Apollo SA-11 under the command of Charles Arthur Bassett II is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida for first circumlunar mission. January 21st-24th 1966: "Second Enlightenment" festival is held in San Francisco, California. Widespread use of "nootropic" (smart drugs) is promoted marking the beginning of the "San Francisco Renaissance" January 29th 1966: The NFL champion Green Bay Packers and AFL champion Buffalo Bills square off at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California in the first Super Bowl. Defying experts' pre-game predictions that this game would be a blowout, the Bills keep the game extremely close and at one point actually take a 28-21 lead before falling to Green Bay 31-28 on a field goal with just thirty seconds left in regulation. February 8th 1966: Opening arguments are heard in the trial of Louis Farrakhan. February 17th 1966: A Soviet submarine and a Chinese patrol boat collide in the Yellow Sea, sparking angry words and threats of war between the two rival Communist powers. February 22nd 1966: On the heels of the Yellow Sea incident, the Soviet army begins what it calls "routine training exercises" along the USSR-China border. February 24th 1966: Anti-war activist Barry Bondhus sets himself on fire outside the U.S. Army draft offices in Chicago, Illinois, sparking national attention. April 26th 1966: Munich, FRG, is selected to be the host city for the XX Summer Olympics. Many Germans hope this will be a chance to showcase a democratic, peaceful Germany, in contrast to the games in Berlin back in 1936. Also, Sapporo, Japan, is selected as the host for the XI Winter Olympics. March 1st 1966: The Louis Farrakhan case goes to the jury. Also on this day, elements of the military launch a coup against the newly-crowned Javier of Spain, and succeed. A few hours later the courts declare Javier "a usurper," stating that Juan of Barcelona is the real King, a fact accepted by the new provisional government. March 4th 1966: After three days of deliberations, the jury in the Louis Farrakhan trial convicts him of conspiracy to murder and being an accomplice in the assassination of Malcolm X. March 5th 1966: New Zealand declares war on Indonesia. March 8th 1966: A Chinese reconnaissance plane is fired on by Soviet air defenses while attempting to photograph Red Army maneuvers in Siberia; the incident prompts Western intelligence and defense analysts to speculate that the Mao Zedong regime is starting to gear up for a military showdown with the Brezhnev government in Moscow in an effort to resolve by force a long-simmering border dispute between the Russians and the Chinese. March 9th 1966:In retaliation for the previous day's Chinese incursion into Soviet airspace, the Soviets send a spy submarine into Chinese territorial waters. March 10th 1966: Car bomb detonates in Provos, Holland, with the Dutch Royal Family as the primary target. March 10th-12th, 1966: Calcutta Bandh; General strike of railway workers and laborers sparks martial law against "workers' uprising". March 11th 1966: Members of Pink Floyd introduce the presentation of mathematical fractals as part of "Brain Blast" celebrations in Essex, England. March 13th 1966: Louis Farrakhan is sentenced to 25 years to life in prison for his role in the murder of Malcolm X, sparking outrage among Farrakhan's supporters within the Nation of Islam. March 14th 1966: The first official Canadian force lands on Borneo. Canadian aircraft and naval forces had already been seeing action for several months before this. March 16th 1966: Supporters of Louis Farrakhan stage a protest march in Manhattan to denounce his murder conviction; the keynote speaker at the march asserts Farrakhan was framed by anti-NOI elements in the NYPD. March 22nd 1966: American NASA Apollo SA-12 under Eugene Andrew "Gene" Cernan is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida for the second circumlunar mission, sparking belief that America is "catching up in the Space Race". Also on this date, a Soviet guided missile cruiser fires on a Chinese trawler that has been shadowing her for the past 48 hours; the trawler sinks within minutes, taking most of her crew with her and leaving the rest to be captured by the Soviets. The next day's official TASS account of the incident asserts that the trawler was a spy ship attempting to eavesdrop on sensitive Soviet naval communications; the Chinese respond that the trawler was a fishing vessel engaged in peaceful commercial maritime activities and the Soviet