Chrzęścimir's Test Thread

Discussion in 'Post Test Messages Here' started by Chrzęścimir, Jun 23, 2016.

  1. Chrzęścimir Satəm Indo-Europophile

    Joined:
    Feb 9, 2009
    Location:
    Laska Ziemia/Lechian Land
    This is my test thread and scratchpad.
     
  2. Chrzęścimir Satəm Indo-Europophile

    Joined:
    Feb 9, 2009
    Location:
    Laska Ziemia/Lechian Land
    Proto-Samaran language
    Phonology

    Consonants:

    /p t ʈ k q/ [p t ṭ k q]
    /pʰ tʰ ʈʰ kʰ qʰ/ [ph th ṭh kh qh]
    /b d ɖ g ɢ/ [b d ḍ g ġ]
    /bʰ dʰ ɖʰ gʰ ɢʰ/ [bh dh ḍh gh ġh]
    /t͡s t͡ɬ t͡ʃ ʈ͡ʂ/ [ts tl tšh ṭṣ]
    /t͡sʰ t͡ɬʰ t͡ʃʰ ʈ͡ʂʰ/ [tsh tlh tšh ṭṣh]
    /d͡z d͡ɮ d͡ʒ ɖ͡ʐ/ [dz dł dž ḍẓ]
    /d͡zʰ d͡ɮʰ d͡ʒʰ ɖ͡ʐʰ/ [dzh dłh džh ḍẓh]
    /s ɬ ʃ ʂ χ ħ h/ [s l š ṣ ḫ~h₂ ḥ~h₃ h~h₁]
    /z ɮ ʒ ʐ ʁ ʕ/ [z ł ž ẓ x~h₄ ẋ~h₅]
    /m n ɳ ɴ/ [m n ṇ ŋ]
    /mʰ nʰ ɳʰ ɴʰ/ [mh nh ṇh ŋh]
    /ɾ/ [r]
    /j w/ [i w]

    Vowels:

    /i ɨ u/ [i y u]
    /ə/ [e]
    /a/ [a]

    /iː ɨː uː/ [ī ȳ ū]
    /əː/ [ē]
    /aː/ [ā]

    Phonotactics:

    CCVCC

    Accent:

    First syllable on nouns and verbs, and last syllable on adjectives and participles has high pitch.

    Nouns

    Gender and number:

    Masculine Singular -as wurh₃gas 'wolf' / h₅erias 'master'
    Masculine Dual -ar wurh₃gar 'two wolves' / h₅eriar 'two masters'
    Masculine Plural -ai wurh₃gai 'wolves' / h₅eriai 'masters'

    Feminine Singular -eh₃ wurh₃geh₃ 'she-wolf' / h₅erieh₃ 'lady'
    Feminine Dual -eh₃r wurh₃geh₃r 'two she-wolves' / h₅erieh₃r 'two ladies'
    Feminine Plural -eh₃i wurh₃geh₃i 'she-wolves' / h₅erieh₃ 'ladies'

    Neuter Singular -am h₁antham 'flower' / krah₄iam 'word'
    Neuter Dual -awe h₁anthawe 'two flowers' / krah₄iawe 'two words'
    Neuter Plural -a h₁antha 'flowers' / krah₄ia 'words'

    Case:

    Masculine declension:

    Nominative -as h₅erias 'master' / h₅eriar 'two masters' / h₅eriai 'masters'
    Accusative -am h₅eriam 'master' / h₅eriams 'two masters' / h₅eriami 'masters'
    Genitive -ah₂ēs h₅eriah₂ēs 'of master' / h₅eriah₂ar 'of two masters' / h₅eriah₂i 'of masters'
    Instrumental -eh₁y h₅erieh₁y 'with master' / h₅erieh₁r 'with two masters' / h₅erieh₁i 'with masters'
    Allative -ah₂am h₅eriah₂am 'to master' / h₅eriah₂amr 'to two masters' / h₅eriah₂ami
    Ablative -ah₂at h₅eriah₂at 'from master' / h₅eriah₂atr 'from two masters / h₅eriah₂ati 'from masters'
    Locative -is h₅eriis 'in/on master' / h₅eriir 'in/on two masters' / h₅eriī 'in/on masters'
    Benefactive -ah₂ath h₅eriah₂ath 'for master' / h₅eriah₂athr 'for two masters' / h₅eriah₂athi 'for masters'

    Feminine declension:

    Nominative - eh₃ h₅erieh₃ 'lady' / h₅erieh₃r 'two ladies' / h₅erieh₃i 'ladies'
    Accusative -eh₃m h₅erieh₃m 'lady' / h₅erieh₃mr 'two ladies' / h₅erieh₃mi 'ladies'
    Genitive -ah₂ēh₃ h₅eriah₂ēh₃ 'of lady' / h₅eriah₂ēh₃r 'of two ladies' / h₅eriah₂ēh₃i 'of ladies'
    Instrumental -eh₁e h₅erieh₁e 'with lady' / h₅erieh₁er 'with two ladies' / h₅erieh₁ei 'with ladies'
    Allative -ah₂em h₅eriah₂em 'to lady' / h₅eriah₂emr 'to two ladies' / h₅eriah₂emi 'to ladies'
    Ablative -ah₂et h₅eriah₂et 'from lady' / h₅eriah₂etr 'from two ladies' / h₅eriah₂eti 'from ladies'
    Locative -ih₃ h₅eriih₃ 'in/on lady' / h₅eriih₃r 'in/on two ladies' / h₅eriih₃i 'in/on ladies'
    Benefactive -ah₂eth h₅eriah₂eth 'for lady' / h₅eriah₂ethr 'for two ladies' / h₅eriah₂ethi 'for ladies'

    Neuter declension:

    Nominative -am krah₄iam 'word' / krah₄iawe 'two words' / krah₄ia 'words'
    Accusative -am krah₄iam 'word' / krah₄iawem 'two words' / krah₄iama 'words'
    Genitive -ah₂ krah₄iah₂ 'of word' / krah₄iaweah₂ 'of two words' / krah₄iaah₂i 'of words'
    Instrumental -i krah₄ii 'with word' / krah₄iawei 'with two words' / krah₄iaii 'with words'
    Allative -ah₂am krah₄iah₂am 'to word' / krah₄iaweah₂am 'to two words' / krah₄iaah₂ami 'to words'
    Ablative -ah₂at krah₄iah₂at 'from word' / krah₄iaweah₂at 'from two world' / krah₄iaah̩ati 'from worlds'
    Locative -im krah₄iim 'in/on word' / krah₄iaweim 'in/on two world's / krah₄iaimi 'in/on worlds'
    Benefactive -ah₂ath krah₄iah₂ath 'for word' / krah₄iaweah₂ath 'for two worlds' krah₄iaah₂athi 'for worlds'

    Verbs

    Morphemes:

    [Mood] + [Root + Root's derivative extension(s) + Voice + Aspect + Tense + Person

    Aspect:

    Imperfective - krah₄- 'to speak'
    Perfective -ta- krah₄ta- 'to speak (action is performated in a past)
    Prospective -šy- krah₄šy- 'to speak (action will be performated in a future).

    Voices:

    Active - krah₄- 'to speak'
    Causative -ŋa- krah₄ŋa- 'to cause to speak'
    Passive -mu- krah₄mu- 'to be spoken'
    Passive-Causative -wi- krah₄wi- 'to be caused by speaking'

    Tense:

    Past -s- krah₄s- 'to speak (in past)
    Non-past - krah₄- 'to speak'

    Mood:

    Indicative <-> krah₄- 'to speak'
    Conditional bhū krah₄- 'would to speak'
    Potentional maġ krah₄- 'may to speak'
    Eventive geh₁ krah₄- 'could to speak'
    Imperative a a krah₄ 'speak !'

    Person:

    Singular / Dual / Plural
    1. -ni krah₄ni 'I am speaking' / -ner krah₄ner 'We both are speaking' / -nei krah₄nei 'We are speaking'
    2. -thu krah₄thu 'thou art speaking' / -thwer krah₄thwer 'you both are speaking' / -thwei krah₄thwei 'you are speaking'
    3. -h₂i krah₄h₂i 'he/she/it is speaking' / -h₂ir krah₄h₂ir 'they both are speaking' / -h₂ii krah₄h₂ii 'they are speaking'

    Negation:

    me krah₄ni 'I am not speaking'

    Participles

    Adjectival -ph-as/-eh₃/-am krah₄phas 'speaking'
    Adverbial -ph-yh₁ krah₄phyh₁ 'speaking'

    Gerund and Infinitive:

    Gerund -ram krah₄ram 'speaking'
    Infinitive -ruh₁ krah₄ruh₁ 'to speak'

    Adjectives

    Degrees of comparison:

    Positive - wadzhas 'good'
    Comparative -r- wadzhras 'better'
    Superlative -tem- wadzhtemas 'best

    Adverbs

    Degrees of comparison:

    Positive - wadzhyh₁ 'well'
    Comparative -r- wadzhryh₁ 'better'
    Superlative -tem- wadzhtemyh₁ 'best'

    Numerals

    Cardinal:

    Masculine / Feminine / Neuter

    1. h₅aimas / h₅aimeh₃ / h₅aimam
    2. ruwah₁
    3. h₄reis
    4. tlhaqah₄i
    5. tšintši
    6. h₂sah₂uri
    7. h₂adłani
    8. h₁enieqi
    9. lythni
    10. nhakru
    11. h₅aimanhaki
    20. ruwanhakri
    21. ruwanhakri h₅aimas
    100. nhakam
    1.000. ġaṣtum

