Part One--800-1600 AD ca. A.D. 800: Under the leadership of Taycanamo, the Chimu, a people probably descended from the earlier Moche culture which had once held sway in the same region, form the Kingdom of Chimor in the northern coastal region of Peru. Construction begins on their capital, the city of Chan Chan. Buildings are made of adobe brick, covered with a cement into which intricate designs are carved. At about the same time, other related tribes form the Kingdom of Sican, north of Chimor. ca. A.D. 900--The Chimu conquer the Kingdom of Sican, north of Chan Chan. ca. A.D. 950: A priest in the city of Chan Chan (the capital city of the Chimu civilization of Peru) is mixing magic powders for use in the local religious festival and accidentally discovers gunpowder when the mixture explodes in his face. Fortunately, he was mixing a very small amount, and the mixture wasn't quite right anyway, so he manages to survive the explosion. Thinking that this might be a good thing to use in his ceremonies to overawe the populace, he continues to work with the formula and improve it. He trains other priests how to make it too. ca. A.D. 1000: Observations of a storage vessel reacting to another gunpowder accident lead to the invention of a crude rocket. It begins to dawn on the Chimu that the "Magic Powder" might have military applications. A.D. 1100-1300: Knowledge of gunpowder has spread from the Chimu to other area cultures. Rockets are a standard part of regional militaries, although they are dreadfully inaccurate and don't cause a lot of damage. Sometime around 1250 A.D., an anonymous metalworker in what is now northern Chile discovers the formula for bronze, knowledge of which slowly spreads northward. Also at about this time, a new people, the Tawantinsuya, have appeared, lead by their semi-legendary ruler (or “Inca,” as he is called), Manco Capac. They settle at the city of Cuzco, founding the state of Tawantinsuyu. A.D. 1300-1400: Bronze begins to be worked in Chan Chan before 1350 A.D. Knowledge of the formula soon spreads to other cultures in the region. By 1400, the Chimu Empire extends for some 200 miles to the north and south of Chan Chan. The Tawantinsuya learn of the Chimu "Magic Powder" and begin adapting it to their own military. A.D. 1400-1500: The Tawantinsuya begin to expand from the Cuzco region. In 1460 they conquer Chan Chan, and by 1476 have conquered all of the Kingdom of Chimor. They find that the Chimu were working on a primitive bronze siege cannon and bronze hand-cannons, take over the prototypes, and after further development, put them into production. By the end of the 1400s, a Tawantinsuya inventor has devised a wheeled artillery carriage (based on the wheeled children's toys found in the region from very early times), and the Tawantinsuya begin to incorporate field artillery into their armies, pulled by teams of llama. The Tawantinsuyu Empire continues to expand, reaching it's OTL limits by 1500. A.D. 1415-1460--Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal launches the Age of Exploration by sponsoring expeditions to discover a new route from Europe to the Orient. A.D. 1425-1438--Reign of Viracocha Inca, the last semi-legendary ruler of Tawantinsuyu. A.D. 1438-1471--Reign of Pachacuti Inca, who begins the expansion of the Tawantinsuyu kingdom out of the Cuzco valley to the south. He also captures the Chimu capital of Chan Chan in 1460. A.D. 1471-1493--Reign of Tupac Yupanqui Inca, who conquers the Kingdom of Chimor by 1476 and extends the Tawantinsuyu Empire along the coast southward into Chile. The last Chimu King, Minchancaman, is taken to Cuzco, where he lives as a “guest” of the Tawantinsuya Inca. A.D. 1479--Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castille marry, uniting their kingdoms. Spain is born. They shortly afterward, with the approval of Pope Sixtus IV, begin the Spanish Inquisition. A.D. 1492--Christopher Columbus, sailing in the pay of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, makes landfall on the island of Hispaniola, in the West Indies. On October 29, he also lands in Cuba. A.D. 1493-1528--Reign of the Wayna Capac Inca, who extends the Tawantinsuyu Empire northward into the regions that in OTL would become Ecuador and Colombia. A.D. 1494--Treaty of Tordesillas divides the New World between Spain and Portugal. A.D. 1497-1498--John Cabot, in the pay of King Henry VII of