Welcome to the "Soviets in the Sun" timeline. This idea's been in my head for months now, but I've never been able to think of a good POD... until now. It's my first timeline, so I hope you will all enjoy it and leave your comments. *** Prologue The Second Spanish Republic had been close to disaster ever since its proclamation in 1931, following the republican parties' landslide victory in the Spanish municipal elections and King Alfonso XIII's subsequent exile. The new constitution extended suffrage to women, gave new political freedoms, legalised divorce and stripped the nobility of all privileges. The Republic was also able to extend control over Church authorities, influenced by the anti-clericalism that would later lead to a violent suppression of the Church during the Spanish Civil War and in the following years . An allegorical representation of the Second Spanish Republic. These liberal reforms would be suspended following the elections of 1933. A coalition of right-wing and centrist parties including the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right and the Radical Republican Party was victorious over the socialist PSOE, leading to anarchist and communist uprisings across the state. They were common occurrences due to the new government's crackdown on left-wings activity. In 1934 in Asturias, the workers' uprising was crushed by Francisco Franco, who would later become Spain's first "Caudillo" . These small-scale revolts would cripple the Lerroux government until the 1936 elections. Behind the scenes, prominent generals of the Republic began to plot in anticipation of a left-wing victory in the upcoming elections. Masterminded by General José Sanjurjo, whose failed military coup in 1932 forced him into exile, this coup was supported by many generals. They included Francisco Franco, Emilio Mola and Manuel Goded Llopis. The conspirators of July 17th. Top row (left to right): Generals José Sanjurjo, Francisco Franco and Emilio Mola Bottom row (left to right): General Manuel Goded Llopis, General Queipo de Llano and Colonel Juan Yagüe The elections took place on the 16th February, 1936. Over 9,870,000 people participated in the fragile democracy’s general election. 4,654,116 people voted for the Popular Front, whereas the National Front obtained 4,503,505 and the centre parties got 526,615. The Popular Front gave amnesty to all left-wing leaders in prison, introduced radical agrarian reform, outlawed the Spanish Falange and placed potentially dangerous military officers outside of mainland Spain. These measures created an economic crisis and forced General Sanjurjo’s hand. On the 17th July, the republic was thrown into chaos with the proclamation of the coup. The flag of the Popular Front elected in 1936. General Franco flew to Morocco to take command of the Army of Africa and launch an invasion of the mainland from the Spanish protectorate. On the 20th July, Sanjurjo died in a plane crash whilst flying to Morocco to meet with other rebel generals. Franco assumed leadership as news reached the insurgency’s leaders of their failures in capturing Madrid, Barcelona and many other major cities. Much of the north and small pockets of the south fell to the rebels. Italy and Germany gave their full support to the Nationalist rebels, airlifting troops across the Straits of Gibraltar and supplying Franco with arms and “volunteers” on his march to Madrid. The Popular Front failed to gain support from the British and French due to their commitment to non-interventionism. President Manuel Azaña gave his new prime minister, Diego Martinez Barrio, the unenviable task of negotiating with the rebels. The prime minister failed and was replaced by José Giral. Prime Minister Giral began distributing arms to anarchist and socialist revolutionary militias to counter the insurgency’s advance. Soldiers from the Army of Africa, under the command of General Franco. President Azaña dismissed José Giral and appointed Francisco Largo Caballero, the self-ascribed “Spanish Lenin”, as prime minister. Largo Caballero assigned many anarchists and socialists to his cabinet and relinquished two ministries to the Communist Party to guarantee their cooperation. Anxious to capture Madrid quickly, Franco ordered for bombings and assaults on the city as soon as Andalusia was cleared of Republican loyalists and General Queipo de Llano took charge of Seville. The Republican government abandoned Madrid in the face of the Nationalist siege. Madrid did not fall as expected, enraging Franco and his international allies. Stalemate fell over the front around Madrid. Tensions rose in the Republican rear, being constantly exacerbated by rhetoric from both anarchists and communists. These tensions were brought to a head following many failed Republican offensives over late 1936 and early 1937, in Barcelona. The Barcelona May Days created an atmosphere of open suspicion and accusation between the Communist Party and the Catalonian anarchists. Failure to deal with this turmoil, coupled with Largo Caballero’s unwillingness to uphold the coalition with the communists, forced Azaña to appoint the former finance minister, Juan Negrín, as prime minister. Juan Negrín: the Second Spanish Republic's last prime minister . The Republic needed a victory to bring its many restless factions together. Premier Negrín began cooperating more closely with the Communist Party due to their military discipline and influence with the Soviet Union, who were the only nation to provide arms to the Republic (aside from the limited shipments and support from Mexico). With the International Brigades battle-hardened and fully under the control of the Partido Comunista de España, a grand offensive at Brunete was planned in the hope that it would stop Madrid’s encirclement and halt the Nationalist campaign in the Basque Country . ***  A little hint of what's to come...  Franco will be the first, but he will not be the last.  But only of the "Second" Spanish Republic.  So much rested on this offensive. We will see how it works out in the next update! This update is basically OTL (aside from the small annotated hints for later), so there's very little alternate history. It's also a very brief overview so it wouldn't be too boring. I can always bore you all in later updates, however... Read, comment and do what you will!