cruiser's attack on her was an unprovoked act of war. March 24th 1966: Cuban ruler Fidel Castro makes a radio appeal to the Soviet and Chinese governments urging both countries to resolve their difference by diplomatic rather than military means, asserting that a Sino-Soviet war can only, in his words, "tear the heart out of socialism and leave it a cold, lifeless shell". Unfortunately Fidel's pleas fall on deaf ears in Moscow and Beijing; even as the Cuban president's speech is being broadcast the Soviet embassy staff in Beijing has already been recalled and the Chinese embassy staff in Moscow expelled. March 25th 1966: The UN General Assembly convenes an emergency meeting to try and spark negotiations to avert what the Soviet and Chinese governments increasingly view as an inevitable war between their respective countries. This diplomatic effort unfortunately ends up having the opposite effect; the Soviet UN delegation, angered that the rest of the world refuses to support Moscow's stance on the Sino-Soviet border issue, walks out in protest and issues a statement asserting that the Soviet Union will not under any circumstances negotiate with China. The East German, Czech, Hungarian, Polish, and Bulgarian UN legations also walk out of the General Assembly in a show of support for their Warsaw Pact ally; North Vietnam, whose relations with China are becoming increasingly strained, refrains from walking out but does issue a statement declaring its disapproval of what the North Vietnamese foreign ministry describes as "growing reactionary tendencies" on the part of the Mao Zedong regime. March 30th 1966: Six Chinese army divisions cross the USSR Siberian border just after 4:00 AM Moscow time; they are opposed by eight Soviet divisions, leading to a battle that results in heavy casualties on both sites. Less than two hours later, Soviet air force jets bomb Beijing and Port Arthur-Dairen as Leonid Brezhnev officially declares that a state of war now exists between the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China. April 2nd 1966: Construction on a nuclear reactor plant begins northwest of the Ukrainian city of Chernobyl. April 4th 1966: Singer James Brown is seriously wounded when a then-unknown assailant pulls out a .44 handgun and fires at him twice as he is leaving a concert in Tallahassee, Florida; the shooter will be caught three months later and identified as an NOI member and Farrakhan supporter who was attempting to kill Brown in revenge for statements Brown had made several days earlier criticizing the jailed NOI minister as a divisive influence in the African-American community. April 5th 1966: Soviet Vostok 13 under the command of Viktor Vassilyevich Gorbatko is launched from Baikonur, sparking international attention. April 6th 1966: John Lennon, Moondogs, announces in Liverpool, England that much of his music has been written under the influence of "nootropics". Also on this date, civil unrest and violence erupt in Kerala, Calcutta, and West Bengal, amidst calls for a "Five Year Plan". April 7th 1966: New York Times reports that a 5-year old girl in Brooklyn, New York completes her General Education Development(GED) test, attributing her ability, partially to her parents use of "nootropics" (smart drugs). April 12th 1966: New York Times reports that a 32-year old mental patient in New York City, New York had been using "nootropics" as a means to maintain his job and earn his college degree. Also on this day, People's Liberation Army supreme commander General Lin Bao is assassinated by a KGB hit squad, dealing a major blow not only to PLA morale but also to the Chinese military's ability to co-ordinate its wartime strategy. April 15th 1966: In its only significant victory of the Sino-Soviet War, the Chinese navy sinks a Soviet missile submarine before it could launch its missiles against Shanghai. April 20th 1966: Soviet armor penetrates the Chinese defenses around Shenyang. April 23rd 1966: Chinese bombers raid Vladivostok in what amounts to a suicide mission; although at least a third of the Soviet navy's Pacific fleet is damaged or sunk at anchor, most of the fleet is already at sea at the time of the raid and thus escapes to wreak what will prove to be a lethal revenge on China. April 25th 1966: Soviet naval forces unleash a devastating conventional missile attack on Chinese military and commercial installations on Hainan Island in retaliation for the Chinese bombing of Vladivostok two days earlier. May 1st 1966: The last pockets of Chinese