England, explores the coast of North America in the neighborhood of Newfoundland. A.D. 1498--Columbus discovers the coastline of South America. A.D. 1499--Amerigo Vespucci, sailing in the pay of Spain, explores the mouths of the Amazon. A.D. 1500--Pedro Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal. A.D. 1507--A German cartographer makes a map in which he names the New World “America,” after Amerigo Vespucci. A.D. 1509--Francisco Pizzaro leaves Spain for the New World. A.D. 1510--The Spanish introduce the first African slaves into the New World. A.D. 1511--Diego Columbus, son of Christopher, founds the first permanent Spanish settlements in Cuba. He defeats the local natives when they rebel later that same year. Spain will rule in Cuba for the almost the next 500 years. A.D. 1512--Vasco de Balboa explores the region which will be come known as Panama, and discovers the Pacific Ocean. Among the men in his expedition is a young man named Francisco Pizzaro. A.D. 1513--Ponce de Leon makes the first Spanish landfall in North America, when he lands in Florida. A.D. 1516--Charles V becomes Emperor of Austria and King of Spain (where he reigns as Charles I). Charles will spend most of his reign fighting wars against the Ottoman Turks and King Francis I of France, as well as in suppressing the Protestant Reformation. A.D. 1515 onward--Spanish settlement of Argentina meets strong resistance from the natives. The area will never be firmly under Spanish control. A.D. 1517--Martin Luther nails the 95 Theses to the door of the cathedral in Wittenburg, Saxony. Beginning of the Protestant Reformation. A.D. 1519-1521--Hernando Cortez conquers the Aztec Empire in Mexico. A.D. 1519--Ferdinand Magellan sails around Cape Horn, through the straits which will later bear his name. Charles V elected Holy Roman Emperor. A.D. 1520--The first large group of African slaves in the New World are brought to Cuba, where they are put to work in the gold mines. A.D. 1521--Charles V issues the Edict of Worms, which outlaws Martin Luther and declares his teachings to be heresy. Luther goes into hiding. The Ottoman Turks capture Belgrade. A.D. 1522-1524--First expedition of Francisco Pizzaro. In 1522 the accounts of the achievements of Hernando Cortez, and the return of Pascual de Andagoya from his expedition to the southern part of Panama, bringing news of the countries situated along the shore of the ocean to the south, fires Francisco Pizzaro with enthusiasm. With the approbation of Governor Pedrarias Davila of Panama, he forms, together with Diego de Almagro, a soldier of fortune who was at that time in Panama, and Hernando de Luque, a Spanish cleric, a company to conquer the lands situated to the south of Panama. Their project seems so utterly unattainable that the people of Panama call them the "company of lunatics". Having collected the necessary funds Pizarro places himself at the head of the expedition; Almagro is entrusted with the equipping and provisioning of the ships; and Luque is to remain behind to look after their mutual interests and to keep in Pedrarias's favour so that he might continue to support the enterprise. In November, 1524, Pizarro sets sail from Panama with a party of one hundred and fourteen volunteers and four horses, with Almagro to follow him in a smaller ship just as soon as it can be made ready. The result of this first expedition is disheartening. Pizarro gets no further than Punta Quemada, on the coast of what is now Colombia, and having lost many of his men he returns to Chicamá, a short distance from Panama. Meanwhile Almagro follows him, going as far as the Rio de San Juan (Cauca, Colombia), and, not finding him, returns to rejoin him at Chicamá. A.D. 1524--Pedro de Alvarado conquers Guatemala. A.D. 1525--The Peasant’s Revolt in Germany is brutally suppressed. Many of the peasants claimed loyalty to the new religious doctrines espoused by Martin Luther, which hardens the attitudes of Emperor Charles V against Luther and his teachings. A.D. 1526--Pizarro's Second Expedition: This expedition is much larger, with 160 men and several horses carried in two ships. After some initial probing, Pizarro's expedition splits, with Bartolome Ruiz, the pilot, taking half the command. While sailing off the coast of what is now Ecuador, Ruiz makes first contact with the Tawantinsuya. Aboard a balsa trading raft with a huge triangular cotton sail are 20 Tawantinsuya