Chrzęścimir's Test Thread

Discussion in 'Post Test Messages Here' started by Chrzęścimir, Jun 23, 2016.

  1. Chrzęścimir Satəm Indo-Europophile

    Joined:
    Feb 9, 2009
    Location:
    Laska Ziemia/Lechian Land
    Preliminary grammar of Proto-Rumaic language

    Phonology

    Consonants:

    /p t ʈ k q/ [p t ṭ k q]
    /pʰ tʰ ʈʰ kʰ qʰ/ [ph th ṭh kh qh]
    /b d ɖ g ɢ/ [b d ḍ g ġ]
    /bʰ dʰ ɖʰ gʰ ɢʰ/ [bh dh ḍh gh ġh]
    /s ɬ ʂ h/ [s l ṣ h]
    /z ɮ ʐ/ [z ł ẓ]
    /m n ɳ ŋ/ [m n ṇ ŋ]
    /mʰ nʰ ɳʰ ŋʰ/ [mh nh ṇh ŋh]
    /ɾ/ [r]
    /ʋ j/ [v j]

    Vowels:

    /ɪ ɨ ʊ/ [i y u]
    /ə/ [e]
    /a/ [a]

    /iː ɨː uː/ [ī ȳ ū]
    /əː/ [ē]
    /aː/ [ā]

    Phonotactics:

    CVC

    Accent:

    Stress accent on penultimate syllable.

    Nouns

    Morphemes:

    [Root + Root's extension(s) + Gender + Possessor + Number + Case]

    pharsahamjum
    phars-ah-am-i-um
    'to my horses'

    Gender:

    Masculine -ah
    Feminine -ī
    Neuter -at

    Case:

    Masculine / Feminine / Neuter
    Absolutive -ah / -ī / -at
    Ergative -ak / -īk / -at
    Genitive -ar / -īr / -ater
    Allative -um / -īum / -atum
    Ablative -aṣ / -īṣ / -ateṣ
    Instrumental -abhe / -īabhe / -atabhe
    Commitative -an / -īan / -atan
    Locative -avu / -īvu / -atvu

    Number:

    Masculine / Feminine / Neuter
    Singular -ah / -ī / -at
    Dual -u/-v -av / -īv / -atu
    Plural -i/-j -aj / -īj / -ati

    Possessor

    Singular / Dual / Plural
    1. -am/-m / -ang/-ng / -ana/-na
    2. -as/-s/-ṣ / -ath/-th / -ada/-da
    3. -ał/-ł / -unt/-nt / -uṭa/-ṭa

    Verbs

    Morphemes

    [Root + Root's extension(s) + Voice + Causative + Aspect + Tense + Mood + Person + Gender]

    vāṣenartukamyngah
    'We both should be showing' (action is performed, in past, subjects are males)

    Voice:

    Passive - vāṣ- 'to be seen'
    Antipassive -en- vāṣen- 'to see'

    Causative:

    Passive -ar- vāṣar- 'to be shown'
    Antipassive -ar- vāṣenar- 'to show'

    Aspect:

    Imperfective - vāṣ- 'to be seen'
    Perfective -tu- vāṣtu- 'to be seen'
    Resultative -ja- vāṣja- 'to have been seen'

    Tense:

    Past -ka- vāṣka- 'to be seen (in past)'
    Non-past - vāṣ- 'to be seen'

    Mood:

    Indicative - vāṣ- 'to be seen'
    Conditional -phu- vāṣphu- 'would be seen'
    Jussive -my- vāṣmy- 'should be seen'

    Person:

    Masculine

    Singular / Dual / Plural
    1. -amah/-mah / -angah/-ngah / -anah/-nah
    2. -asah/-sah/-ṣah / athah/-thah / -adah/-dah
    3. -ałah/-łah / -untah/-ntah / -uṭah/-ṭah

    Feminine

    Singular / Dual / Plural
    1. -amī/-mī / -angī/-ngī / -anī-/-nī
    2. -asī/-sī/-ṣī / athī/-thī / -adī/-dī
    3. -ałī/-łī / -untī/-ntī / -uṭī/-ṭī

    Neuter

    Singular / Dual / Plural
    1. -am/-m / -ang/-ng / -an-/-n
    2. -as/-s/-ṣ / ath/-th / -ad/-d
    3. -ał/-ł / -unt/-nt / -uṭ/-ṭ

    Adjectives

    Positive - bhagh- 'good'
    Comparative -er- bhagher- 'better'
    Superlative -ēm- bhaghēm- 'best

    Adverbs

    -eh bhagheh 'well'

    Syntax

    Word order:

