The Legacy of Miguel Dela Paz Isabella and Ferdinand When Alfonso V died in 1458, all of his territories, including the island of Sicily, were left to his brother John II. John now had a stronger position than every before and no longer needed the security of Henry's friendship. Henry was now in need of a new alliance. He saw the change for this much needed new friendship in Charles IV of Navarre, another son of John II of Aragon. Charles was constantly in dispute with his father and because of this he secretly entered into an alliance with Henry IV of Castile. A major part of the alliance was that a marriage was to be arranged between Charles and Isabel. The fact that Isabel was only ten years old and Charles was nearly forty was never considered an issue. When John II learned of this arranged marriage he was outraged. Isabel was had been destined for his favorite son, Ferdinand, and in his eyes this alliance was still valid. John II had his son Charles thrown in prison with charges of plotting against his father's life and the marriage never came to be. In 1464 an attempt was made to marry Isabel to Alfonso V of Portugal, Henry's brother-in-law. Through the medium of the Queen and Count of Ledesma, a Portuguese alliance was made. Isabel, however, was weary of the marriage and refused to consent. A civil war broke out in Castile over King Henry's inability to act as sovereign. Henry now needed a quick way to please the rebels of the kingdom. As part of an agreement to restore peace, Isabel was to be betrothed to Pedro Giron, Maestre de Calatrava and brother to the King’s favorite Don Juan Pacheco. In return the Master would pay into the ompoverished royal treasury an enourmous sum of money. Seeing little other choice to find the peace he desperately needed, Henry agreed to the marriage. Isabel was aghast and prayed to God for the marriage to never come to pass. Her prayers were answered when Don Pedro suddenly fell ill and died while on his way to meet his fiancée. When Henry recognized Isabel as his heir on 19 September 1468, he also promised that his sister should not but compelled to marry against her will, while she in return agreed to obtain his consent. It seemed that finally the years of failed attempts at political marriages were over. There was talk of a marriage to a brother of Edward IV of England but this alliance was never seriously considered. Once again in 1468, a marriage proposal arrived from Alfonso V of Portugal. Going against his promises made in September, Henry tried to make the marriage a reality. If Isabel married Alfonso, Henry's daughter Joanna would marry Alfonso's son John II and thus, after the death of the old king, John and Juana could inherit Portugal and Castile.[ Isabella refused and made a secret promise to marry her cousin and very first betroth, Ferdinand of Aragon. After this failed attempt Henry once again went against his promises and tried to marry Isabel to Louis XI’s brother Charles, Duke of Berry. In Henry's eyes this alliance would cement the frienship of Castile and France as well as remove Isabel from Castilian affairs. Isabel once again refused the proposal. Meanwhile John II of Aragon negotiated in secret with Isabel a wedding to his son Ferdinand. On 18 October 1469, the formal betrothal took place. Because Isabel and Ferdinand were second cousins they stood within the the prohibited degrees of consanguinity and the marriage would not be legal unless a dispensation from the Pope was granted. With the help of Rodrigo Borgia (later Alexander VI) Isabel and Ferdinand were presented with a supposed Papal Bull by Pius II authorizing Ferdinand to marry within the third degree of consanguinity, making their marriage legal. Isabel escaped the court of Henry with the excuse of visiting her brother Alfonso's tomb in Ávila. Ferdinand, on the other hand, crossed Castile in secret disguised as a merchant. Finally, on 19 October 1469 they married in the Palacio de los Vivero in the city of Valladolid. Isabel’s reign was off to a rocky start from the very beginning. Because of her brother's choice to name Isabel as his successor, when she ascended to the throne in 1474, there were already several plots against her. The Marquis of Villena and his followers maintained that the Infanta Joanna, daughter of Henry VI, was the rightful queen. Shortly after the Marquis made his claim, a long time supporter of Isabel, the Archbishop of Toledo left court to plot with his great-nephew the Marquis. The Archbishop and Marquis made plans to have the Infanta Joanna marry her uncle, King Alfonso V of Portugal and invade Castile to claim the throne for themselves. In May of 1475, Alfonso and his army crossed into Spain and advanced to Palsencia and here he married the young Joanna. A long and bloody war for the Castilian succession took place hereafter. The war went back and forth for almost a year until March of 1476 when the Battle of Toro took place. It was here that Isabel’s husband Ferdinand and his army made such a victory that it was clear that Isabel’s Spain was going to win the war. Although Isabel’s side had gained a great victory, the war drug on for another three years. In August of the same year, Isabel proved her abilities as a powerful ruler on her own. A rebellion broke out in Segovia and Isabel rode out to suppress it, as her husband was off fighting at the time. Going against the better judgment of her male advisors, Isabel rode by herself into the city to negotiate with the rebels. She was successful and the rebellion was quickly brought to an end. Two years later, Isabel also secured her place as ruler a bit more with the birth of her son John, Prince of Asturias