resistance in Shenyang are wiped out by the Red Army. May 4th 1966: Brian Wilson of the Beach Boys admits to use of "nootropics" during an interview in Santa Monica, California. Also on this date, rejecting pleas by his advisors to begin a precautionary evacuation of Beijing, Mao Zedong vows he will fight the Soviet invasion force to his last breath. As proof of his intentions, the Chinese dictator orders suicide squads stationed on the outskirts of the city to be ready to assault the Red Army head-on when it makes its inevitable attempt to seize the PRC capital. May 8th 1966: Packers quarterback Bart Starr stuns his fans by announcing that he will retire from professional football when his contract with Green Bay expires at the end of the 1966 NFL season. May 11th 1966: North Vietnam formally declares war on the People's Republic of China and assembles an expeditionary force of 80,000 troops to assist the Soviets on their Manchurian battlefront. May 13th 1966: Keith Richards and Mick Jagger of the Rolling Stones admit to using "nootropic drugs" in London, comparing their situation to latter-day Oscar Wilde and Bernard Shaw. May 14th 1966: North Korea announces it's neutrality in the Sino-Soviet War. May 17th 1966: Soviet advance columns reach the outskirts of Beijing. May 14th 1966: India formally declares war on the PRC. May 18th 1966: Soviet ground forces attempting to seize Beijing encounter fanatical resistance from PLA suicide squads; the Soviets respond by dropping phosphorus bombs on the Chinese capital's defenders. May 20th 1966: New Jersey Narcotic Drug Study Commission reports in Trenton, New Jersey that "nootropics" users have reported intelligence growth up to 20 points. May 21st 1966: After a three day fire storm, and with the ruins still glowing, the Soviet Infantry Divisions advance in the direction of the Square of heavenly peace, encountering only minimal and disorganized resistance. May 30th 1966: Doctor Charles Savage reports the "therapeutic value" of "nootropics" in a study for the American Medical Association (AMA). June 1st 1966: The Chinese government news agency Xinhua confirms the death of Mao Zedong, reporting that he was killed during the final Soviet assault on Beijing, Chen Zaidao surrenders to Indo-Soviet forces at Golmud. China has been driven out of Sinkiang and Tibet. June 4th 1966: From the CPC's temporary headquarters in Chongqing, new Chinese premier Zhou Enlai-- who was finally given permission to evacuate Beijing just before Soviet phosphorus bomb attacks devastated the city --makes a radio address in which he vows that the People's Republic of China will continue fighting the Soviets to the last man. June 8th 1966: Rock band Euphoria of San Francisco, CA are arrested in Houston, Texas after playing its single "Pick It Up!", a song based on "nootropic" experiences. Also on this date, Jakarta falls to Anglo-Dutch-Australian forces. June 13th-16th 1966: Martial law is declared throughout the Netherlands after riots in Provo, Amsterdam, and Rotterdam. June 22nd 1966: American NASA Apollo SA-13 under Thomas Patten "Tom" Stafford blows up 76 seconds into the flight at Cape Canaveral, Florida, sparking international attention. July 9th 1966: Jim Shooter and Stan Lee unveils The Mutants (DC Comics) in New York City, New York, as the first Silver Age characters to develop two separate series. July 10th 1966: Editor Julius Schwartz and Stan Lee introduce "T'Challa, the Black Panther" in Challengers of the Unknown (DC Comics), as the first black superhero in New York City, New York. July 20th 1966: Zhou Enlai is overthrown by Hua Guofeng, who asks for peace from Moscow and New Delhi. July 28th 1966: Voshkod Disaster; Soviet Voshkod-3 under the command of Georgi Stepanovich Shonin blows up on the launch pad in Baikonur, raining debris, killing several scientists including Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov. August 5th 1966: Timothy Leary in Berkeley, California proclaims "nootropic" users as "Evolutionary Agents", persons dedicated to pushing humanity ahead along the evolutionary ladder. August 6th 1966: A Marxist military coup in Mexico succeeds and Russian troops move to set up bases and military aid and troops to the Mexicans. August 13th 1966: Larry Lieber and Peter Morrisi introduce the character Peter Cannon...The Thunderbolt (Marvel Comics) in New York City, New York. August 14th 1966: U.S. forces invade Mexico to "restore the legitimate government" August 19th 1966: Treaty of Nanking between