    Ordinal -ts- h₅aimts-
    Multiplicative -mēn- h₅aimmēn-
    Reproductive -h₄eis- h₅aimh₄eis-
    Distributive -nhīn- h₅aimnhīn-
    Fractional -h₁aw- h₅aimh₁aw-

    Pronouns

    Personal pronouns:

    Singular / Dual / Plural
    1. h₄aghi 'I' / ner 'We both' / nei 'We'
    2. thuh₁ 'thou' / thwer 'you both' / thwei / 'you'
    3. h₂eš 'he/she/it' / h₂ešr 'they both' / h₂eši 'they'

    Possessive pronouns:

    Singular / Dual / Plural

    1. neh₂- 'my' / neh₂r- 'two of us' / neh₂i- 'our'
    2. thuh₁- 'thy' / thuh₁r- 'two of you' / thuh₁i- 'your'
    3. h₂eš- 'his/her/its' / h₂ešr- 'two of their' / h₂eši- 'their'

    Demonstrative pronouns:

    Proper sin- 'this'
    Distant tum- 'that'
    More distant 'h₂etum- 'over that'

    Prepositions

    Locational:

    h₂i 'in'
    ah₂i 'on'
    h₂uh₁ 'above'
    h₁udhi 'under'
    perh₂ 'beside'
    h₅edi 'away'
    bhēdhi 'between'
    ġah₃ 'behind'
    h₃y 'out'
    h₂iġuġ 'around'
    treh₃s 'before'
    h₂iṭēm 'during'
    ṭha 'after'
    ḍuh₂r 'through'

    Other:

    h₃an 'without'
    sih₁n 'with'
    h₂iphur 'instead'
    treh₂sih₁n 'against'
    mesih₁n 'despite, though'
    h₂idłuŋ 'along, according to'
    ṭy 'as'
    kum 'like'

    Particles

    Conjunctions:

    Paratactical conjunctions:

    h₁ei 'and'
    h₁eiže 'also'
    h₂it 'or'
    h₂ine 'but'
    ṣuts 'so'
    tseṇ 'than'

    Hypotactical conjunctions:

    ṇah₁i 'to, for'
    ẓareh₁ 'although'
    bhes 'because'
    h₁esy 'if'
    h₁asu 'that, providing'

    Modifiers:

    h₅aimyh₁ 'only'
    h₁uṣṭy 'yet'

    Polarity particles:

    dha 'yes'
    me 'no'

    Syntax

    Word order:

    SOV (Subject - Object - Verb)

    Describing word - Described word

    Copular verb:

    h₁es- 'to be'

    Word Formation

    Root extensions:

    To form nouns (mostly from verbs):

    -i- - human stative beings: h₅er- 'to command' → h₅er-i- 'master, commander'
    -g- - animated beings, animals, spirits: wurh₃- 'to growl' → wurh₃-g- 'wolf'
    -dh- - prolonged objects: tyr- 'wood' → tyr-dh- 'stick'
    -bh- - rounded objects: h₂eŋk- 'stone' → h₂eŋkebh- 'rounded stone'
    -n- - instruments, tools: h₂eŋk- 'stone' → h₂eŋkm- 'stone tool' / pih₂ṣ- 'to draw' → pih₂ṣn- 'drawing tool'
    -ġ- - large objects: bhar- 'bottom' → bharġ- 'mountain'
    -k- - small objects: khag- 'to weigh' → khagg- 'small weight'
    -t- - abstracts, instances: krah₄- 'to speak' → krah₄t- 'speech'

    Derivational affixes:

    Nominalizers:

    Agentive / Related person -etš- krah₄- 'to speak' → krah₄etš- 'speaker' / bhuġġeh₃ 'cow' → bhuġġetš- 'cowman'
    Place -eh₅i-am krah₄- 'to speak' → krah₄eh₅iam 'rostrum'
    Diminutive -il- šuh₂las 'son' → šuh₂lilas 'little son'
    Augmentative -uġ- bharġam 'mountain' → bharġuġam 'grand mountain'
    Related abstract -andham bhurh₁as 'brother' → bhurh₁andham 'brotherhood'
    Instrument -etl-am ktest- 'to destroy' → ktestetlam 'instrument for destroying'

    Adjectivizers:

    Possessive / Affiliative -eh₃n- h₁arsas 'horse' → h₁arseh₃n- 'equine'
    Originative -esq- diaŋgam 'sky' → diaŋgesq- 'celestial'
    Similaritive -ah₂ud- h₁eilas 'cat' → h₁eilah₂ud- 'felid'
    Feature -aṣ- pih₁lam 'hair' → pih₁laṣas- 'hairy'
    Privative me-.-aṣ- dhembhas 'tooth' → medhembhaṣas- 'toothless'
     
    Enmergal and Miranda Brawner like this.
  3. Chrzęścimir Satəm Indo-Europophile

    Joined:
    Feb 9, 2009
    Location:
    Laska Ziemia/Lechian Land
    List of Polish monarchs (from ~Historiae Mutetur!~)
    (with supplement)

    [PLANNED; the content may be changed]

    Popiel dynasty:

    804-829: Popiel
    829-852: Święciło
    852-877: Świętosław
    877-901: Leszek
    901-913: Dzierżywłód

    [DONE]

    Popiel dynasty:

    913-949: Włodzimierz (son of Dzierżywłód and Andrada Horaciecus from Moesia; married with Bauda from Rautharots)

    Piast dynasty:

    Main royal lineage:

    949-975: Siemomysł (son of Leszek Piast and Gościrada Popielewiczówna)
    975-1007: Bolesław I (son of Siemomysł and Adelajda from Nova Anglia)
    1007-1033: Kazimierz I (son of Bolesław I and Dobroniega Zofia from Hweitarots)
    1033-1057: Siemowit I (son of Kazimierz I and Rycheza Ascania-Brandenburg)
    1057-1094: Bolesław II (son of Siemowit I and Orgona from Hungary)
    1094-1125: Bogusław I (son of Bolesław II and Katalina from Mołdawia)
    1125-1143: Kazimierz II (son of Bogusław I and Stanisława Prawda, daughter of voivode Mieczysław Prawda)
    1143-1172: Zbigniew I (son of Kazimierz II and Zdzisława Griffin-Kołobrzeg)
    1172-1183: Bolesław III Otto (son of Zbigniew I and Gertruda from Frisia)
    1183-1213: Bolesław IV (son of Bolesław III Otto and Kunegunda von Ascania-Lubusz)
    1213-1244: Bogusław II (son of Bolesław IV and Bronisława Pawliszko, married with Jadwiga from Hungary)
    1244-1327: Interregnum

    Piast-Poznański family:

    1327-1339: Rudolf (Rudolf I of Poznań; son of Bolesław II and Adelgunda of Brandenburg, married with Gerlinda von Walting)
    1339-1351: Interregnum

    Piast-Czerski family:

    1351-1355: Henryk I 'the Restorer' (Henryk III Bolesław of Czersk; son of Henryk II Włodzisław and Bogumiła Poznańska, daughter of Bolesław II of Poznań)
    1355-1361: Siemowit II (1st son of Henryk I and Zofia Płocka, married with Elżbieta Pawliszko)
    1361-1387: Kazimierz III (2nd son of Henryk I and Anna Małgorzata de Foix)
    1387-1405: Zbigniew II Rudolf (3rd son of Henryk I and Anna Małgorzata de Foix, husband of Eudoksja of Volhynia, daughter of duke Vsyorad III)
    1405-1436: Henryk II (son of Kazimierz III and Helena of Hungary)
    1436-1471: Kazimierz IV (son of Henryk II and Hildegarda of Brandenburg)
    1471-1484: Zbigniew III (1st son of Kazimierz IV and Fryderyka of Wolgast)
    1484-1492: Jan I Aleksander (2nd son of Kazimierz IV and Fryderyka of Wolgast)
    1492-1510: Jerzy Michał (son of Zbigniew III and Maria of Kiev)
    1510-1535: Kazimierz V (son of Jan I Aleksander and Aleksandra of Świdnica)
    1535-1559: Jan II (son of Jerzy Michał and Aune/Agnieszka of Finland)
    1559-1576: Zbigniew IV (son of Jan II and Eugenia of Burgundy)
    1576-1597: Kazimierz VI (son of Zbigniew IV and Anastazja of Brandenburg)
    1597-1621: Aleksander (son of Kazimierz VI and Zofia of Albania)
    1621-1644: Fryderyk I (son of Aleksander and Włodzisława Gryfitka of Słupsk)
    1644-1670: Fryderyk II (son of Fryderyk I and Joanna of Brest, married with Jadwiga von Gotha)

    Łubieński dynasty (a cadet line of Piasts from fortress of Łubno in Subcarpathia):

    1670-1678: Jan III Bogusław (maternal grandson of Kazimierz VI)
    1678-1693: Fryderyk III Kazimierz (son of Jan III Bogusław and Katarzyna Zofia Czerwieńska)
    1693-1705: Zbigniew V (son of Jan III Bogusław and Maria Agata of Schleswig)
    1705-1747: Bogusław III (son of Fryderyk III Kazimierz and Barbara Bieniewicz)
    1747-1769: Jan IV (son of Bogusław III and Teresa Zamoyska)
    1769-1798: Fryderyk IV (son of Jan IV and Gustawa of Scandinavia)
    1798-1830: Fryderyk V (son of Fryderyk IV and Ludwika of Anhalt)
    1830-1874: Kazimierz VII (son of Fryderyk V and Zbigniewa Radziwońska, married with Maria Genowefa von Lindendorf)

    "Open" (Multi-dynastical) elections:

    1874-1899: Wilhelm I (House of Gotha; son of duke Adolf Wilhelm II of Gotha and Katarzyna Łubieńska, daughter of Fryderyk V of Poland)
    1899-1922: Wilhelm II (House of Gotha; son of Wilhelm I and Ariana of Augsburg, married with Adelajda von Lindendorf)
    1922-1955: Bogusław IV (House of Łubieński z Czermna; descendant of lineage derived from Henryk count of Czermno, the 3rd son of Jan III Bogusław, son of count Mieczysław and Karolina Niegoszowska, married with Małgorzata Czartoryska)
    1955-1989: Stanisław (House of Janowski; descendant of older noble family Janowski, derived from Janusz, 2nd son of king Jan II)
    1989: presidential republic (monarchy is dissolved)

    Łubieński dynasty were not derived from the House of Piast-Czerski, but were only survived lineage from House of Piast-Przemyśl.

