Another thread, designed to generate discussion: Just what would the economy of a Europe dominated by Napoleon look like? Let's say that he merely replaces one Bourbon for another in Spain, preventing the Spanish ulcer. Lisbon essentially becomes a massive British fortress in Iberia, and Latin America doesn't openly trade with the British. (Although there are fairly huge effects on Latin American independence). How does a Europe under Napoleonic hegemony, from the Grand Duchy of Warsaw to the Kingdom of Italy, develop? Some thoughts: -Trade with Britain would be allowed, but the tariffs would be high, of course. What does Britain do if it doesn't have access to European markets in the early 19th century? -The years of the Napoleonic Empire saw the development of beet sugar, to replace expensive cane sugar. Does a Napoleonic Empire, aware of the British superiority at sea, attempt to find other alternative products, such as rayon in place of cotton? -Hmm, what will be done with the Napoleonic economic system within Europe, biased towards France? It doesn't seem to me that some sort of European Union is particularly probable; Napoleon tried to prevent the rest of Europe from industrializing, forbidding the production of cotton and wool cloth in Italy, for instance. And, of course, the various states within the Empire could put tariffs on each other's goods. Hmm. On the other hand... This system would probably be untenable in the short run, never mind the long run. (There was an uprising in Berg in 1813 as a result of the tariffs on goods produced in the Grand Duchy). And Napoleon was a big proponent of centralization; might he recognize that it's in his interests to foster industrialization across Europe? If not, then Westphalia and the Ruhr are going to face difficulties industrializing, while Belgium and the Rhineland, united to France and each other, should boom even faster than in OTL. Any thoughts?