crew and passengers. The Spanish board the vessel and, to their delight, see many pieces of silver and gold, precious stones and intricately woven fabrics. Ruiz kept three of the Tawantinsuya to be trained as interpreters. Through sign language, the captives told him that their gold came from a land far to the south, a land of wonders. When Ruiz rejoins Pizzaro, he finds him encamped on a swampy island off the coast of Colombia, his command decimated by disease and mutiny in the air. Although Pizzaro is greatly heartened by the news Ruiz brings, he orders the abandonment of the expedition. Also in this year, the Ottoman Turks defeat the Hungarian army at the Battle of Mohacs. A.D. 1527--The rulers of Sweden adopt Lutheranism, making Sweden the world’s first Protestant nation. Other rulers, primarily German princelings who seek to undermine the power of the House of Habsburg (family of Emperor Charles V), will adopt Lutheranism shortly afterward. A.D. 1528--Third expedition of Francisco Pizzaro. The expedition explores the coast of South America to a point south of the Equator, but the outbreak of disease among the explorers forces them to abandon the expedition and return to Panama. During this expedition a brief landfall is made at the Tawantinsuya settlement of Tumbez, and it is from this small contact that smallpox is released into the Tawantinsuyu Empire. It will spread rapidly, killing many thousands of victims over the next two years. The Governor of Panama having withdrawn his support for future expeditions southward by Pizzaro, Pizzaro sets sail for Spain, where he meets with Emperor Charles V. 1528 onward--The smallpox outbreak of 1528-1530 which kills Wayna Capac Inca is just the first of several over the course of the rest of this century. In addition to smallpox, Old World Diseases like measles and malaria will also make their appearance in the empire. As a result, the overall population of the Tawantinsuyu Empire, which stood at nearly twelve million at the arrival of the Europeans in 1528, will fall to less than six million within the next two decades. But, as immunity to the diseases gradually takes hold in the population, the population will rebound and by the end of the century will stand at over ten million and growing rapidly. A.D. 1528-1532--Civil War in the Tawantinsuyu Empire. At the arrival of the strange white-skinned visitors from the sea, the Tawantinsuya governor at Tumbez sent his runners with all speed to the Inca, Wayna Capac, who was near Quito resting after battle. The Inca, weighing up the potential consequences of these foreign invaders, and also the sinister news of the outbreak of pestilence in the heart of his empire, decides to come to Tumbez to investigate. But he gets only a short way south when the disease strikes his camp. The incubation period of smallpox is only a few days and, in no time, it sweeps through the army. Many of his trusted generals die, and then the Inca himself catches it. As Wayna Capac's health rapidly worsens, he is asked to name a successor to be ratified by his council of wise men. The two contenders are his 25-year-old son Atahualpa and his 21-year-old brother Huascar--Wayna Capac’s son by a different queen. Wayna’s solution is to divide the empire between the two sons, but neither Atahualpa nor Huascar is willing to accept such a division permanently. Both sons begin building their forces, and within a short time, the empire is plunged into a bloody civil war. Atahualpa will eventually emerge victorious, decisively defeating Huascar’s army in late 1532 and capturing Huascar himself. However, Atahualpa does not execute his brother, and Huascar’s supporters do not immediately give up. Rebellion continues to simmer in the empire while Huascar lives. A.D. 1529--Emperor Charles V signs an agreement which confers upon Pizzaro the titles of Governor and Captain General, and grants him authority to make new expeditions into the newly discovered lands to the south of Panama. Pizzaro is to have absolute authority...in the name of Emperor Charles V, of course...in all lands he might conquer and subjugate. Also in this year, the Ottoman Turks lay siege to Vienna. A.D. 1530--Francisco Pizzaro returns to Panama with his new authority, and begins raising troops, ships, and money for his expedition. Also in this year, Protestant Princes in Germany form the Schmalkaldic League. Emperor Charles