    From House of Piast-Przemyśl to king Jan III Bogusław Łubieński

    Voivodes of Przemyśl:


    13??-1367: Dzierżywłód II, Duke of Przemyśl (13??-1351), Voivode of Przemyśl (1351-1367).
    13??-1389: Włodzimierz
    1366-1423: Sobiesław Henryk

    Counts of Łubno:

    1391-1454: Bogusław Jerzy Łubieński, second son of Sobiesław Henryk
    1420-1482: Kazimierz Aleksander Łubieński
    1449-1499: Mieczysław I Wojciech Łubieński
    1475-1537: Zbigniew Konstanty Łubieński (titular Duke from 1531)

    Dukes of Łubno:

    1531-1537: Zbigniew Konstanty Łubieński
    1498-1567: Mieczysław II Łubieński
    1532-1586: Arnold Więczysław Łubieński
    1567-1629: Sobiesław Wojciech Łubieński
    1588-1653: Krzysztof Bogusław Łubieński
    1622-1678: Jan Bogusław Łubieński (King of Rzeczpospolita from 1670)

    Commanders of Armed Forces of the Crown:

    Crown Hetmans:


    1351-1359: Włodzisław IV of Piast-Płocki, previously Duke of Płock
    1359-1372: Andrzej Niesułowicz from House of Piast-Lublin, grandson of Przemysł duke of Lublin
    1372-1390: Zawisza Piotr z Turobina, a knight descended from older lineage of Sandomierian dukes
    1390-1397: Wieścisław Leszkowic, from House of Piast-Radomski
    1397-1412: Zbigniew Garbowski, from House of Piast-Lublin, founder of family Garbowski
    1412-1429: Janusz Czerwieński, from House of Czerwieński, derived from House of Piast-Sandomierz
    1429-1444: Wojciech Czerwieński, son of Janusz
    1444-1467: Krzysztof Siemowit Barański
    1467-1474: Zbigniew Wojcieszkowic
    1474-1488: Włodzimierz Świdnicki, from House of Świdnicki, derived from House Piast-Kraków (not original Piast-Świdnica, who is extincted in this time) after The Western Reunification.
    1488-1506: Leszek Włoszczowski
    1506-1521: Jan Henryk Włościmilski
    1521-1530: Mieczysław Smok
    1530-1546: Kazimierz Zamoyski
    1546-1559: Zygmunt Kiedrzyński
    1559-1570: Ignacy Rościłowski
    1570-1586: Arnold Więczysław Łubieński, duke of Łubno
    1586-1602: Karol Radziwoński, previously Voivode of Bracław in Ukraine, from local magnatery
    1602-1623: Adolf Ksawery Zamoyski
    1623-1641: Michał Juliusz Bieniewicz, previously Voivode of Troki in Lithuania, from local magnatery
    1641-1655: Jan Zachariasz Radziwoński, previously Grand Duke of Kiev
    1655-1672: Jan Gaudemunt Pojatowicz, previously Hetman of Lithuania
    1672-1679: Krzysztof Franciszek Nurowicz, previously leader of christianized Lithuanian Tatars and Voivode of Bracław on Ukraine
    1679-1686: Andrzej Mieczysław Żarnowski
    1686-1705: Wilhelm Adolf von Luebow, Grand Duke of Anhalt
    1705-1721: Jerzy Daniel Bieniewicz, previously Hetman of Lithuania
    1721-1735: Piotr Stefan Dobrzyński
    1735-1752: Jan Walery Kobryński, previously Hetman of Kiev
    1752-1773: Dymitr Aleksander Jaworski
    1773-1788: Józef Bogusław Dąbrowski
    1788-1796: Bogdan Zbigniew Żeligowski, previously Hetman of Crimea
    1796-1808: Roman Kazimierz Radziwoński, previously Hetman of Kiev
    1808-1826: Wiesław Bogumił Wierciński
    1826-1830: Tadeusz Daniel Czartoryski
    1830-1840: Kazimierz Adolf Bykowski
    1840-1855: Leonard Franciszek von Schruebe
    1855-1863: Krystian Henryk von Stoltz
    1863-1872: Dawid Zenobiusz Chłodziński

    Crown Marshalls:

    1872-1882: Adolf Mieczysław Znojemski
    1882-1890: Ludwik Włodzimierz Zawistowski, previously Marshall of Prussia
    1890-1906: Zbigniew Krzysztof Niegoszowski
    1906-1915: Wilhelm Zdobysław Złotowski
    1915-1927: Jan Fryderyk von Mollenbeck

    Polish Dukes in 1350:

    Co-founders of the Republic of Poland (Piasts)

    Czersk
    - Henryk III Bolesław
    Płock - Włodzisław IV
    Lublin - Przemysł
    Przemyśl - Dzierżywłód II
    Sandomierz - Bolesław II
    Rzeszów - Leszek III 'the Black'
    Kraków - Kazimierz
    Radom - Więczysław
    Włoszczowa - Szczepan Bolesław
    Racibórz - Otto Boguchwał
    Ostrołęka - Zygmunt II
    Łomża - Leszek 'the Red'

    Western Poland (Duches under Angland influences; mostly Piasts):


    Częstochowa - Mieszko IV
    Świdnica - Rudolf II
    Kalisz - Zbigniew
    Kujawy - Włodzisław II Kujawski
    Chełmno - Lotar Przybysław
    Poznań - Jaropełk
    Lubusz - Leonard II
    Słupsk/Stôlpsk - Warcisław II (House of Griffin, earlier lineage of Piasts)

    List of Crown Chancellors:

    1351-1358: Więczysław Piast-Radomski
    1358-1372: st. bp. Ignacy z Barcina
    1372-1385: Zbigniew Jarosławic
    1385-1391: Bogumił Traszka
    1391-1403: Jan Mikołaj Dudzic
    1403-1411: Piotr Zdzisław Myszkowic
    1411-1428: Michał Łęgowski
    1428-1443: bp. Krzesimierz Adamowicz
    1443-1459: Jerzy Mikołajewicz
    1459-1463: bp. Julian Radziszowski
    1463-1475: Damianus Włoch
    1475-1488: bp. Tomasz z Orłowa
    1488-1507: Henryk Grudzieński
    1507-1520: Bartłomiej z Godłowa
    1520-1534: Bogdan Włodzimierz Czerwieński
    1534-1549: Janusz Radziejowski
    1549-1567: bp. Kasjusz Czerski z Wojsławic
    1567-1578: Jeremi Wszeradzki
    1578-1585: bp. Zygmunt Niemiec
    1585-1599: św. Borzysław Świdnicki
    1599-1615: Tomasz Mierzwiński
    1615-1627: Sobiesław Wojciech Łubieński
    1627-1653: Krzysztof Bogusław Łubieński
    1653-1670: Zdzisław Wiktor Arciszewski
    1670-1678: Jan Antoni Zbyszkowski
    1678-1689: Chryzostom Garbowski
    1689-1697: Bogdan Henryk Nieciecki
    1697-1706: Janusz von Wustrow
    1706-1719: Siemowit Zamoyski
    1719-1733: Lucjan Piotr Radziwoński
    1733-1748: Jan Andrzej Jaworski
    1748-1755: Mikołaj Józef Paszkowski
    1755-1772: Józef Bogumił Rzędziański
    1772-1783: Antoni Kazimierz Chanowicz
    1783-1794: Konstanty Janusz Słowikowski
    1794-1801: Wojciech Henryk Bieniewicz
    1801-1816: Zygmunt Fryderyk Zamoyski
    1816-1832: Józef Tomasz Czartoryski
    1832-1840: Zbigniew Herman Ziębiński
    1840-1858: Otto Fryderyk von Kieve
    1858-1864: Jerzy Zygmunt Sokalski
    1864-1874: Adam Leopold Maciejewicz
    1874-1896: Erwin Franciszek von Sagard
    1896-1910: Robert Wilhelm von Glewitz
    1910-1923: Kazimierz Rudolf von Boddin
    1923-1928: Franciszek Mieczysław Ciernicki
     
    Last edited: Dec 7, 2016
  4. Chrzęścimir Satəm Indo-Europophile

    Joined:
    Feb 9, 2009
    Location:
    Laska Ziemia/Lechian Land
    Proto-Rumaic

    Phonology


    Consonants:

    /p t ʈ k q/ [p t ṭ k q]
    /pʰ tʰ ʈʰ kʰ qʰ/ [ph th ṭh kh qh]
    /b d ɖ g ɢ/ [b d ḍ g ġ]
    /bʰ dʰ ɖʰ gʰ ɢʰ/ [bh dh ḍh gh ġh]
    /s ɬ ʂ h/ [s l ṣ h]
    /z ɮ ʐ/ [z ł ẓ]
    /m n ɳ ŋ/ [m n ṇ ŋ]
    /mʰ nʰ ɳʰ ŋʰ/ [mh nh ṇh ŋh]
    /ɾ/ [r]
    /ʋ j/ [v j]

    Vowels:

    /ɪ ɨ ʊ/ [i y u]
    /ə/ [e]
    /a/ [a]

    /iː ɨː uː/ [ī ȳ ū]
    /əː/ [ē]
    /aː/ [ā]

    Phonotactics:

    CVC

    Accent:

    Stress accent on penultimate syllable.