    SOV

    Describing word - Described word
     
  2. Chrzęścimir Satəm Indo-Europophile

    Joined:
    Feb 9, 2009
    Location:
    Laska Ziemia/Lechian Land
    Kings of Brandenburg:

    Ascania-Brandenburg dynasty


    944-965: Heinrich I
    965-998: Heinrich II
    998-1019: Otto I
    1019-1042: Konrad I
    1042-1051: Albrecht I
    1051-1080: Otto II
    1080-1103: Konrad II
    1103-1120: Otto III
    1120-1141: Siegmund I
    1141-1146: Ferdinand
    1146-1168: Albrecht II
    1168-1189: Konrad III
    1189-1212: Otto IV
    1212-1227: Siegmund II

    Ascania-Laubach dynasty


    1227-1240: Konrad IV
    1240-1251: Heinrich III
    1251-1284: Siegmund III
    1284-1312: Otto V
    1312-1329: Heinrich IV
    1329-1346: Otto VI

    Piast-Schweidnitz/Świdnica dynasty

    1346-1368: Wenceslaus I (pol. Więczysław)
    1368-1377: Wenceslaus II
    1377-1399: Heinrich V
    1399-1431: Alexander I
    1431-1466: Otto VII
    1466-1473: Alexander II
    1473-1494: Ludwig I
    1494-1528: Kasimir I
    1528-1543: Kasimir II
    1543-1558: Ludwig II Adolf

    1558 - incorporation into Kingdom of Germania after extinction of Piast-Schweidnitz.

    Gotha dynasty


    1558-1567: Wilhelm I (Wilhelm I of Germania)
    1567-1568: Georg (Georg II of Germania)

    1568 - incorporation into Polish Federation

    Piast-Czersk dynasty


    1568-1576: Sbigneus I/IV
    1576-1597: Kasimir III/VI
    1597-1621: Alexander III
    1621-1644: Friedrich III/I
    1644-1670: Friedrich IV/II

    Łubieński dynasty

    1670-1678: Johan I/Jan III Bogusław
    1678-1693: Friedrich V/Fryderyk III Kazimierz
    1693-1705: Sbigneus II/V
    1705-1747: Boguslaw/Bogusław III
    1747-1769: Johan II/Jan IV
    1769-1798: Friedrich VI/Fryderyk IV
    1798-1830: Friedrich VII/Fryderyk V
    1830-1874: Kasimir IV/VII

    "Open" (Multi-dynastical) elections:

    Second rule of Gotha dynasty

    1874-1899: Wilhelm II/I
    1899-1920: Wilhelm III/II

    1920 - independent Kingdom of Brandenburg

    Gotha dynasty


    1920-1944 Wilhelm IV

    Dukes of Brandenburg under Polish kings:

    House of Hanshagen


    1568-1582: Andreas
    1582-1599: Georg Alexander
    1599-1625: Heinrich Gottlieb
    1625-1651: Johan Kasimir I

    House of Herzberg

    1651-1683: Karl Friedrich I
    1683-1698: Johan Kasimir II
    1698-1729: Friedrich August
    1729-1754: Karl Friedrich II
    1754-1767: Siegmund I Johan
    1767-1785: Siegmund II August
    1785-1803: Karl Friedrich III
    1803-1815: Wilhelm Georg

    House of Lindendorf

    1815-1833: Georg Wiktor
    1833-1850: Siegmund III
    1850-1876: August Adolf
    1876-1895: Karl Franz
    1895-1919: Franz Georg
     
  3. Chrzęścimir Satəm Indo-Europophile

    Joined:
    Feb 9, 2009
    Location:
    Laska Ziemia/Lechian Land
    Atlayah language

    Phonology

    Consonants

    /p t k q ʔ/ <p t k q '>
    /t͡θ t͡s t͡ɬ t͡ʃ/ <tþ ts tl tš>
    /θ s ɬ ʃ χ h/ <þ s l š x h>
    /m n ŋ/ <m n ng>
    /ɾ/ <r>
    /j w/ <y w>

    Vowels

    Low tone

    /ì ù/ <i u>
    /ə̀/ <e>
    /à/ <a>

    High tone

    /í ú/ <í ú>
    /ə́/ <é>
    /á/ <á>

    Phonotactics

    CVC

    Nouns

    - neutral alignment
    - indirective ditransitive alignment
    - two classes (Animate vs Inanimate)
    - no cases
    - no number
    - possessive affixes
    - demonstrative phrasal clitics

    Verbs

    - double marking (subject/agent and object are affixed)
    - two aspects (imperfective, perfective)
    - three tenses (past remote, past proper, non-past)
    - transitivity (intransitive, transitive, causative)
    - evidentiality (visual, non-visual, inferential, reported) affixed on verb
    - analytic moods with modal verbs
    - class not affixed