V, not wishing to push the League into the arms of his enemy, King Francis I of France, grants de facto recognition to the League...at least for now. A.D. 1531--Fourth Expedition of Francisco Pizzaro. In January 1531, Francisco Pizzaro sets sail with 3 ships, 180 infantrymen, and 27 cavalrymen. Pizarro lands at Tumbez once again, but is attacked by the local natives. He retreats to the island of Puna to await reinforcements. A.D. 1532--In the spring of 1532, Pizzaro’s expedition is reinforced by a further 100 men and more horses under Hernando de Soto. In May 1532, Pizzaro lands again at Tumbez and proceeds to march into Peru. Along their march the Spaniards encounter many villages and are generally made welcome in them. While on the march, Pizarro takes note the lack of adult males in residence in the villages, which, he discovers, is due to the fact that Atahualpa Inca had called them for his army. Through several inquiries, Pizarro learns of the civil war between Atahualpa Inca and his brother, Huascar. He also learns of the present whereabouts of Atahaulpa Inca, who was said to be in Caxamalca. Pizarro proceeds to march in that direction. On the long march from Tumbez to Caxamalca, Pizzaro learns of the victory of Atahualpa Inca and the capture of Huascar, and he and his men begin recruiting Tawantinsuyu soldiers loyal to Huáscar and also some from the nations that the Tawantinsuyu had conquered and that held an animosity toward the empire. However, upon finally reaching Caxamalca in November 1532, the Spaniards find the town deserted, but they learn that Atahualpa and his main army are nearby. On November 15, Pizzaro sends an emissary to Atahualpa, who agrees to come to meet with Pizzaro at Caxamalca. Atahualpa arrives the next day, accompanied by a large body of soldiers...infantry armed with bronze spears, axes, and maces, a force of slingers, a force armed with bronze hand-cannon, and 2 bronze artillery pieces. The Spaniards treacherously attempt to ambush Atahualpa’s party and seize Atahualpa himself, and the natives are temporarily discomfited by the charge of the Spanish cavalry, but then Atahualpa’s two field cannon and the hand-cannoneers open fire, dropping about half the Spanish cavalry before they can reach the Tawantinsuya lines and scattering the rest in disorder. The other Tawantinsuya soldiers take heart, and charge the white-skinned invaders. Pizzaro is killed in the melee, along with about half of his men. The other half are taken prisoner. The Tawantinsuya take control of the surviving horses, as well as the Spanish arms and armor. They shortly begin breeding horses, and, trained by their Spanish prisoners...who, having watched a few of their number horribly tortured to death, are more than willing to cooperate...learn to ride. They also capture the expedition blacksmith, who begins to show them the rudiments of iron-working and smelting. A.D. 1532-1533--King Henry VIII of England breaks with the Roman Catholic Church and establishes the Church of England. Beginning of the English Reformation. A.D. 1533--Diego de Almagro, leading reinforcements for Pizzaro, lands at Tumbez. He advances inland, but is met north of Tumbez by a Tawantinsuya army, and his force meets the same fate as Pizzaro’s. Almagro is killed, about half of his men and most of their horses are captured. Yet more Spanish “technical advisors” are unwillingly added to the service of the Inca. It is from this group that Atahualpa learns of the contents of the Treaty of Tordesillas, and realizes that he has a MAJOR problem. Shortly afterward, Atahualpa has his brother, Huascar, put to death. Lacking a leader, the remaining rebel forces gradually disperse, and order is restored to the empire. Atahualpa begins preparing the empire’s defenses for the confrontation with the Spanish imperialists which he knows is going to occur, sooner or later. Also in this year, the first recorded uprising of African slaves in the New World takes place in Cuba. The slaves are defeated and killed, and their heads brought back to Bayamo to quiet the alarmed colonists. A.D. 1534--The disappearance of the expeditions of Francisco Pizzaro and Diego de Almagro leads the Governor of Guatemala, Pedro de Alvarado, to believe that Pizzaro and Almagro have conquered the rich lands rumored to be to the south and are hoarding their wealth for their own. Alvarado leads a well-equipped expedition of 