Every few months I seem to pull out this timeline and revise it. This is my latest version, the first 110 years or so: 1775 Beginning of American War of Independence 1776 Continental Congress issues Declaration of Independence 1781 Decisive victory of Americans and French Allies over British force under Lord Cornwallis 1783 Peace of Paris recognizes independence of United States 1785 Death of George Washington after sudden illness 1787, 1788 Failure of conventions in Philadelphia and New York that are attempting to devise a more effective government for the US 1789 - Beginning of French Revolution in France 1790 New York, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, negotiate independence of Vermont without reference to Congress 1791 Convention of southern states in Richmond, Virginia proposes new constitution, only southern states interested 1792 Convention in Hartford, Connecticut proposes constitution for New England states and New York 1793 Southern states ratify Richmond constitution as Independent States of America, New England & New York ratify Hartford constitution as Federal states of America Remnants of US congress move to Philadelphia. 1794 Treaty of Philadelphia partitions trans-Appalachian lands between ISA, FSA, and USA 1795 Modified Articles of Confederation adopted by USA, states of Kentucky and Franklin admitted to ISA 1800 – FSA declares gradual emancipation for the states that still have slavery (New York and Connecticut) 1801 - Napoleon forces Spain to give western portion of old Lousiana territory back to France 1802 - – Cotton gin invented in South Carolina (Not by Eli Whitney, who in this timeline stayed in New England and got involved in manufacturing firearms earlier and with more success than OTL) During a brief peace with Britain, Napoleon increases French troop strength in Louisiana and encourages settlement 1804 – Haitian rebels defeat French forces and establish an independent republic. Defeat of French squadron by Royal Navy off the coast of Cuba. Louisiana effectively cut off from France. French military governor of Louisiana gives generous land grants to Anglo-American settlers in return for assistance in fighting any British invasion. 1805 – Eli Whitney of the FSA joins with several partners to found a company to manufacture muskets and rifles using interchangeable parts. 1807 – British expedition against New Orleans is repulsed. 1807 – 1812 – British fur traders supported by a few soldiers move into most of the northern and western Louisiana territory and stake Britain's claim to the entire region. 1808 – First commercially successful steamboat run by Fulton on Hudson River (there had been earlier working prototypes in Britain, the USA, and the FSA) 1810 – First steamboat on Ohio/Mississippi River system. 1812 – Disastrous failure in Russia turns tide against Napoleon 1813 – Second British attempt to capture New Orleans fails - Militia from ISA seize West Florida 1814 Final defeat of Napoleon, who is killed in Battle not far from Paris - the French in Louisiana are effectively independent and refuse to surrender to the British. 1815 Peace of Vienna is close to OTL in Europe, though the boundaries between Prussia, Russia, and some of the small German states are slightly different. In North America, Louisiana is recognized as an independent republic, consisting roughly of OTL states of Louisiana, Arkansas, and about 2/3 of Missouri. The rest of the old Louisiana territory goes to Britain, except for a small piece along the southwestern edge that goes to Spain. 1815 – 1825 – A significant number of ex-Napoleonic officers, soldiers, and officials move to Louisiana, which partly balances the influx of Anglo-Americans and helps to keep the two languages and cultures on an even basis instead of having the French speaking population overwhelmed in numbers by English speakers. 1817 – USA begins gradual emancipation. 1819 Lousiana adopts constitution combining aspects of French republic and ISA 1820 Brazil becomes independent Empire under a branch of the Portuguese royal family 1821 – Mexico becomes an independent nation, under the leadership of Augustin Iturbide, who like in OTL declares himself Emperor the next year, and unlike in OTL keeps power for many years and founds a dynasty. 1824 All former Spanish colonies in South and Central America achieve independence with the final defeat of Spanish colonial forces. Unpopular Corn Laws repealed in Britain by Whig/Liberal Parliament First rail lines and locomotives in Britain 1825 Tsar Alexander I of Russia recovers from bout of malaria in the Crimea First rail lines in FSA, USA 1826 Britain purchases East Florida from Spain 1827 Parliamentary Reform Act in Britain extends the vote to more of the middle class. Britain intervenes to support independence of Greece against Ottoman Empire, but opposes further Russian gains at Ottoman expense in the Balkans 1827 – 1828 – First Egyptian-Ottoman war. 1828 – 1829 – Major slave uprising in South Carolina in the ISA, suppressed after a year with assistance from army and militias of other ISA states after much bloodshed and atrocities on both sides. Smaller slave rebellions flare in other parts of the ISA, in the southern part of the Western Confederation, and in Louisiana, but are quickly suppressed. Most states of the ISA and Western Confederation expel free blacks, while Louisiana deprives them of voting and most citizenship rights. 