the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China. Manchuria is annexed into Russia, becoming the Manchu SSR. Sinkiang is granted independence as the Uighur Social Republic (in reality it's a Soviet puppet). Zhou Enlai, Jiang Qing, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, and Yao Wenyuan are arrested for war crimes. September 4th 1966: Treaty of Chonqing between the Republic of India and PRC. Chinese Kashmir is returned to India. Tibet is granted independence and falls into the Hindu sphere of influence. The earlier ban on atomic weapons is lifted. September 7th 1966: The Dalai Lama returns to Lhasa for the first time since 1947. September 8th 1966: Gene Roddenberry's Star Track first comes to the small screen. September 14th 1966: Bull Gale of Glendale, California publishes the right-wing tract, Racial and National Identity, based on populist anger over the civil rights movement. September 29th 1966: Star Track (NBC-TV) through writing by Harlan Ellison introduces the words "frack" and "galmonging", avoiding scrutiny by the FCC October 8th 1966: "Nootropic (Blow in Your Mind)" single by the Monocles becomes a major hit song in San Francisco, California. October 15th 1966: Science-fiction author and self-proclaimed "nootropics" expert Robert Heinlein introduces ("TANSTAAFL" a.k.a. "There Ain't No Such Thing As A Free Lunch) during a "Brain Blast event" in San Diego, California. October 21st 1966: After many delays, the Royal Navy puts the first CVA-01 Carrier into service, dubbing it the Nelson Class. The Carrier, first of a planned five, begins a tour with the British Pacific Fleet in Singapore. November 4th 1966: Larry Lieber and Pat Boytte announce the creation of The Peacemaker (Marvel Comics) in New York City, New York. November 5th 1966: "Walk for Love & Peace & Freedom" led by Allen Ginsberg, Gary Snyder, Ed Sanders et al. , containing 25,000 protesters is broken up by National Guard units, sparking international attention. November 10th 1966: President Kennedy announces he and Vice-President Gore will seek re-election in 1968, under the terms of the 22nd amendment. November 29th 1966: Judge Elton C. Lawless issues a warrant for the arrest of "The Diggers" in San Francisco, California on charges of "disturbing the peace, inciting violence. November 30th 1966: "Nootropic Sounds" by the 13th Floor Elevators becomes a hit single in Los Angeles, California. December 9th 1966 Nanking officially becomes the new capital of the PRC. December 16th 1966: First American "Chaosmic Music" concert by the Diggers is held in San Francisco, California. December 20th 1966: Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom is assassinated by a deranged Republican. Christmas season will turn bloody as anti-Republican riots spread throughout the country. ******** January 1st 1967: The worst of the British riots have died down, though several high ranking republicans, including one Anthony Benn, are dead. January 3rd 1967: The vanguard of the Peoples Revolutionary Army of the People Republic of Dominica cross the Haitian border pledging to "Unite Hispaniola and from there the Carribean" Also on this day, "January Storm"; Massive civil unrest through out China led by Jiang Qing, The CCP, under Hua Guofeng and Deng Xiaopeng, begins reforming China in both civilian and military areas. January 7th 1967: The Prince of Wales is crowned King George VII. Also on this day, Martin H. Keeler and Clifford B. Reifler, American Psychological Association, report "suicidal tendencies" in frequent users of "nootropics". January 11th 1967: Counterculture manifesto, Et ça ne fait que commencer (And That's Just the Start of It) by Jean Garnault & Théo Frey, is published in Paris. January 15th 1967: Counterculture leaders Théo Frey, Jean Garnault & Herbert Holl are arrested in Paris, France for "criminal conspiracy". January 28th 1967: The Green Bay Packers claim their second consecutive Super Bowl championship, beating the Kansas City Chiefs 31-24 in Super Bowl 2. Once again, the game comes down to the final play, with Packers QB Bart Starr hitting reserve tight end Max McGee with the winning TD with less than forty-one seconds left in regulation. February 2nd 1967: The Marquis of Salisbury, with several other right-wing politicians, breaks with Macleod and the Liberal Conservatives to form the "New Tory" party, blaming Macleod's negligence for the Queen's death. February 5th 1967: William Stephen Ian White law (a.k.a. "Willie White law") is appointed head of the New Tory Party. February 8th 