1,000 Spanish soldiers (including over 200 cavalry) southward. He lands on the Ecuadorian coast and advances toward Quito. Runners bring this news to Atahualpa Inca, who immediately leads his main army northward from Cuzco. The Tawantinsuya army of 40,000 meets Alvarado’s force near Quito, and in a bloody and hard-fought battle, the Spanish force is defeated and routed. The Tawantinsuya pursue, and only a few Spaniards make it back to the coast, where they escape aboard one of their ships. The remainder of the ships are captured by the Tawantinsuya. About 1/4 of the Spanish force (including Alvarado himself) are taken prisoner...including more blacksmiths...and most of the horses are captured, along with all the Spanish arms, armor, and other equipment. A cadre of Spanish sailors is also captured, which teach the Tawantinsuya the rudiments of sailing the captured Spanish ships, and also serve as “technical advisors” for the construction of additional vessels. It is thus that the Tawantinsuya Navy is born. The Spanish armor and other equipment is used to equip an elite regiment in the Tawantinsuya army which forms the Inca’s personal bodyguard. Alvarado is sacrificed to Inti, the Tawantinsuya sun god, later that year. A.D. 1534-1560--The survivors of the Alvarado expedition arrive back in Guatemala in late 1534. They bring terrifying tales of a powerful and well-armed empire to the south. Short of manpower, and with English and French “pirates” beginning to encroach on their domains, Spanish leaders in the colonies decide to give the Tawantinsuya a wide berth, at least for now. There will be a few clashes between Spanish and Tawantinsuya warships off the Pacific coast of the Tawantinsuya Empire, but little more will happen during this time period. A.D. 1534-1536--Jacques Cartier explores the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the St. Lawrence River as far as present day Quebec and Montreal. He claims the region for France. A.D. 1535--The Spanish establish the colony of New Spain in Mexico. A.D. 1536--Denmark adopts Lutheranism. A.D. 1538--Norway adopts Lutheranism. Colombia is conquered for Spain by Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada. A.D. 1540--Francisco de Coronado strikes north from Mexico and explores much of the American southwest, claiming the area for Spain. A.D. 1541--John Calvin establishes the Reformed Church in Geneva. A.D. 1546-47--The Schmalkaldic War: Emperor Charles V, having made peace at last with France, gathers an army and declares war on the Schmalkaldic League. His forces inflict a decisive defeat on the League at the Battle of Muhlburg in 1547. The League is effectively destroyed, but warfare will continue between Catholics and Protestants in Germany. A.D. 1547--King Henry VIII of England dies, and is succeeded by his son, who reigns as King Edward VI. Edward continues the active royal support of the Reformation begun by his father. A.D. 1553--King Edward VI of England dies. He is succeeded by his older sister, Mary. Mary is the daughter of Catherine of Aragon, whose divorce from King Henry VIII precipitated the English Reformation. She is a stauch Catholic, and will spend her reign ruthlessly suppressing Protestantism within her Kingdom. A.D. 1554--Queen Mary of England marries Prince Philip of Spain, son of Emperor Charles V. They produce no children, however. A.D. 1555--Emperor Charles V signs the Peace of Ausburg, which recognizes the right of individual German states to choose whether they shall be Protestant or Catholic. A.D. 1556--Emperor Charles V abdicates his throne. The Spanish Empire, including the Netherlands and all territories in the New World, go to Prince Philip, who reigns as King Philip II. The Austrian Empire, and the claim to the title of Holy Roman Emperor, go to Ferdinand, brother of the outgoing Emperor. A.D. 1557--Death of Atahualpa Inca. He dies childless and is succeeded by his half-brother, who reigns as Manco Capac II, Inca of the Tawantinsuyu Empire. A.D. 1558--Queen Mary of England dies, and is succeeded by her Protestant sister, Elizabeth. Under the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Protestantism is restored, English power and influence will grow, and England will become a constant thorn in the side of the King of Spain. A.D. 1560-1566--War between Spain and the Tawantinsuyu Empire: Upon his accession to the throne, King Philip II of Spain