    Nouns

    - ergative alignment
    - secundative ditransitive alignment
    - eight cases (Absolutive, Ergative, Genitive, Allative, Ablative, Instrumental, Commitative, Locative)
    - three genders (Masculine, Feminine, Neuter)
    - three numbers (Singular, Dual, Plural)
    - possessive suffixes

    [Root + Root's extension(s) + Gender + Possessor + Number + Case]

    Verbs

    - all subject, agent and patient are suffixed on verbs (tripartite verb alignment)
    - gender suffixed
    - three aspects (imperfective, perfective, resultative)
    - two tenses (past, non-past)
    - two main voices (active and passive)
    - suffixed causative
    - three moods (Indicative, Conditional, Jussive)

    [Root + Root's extension(s) + Voice + Causative + Aspect + Tense + Mood + Person + Gender]

    Adjectives

    Adjectives have the same forms as nouns, but also have three degrees of comparison; Positive, Comparative, Superlative.

    Adverbs

    Similar to adjectives, but distinguished by their own ending.

    Pronouns

    - M-T pronouns

    Adpositions


    Prepositions.

    Syntax

    - SOV
    - Describing word - Described word
     
  5. Chrzęścimir Satəm Indo-Europophile

    Joined:
    Feb 9, 2009
    Location:
    Laska Ziemia/Lechian Land
    Proto-Thoros

    Phonology


    Consonants:

    /p t k/ <p t k>
    /pʰ tʰ kʰ/ <ph th kh>
    /pʼ tʼ kʼ/ <p' t' k'>
    /t͡θ t͡s t͡ɬ/ <tθ ts tł>
    /t͡θʰ t͡sʰ t͡ɬʰ/ <tθh tsh tłh>
    /t͡θʼ t͡sʼ t͡ɬʼ/ <tθ' ts' tł'>
    /θ s ɬ h/ <θ s ł h>
    /m n ŋ/ <m n g>
    /ɾ l/ <r l>
    /ʋ j/ <v j>

    Vowels:

    /i u/ <í ú>
    /ɪ ʊ/ <i u>
    /e o/ <é ó>
    /ɛ ɔ/ <e o>
    /ɐ/ <a>
    /ɑ/ <á>

    Vocalic harmony: tense vs. lax vowels.

    Phonotactics:

    (C)V(S)

    C = any consonant
    V = any vowel
    S = any non-plosive consonant

    Accent:

    Accent on penultimate syllable.

    Nouns

    - ergative alignment
    - indirective ditransitive alignment
    - six cases (Absolutive, Ergative, Genitive, Dative, Ablative, Prepositional)
    - two classes (Human vs. Non-Human)
    - two numbers (combined with classes)
    - nominal tense prefixed
    - possessive prefixes

    [Nominal Tense + Root + Root's extensions + (Class + Number) + Possessor + Case]

    Verbs

    - person no affixed
    - three aspects (Continuous, Habitual, Perfective)
    - three tenses (past remote, past proper, non-past)
    - transitivity: intransitive, transitive (unmarked), causative
    - five moods (Declarative, Energetic, Conditional, Potentional, Imperative)
    - evidentiality (visual sensory, inferential, reportative)

    [Person + (Class + Number)] + [Root + Root's extensions + Transitivity + Tense + Aspect + Evidentiality + Mood]

    Adjectives and adverbs


    - adjectives and adverbs are contextual (this is the same)
    - adjectives have the same forms as nouns
    - three degrees of comparison

    Pronouns

    - Class and number suffixed
    - M-T pronouns

    Adpositions

    - postpositions

    Syntax

    - SOV
    - Described word - Describing word
     
  6. Chrzęścimir Satəm Indo-Europophile

    Joined:
    Feb 9, 2009
    Location:
    Laska Ziemia/Lechian Land
    1010-1019

    Amochan

    - Nothing important.

    Europe

    - States of eastern part of Iberian Peninsula are combined within the Liga de L'Orient under the leadership of the House of Catalonia (1013).

    - Austrasian War (10??-1019) in France, fought against eastern french lords, striving to create an independent kingdom of Austrasia with rule of side branch of the Saxon dynasty. According to Treaty of Troyes, the Austrasian provinces lose their autonomy within the French State.

    - Narbonic County who granted aid for Austrasian forces, incorporated into Kingdom of France (1011).

    - Duchy of Samogitia subordinated by the rulers of Latvia (1015). Later, Latvia expands north into Estonia.

    - Belarusian forces are expelled from Red Ruthenia with help of Kazimierz I of Poland, fearful of collecting Russian lands by the eastern neighbor.

    - As a result of the weakening inside Idil Horde, Astarkhan and Qabardeyn Horde departed.

    - Duchy of Abruzzo detaches from the Kingdom of Italy. Power of Italian kings was only nominal in the region, at the end of the local duke became fully independent from Turin.

    Africa

    - Invasion of Aghadez onto Mossi and Songhai (10??-1011) under the initiation of a failed attempt to control of West Africa.

    - Songhai under the pressure of the Muslim peoples of Sahara adopts Islam as its state religion (1018), supplanting Ariehism - minor Abrahamic religion based on early Judaism (sadducean type).

    - The western provinces in the Furthest Egypt detache from the country, forming theocratic system of statehood and renaming to Katangan Salafate (1010).

    - The emirate of Fezzan subjugated to Southern Rome as an allied state.

    - Somali Republic lost its colonies in the north of Madagascar.

    Asia and Ludadao

    - Barmecid expansion on eastern Caucasus (Kingdom of Serir).

    - Collapse of the Western Tele Khaganate as a result of the rebellion against local Oghuz and Kipchak tribes against Karluks. Old Armenian colony in Central Asia regains independence as an independent kingdom. Barmecids with consent of Afrighid tribal leaders (former Tele vassals) occupy Afghanistan and attack the Khwarezm. Tatars occupy part of lands in the West (part of the Tien Shan and Zhetysu). A main remnant of the Western Tele Khaganate are Karluks.

    - The main remnant after Eastern Tele Khaganate officially takes the name as Uighur Horde.

    - The tribes that escaped from rule of Yashovardhana Dynasty (1012), formed the League of Maharashtra.

    - The War of the Tan against Korea (10??-1012). Koreans are driven out from the territory of Tan. Contained treaty restores ownership before the war.

    [​IMG]
     
  7. Chrzęścimir Satəm Indo-Europophile

    Joined:
    Feb 9, 2009
    Location:
    Laska Ziemia/Lechian Land
    [​IMG]

    pink - Proto-Rumaic
    light green - Proto-Thoros
    dark brown - Proto-Ndzuri

    Proto-Ndzuri

    Phonology

    Consonants:

    /p t tˡ k q ʔ/ <p t tl k q '>
    /b d dˡ g ɢ/ <b d dl g ġ>
    /ⁿb ⁿd ⁿdˡ ⁿg ⁿɢ/ <mb nd ndl ng nġ>
    /t͡s t͡sˡ t͡ʃ/ <c cl ch>
    /d͡z d͡zˡ d͡ʒ/ <dz dzl dzh>
    /ⁿd͡z ⁿd͡zˡ ⁿd͡ʒ/ <ndz ndzl ndzh>
    /ɸ s sˡ ʃ h/ <f s sl sh h>
    /β z zˡ ʒ/ <v z zl zh>
    /ⁿβ ⁿz ⁿzˡ ⁿʒ/ <mv nz nzl nzh>
    /m n nˡ ŋ/ <m n nl ŋ>
    /ɾ l/ <r l>
    /j/ <y>

    Vowels:

    /i ɨ u/ <i ə u>
    /a/ <a>

    Phonotactics:

    C(S)V

    C = any consonant
    S = semivowel /j/
    V = any vowel

    Accent:

    Lexical pitch accent (high pitch on accented syllable).

    Nouns

    - ergative alignment
    - secundative ditransitive alignment
    - no cases
    - two classes (Animate vs Non-Animate)
    - two numbers combined with classes
    - possessive suffixes
    - demonstrative clitics

    [(Class + Number) + Root + Root's extension + Possessor + Demonstrative]

    Verbs

    - person not affixed
    - two aspects (Imperfective, Perfective)
    - three tenses (past remote, past proper, non-past)
    - tense affixed to pronoun
    - two voices (active, causative)
    - evidentiality (nonfirsthand, everything other)
    - three moods (Indicative, Conditional, Jussive)

    Adjectives

    - adjectives have the same forms as nouns
    - three degrees of comparison

    Pronouns

    - Class and number affixed
    - N-M pronouns

    Adpositions

    - postpositions

    Syntax

    - SOV
    - Desribed word - Describing word
     
  8. Chrzęścimir Satəm Indo-Europophile

    Joined:
    Feb 9, 2009
    Location:
    Laska Ziemia/Lechian Land
    Proto-Aratic ("Welsh" colour on my map)

    Phonology

    Consonants:

    /p t k/ <p t k>
    /t͡s t͡ʃ/ <c č>
    /f s ʃ x/ <f s š h>
    /m n ŋ/ <m n g>
    /r l/ <r l>
    /j w/ <j w>

    Vowels:

    /i u/ <i u>
    /e/ <e>
    /a/ <a>

    /iː uː/ <ī ū>
    /eː/ <ē>
    /aː/ <ā>

    Phonotactics:

    CVC

    Accent:

    Stress accent on last syllable.