1967: The West Indies Federation begins to descend into civil war prompting a British intervention. The U.S. forces were standing bb but there was uncertainty as to whether the administration would be willing to risk another protracted military involvement. February 11th 1967: Less than a year after his disappearance, Richard Condon resurfaces, albeit not in the way he would have liked; the novelist and UFO buff has been arrested on suspicion of tax evasion. February 14th 1967: Manhattan Brain Blast; Abbie Hoffman , with funding by Jimi Hendrix offers free samples of "nootropics" in New York City, New York. February 25th 1967: Satyanarayan Singh and Charu Majumdar are purged from government in response to criticism launched against President E. M. S. Namboodiripad. March 1st 1967: Professor Leonard Wolf and Doctor David E. Smith establish New College in San Francisco, California to "harness the talent and intellect of the San Francisco Renaissance". March 17th 1967: Scientists at the State University of New York (SUNY) in Buffalo, New York report severe DNA chromosomal damage from users of "nootropics" (smart drugs). March 26th 1967: Easter Sunday Riots; "Chaosmic Music" fans led by Emmett Grogan and Peter Coyote clash with "Nootropics" users led by Timothy Leary in Golden Gate Park, 16 people arrested, 4 hospitalized, in San Francisco, California. April 3rd 1967: Moondogs establish Apple Corps, Ltd. as a means to invest in the technical and intellectual pursuits of different artists and scientists in London, England. Also on this day, NASA Dynasoar-6 is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida under the command of Ronnie Walter "Walt" Cunningham. April 15 1967: Martin Luther King Jr. and Dr. Benjamin Spock condemn American military action in the Congo during speeches before the United Nations General Assembly in New York City, New York. Also on this date, UFO investigator Richard Condon disappears in Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah amidst claims of "alien abduction". May 11th 1967: Air Force Lieutenant General Omar Dhani surrenders at Bogor, West Java, this is generally considered to be the end of the war. May 14th 1967: The Singapore Conference begins, to determine how Indonesia will be carved up. West Irian will remain a Dutch puppet and some in Amsterdam argue for full retaking of the East Indies although they are in the minority. The British are in favour of carving the region up between small puppet monarchies With Borneo and Sumatra falling under their sphere of influence. The Australians are in favour of taking direct control over large parts of the East Indies. Also attending are representatives of the newly formed Federation of Malaysia, who use this venue to announce their formation to the world. Their flag is similar too that of the USA, but with five stars to represent the five member states of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak, Brunei and North Borneo. May 19th 1967: Bertrand Russell is arrested outside the Hague, demanding an International War Crimes Tribunal against France, Great Britain, Australia, and the United States. May 25th 1967: Charu Majumdar and Kanu Sanyal launch rebellion in Naxalbari, West Bengal, calling for a return to ties with the People's Republic of China. June 10, 1967- Larry Lieber and Steve Ditko introduce The Question (Marvel Comics) in New York City, New York. June 22nd 1967: NASA Dynasoar-7 is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida under the command of Donn Fulton Eisele. July 16th 1967: "Legalize Thought" rally in Hyde Park, London as 30,000 people rally in support of "nootropics" (smart drugs) led by the Moondogs, Lord David Sutch, et al. July 24th 1967: President Gaston Monnerville meets with Ministry of Foreign Affairs in London, announcing formal neutrality regarding the issue of Quebec Independence. July 26th 1967: Pope Paul VI survives an assassination attempt in Istanbul, Turkey while trying to visit Red Cross relief centers, sparking sectarian violence. August 16th 1967: Gordon Kahl and Bill Gale publish tract in Los Angeles, California calling for the establishment of a tax protest movement saying, "We will never give aid and comfort to the enemies of Christ...and we will no longer tithe to the synagogue of Satan". August 22nd 1967: King Feature Syndicate announces the sale to DC Comics in New York City, New York. August 25th 1967: George Lincoln Rockwell, American Nazi Party, survives an assassination attempt by former associate John Patler