1829 - Trade agreements between Federal States of America and Britain end duties on most good along FSA-Canadian border. Trade by ship across Great Lakes, Lake Champlain increases. 1830 – Completion of the Erie Canal in the FSA (later than in OTL, and the first railroads are appearing in the FSA and USA at this time) Emperor Augustin I of Mexico offers free blacks land to settle north of Rio Grande River in the thinly-populated Mexican province of Tejas. Some runaway slaves also move to Tejas, since the Mexican authorities don't ask many questions. Some refugees also escape to British Florida. Reactionary King Charles X toppled in France, replaced by Louis Philippe. Rebellion in southern Netherlands defeated, but the region is given some local autonomy. Rebellion against Russia in Poland is defeated. 1831 France allies with Mehmed Ali, ruler of the nominally Ottoman province of Egypt. Britain ends slavery in all of its territories. British Florida accepts refugee free blacks and runaway slaves from ISA – this will continue for years to come and cause much tension between Britain and the ISA and Louisiana. 1831-33 Second Egyptian-Ottoman War between Ottoman Empire and its nominal vassal. Britain backs the Ottomans and France indirectly backs Ali. The war ends in a military draw, but Mehmet Ali declares Egypt an independent sultanate and quashes internal resistance to this decision. 1833 - North German states band together in a customs union 1834 - Whitney Firearms of Springfield, Massachusetts patents first practical revolver 1834-36 "Tejas Wars" - English and French-speaking settlers in northern Tejas province revolt against Mexican rule. The Mexicans send regular troops and two volunteer regiments of free blacks against them, and encourage the slaves of the rebels to desert their masters and join the Mexican forces. Volunteers from Louisiana, the Western Confederation, and the ISA come to back the rebels. The war takes on strong racial tones – white rebels vs. mestizo and black soldiers fighting under the Mexican banner. In the end, northern Tejas becomes independent as the Republic of Tejas, but Mexico keeps southern Tejas, which has fairly large numbers of well-armed blacks with military training. 1835 – Telegraph first demonstrated in Britain Uprising by French speaking population of Lower Canada against British rule is suppressed. Britain encourages more English speakers to immigrate to Lower Canada, both from Britain itself and the FSA, which has become quite friendly with Britain. Substantial numbers of French-speaking Canadians move to Louisiana, Texas, and even Mexico in the years to come. 1838-1842 – Construction of railroad linking Upper Canada and Lower Canada. In time, this and the lack of tariffs on food from the USA and FSA will allow Montreal and Quebec to become more competitive with New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore as outlets for food exports from the interior of North America. 1842 First railroad construction in Russia – a line between St. Petersburg and Moscow - begins in Russia, supported by aging Alexander I France seizes Tunis after a quarrel with its ruler (Tunis will be the center of French expansion instead of OTL Algeria) 1843 Britain reorganizes North America territories. Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, and Prince Edward Island form one Federal Province with a legislature that has limited powers, Upper and Lower Canada form another, land between Upper Canada and the Rockies forms a Western Territory, and all land west of Rockies, north of Mexican territory, east of Alaska becomes the Oregon Territory. Much of the northern land is retained by Hudson's Bay Company. 1843-45 – Mormons move en masse from the Western Confederation, USA, and FSA into territory west of the Mississippi (OTL parts of Iowa, northern Missouri, southern Minnesota, and Nebraska) that is very thinly settled by whites. They do this to escape hostility from non-Mormon neighbors and to set up their own community run according to their own principles. The British authorities generally disapprove of the Mormon beliefs, but they want settlers for the territory as a buffer against other settlers who might be unfriendly to Britain. The Mormon leaders agree to support Britain's claims in any border dispute in return for the British leaving them alone to practice their religion and turning a blind eye to controversial practices, especially polygamy. 