decides that the pagans of Tawantinsuyu, whose increasingly formidable navy is causing problems for Spanish shipping along the South American coast, must be brought to heel. He orders a fleet to be fitted out, which is to transport a professional army of 20,000 men to Mexico. From there, the army will be transported from a port on Mexico’s west coast to the coast of the Tawantinsuyu Empire. The fleet sets sail in 1560, arriving in Mexico later that year. By 1561, enough shipping has been accumulated on Mexico’s west coast to transport the army to Peru (of course, by this time, the army has been much reduced by disease, shipwrecks, etc.). In early 1562, the Spanish force, now numbering about 15,000 men, lands near Tumbez. Runners quickly inform the Inca Manco Capac II of this development, and the Inca orders mobilization of the imperial army. The Tawantinsuya army...which, despite the ravages of disease over the past few decades, still quickly musters over 50,000 men to meet the invaders...meets the Spanish near Chan Chan in August, 1562. In a very sanguine struggle, the heavily outnumbered Spaniards are defeated. They are pursued as they flee to their ships, and fewer than 2,000 manage to escape. The war will drag on for another four years, mainly in the form of individual encounters at sea between Spanish and Tawantinsuyu warships. But in 1566 King Philip, who had been planning to send a second expedition, under the Duke of Alva, to South America, faces the outbreak of the Dutch revolt, and is forced to send his army to the Netherlands instead. So the war essentially peters out without a peace treaty being signed. Another period of relative peace settles on the region. A.D. 1562-1598--The Wars of Religion (Huguenot Wars) in France between Catholics and Protestants. A.D. 1563--Death of Manco Capac II, Inca of the Tawantinsuyu Empire. He is succeeded by his son, who reigns as Sayri Tupac, Inca of the Tawantinsuyu Empire. A.D. 1566 onward--The Dutch Revolt. In the Spanish Netherlands, Protestantism (in the form of Calvinism) has been gaining influence. In 1566, Calvinist mobs storm Catholic churches across the Netherlands and destroy the “heretical” statues of Catholic saints. In response, King Philip II of Spain orders the Duke of Alva to take an army into the Netherlands to suppress the “rebellion.” Alva is so brutal in his tactics that within two years, the Spanish Netherlands are in a state of full-scale war. The Protestants are joined by Dutch nobles who object to heavy-handed Spanish taxation policies, and merchants who object to Philip II’s almost constant wars against many of the biggest trading partners of the Dutch. A.D. 1572--St. Bartholmew’s Day Massacre in France. Thousands of Protestants are murdered in cold blood by rampaging Catholics. A.D. 1578-1581--Englishman Francis Drake, having passed through the Straits of Magellan and sailed north along the South American coast, encounters a Tawantinsuya trading vessel. As it happens, some of the Tawantinsuya speak Spanish, and Drake manages to have a peaceful dialog with the Tawantinsuya crew. He finds out about the Tawantinsuya defeats of the Spanish Empire, and decides to try to enlist them as allies for England against Spain. He lands on the Peruvian coast, accompanied by some of the Tawantinsuya from the trading vessel. He is escorted to the palace of the Inca at Cuzco, and after a series of discussions, the Inca agrees to send an ambassador to the court of Queen Elizabeth of England with an offer of alliance. Drake arrives back in England, with the ambassador, in 1581. Queen Elizabeth is impressed by Drake’s descriptions of the power and wealth of the Tawantinsuyu Empire, and she signs a treaty of alliance between England and the Tawantinsuyu Empire. Trade between England and the Tawantinsuya begins, and English ships operating in the Pacific now will be able to use Tawantinsuya ports as a base of operations against the Spanish. A.D. 1579--The new Spanish Governor of the Netherlands, the Duke of Parma, prompts the southern (Walloon) states of the Netherlands to sign the Union of Atrecht, which pledges loyalty to the Spanish King and rejects Protestantism. In response, William of Orange, known as “the Silent,” unites the Protestant northern (Dutch) provinces into the Union of Utrecht. A.D. 1580--Philip II forcibly unites the crown of Portugal with that of Spain. A.D. 1581 onward--The Trade