    Nouns

    - ergative alignment
    - indirective ditransitive alignment
    - two classes (Animate vs Inanimate; suffixed)
    - ten cases (Absolutive, Ergative, Genitive, Dative, Allative, Ablative, Instrumental, Comitative, Essive, Equative)
    - three numbers (singular, dual, plural; prefixed)
    - possessive prefixes
    - prepositional articles (indefinite, definite)

    [Article] + [Possessor + Number + Root + Root's extension(s) + Class + Case]

    Verbs

    - ergative alignment on verbs
    - three conjugational persons
    - three aspects (Imperfective, Iterative, Perfective)
    - three tenses (Past, Present, Future)
    - four moods (Indicative, Subjunctive, Optative, Imperative)
    - evidentiality (visual vs non-visual)
    - causative infixed in root

    [Person + Evidentiality + (Root + Causative) + Root's extension(s) + Tense + Aspect + Mood]

    Adjectives

    - adjectives the same as nouns
    - adverbs similar as adjectives, but without class marker

    Pronouns

    - no class distinction within pronouns
    - M-T pronouns

    Adpositions

    - postpositions

    Syntax

    - SOV
    - Described word - Describing word
     
  9. Zireael Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Aug 4, 2012
    Ooh. I take it you have an interest in linguistics? Conlangs? Both?
     
  10. Chrzęścimir Satəm Indo-Europophile

    Joined:
    Feb 9, 2009
    Location:
    Laska Ziemia/Lechian Land
    Both. Linguistics and conlanging are my passions (next to history).
     
  11. Chrzęścimir Satəm Indo-Europophile

    Joined:
    Feb 9, 2009
    Location:
    Laska Ziemia/Lechian Land
    Proto-Ethanaic (dark green on central continent)

    Phonology


    Consonants:

    /t k q ʔ/ <t k q '>
    /tʰ kʰ qʰ/ <th kh qh>
    /d g ɢ/ <d g ġ>
    /s x χ h/ <s x ḫ h>
    /m̻ n̻/ <hm hn>
    /mʰ nʰ/ <mh nh>
    /m n/ <m n>
    /ɹ̻ l/ <hr hl>
    /ɹʰ lʰ/ <rh lh>
    /ɹ l/ <r l>
    /j/ <j>

    Vowels:

    /i ʉ u/ <i y u>
    /e ɵ o/ <e ø o>
    /æ/ <æ>
    /a/ <a>

    /ĩ ʉ̃ ũ/ <iN yN uN>
    /ẽ ɵ̃ õ/ <eN øN oN>
    /æ̃/ <æN>
    /ã/ <aN>

    Phonotactics:

    CVC

    Accent:

    Stress accent on second syllable.

    Nouns

    - nominative-genitive alignment
    - tripartite ditransitive alignment
    - no gender
    - five cases (Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Instrumental, Vocative)
    - two numbers (collective, singulative)

    [Root + Root's extension(s) + Number + Case]

    Verbs

    - four aspects (Imperfective, Frequentative, Momentaneous, Perfective)
    - three tense (Past, Present, Future)
    - four conjugational persons (with obviative)
    - four moods (Indicative, Subjunctive, Conditional, Imperative)
    - transitivity: intransitive, transitive (unmarked), causative

    [Root + Root's extension(s) + Transitivity + Tense + Aspect + Mood + Person]

    Adjectives

    - special adjectival and adverbial endings
    - no degrees of comparison

    Pronouns

    - M-T pronouns
    - Obviative
    - Logophoric pronoun

    Adpositions

    - prepositions

    Syntax

    - SVO
    - Describing word - Described word
     
  12. Chrzęścimir Satəm Indo-Europophile

    Joined:
    Feb 9, 2009
    Location:
    Laska Ziemia/Lechian Land
    Proto-Kwaomah (/kʷɒmɑh/; light brown colour on northern continent)

    Phonology

    Consonants:

    /t kʲ k kʷ ʔ/ <t kj k kw '>
    /t͡s t͡ɬ/ <c tl>
    /s ɬ xʲ x xʷ h/ <s l xj x xw h>
    /m n ŋʲ ŋ ŋʷ/ <m n gj g gw
    /ɾ r/ <r rr>
    /j/ <j>

    Vowels:

    /i ɯ u/ <i y u>
    /e ɤ o/ <e eo o>
    /æ ɑ ɒ/ <ae a ao>

    Phonotactics:

    CVC

    Accent:

    Stress accent on last syllable.

    Nouns

    - hierarchical alignment
    - indirective ditransitive alignment
    - five classes (Masculine Human, Feminine Human, Animal, Vegetal, Other)
    - no number
    - no cases
    - possessive sufixes
    - nominal tense (prefixed)
    - demonstrative affixes (Indefinite, Definite distant, Definite proper; cliticized)

    [Nominal tense + Root + Root's extension(s) + Class + Possessor + Demonstrative clitic]

    Verbs

    - nominative-accusative alignment in verbs
    - verbal case (Agentive, Patientive, Instrumental, Allative, Ablative, Locative, Causal, Benefactive, Vial)
    - three aspects (Progressive, Stative, Habitual)
    - two tenses (future vs non-future)
    - five moods (Indicative, Subjunctive, Potentional, Desiderative, Imperative)
    - evidentiality (visual sensory, non-visual sensory, inferential)
    - three conjugational persons with two numbers (singular and plural)

    [Verbal case + Aspect + Root + Root's extension + Tense + Mood + Evidentiality + Person]

    Adjectives

    - adjectives and adverbs with special endings
    - analytic three degrees of comparison

    Pronouns

    - MT pronouns
    - logophoric pronoun

    Adpositions

    - prepositions

    Syntax

    - SVO
    - Describing word - Described word
     
    Last edited: Sep 19, 2016
  13. Chrzęścimir Satəm Indo-Europophile

    Joined:
    Feb 9, 2009
    Location:
    Laska Ziemia/Lechian Land
    Proto-Aqamaic (grey colour on northern continent)

    Phonology

    Consonants:

    /t k q/ <t k q>
    /ɸ θ̠ ɬ h/ <f s l h>
    /β ð̠ ɮ/ <v z ł>
    /m n ŋ/ <m n g>
    /ʀ̆/ <r>
    /j w/ <j w>

    Vowels:

    /i y u/ <i y u>
    /a/ <a>

    /iː yː uː/ <ī ȳ ū>
    /aː/ <ā>

    Phonotactics:

    CVN

    C= any consonant
    V= any vowel
    N= any nasal consonant

    Accent:

    Lexical pitch accent.

    Nouns

    - nominative-accusative alignment (marked nominative)
    - secundative ditransitive alignment
    - no gender
    - ten cases (Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Instrumental, Allative, Ablative, Benefactive, Prosecutive, Vialis, Abessive)
    - three numbers (singular, dual, plural)
    - possessive suffixes
    - prepositional demonstrative pronoun

    [Demonstrative pronoun] + [Root + Root's extension(s) + Possessor + Number + Case]

    Verbs

    - nominative-accusative alignment
    - two aspects (Imperfective, Perfective)
    - five tenses (Past remote, Past proper, Present, Future proper, Future distant)
    - three analytical moods (Indicative, Subjunctive, Conditional)
    - evidentiality (visual sensory, nonvisual sensory, inferential, reportative)
    - three conjugational persons
    - four voices (Active, Passive, Reflexive, Reciprocal)
    - analytical causative (auxiliary verb), distinct from other voices

    [Mood] + [Causative] + [Person + Root + Root's extension(s) + Voice + Tense + Aspect + Evidentiality]

    Adjectives

    - descriptive verbs in the adjectival role
    - adverbs described by special particle before descriptive verb

    Pronouns

    - neither M-T nor N-M
    - logophoric pronoun

    Adpositions

    - postpositions

    Syntax

    - SOV
    - Describing word - Described word
     
  14. Chrzęścimir Satəm Indo-Europophile

    Joined:
    Feb 9, 2009
    Location:
    Laska Ziemia/Lechian Land
    New language families on the map are added.

    [​IMG]

    Proto-Hmalq'ic (dark pink on western part of central continent)

    Phonology

    Consonants:

    /p t̪ t̺ c k q ʔ/ <p t th c k q '>
    /pʼ t̪ʼ t̺ʼ cʼ kʼ qʼ/ <p' t' th' c' k' q'>
    /b d̪ d̺ ɟ g ɢ/ <b d dh j g ġ>
    /t͡s̪ t͡s̺/ <ts tsh>
    /t͡s̪ʼ t͡s̺ʼ/ <ts' tsh'>
    /d͡z̪ d͡z̺/ <dz dzh>
    /s̪ s̺ ç x χ h/ <s sh ċ x ḥ h>
    /m̻ n̪̻ n̺̻ ɲ̻/ <hm hn hnh hṇ>
    /m n̪ n̺ ɲ/ <m n nh ṇ>
    /mʼ n̪ʼ n̺ʼ ɲʼ/ <m' n' nh' ṇ'>
    /l̻ ʎ̻/ <hl hḷ>
    /l ʎ/ <l ḷ>
    /lʼ ʎʼ/ <l' ḷ'>
    /j w/ <y w>
    /jʼ wʼ/ <y' w'>

    Vowels:

    /i u/ <i u>
    /e o/ <e o>
    /a/ <a>

    /iː uː/ <ī ū>
    /eː oː/ <ē ō>
    /aː/ <ā>

    Phonotactics:

    CVCC

    Accent:


    Stress accent on penultimate syllable.