1844 "Free Port" war between Britain and China over Chinese attempts to restrict trade, especially in Opium, and attempts to restrict missionary activity. After a humiliating defeat, China opens more areas to outside trade and missionary activity. (Unlike OTL, the British aren't willing to publicly give the war a name that admits it was fought over the right to sell opium. Officially, it's all about free trade vs. backwards oriental tyranny.) 1846 Gold discovered in California - Mexico has paid more attention to California than in OTL, and there is a considerably larger Spanish speaking population already there. Louis Philippe's government in France relaxes censorship, allows elected Assembly greater powers (this will reduce the tensions that in OTL led to revolution in 1848) Austrian Empire, Bavaria, Wurttemberg, Baden form a customs Union 1848 Scattered uprisings in German states, Austrian Empire, Italy are suppressed (no uprising in France to give a unifying example – also, Marx does not write the Communist Manifesto and never becomes very prominent. Socialism will be a major force but will take different paths from OTL) 1849-1850 California war of independence against Mexico. California gains independence with British mediation, but must guarantee rights and land of Mexican citizens who stay in California. 1852 - Death of Tsar Alexander I, succeeded by son Alexander II 1854 - Founding of Vladivostok on the Pacific coast of Russian Empire 1856-1857 Second Ottoman-Egyptian war results from rival French-Egyptian and British-Ottoman plans to build a canal across the isthmus of Suez. Egypt is defeated and the frontier is pushed back to the eastern edge of the Nile Delta. The war sees the first use of armored ships in combat (by a British fleet supporting the Ottomans) 1858-1861 North American Wars or Prairie wars rage, pitting the ISA and Louisiana and later the USA against Britain and Mexico. Neither side is able to gain the upper hand. During the tumult, the northern province of Colorado secedes from Mexico and becomes independent. At the end, Louisiana and the USA lose limited amounts of territory to Britain, but otherwise boundaries change little. This war sees the first significant use of breech-loading rifles by some troops on both sides, and some use of balloons for aerial observation. 1858 American party in the Federal States of America establishes 20 year waiting period for any Catholic immigrant to become a citizen. This is aimed at reducing the political influence of Irish Catholic immigrants. British and Ottomans begin work on a canal across Isthmus of Suez in land recently taken from Egypt. 1859 – Tsar Alexander II begins gradual end of serfdom 1860 Russia launches the first of several campaigns to conquer independent Muslim states in central Asia 1861 Britain ends convict transportation to overseas penal colonies - the penitentiary system took longer to become accepted in Britain than in OTL, and transportation was used even more extensively, with penal colonies established in New Zealand, Florida, and Oregon as well as Australia. Britain signs formal treaty of alliance with Ottoman Empire, which is entering a period of great internal reform. 1863 Russian fleet from Vladivostok forces Japan's rulers to sign trade treaty and open Japan to the outside world Suez Canal opens Britain signs treaty with ruler of Afghanistan, establishing British influence in Afghanistan, at least for the time being 1864 States of North German customs Union defeat Denmark in a brief war, gaining Schleswig and Holstein. Britain extends franchise to larger portion of male population. 1865 North German Confederation formed 1867 France seizes Algiers in North Africa First elected Assembly of the Ottoman Empire opens in Istanbul. 1867-1870 Paraguayan war sees Paraguay totally defeated by Brazil and Argentina (Uruguay never became separate from Brazil in this timeline), and partitioned between those powers. 1869 France purchases Portuguese African outposts along the coasts of Angola and Mozambique 1870 Northwestern provinces of state of Virginia, ISA, angry at the stranglehold that the tidewater elite continue to have in state politics, declare independence from Virginia and apply to join the USA. There is some fighting, but no general war. The new US state is called Vandalia. 1872 After a series of attacks on foreign missionaries and merchants, France, Russia, and the Netherlands declare war on Manchu-ruled China. Britain, angry at China but fearful of growing Russian and French influence, reluctantly supports them. The resulting war sees the first significant use of machine guns, by Russian and French forces. 1873 Beijing and Nanjing both occupied by joint European forces, Manchu authorities sue for peace. China forced to open up to almost unrestricted foreign trade, missionaries and merchants to have free access throughout the country, foreigners can not be tried in Chinese courts. (This is the biggest blow to the Manchu dynasty's authority yet - there was never any massive Taiping rebellion in this timeline, just a series of smaller revolts that have been contained.) Brazil declares gradual emancipation of all slaves. Attempted resistance by slaveowners in some provinces is defeated over the coming years. 