between England and the Tawantinsuyu Empire has great impacts on both societies. English domestic animals...cattle and sheep primarily...are introduced to the Tawantinsuya, as well as crops such as wheat, barley, oats, and others. In turn, the English import llamas, maize, potatoes, and tomatoes. English-style ale becomes a popular drink among many in Tawantinsuyu, and Chicha (a maize beer produced by the Tawantinsuya) makes it’s appearance on English tables alongside Port Wine from Portugal, England’s other traditional ally. Chewing coca leaves becomes a fashionable pastime for English gentlemen, ranking right up there with tobacco (another New World import). And perhaps most importantly of all, the Tawantinsuya learn much from the English which enables them to dramatically improve their military technology, especially naval technology. “Race-built” galleons begin to replace the old Spanish style vessels which currently make up the Tawantinsuya Navy. A.D. 1581--The Union of Utrecht declares independence from the Spanish Empire. The United Provinces of the Netherlands is born. King Philip II of Spain sends another army to put down this revolt. A.D. 1584--William the Silent is assassinated. Leadership of the Protestant cause in the Netherlands passes to his son, Maurice of Nassau. Also in this year, Sir Walter Raleigh establishes the first English colony in the New World, on Roanoke Island. A.D. 1585--The Treaty of Nonsuch. Queen Elizabeth of England agrees to send an army to the aid of the beleaguered Dutch rebels. The Earl of Leicester lands in the Netherlands with 5,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry. The English will continue to fight alongside the Dutch for the next two decades. This, along with unofficially sanctioned English piratical activity in the Caribbean and the Pacific, enrages King Philip of Spain, who decides on war with England. A.D. 1587--Mary, Queen of Scots, is executed by orders of her cousin, Queen Elizabeth of England. This further encourages King Philip of Spain to go to war with England. A.D. 1588-1604--King Philip II of Spain dispatches the first of several Great Armadas with the purpose of invading England, beginning a sixteen year war between the two countries. A.D. 1589--King Henri III of France is assassinated. The heir to the throne is Henri of Navarre, a Protestant. The new King Henri IV soon finds himself in conflict with the powerful Catholic League (heavily supported by King Philip II of Spain), which opposes the idea of a Protestant King of France. A.D. 1590-1604--Sayri Tupac Inca, honoring his treaty with Queen Elizabeth of England, declares war on King Philip II of Spain. Tawantinsuya armies invade Colombia and Argentina, and a series of see-saw campaigns results. With his resources being tied up in the ongoing struggle with England, Philip II has little to spare for the colonies, and in the end, the Spaniards are driven from Argentina, and parts of Colombia are conquered as well. The Tawantinsuyu incorporate the conquered areas into their empire. When the peace treaty between England and Spain is signed at London in 1604, representatives of the Tawantinsuyu Empire will also be present and will sign, ending their own war with Spain. A.D. 1591--An English relief expedition to the colony on Roanoke Island, which had been delayed by the outbreak of war with Spain, finds the settlement deserted. Noone ever discovers what became of the colonists. A.D. 1593--Henri IV of France (formerly Henri of Navarre, a Protestant who is head of the House of Bourbon), converts to Catholicism, declaring that “Paris is worth a Mass.” Over the next few years, this clever political move will cut the support for his enemies and enable him to finally end the Wars of Religion in France. He enters Paris without firing a shot the next year, and by 1598, the war will be over. A.D. 1597--Death of Sayri Tupac Inca. He is succeeded by his half brother, Tupac Amaru Inca. A.D. 1598--The Edict of Nantes grants religious toleration to Protestants in France. End of the Wars of Religion in France. A.D. 1600--The East India Company, a joint venture between the English and the Tawantinsuya, is formed. The purpose of the company is to help break the Dutch monopoly on the spice trade with the East Indies. The British partners hope to use Tawantinsuyu’s position on the Pacific as a base for voyages to the Spice Islands, China, and India.