in Arlington, Virginia, claiming that a "Judeo-Bolshevik conspiracy" is against him. August 27th 1967: NASA Apollo 207 is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida on circumlunar mission under the command of James Alton "Jim" McDivitt. September 1st 1967: Justice League of America meets with the Flash Gordon, the Phantom, Mandrake the Magician, and Jungle Jim on "Earth-K" in Justice League of America. Also on this date, Opening arguments are heard in the tax evasion trial of Richard Condon. September 3rd 1967: Osama bin Laden and Muhammad bin Laden die in a Beechcraft private aircraft crash either in Hamis Musayt, in southwest Saudi Arabia. September 8th 1967: Harry Harrison and Dan Barry reintroduce Flash Gordon (DC Comics) in New York City, New York. September 15th 1967: Lee Falk and Fred Fredericks reintroduces Mandrake the Magician (DC Comics) in New York City, New York. September 22nd 1967: Lee Falk and Fred Fredericks reintroduce The Phantom (DC Comics) in New York City, New York. October 27th 1967: Tom Lewis, David Eberhardt, & James Mengel set themselves on fire outside the U.S. Army draft offices in Baltimore, Maryland October 30th 1967: Doctor Walter McGlothlin of New York City, New York warns of the dangers of emotional instability in those persons with continual usage of "nootropics". November 16th 1967: The Mouvement Souveraineté-Association (MSA, Movement for Sovereignty-Association) is established by René Lévesque in Montreal, Quebec. November 29th 1967: Doctor George L. Forrest, Cambridge University, reports on the dangers of permanent mental damage and psychosis attributed to long-term "nootropics" use. November 30th 1967: Counterculture tract The Revolution of Daily Life by Raoul Vaneigem is published in Paris and Strasbourg, despite police efforts to ban the work. December 2nd 1967: Pat Boyette reintroduces Jungle Jim (DC Comics) in New York City, New York. December 5th 1967: Robert Chasse & Tony Verlaan announce the publication of the Berkeley Manifesto in Berkeley, California after 72 hours under the influence of "nootropics". December 25th 1967: Arthur Shuttlewood of Warminster, Wiltshire announces a "nootropic" campaign to raise "Cosmic Consciousness" during a rally in London, England. ******** January 5th 1968: North Korean commando's make a failed attempt on South Korean President Park Chung Hee. January 7th 1968: Option Québec by René Lévesque is published in Montreal, Quebec, calling for the formal secession of Quebec, citing "cultural differences". January 8th 1968: François Missoffe, Minister of Youth and Sports, is shot and killed by Anarchist Daniel Cohn-Bendit in Nanterre, France. Also on this date, Science fiction author and counter-culture leader Robert Heinlein introduces "grok" ritual during a "Brain Blast" event in Tulsa, Oklahoma. January 12th 1968: President Park Chung Hee directed the Korean CIA to create Unit 684 and train it up to conduct a comparable attack on Kim Il Sung. January 18th 1968: Actress Earth Kitt speaks with V.P. Al Gore Sr. at the White House about racism and U.S. military involvement in the Congo. Kitt throws pig's blood at the Vice-President in disgust. January 26th 1968: Nanterre Riots; 40 people arrested, 12 hospitalized after 3,000 students riot over government imposed curfew in Nanterre, France. January 27th 1968: Hopes for a third straight Packers Super Bowl championship are dashed as the AFL champion Oakland Raiders erase a 21-10 third quarter deficit to win Super Bowl 3 30-24; Raiders quarterback George Blanda becomes the first AFL player to win the Super Bowl MVP trophy. February 6th 1968: The X Winter Olympics open in Lahti, Finland. February 11th 1968: Less than a year after his disappearance, Richard Condon resurfaces, albeit not in the way he would have liked; the novelist and UFO buff has been arrested on suspicion of tax evasion. February 20th 1968: Prafulla Chandra Ghosh calls for the impeachment of President E. M. S. Namboodiripad in Calcutta rally. March 4th 1968: Salisbury accuses the Liberal Conservatives of being "Closet Yankees" and Labour of being "Closet Soviets". March 7th 1968: Senator Eugene McCarthy(D-Minn.) launches the "Children's Crusade" in Manchester, NH, calling for American withdrawal from the Third World. March 10th 1968: John Ashbrook clinches the Republican candidacy for President. March 11th 1968: Anarchist Rudi Dutschke is killed in Berlin, West Germany by a Hamburg house painter. March 23rd 1968: Erich von Daniken publishes Chariot of the Gods, claiming that "ancient astronauts" helped advance civilization and evolution through "evolutionary agents". March 29th 1968: The last episode of Star Track; Assignment: Earth is aired April 11th 1968: During rallies commemorating the life of Rudi Dutschke, riots erupt in Berlin, Rome, Vienna, Paris, and London. May 12th 1968: Martin Luther King Jr. leads 525,000 people in the "Poor People's" campaign in Washington D.C. to lobby for a “economic bill of rights” (EBoR). May 10th 1968: Léo Ferré writes the "Chaosmic Music" counter-culture anthem "the Anarchists" in Paris, France. May 15th 1968: PM Georges Pompidou government declares a "State of Emergency", imposing martial law after students seize Sorbonne. May 18th 1968: India detonates a nuclear weapon at Pokhran, India, becoming a nuclear power. May 20th 1968: French military forces attempt to seize Renault automobile plant in Boulogne-Billancourt, killing 12 people in the process. May 21st 1968: Underground society "Sheng Wu Lian" leads 300,000 students in a protest at Tiananmen Square led by Wang Jiangsheng. May 30th 1968: The Moondogs come out with "The Black Album", which will be the single most iconic album of the nootropic movement. The album was also noted for the strong influence it owned to both the "Chaosmic" and German electronic music. Triggering a great interest in both. June 15th 1968: Naxalbari Uprising; Indian President Elamkulam Manakkal Sankaran Namboodiripad (a.k.a. E. M. S. Namboodiripad) is overthrown and forced into exile. Riots and civil unrest in Calcutta, West Bengal and Kerala. Democracy is restored. June 18th 1968: President John F. Kennedy signs the “economic bill of rights” (EBoR) in a Rose Garden ceremony with Martin Luther King Jr., in Washington D.C. July 31st 1968: Baroness Wooton testifies before the House Select Committee on Drugs , saying that "nootropics" use is of "vital importance" to American troops in Washington D.C. August 21st 1968: President Kennedy is hospitalized when his Addison's suddenly flares up. August 27th 1968: President Kennedy is released from the hospital in time for the DNC. August 28th 1968: Dave Dellinger, Bobby Seale, Rennie Davis, & Tom Hayden lead a "Brain Blast" event at the Democratic National Convention (DNC) in Chicago, Illinois. September 1st, 1968: Opening arguments are heard in the tax evasion trial of Richard Condon. September 13th 1968: Albania removes itself from the Warsaw Pact in protest over the Sino-Soviet War. Albania promptly joins the Third Bloc. October 1st 1968: George A. Romero releases the horror classic Night of the Flesh Eaters. Noted for it's political content as much as it's influence on later horror pictures, It quickly makes Romero one of the wealthiest and most powerful men in Hollywood. October 2nd 1968: Tlatelco Massacre; Summer Olympics in Mexico City, Mexico are cancelled after martial law is imposed after 68 student killed by military forces. October 12th 1968: 43-year old African-American Essie Mae Washington-Williams reveals herself as the "bastard child" of Senator James Strom Thurmond(R-SC) in Edgefield, South Carolina. Also on this date, The XIX Olympics open in Detroit. October 11th-14th 1968: Martial law is declared in Montreal, Quebec after Mouvement Souveraineté-Association (MSA, Movement for Sovereignty-Association) conference led by René Lévesque is raided by police on charges of "treason and sedition". October 26th 1968: Pierre Bourgault is arrested by Canadian police officials in East Angus, Quebec, after a 3-hour standoff. November 5th 1968: The Kennedy/Gore ticket is elected by a slim margin, mainly due to the third party challenge of George Wallace and fears about Kennedy's Addison's. Historians would later blame Ashbrook's failure on his running mate, Spiro Agnew. November 6th 1968: After four fractious years between "conservatives" (led by Chairman Lefebvre) and "liberals", the Consilium reaches a report that recommends retaining the current form of the Liturgy, with some indults to use in the vernacular. Outside the United States and Great Britain, however, this option is not exercised - and even there it is severely curtailed. December 11th 1968: "Oliver!" is released in the US. Though it received good reviews, after the murder of the Queen, movies based on amusing musicals based on uplifting Victorian books were viewed to be in poor taste, and the movie would flop. The Academy Award for Best Picture 1968 would go to "The Lion in Winter." ******** January 19th 1969: Time magazine announces an "end to UFO