    Structure

    - triconsonantal roots

    Nouns


    - nominative-accusative alignment (marked accusative)
    - indirective ditransitive alignment
    - no gender
    - three cases (Nominative, Accusative, Dative)
    - three numbers (singular, plural, collective)
    - prepositional demonstrative pronoun
    - prepositional possessive pronoun

    [Root + Root's extension(s) + Number + Case]

    Verbs

    - nominative accusative alignment
    - three aspects (imperfective, perfective, perfect)
    - four voices (active, reflexive, reciprocal, causative)
    - evidentiality (reported, everything else)
    - four moods (Indicative, Conditional, Potentional, Imperative)
    - intensifiers (very strong, strong, normal, weak, very weak)
    - no grammatical tense

    Adjectives

    - descriptive adjectives in role of the adjectives
    - adverbial participles in the role of adverbs

    Pronouns

    - N-M pronouns
    - logophoric pronoun

    Adpositions

    - prepositions and postpositions

    Syntax

    - SOV
    - Describing word - Described word

    Proto-Tyrmic (blue colour on central continent)

    Phonology

    Consonants:

    /p t k/ <p t k>
    /pʰ tʰ kʰ/ <ph th kh>
    /b d g/ <b d g>
    /t͡ʃ/ <c>
    /t͡ʃʰ/ <ch>
    /dʒ/ <ǧ>
    /s ʃ h/ <s sh h>
    /m n ŋ/ <m n ŋ>
    /r l/ <r l>
    /j/ <j>

    Vowels:

    /i y u/ <i y u>
    /e ø o/ <e ø o>
    /æ/ <æ>
    /a/ <a>

    Front: y ø æ
    Neutral: i e
    Back: u o a

    Vocalic harmony (front vs back).

    Phonotactics:

    CVCC

    Accent:


    Length accent on first syllable.

    Nouns

    - ergative alignment
    - secundative ditransitive alignment
    - five classes (Human, Animal, Vegetal, Spiritual, Other)
    - two numbers (singular, plural)
    - possessive suffixes
    - five cases (Nominative, Ergative, Accusative, Genitive, Instrumental)
    - indefinite and definite articles (cliticized)

    [Root + Root's extension(s) + Possessor (Number + Class) + Case + Article]

    Verbs

    - nominative-accusative alignment in verbs
    - five aspects (Durative, Momentaneous, Intentional, Accidential, Intensive)
    - two tenses (past and non-past)
    - three voices (Active, Medial, Causative)
    - three moods (Indicative, Conditional, Desiderative)
    - evidentiality (witness, nonwitness)
    - no person affixed

    [Person + Evidentiality] + [Root + Root's extension(s) + Voice + Tense + Aspect + Mood]

    Adjectives

    - adjectives the same as adverbs

    Pronouns

    - M-T pronouns
    - Class affixed to pronouns

    Adpositions

    - postpositions

    Syntax

    - VSO
    - Described word - Describing word
     
  15. Chrzęścimir Satəm Indo-Europophile

    Joined:
    Feb 9, 2009
    Location:
    Laska Ziemia/Lechian Land
    Proto-Caduric (orange colour on central continent)

    Phonology

    Consonants:

    /p t ʈ c k/ <p t tr c k>
    /b d ɖ ɟ g/ <b d dr j g>
    /f s ʂ ç x/ <f s sr ç h>
    /v z ʐ ʝ ɣ/ <v z zr y x>
    /m n ɳ ɲ ŋ/ <m n nr ny ng>
    /r ɽ͡r l ʎ/ <r rr l ll>

    Vowels:

    /i u/ <i u>
    /ə/ <ə>
    /e o/ <e o>
    /a/ <a>

    /ĩ ũ/ <iN uN>
    /ə̃/ <əN>
    /ẽ õ/ <eN oN>
    /ã/ <aN>

    Vowel harmony (high vs low).

    Phonotactics:

    CCVC

    Accent:


    Stress accent on penultimate syllable.

    Nouns

    - ergative-genitive alignment
    - secundative ditransitive alignment
    - no gender
    - two numbers (singular, plural)
    - three cases (Ergative, Genitive, Instrumental)
    - possessive suffixes

    [Root + Root's extension(s) + Possessor + Number + Case]

    Verbs

    - ergative-absolutive alignment
    - two aspects (Imperfective, Perfective)
    - no grammatical tense
    - no evidentiality
    - transitivity: intransitive, transitive (unmarked), causative
    - two moods (realis, irrealis)
    - person prefixed

    [Person + Root + Root's extension(s) + Transitivity + Aspect + Mood

    Adjectives

    - adjectives and adverbs marked with special ending
    - system of intensification instead degrees of comparison (Strong, Balanced, Weak)

    Pronouns

    - M-T pronouns

    Adpositions

    - prepositions

    Syntax

    - SVO
    - Described word - Describing word

    Proto-Ncungo (beige in northwest coast of southern continent)

    Phonology

    Consonants:

    /ŋǀ ŋǁ ŋǃ/ <nc nx nq>
    /ɡǀ ɡǁ ɡǃ/ <gc gx gq>
    /kǀ kǁ kǃ/ <c x q>
    /kǀʰ kǁʰ kǃʰ/ <ch xh qh>
    /ᵑǀˀ ᵑǁˀ ᵑǃˀ/ <c' x' q'>
    /p t k kʷ q qʷ ʔ ʔʷ/ <p t k kw q qw ' 'w>
    /pʰ tʰ kʰ kʷʰ qʰ qʷʰ/ <ph th kh kwh qh qwh>
    /pʼ tʼ kʼ kʷʼ qʼ qʷʼ/ <p' t' k' kw' q' qw'>
    /b d g gʷ/ <b d g gw>
    /t͡s/ <ts>
    /t͡sʰ/ <tsh>
    /t͡sʼ/ <ts'>
    /d͡z/ <dz>
    /s ɬ x xʷ χ χʷ h hʷ/ <s ł x xw ḫ ḫw h hw>
    /m n ŋ ŋʷ/ <m n ng ngw>
    /ɾ l/ <r l>
    /j w/ <j w>

    Vowels:

    /i u/ <i u>
    /e o/ <e o>
    /a/ <a>

    Phonotactics:

    CV

    Tones:

    high [á], mid [ā], low [à], high falling [â], mid falling [ā̀], low falling [ȁ], and rising [ǎː]

    Nouns

    - active-stative alignment (Fluid-S)
    - Four classes (Masculine Human, Feminine Human, Non-Human Animate, Inanimate)
    - two numbers
    - five cases (Inactive, Active, Dative, Genitive, Instrumental)
    - definiteness suffixed (Indefinite, Definite)
    - pronominal possessives

    [(Class + Number) + Root + Root's extension(s) + Definiteness + Case]

    Verbs

    - active-stative verb alignment
    - two aspects (progressive, stative)
    - transitivity no marked
    - no voice
    - analytical moods with auxiliary particles
    - Five tenses (Past remote, Hesternal, Hodiernal, Crastinal, Future remote)
    - evidentiality (nonvisual sensory, inferential, reportative)
    - class marked on verb
    - person affixed

    [Class + Root + Root's extension(s) + Tense + Aspect + Evidentiality + Person]

    Adjectives

    - adjectives the same as nouns
    - adverbs marked with special ending
    - no degrees of comparison

    Pronouns

    - T-H pronouns
    - Class marked on pronouns
    - logophoric pronouns

    Adpositions

    - prepositions

    Syntax

    - SVO
    - Described word - Describing word

    Proto-Mhanic (dark blue on northwest coast of southern continent)

    Phonology

    Consonants:

    /kǀ kǁ kǃ/ <c x q>
    /kǀʰ kǁʰ kǃʰ/ <ch xh qh>
    /ɡ̊ǀʱ ɡ̊ǁʱ ɡ̊ǃʱ/ <gc gx gq>
    /ŋǀ ŋǁ ŋǃ/ <nc nx nq>
    /ŋǀʱ ŋǁʱ ŋǃʱ/ <ngc ngx ngq>
    /ŋǀˀ ŋǁˀ ŋǃˀ/ <nkc nkx nkq>
    /p t k/ <p t k>
    /pʰ tʰ kʰ/ <ph th kh>
    /bʰ dʰ gʰ/ <bh dh gh>
    /ɓ ɗ ɠ/ <b d g>
    /t͡s t͡ʃ/ <ts tš>
    /t͡sʰ t͡ʃʰ/ <tsh tšh>
    /d͡zʰ d͡ʒʰ/ <dz dž>
    /f s ʃ x h/ <f s š ḫ h>
    /vʰ zʰ ʒʰ ɣʰ ɦ/ <v z ż ḫḫ hh>
    /m n ŋ/ <m n ŋ>
    /mʰ nʰ ŋʰ/ <mh nh ŋh>
    /r l/ <r l>
    /rʰ lʰ/ <rh lh>
    /j w/ <y w>
    /jʰ wʰ/ <yh wh>

    Vowels:

    /i u/ <i u>
    /ɪ ʊ/ <ie uo>
    /ɛ ɔ/ <e o>
    /ɑ/ <a>

    Phonotactics:


    CVN

    C= any consonant
    V= any vowel
    N= any nasal consonant

    Accent:


    Stress accent on penultimate syllable.