on June 30, 1478. To many, the presence of a male heir legitimized her place as ruler. The war with Portugal did not officially end until September of 1479. At this time, four separate treaties were signed at Alcáçovas. Under these treaties Portugal abandoned all claims to Castile Isabel and Ferdinand agreed to pardon all rebellious subjects who had supported Joanna and Alfonzo. Isabel had proven herself to be a fighter and tough monarch from the start. Now that she had succeeded in securing her place on the Castilian throne, she could now begin to make the reforms that the kingdom desperately needed. At the end of the Reconquista, only Granada was left for Isabel and Ferdinand to conquer. The Emirate of Granada had been held by the Muslim Nasrid emirate since the mid-thirnth century. Protected by natural barriers and fortified towns, it had withstood the long process of the reconquista. On 1 February 1482, the king and queen reached Medina del Campo and this is generally considered the beginning of the war for Grandada. While Isabel's and Ferdinand's involvement in the war was apparent from the start, Granada's leadership was divided and never able to present united front. However, it still took ten years to conquer Granada, culminating in 1492. The Spanish monarchs recruited soldiers from many European countries and improved their artillery with the latest and best cannons. Systematically, they proceeded to take the kingdom piece by piece. In 1485 they laid siege to Ronda, which surrendered after only a fortnight due to extensive bombardment. The following year, Loja was taken, and again Muhammad XII was captured and released. One year later, with the fall of Málaga, the western part of the Muslim Nasrid kingdom had fallen into Spanish hands. The eastern province succumbed after the fall of Baza in 1489. The siege of Granada began in the spring of 1491 and at the end of the year, Muhammad XII surrendered. On 2 January 1492 Isabella and Ferdinand entered Granada to receive the keys of the city and the principal mosque was reconsecrated as a church. The Treaty of Granada signed later that year was to assure religious rights to the Muslims, which did not last. After continually lobbying at the Spanish court and two years of negotiations, he finally had success in 1492. Ferdinand and Isabella had just conquered Granada, the last Muslim stronghold on the Iberian Peninsula, and they received Columbus in Córdoba, in the Alcázar castle. Isabella turned Columbus down on the advice of her confessor, and he was leaving town by mule in despair, when Ferdinand intervened. Isabella then sent a royal guard to fetch him and Ferdinand later claimed credit for being "the principal cause why those islands were discovered". About half of the financing was to come from private Italian investors, whom Columbus had already lined up. Financially broke after the Granada campaign, the monarchs left it to the royal treasurer to shift funds among various royal accounts on behalf of the enterprise. Columbus was to be made "Admiral of the Seas" and would receive a portion of all profits. The terms were unusually generous, but as his son later wrote, the monarchs did not really expect him to return. According to the contract that Columbus made with King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, if Columbus discovered any new islands or mainland, he would receive many high rewards. In terms of power, he would be given the rank of Admiral of the Ocean Sea and appointed Viceroy and Governor of all the new lands. He had the right to nominate three persons, from whom the sovereigns would choose one, for any office in the new lands. He would be entitled to 10% of all the revenues from the new lands in perpetuity; this part was denied to him in the contract, although it was one of his demands. Additionally, he would also have the option of buying one-eighth interest in any commercial venture with the new lands and receive one-eighth of the profits. Miguel De La Paz Isabella, Princess of Asturias (2 October 1470 – 24 August 1498) was the Queen Consort of Portugal and the eldest daughter and heiress presumptive of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile. Her younger sisters were Catherine, Queen of England, Queen Joanna I of Castile, and Maria, Queen of Portugal. In 1490 Isabella married Afonso, Crown Prince of Portugal, the heir of John II of Portugal. Though it was an arranged marriage, Isabella and Afonso quickly fell in love, and Isabel was grief-stricken when he died in 1491: sent home to her parents by John II, she declared that she would never marry again, and would enter a convent. Her parents ignored this, and in 1497 she was persuaded to marry to Manuel I of Portugal, Afonso's uncle and John II's cousin and successor. She did so on condition that Manuel followed her parents' policy and expelled the Jews who would not convert to Christianity from his realm. This he duly did. In the same year, she became Princess of Asturias and heiress of Castile, following the death of her only brother, John (Juan), Prince of Asturias. Miguel da Paz, Prince of Portugal and Prince of and son of King Manuel I of Portugal and his first wife Isabella of Asturias (1470-98). He was recognised as heir both to his father's kingdom of Portugal, and to his grandparents' kingdoms of Castile, León and Aragon. As such, he was styled Prince of Portugal, Prince of Asturias and Prince of Girona. He was born in Zaragoza, Spain on August 24, 1498 and his mother died during childbirth. For the next two years he was the heir to the throne of both Portugal and Spain. He survives to adulthood and was arranged to be married to Rene of France.