1874 Smokeless gunpowder developed almost simultaneously in Britain and France. Use quickly spreads 1876 State of Kentucky in the ISA becomes first state to adopt a program of gradual emancipation. 1877 King William V of Great Britain is declared Emperor of India. Barbed wire introduced in Britain's Kansas province, USA. Use quickly spreads. 1878 Wave of strikes in FSA and USA is suppressed, with much more brutality in FSA. American party in FSA renounces right to vote for any who participate in a strike. First practical telephone developed in USA. 1879 Virginia, North Carolina in ISA, Upper Louisiana (OTL Arkansas) in Lousiana all adopt programs of gradual emancipation. Other states and provinces will follow in years to come. First practical incandescent light bulb produced in Montreal, Lower Canada. 1880 Last major Native American resistance crushed on the plains in British Provinces of Missouri, King William's Land, and Shoshone Russia begins construction of rail line that will eventually cross Siberia and connect European Russia with the Pacific coast Prototype "Floating Bombs" (what we would call naval mines in OTL) produced in Britain. 1881 British firm begins construction of canal across Nicaragua province of the Central American Republic Two transcontinental railroad lines completed across North America, within 2 months of each other. (Transcontinental rail lines took longer than in OTL due to the routes across the continent being divided into multiple political units and lack of government backing for any one line, but the fact that the rails were built almost entirely with private capital meant that there were 2 lines competing with each other, and others soon to follow.) Netherlands establishes outposts near the mouth of the Congo River, central Africa, and begins exploring inland with quinine to stave off the malaria that all but destroyed earlier European attempts to penetrate tropical Africa. French navy begins research into submarine vessels and "lances" (OTL torpedoes) 1883 British authorities in Cape Colony, South Africa, form an alliance with Afrikaner-controlled Transvaal and Orange free state to resist French encroachment from the east. 1884 - In response to French ally Egypt's increasing control of Sudan territory south of Egypt, Britain allies with Kingdom of Abyssinia, and covertly supports Sudanese tribes resisting Egyptian control. (Due to butterflies there is no charismatic figure like the Mahdi of OTL who unifies resistance in the Sudan into one huge movement.) 1884-1885 Japanese Civil War between forces loyal to the Tokugawa shogunate, supported by Russia and France, and anti-Tokugawa forces rallying around the currently reigning Emperor and his advisors, and supported by Britain. The pro-Tokugawa faction is victorious with a great deal of Russian aid. They force the Emperor to abdicate and install a relative on the throne. Japan is now closely allied with Russia and France. 1885 - Russian army begins experiments with rigid lighter-than air vehicles (what would be called Zeppelins in OTL). 1887 – Russia pressures Ottoman Empire into giving autonomy (effectively independence) to Moldavian and Wallachian provinces. The British government, controlled by the Liberals at the time, responds weakly, and soon falls from power in favor of a Conservative government that promises solid support for Ottomans in the future. 1888 - Formal treaty of alliance between the Kingdom of Hawaii and Great Britain. 1889 – Major changes in arrangement of British Empire. Britain's various colonies and territories in North America, Australia, southern Africa, and New Zealand have gained more autonomy over time. The "Dominion" model never emerged in Canada, because there was no massive US to the south. By this time, though, it seems inadequate to continue to refer to these areas as mere colonies or provinces, so they are declared Kingdoms. The new Kingdoms are Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Canada, King William's Land, Missouri, Oregon and Florida in North America; New South Wales, Van Dieman's Land, Queensland, Charlotte, and West Australia in Australia; New Zealand; and South Africa. 1890-91 – Balkan crisis as Russia threatens war against Ottoman Empire over Ottoman suppression of Russian backed rebels in Bulgaria. Britain supports Ottomans, while France backs Russia. Ultimately, Russia and France back down, but this incident solidifies the British-Ottoman vs. Russian-French-Egyptian alliances. 1894-95 – The Chinese Crisis. Reformist elements attempting to gain power are suppressed by reactionary Qing authorities, who have become dependent on Russian support and have almost slipped to the status of Russian puppets. The suppression of the reformists, however, prompts a crisis as Chinese generals and provincial governors in the south revolt against the Qing regime. They are supported by the British, who are determined not to see the whole of China fall under Russian domination.