    Nouns

    - active-stative alignment (Fluid-S)
    - three classes (Human, Non-Human Animate, Inanimate)
    - no number
    - two cases (Active, Inactive)
    - definiteness suffixed (Indefinite, Definite)
    - pronominal possessives

    [Class + Root + Root's extension(s) + Definiteness]

    Verbs

    - trigger system on verbs
    - class affixed on verb
    - three aspects (Incomplketive, Defective, Completive)
    - analytical moods with auxiliary verbs
    - no grammatical tense
    - evidentiality (visual sensory, nonvisual sensory, inferential)
    - person not affixed

    [Person ] + [Root + Root's extension(s) + Trigger + Evidentiality + Aspect]

    Adjectives

    - adjectives the same as nouns
    - adverbs marked with special ending
    - intensifiers instead of degrees of comparison (Strong, Balanced, Weak)

    Pronouns

    - T-H pronouns
    - Class marked on pronouns
    - logophoric pronouns

    Adpositions

    - prepositions

    Syntax

    - VOS
    - Describing word - Described word
     
  16. Chrzęścimir Satəm Indo-Europophile

    Joined:
    Feb 9, 2009
    Location:
    Laska Ziemia/Lechian Land
    Proto-Pamahic (green colour on northwest coast of southern continent, south of central continent)

    Phonology

    Consonants:

    /ǃ/
    /ǃʰ/
    /ᶢǃ/
    /ᵑ̊ǃˀ ᵑǃˀ/
    /ǃ͡kxʼ ᶢǃ͡kxʼ/
    /p t k/ <p t k>
    /pʰ tʰ kʰ/ <ph th kh>
    /pʼ tʼ kʼ/ <p' t' k'>
    /b d g/ <b d g>
    /t͡s t͡ʃ k͡x/ <c č kx>
    /t͡sʰ t͡ʃʰ k͡xʰ/ <ch čh kxh>
    /t͡sʼ t͡ʃʼ k͡xʼ/ <c' č' kx'>
    /d͡z d͡ʒ g͡ɣ/ <dz j gr
    /s ʃ/ <s š>
    /sʰ ʃʰ x h/ <sh šh x h>
    /sʼ ʃʼ xʼ/ <s' š' x'>
    /z ʒ ɣ/ <z ž r>
    /m n ŋ/ <m n ŋ>
    /ɾ l/ <rl l>
    /j w/ <y w>
    /jʰ wʰ/ <yh wh>
    /jʼ wʼ/ <y' w'>

    Vowels:

    /i y ɯ u/ <i ü u o>
    /ə/ <e>
    /a/ <a>

    /iː yː ɯː uː/ <ii üü uu oo>
    /əː/ <ee>
    /aː/ <aa>

    Phonotactics:

    CVC

    Tones:

    - high
    - low

    Structure

    - mostly isolating morphology

    Nouns

    - neutral alignment
    - indirective ditransitive alignment
    - no gender
    - no case
    - reduplicational plural
    - prepositional articles
    - pronominal possessives

    Verbs

    - ergative-absolutive alignment in verbs
    - classificatory verbs
    - intensifiers
    - five aspects (Incompletive, Defective, Completive, Repetitive, Experiential)
    - auxiliary verbs instead moods
    - intransitivity (intransitive, transitive, causative I, causative II; prefixed)
    - evidential particles (visual sensory, nonvisual sensory, inferential, reportative, assumed)

    Adjectives

    - adjectives the same as nouns or the same as descriptive verbs
    - adverbial particle before adjective or noun

    Pronouns


    - N-M pronouns

    Adpositions

    - postpositions

    Syntax

    - SVO
    - Described word - Describing word
    - Auxiliary verb after main verb

    Proto-Emuic (green colour on western coast of southern continent)

    Phonology

    Consonants:


    /p pˡ t k/ <p pl t k>
    /pʰ pˡʰ tʰ kʰ/ <ph plh th kh
    /ʰp ʰpˡ ʰt ʰk/ <hp hpl ht hk>
    /t͡s t͡ʃ/ <c č>
    /t͡sʰ t͡ʃʰ/ <ch čh>
    /ʰt͡s ʰt͡ʃ/ <hc hč>
    /θ s ʃ h/ <θ s š h>
    /m mˡ n/ <m ml n>
    /r l/ <r l>
    /j w/ <y w>

    Vowels:

    /i u/ <i u>
    /ɪ ʊ/ <e o>
    /a/ <a>

    /ɪˤ ʊˤ/ <e' o'>
    /aˤ/ <a'>

    Phonotactics:

    CVC

    Tones:

    - high
    - low

    Nouns

    - neutral alignment
    - indirective ditransitive alignment
    - no gender
    - two numbers (singular, plural)
    - no cases
    - definiteness suffixed
    - pronominal possessives (analytical)

    [Number + Root + Root's extension(s) + Definiteness]

    Verbs

    - ergative-absolutive verb alignment
    - two aspects (Incompletive, Completive)
    - voice (passive, antipassive, causative)
    - three tenses (past, present, future)
    - two moods (realis, irrealis)
    - evidentiality (nonfirsthand, everything else)

    Adjectives

    - adjectives the same as nouns
    - adverbs the same as adjectives

    Pronouns

    - N-M pronouns

    Adpositions

    - prepositions

    Syntax

    - SVO
    - Described word - Describing word
     
  17. Chrzęścimir Satəm Indo-Europophile

    Joined:
    Feb 9, 2009
    Location:
    Laska Ziemia/Lechian Land
    Proto-Mottic (yellow on western coast of southern continent)

    Phonology

    Consonants:

    /p t k q ʡ ʔ/ <p t k q j '>
    /pː tː kː qː/ <pp tt kk qq>
    /pʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ/ <p' t' k' q'
    /b d g/ <b d g>
    /t͡s t͡ʃ/ <c č>
    /t͡sː t͡ʃː/ <cc čč>
    /t͡sʼ t͡ʃʼ/ <c' č'>
    /d͡z d͡ʒ/ <dz dž>
    /s ʃ χ ʜ h/ <s š ḫ x h
    /v z ʒ ʁ ʢ/ <v z ž ẋ ḥ>
    /m n/ <m n>
    /r̻ l̻/ <ṛ ḷ>
    /r l/ <r l>
    /j/ <y>

    Vowels:

    /ɪ ʏ u/ <i ü u>
    /e̞ ø̞ o̞/ <e ö o>
    /æ ɑ/ <ä a>

    /iː yː uː/ <ii üü uu>
    /e̞ː ø̞ː o̞ː/ <ee öö oo>
    /æː ɑː/ <ää aa>

    Phonotactics:

    CVC

    Accent:

    Stress accent on last syllable.

    Nouns

    - nominative-accusative alignment
    - indirective ditransitive alignment
    - no gender
    - no number
    - twelve cases (Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, Allative, Ablative, Instrumental, Commitative, Causal, Locative, Benefactive, Essive)
    - possessive prefixes
    - nominal tense
    - definiteness
    - honorific ending

    [Case + Possessor + Nominal tense + Root + Root's extension(s) + Definiteness + Honorific ending]

    Verbs

    - nominative-accusative alignment
    - two aspects (Stative, Progressive, Habitual)
    - three tenses (past, present, future)
    - evidentiality (nonfirsthand, everything else)
    - four moods (Indicative, Conditional, Imperative, Hortative)
    - transitivity: intransitive, transitive (unmarked), causative
    - three persons

    [Person + Evidentiality + Transitivity + Root + Root's extension(s) + Tense + Aspect + Mood]

    Adjectives

    - adjectives the same as nouns
    - special adverbial ending
    - five degrees of comparison (least, less, positive, comparative, superlative)
    - intensifiers (weak, balanced, strong)

    Pronouns

    - N-M pronouns
    - Honorific endings on pronouns

    Adpositions

    - prepositions

    Syntax

    - SVO
    - Described word - Describing word
     
  18. Chrzęścimir Satəm Indo-Europophile

    Joined:
    Feb 9, 2009
    Location:
    Laska Ziemia/Lechian Land
    Proto-Karangic (light blue on isles west to western part of southern continent)

    Phonology

    Consonants:

    /p pˤ t tˤ k kʷ kˤ kʷˤ ʔ/ <p p' t t' k kw k' kw' '>
    /t͡s t͡sˤ t͡ʃ/ <c c' č>
    /ɸ ɸˤ θ θˤ s sˤ x ħ h/ <f f' θ θ' s s' ḫ x h>
    /m mˤ n nˤ ŋ ŋˤ/ <m m' n n' ng ng'>
    /r rˤ l lˤ/ <r r' l l'>
    /β̝ j w ʕ̝ / <v j w ẋ>

    Vowels:

    /i ɨ u/ <i y u>
    /e o/ <e o>
    /ə/ <ə>
    /a/ <a>

    Phonotactics:

    CVR

    C= any consonant
    V= any vowel
    R= any sonorantal consonant

    Accent:

    Lexical pitch accent.