sightings" nationwide, citing U.S. space program developments. January 20th 1969: John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Sr, and Albert Gore, Sr, are sworn in for Kennedy's third and final term. January 25th 1969: The New York Jets beat the Baltimore Colts 17-13 in Super Bowl 4 to give the AFL its second consecutive Super Bowl championship, not to mention the upper hand in behind-the-scenes merger talks between the AFL and the NFL. February 23rd 1969: President Kennedy declares that by 1980, man will walk on Mars. March 2nd 1969: The Chernobyl nuclear plant goes online. March 10th 1969: Anarchists bomb statue of Charles Fourier in Paris, France in reaction to French military actions abroad. March 12th 1969: Gregorio Y. Zara of Manila, Philippines, in an agreement with Bell Telephone Systems announces "Picture phone" service to be offered in limited format to New York City, Washington, DC, Chicago, and Pittsburgh. March 15th 1969: Alan Barlow and Phil Carver, leaders of the "Guy Fawkes Group" bomb the Bank of England in London to protest British military efforts abroad. April 6th 1969: Heberto Castillo, leader of Revoluccion Democracia, calls for resistance to martial law, during a rally in Mexico City, Mexico. May 18th 1969: NASA Apollo 10-A under the command of Thomas P. Stafford launches from Cape Canaveral, Florida for the first manned landing on the lunar surface. May 22nd 1969: Assassination of the first Israeli Prime Minister, Ben-Gurion is assassinated in Tel Aviv, Israel. May 23rd 1969: Luis Echeverria Alvarez is purged from office by President Gustavo Diaz Ordaz as being a "socialist tool" of "corrupt special interests" during a speech in Mexico City, Mexico. May 26th 1969: "Nootropics" experts Marcian "Ted" Hoff and Stan Mazor build a 4-bit CPU chip set architecture that could receive instructions and perform simple functions on data for Apple Corps in San Francisco, California. The CPU becomes the 4004 microprocessor. Also on this day, NASA Apollo 10-a under the command of Thomas P. Stafford land at Mare Tranquilitas. Stafford sparks controversy by quoting a Biblical passage, "I am the vine and you are the branches... Whoever remains in me, and I in him, will bear much fruit. For you can do nothing without me. June 16th 1969: Apollo 10-A astronauts led by Thomas P. Stafford are granted a ticker tape parade in New York City, New York. July 13th 1969: Robert de Pugh is killed in a shootout with federal authorities in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Christian militia groups will say, "This is our Concord! This is our Fort Sumpter! This is our Pearl Harbor!" August 9th 1969: Charles Manson and several of his followers are arrested for conspiracy to commit murder. August 11th 1969: Time is proven wrong, when a UFO sighting occurs in Utica, New York. September 19th 1969: Jacques Parizeau is appointed to Parliament in an effort to silence critics about Quebec secession. September 26th 1969: Venice Music Festival; "Chaosmic Music" musicians François de Beaulieu, Robert Chasse, Patrick Cheval, Alain Chevalier, Guy Debord, Bruce Elwell, Jon Horelick, Mustapha Khayati, JV Martin, Claudio Pavan, René Riesel, Eduardo Rothe, Paolo Salvadori, Gianfranco Sanguinetti, Christian Sébastiani, Raoul Vaneigem, Tony Verlaan, and René Viénet, protesting American, Soviet and European military efforts in the Third World. October 4th 1969: Psychologist F. Gordon Johnson warns that a mixture of "nootropics" (smart drugs) and alcohol can lead to severe mental damage in Washington D.C. October 7th 1969: Anarchist SDS Weathermen bomb Haymarket Square in Chicago, Illinois in commemoration of the 1886 Haymarket Riot. October 15th 1969: Operations Within the French Section after October 1969 documents from the Ministry of Defense, are leaked by students at the University of Nanterre, exposing plans to expand military operations in the Third World. November 11th 1969: Jérôme Proulx is appointed to Parliament in an effort to silence critics about Quebec secession November 18th 1969: Tragedy strikes the First Family when the president's father, Joseph Patrick Kennedy, dies. He is the first presidential father to die during his son's time in office since the presidency of John Quincy Adams. December 26th 1969: John A. Rimmer announces a "Great Revelation" to be granted to "nootropics" users in Merseyside, England. December 29th 1969: Vice-President Al Gore is injured after shots fired by an Islamic guerillas from the Moro Liberation Front (MLF) in Manila, Philippines.