    Adjectives

    - adjectives are replaced by verbs and descriptive nouns
    - adverbs derived from verbs have special ending

    Numerals

    - decimal system

    Pronouns

    - M-T pronouns
    - Class marked on 3rd person pronouns

    Adpositions

    - postpositions

    Syntax

    - SOV
    - Describing word - Described word

    Examples

    Rumayah, Þarah, Hareš, Retšqum, Qoterah, Armayum, Makayah, Kahrawah, Tšerkin, Ereshkat, Naqut,
    Kawiyah, Šawih, Išpatþant, Arattah, Hutlah, Tlamšat, Etlarum, Aqšašin, Quttayat, Karkunah, Potšurat,
    Sahtat, Ahtliyah, Tukkut, Numarat, Yeqtatum, Lutah, Hitlah, Mahitartum, Terešit, Šeriwah, Wahsatum,
    Warintat, Awarum, Keriyašat, Tuššarah, Harrayah, Yaquwat, Yatarum, Suþikum, Þuriyah, Tarahuštiyah,
    Saqalpatum, Parisarat, Niqqumat, Tuturmaqiyah, Arapeš, Intahuparah, Pipiliyah, Paþurat, Tþarmatah
     
  4. Chrzęścimir Satəm Indo-Europophile

    Joined:
    Feb 9, 2009
    Location:
    Laska Ziemia/Lechian Land
    Kaorah language

    Phonology

    Consonants

    /t k ʔ/ <t k '>
    /tʰ kʰ/ <th kh>
    /tʼ kʼ/ <t' k'>
    /t͡s/ <c>
    /t͡sʰ/ <ch>
    /t͡sʼ/ <c'>
    /s/ <s>
    /sʰ h/ <sh h>
    /sʼ/ <s'>
    /n ŋ/ <n g>
    /nʰ ŋʰ/ <nh gh>
    /nʼ ŋʼ/ <n' g'>
    /ɾ/ <r>

    Vowels

    Low tone

    /ì ù/ <ie uo>
    /ɪ̀ ʊ̀/ <i u>
    /è ò/ <e o>
    /à ɒ̀/ <a ao>

    High tone

    /í ú/ <íe úo>
    /ɪ́ ʊ́/ <í ú>
    /é ó/ <é ó>
    /á ɒ́/ <á áo>

    Vocalic harmony

    1. Group: /i u e o/
    2. Group: /ɪ ʊ a ɒ/

    Phonotactics

    CVC

    Nouns

    - ergative-absolutive alignment
    - secundative ditransitive alignment
    - definite and indefinite article
    - no gender
    - no number
    - four cases (Absolutive, Ergative, Dative, Genitive)
    - possessive affixes

    Verbs

    - ergative-absolutive alignment
    - three voices (passive, causative, antipassive)
    - dependent marking (object affixed)
    - three aspects (imperfective, iterative, perfective)
    - evidentiality (from first hand vs from other hand)
    - four moods (Indicative, Conditional, Potentional, Jussive)
    - no tenses

    Adjectives

    - adjectives are distinct class with special ending
    - adjectives have intensivity instead degrees of comparison (strong, balanced, weak)

    Numerals

    - decimal base with auxilliary base with 'five'.

    Pronouns

    - N-M pronouns
    - Honorifics added to pronouns

    Adpositions

    - prepositions

    Syntax

    - SVO
    - Describing word - Described word

    Examples

    1. Group: /i u e o/
    2. Group: /ɪ ʊ a ɒ/

    Ghaosha /ŋʰɒ̀sʰà/, Aoraka /ʔɒ̀ɾàkà/, T'ikunha' /tʼɪ̀kʊ̀nʰà/, N'emo' /nʼèmòʔ/, Atkáormah /ʔàtkɒ́ɾmàh/, Úha'tah /ʔʊ́hàtàh/,
    Súogh /súŋʰ/, Nhiri /nʰɪ̀ɾɪ̀/, Shas'ah /sʰàsʼàh/, Onomah /ʔònòmàh/, Cieneh /t͡sìnèh/, Artha'mah /ʔàɾtʰàʔmàh/, Thieroh /tʰìɾòh/,
    Tonh /tònʰ/, Mietuonhen /mìtùnʰèn/, Iekhor /ʔìkʰòɾ/, Isut'ah /ʔɪ̀sʊ̀tʼàh/, Harao'man /hàɾɒ̀ʔmàn/, Chírí /t͡sʰíɾí/, Khuochenh /kʰùt͡sʰènʰ/,
    T'ieghrah /tʼìŋʰɾàh/