    Nouns

    - neutral alignment
    - indirective ditransitive alignment
    - no gender
    - no number
    - no case
    - possessive prefixes
    - definiteness suffixed
    - honorific endings

    [Possessor + Root + Root's extension(s) + Definiteness + Honorific ending]

    Verbs

    - ergative-absolutive alignment
    - two aspects (Incompletive, Completive)
    - three voices (passive, antipassive, causative)
    - two tenses (past, non-past)
    - two moods (realis, irrealis)
    - evidentiality (visual sensory, nonvisual sensory, inferential, reported, heard from known source, direct participation)

    [Person + Aspect + Root + Root's extension + Voice + Tense + Mood + Evidentiality]

    Adjectives

    - adjectives the same as nouns or verbs
    - special adverbial ending

    Pronouns

    - N-M pronouns
    - Honorific suffixes

    Adpositions

    - prepositions

    Syntax

    - SVO
    - Described word - Describing word
     
  19. Chrzęścimir Satəm Indo-Europophile

    Joined:
    Feb 9, 2009
    Location:
    Laska Ziemia/Lechian Land
    Proto-Dhokoic (red colour in northern Oceania)

    Phonology

    Consonants:

    /ǀ ǁ ǃ ǂ/
    /ᶢǀ ᶢǁ ᶢǃ ᶢǂ/
    /ᵑǀ ᵑǁ ᵑǃ ᵑǂ/
    /ǀʰ ǁʰ ǃʰ ǂʰ/
    /ᶢǀʱ ᶢǁʱ ᶢǃʱ ᶢǂʱ/
    /ᵑ̊ǀʰ ᵑ̊ǁʰ ᵑ̊ǃʰ ᵑ̊ǂʰ/
    /ᵑǀʱ ᵑǁʱ ᵑǃʱ ᵑǂʱ/
    /ǀˀ ǁˀ ǃˀ ǂˀ/
    /ǀᵡ ǁᵡ ǃᵡ ǂᵡ/
    /ᶢǀʶ ᶢǁʶ ᶢǃʶ ᶢǂʶ/
    /ǀ ʜ ǁ ʜ ǃ ʜ ǂ ʜ/
    /ᶢǀ ʢ ᶢǁ ʢ ᶢǃ ʢ ᶢǂ ʢ/
    /p t k/ <p t k>
    /pʰ tʰ kʰ/ <ph th kh>
    /b d g/ <b d g>
    /bʰ dʰ gʰ/ <bh dh gh>
    /t͡s t͡ʃ/ <c č>
    /t͡sʰ t͡ʃʰ/ <ch čh>
    /d͡z d͡ʒ/ <dz dž>
    /d͡zʰ d͡ʒʰ/ <dzh džh>
    /s ʃ ʜ/ <s š x>
    /z ʒ ɦ/ <z ž h>
    /m n ŋ/ <m n ng>
    /l/ <l>
    /j w/ <y w>

    Vowels:

    /i u/ <i u>
    /e o/ <e o>
    /a/ <a>

    Phonotactics:

    CVN

    C= any consonant
    V= any vowel
    N= any nasal consonant

    Tones:

    - high
    - medium
    - low

    Nouns

    - active-stative alignment (Fluid-S)
    - indirective ditransitive alignment
    - two classes (Human, Non-Human)
    - no number
    - two cases (Active, Inactive)
    - definiteness suffixed (Indefinite, Definite)
    - pronominal possessives

    [Class + Root + Root's extension(s) + Definiteness + Case]

    Verbs

    - active-stative alignment
    - four aspects (Stative, Progressive, Habitual, Perfective)
    - transitivity: intransitive, transitive (unmarked), causative I, causative II
    - analytical moods with auxiliary verbs
    - no grammatical tense
    - evidentiality (visual sensory, nonvisual sensory, inferential, reportative)
    - affirmativity affixed

    [Person + Affirmativity + Root + Root's extension(s) + Transitivity + Aspect + Evidentiality]

    Adjectives

    - adjectives the same as nouns
    - adverbs marked with special ending
    - intensifiers instead of degrees of comparison (Strong, Balanced, Weak)

    Pronouns

    - T-H pronouns
    - Class marked on pronouns
    - logophoric pronouns
    - clusivity

    Adpositions

    - prepositions

    Syntax

    - VOS
    - Describing word - Described word

    Proto-Qasiric (light olive colour in southern Oceania)

    Phonology

    Consonants:

    /p t k q/ <p t k q>
    /pʰ tʰ kʰ qʰ/ <ph th kh qh>
    /pʼ tʼ kʼ qʼ/ <p' t' k' q'>
    /s ʃ x χ/ <s š x h>
    /m n ɲ ŋ/ <m n ny ng>
    /r l ʎ/ <r l ly>
    /j w/ <y w>

    Vowels:

    /i u/ <i u>
    /e o/ <e o>
    /a/ <a>

    /ḭ ṵ/ <i' u'>
    /ḛ o̰/ <e' o'>
    /a̰/ <a'>

    Phonotactics:

    CVC

    Accent:

    Stress accent on penultimate syllable.

    Nouns

    - nominative-accusative alignment
    - indirective ditransitive alignment
    - no gender
    - two numbers (singular, plural)
    - eight cases (Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, Ablative, Instrumental, Vialis, Locative)
    - possessive suffixes

    [Root + Root's extension(s) + Possessor + Number + Case]

    Verbs

    - ergative-absolutive alignment on verbs
    - two aspects (Incompletive, Completive)
    - three tenses (past, present, future)
    - analytical modal constructions
    - three voices (passive, antipassive, causative)
    - volitional auxiliary verb
    - evidentiality (nonvisual sensory, inferential, reportative)

    [Agent] + [Aspect + Voice + Root + Root's extension(s) + Tense + Evidentiality + Patient]

    Adjectives

    - adjectives the same as verbs
    - special adverbial ending

    Pronouns

    - neither M-T, nor N-M, nor T-H pronouns

    Adpositions

    - postpositions

    Syntax

    - SOV
    - Describing word - Described word

    Proto-Nganaic (red-brown colour on northeastern part of southern continent)

    Phonology

    Consonants:

    /p t c k ʔ/ <p t c k '>
    /b d ɟ g/ <b d j g>
    /b̰ d̰ ɟ̰ g̰/ <bb dd jj gg>
    /s ç x h/ <s ç x h>
    /z ʝ ɣ/ <z y v>
    /z̰ ʝ̰ ɣ̰/ <zz yy vv>
    /m n ɲ ŋ/ <m n ny ng>
    /m̰ n̰ ɲ̰ ŋ̰/ <mm nn nny nng
    /r l/ <r l>
    /r̰ l̰/ <rr ll>

    Vowels:

    /i u/ <i u>
    /ə/ <e>
    /a ɒ/ <a o>

    Phonotactics:

    CVC

    Accent:

    Stress accent on root syllable.

    Nouns

    - active-stative alignment (split-S)
    - secundative ditransitive alignment
    - no gender
    - two numbers (singular, plural)
    - definiteness suffixed
    - possessive prefixes
    - 12 cases (Active, Inactive, Instrumental, Commitative, Vialis, Genitive, Ablative, Allative, Benefactive, Essive, Equative, Abessive)

    [Number + Possessor + Root + Root's extension(s) + Definiteness + Case]

    Verbs

    - active-stative alignment on verbs
    - three aspects (Stative, Progressive, Experiential)
    - three voices (Active, Medial, Causative)
    - three tenses (past remote, past proper, non-past)
    - six moods (Indicative, Energetic, Conditional, Potentional, Hortative, Imperative)
    - evidentiality (visual sensory, inferential, reportative)

    [Person + Aspect + Root + Root's extension(s) + Voice + Tense + Evidentiality + Mood]

    Adjectives

    - the same as nouns
    - special adverbial ending
    - intensifiers instead degrees of comparison

    Pronouns

    - M-T pronouns
    - Honorifics

    Adpositions

    - postpositions

    Syntax

    -SOV
    - Describing word - Described word

    Proto-Anduic (dark violet colour on northeastern part of southern continent)

    Phonology

    Consonants:

    /p t k/ <p t k>
    /ⁿp ⁿt ⁿk/ <mp nt nk>
    /b d g/ <b d g>
    /ⁿb ⁿd ⁿgˡ <mb nd ng>
    /f s x/ <f s h>
    /v z ɣ/ <v z x>
    /m n ŋ/ <m n ŋ>
    /r l/ <r l>
    /j/ <j>

    Vowels:

    /i u/ <i u>
    /e o/ <e o>
    /a/ <a>

    /iː uː/ <ī ū>
    /eː oː/ <ē ō>
    /aː/ <ā>

    Phonotactics:

    CVC

    Accent:

    Stress accent on last syllable.

    Nouns

    - ergative-absolutive alignment
    - indirective ditransitive alignment
    - no gender
    - two number (singular, plural)
    - definiteness prefixed
    - possessive suffixes
    - three cases (Absolutive, Ergative, Dative)

    [Definiteness + Number + Root + Root's extension(s) + Possessor + Case]

    Verbs

    - ergative-absolutive alignment
    - three aspects (Imperfective, Iterative, Perfective)
    - three tenses (past, present, future)
    - two voices (passive, antipassive)
    - analytical causative
    - four moods (Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative, Hortative)
    - evidentiality (reported, everything else)

    [Person + Root + Root's extension(s) + Voice + Tense + Aspect + Mood + Evidentiality]

    Adjectives

    - adjectives the same as nouns
    - special adverbial ending

    Pronouns

    - M-T pronouns
    - Honorifics

    Adpositions

    - postpositions and prepositions

    Syntax

    - SOV
    - Describing word - Described word
     
  20. Chrzęścimir Satəm Indo-Europophile

    Joined:
    Feb 9, 2009
    Location:
    Laska Ziemia/Lechian Land
    I decided to develop further the Proto-Rumaic language and I have got also a preliminary outline of a processes for a descending language on the islands east to the central continent. Name for the islands will be Haravat.

    From Proto-Rumaic to Pre-Haravatic

    - aspirated plosives preserved
    - retroflex consonants preserved
    - velars shifted to palatals
    - uvulars shifted to velars
    - lateral obstruents shifted to laterals approximant
    - /h/ preserved
    - /ʋ/ preserved
    - /ɨ/ shifted to /ɪ/, /ɨː/ shifted to /iː/
    - /ə/ shifted to /a/
    - long vowels preserved
    - /iː uː ɪ ʊ/ lowered to /eː oː ɛ ɔ/ before sonorantal consonants
    - vowel clusters are contracted to prolonged second vowel

    [​IMG]