The Golden Age of Norðhymbralond - 1st Version
Firstly, Thande recommended I posted a quick guide to pronunciation:
There are seven vowels: a æ e i o u y.
The general pronunciation of the vowels is the same as most modern European languages, but different from Modern English:
A as in path
E as in pet
É as in pay
I as in pit
Í as in peat
O as in pot
Ó as in pole
U as in put
Ú as in pool
Æ as American pronunciation of man
Y as in French tu or German für
There were six diphthongs in Anglo-Saxon: ea, éa, eo, éo, ie and íe. For modern speakers, the easiest way is just to say the two vowels without a break between them, one after the other, putting the emphasis on the first.
ea = eh – ah
éa = ay – ah
eo = eh – o (short o like in pot)
éo = ay – o (short o like in pot)
ie = ih – eh
íe = ee – eh
At start or end of word - f
In middle of word - v
Beside unvoiced consonant - f
Doubled - f
At start or end of word - s
In middle of word - z
Beside unvoiced consonant - s
Doubled - s
Sc usually sh
þ or ð
At start or end of word - th as in thin
In middle of word - th as in that
Beside unvoiced consonant - th as in thin
Doubled - th as in thin
At start or end of word - h
In middle of word - ch as in Loch
C in general k
Before e, before i, after i - ch as in church
G in general g as in garden
Before e, before i, after i - y as in yellow
In middle of word gh as Modern Greek ghamma or voiced version of ch in Loch
Cg usually j sound as in bridge
Ng with hard g as in finger, linger, not like in singer, even when at the end of a word
The two letters þ and ð were interchangeable. Modern scholars often try to use þ for the unvoiced 'th as in thin' sound and ð for the voiced 'th as in this' sound, but this was not the practice of the ancient scribes.
Next here is a glossary of words that are going to be making an appearance in this TL. Some of these are only going to appear in the occasional story that I'll post.
Æðeling (also Ætheling) – A man of Royal birth, or a man of noble birth who has married into the Royal family. Is considered eligible for succeeding the King. All male relations and descendents of the King would be addressed as Æðeling
Æðelinghád – A princely state
Abbod – Abbot
Abbodríce – Abbey
Abbudisse – Abbess
Ambihtsecg – Ambassador
Arcebiscop – Archbishop
Arcebiscopríce - diocese
Bernicia - An old Anglo-Saxon kingdom, consisting of what is of modern-day County Durham and Northumberland, as well as parts of the Scottish borders. The name is derived from the Brythonic name Bryneich.
Biscop – A Bishop
Bisceopríce – A bishopric
Brimwísa – Means Sea-King and is the Anglo-Saxon equivalent of an Admiral
Brytene (also Bretene) – Britain
Brytene Íeglands (also Bretene Íegs) –The Islands of Britain
Brytenwalda (Also Bretwalda, Bretenenwealda, Brytenweald) – A title emerging in the 8th Century, used by the writers of the Anglo-Saxon chronicle, to refer to an Anglo-Saxon King who has achieved sufficient power and respect that he can be said to be an indirect ruler of all of Brytene
Burh – originally a walled and defensible settlement. Later the pre-planned and heavily fortified towns built by King Alfred and his descendents
Cásere – An Emperor
Cásern – An Empress
Ceorl – A free commoner, usually sub-divided by their status into Cotsetlas, Geburs and Geneatas
Cotsetlas – A class of Ceorl who’s Mægð own a hide of land, and must work for their Hund Éaldor one to three days a week in his fields at harvest and also perform duties for the Éaldorman. Beyond this, Cotsetlas are free to pursue other activities and many also earn additional wealth as Cræftsmenn
Cræftsmenn – A local craftsmen, normally a Cotsetla or poor Geneata. Often sells many of his goods to other Ceorl’s or to his Hund Éaldor.
Cwén - Wife or lady. Used to refer to any woman of royal or noble birth
Cyning – An Anglo-Saxon King
Cyninge – An Anglo-Saxon Queen
Ðegn (also Þegn, thegn and thane) – A land owning warrior class, personally loyal to either the king or the Éaldorman of their Scíre
Ðegnhyrde (also Thegnweard, thanehirde) – A title appearing in the late 9th Century, referring to a Ðegn placed in command of a an important burh or town. He would be much richer than most men of equal rank, and able to raise, arm and equip his own warriors.
Deira – An old Anglo-Saxon kingdom, consisting of what is of modern-day Yorkshire and the old county of Westmoreland. The name is derived from the Brythonic name Deywr.
Ðeow - A slave
Díacon - Deacon
Dryht – An old Anglo-Saxon warband, usually tied to a particular Sibb. The Dryht’s leader could also be one of the King’s Gesið
Dugùth – A veteran. A warrior who has fought is several campaigns.
Éaldorman – Originally the military and political leader of a Saetan, but by the 8th Century has come to mean the hereditary ruler of a Scíre
Fæsten – A fortress or a building that has been fortified, and later coming to mean a castle. Used to distinguish lone forts from fortified towns
Folc – A people or folk. For example Pheotafolc would be Pictish Folk.
Folcmoot – Meetings regularly held between all adult members of the Saetan, in which local matters are discussed and voted upon
Friga – The Anglo-Saxon Earth Goddess and the wife of Woden. Friday is named after Friga
Fyrd – A citizen levy or militia assembled in times of war, drawn from a single scíre and lead by their Éaldorman and his Ðegn’s
Fyrdsman – A man who is of sufficient social status to serve in the Fyrd
Gebur – The lowest class of Ceorl. Only able to rent a single Hide of land from either a Geneata or their Hund Ēaldor
Geneatas – The highest class of Ceorl’s. They are able to afford two to four hides of land, and buy Ðeow or rent Gebur to farm them
Gerefa – A reeve elected by his folcmoot. He is responsible for governing his people’s lands on his Éaldorman’s behalf and for being their representative of his people when the Éaldorman convenes an assembly of the Witan
Gesið (also Gesith) – Means companion of the King. Includes the Hearthweru, but also means any member or official of the Royal household
Geogùth – A young and inexperienced warrior
Gild – A group of craftsmen dedicated to a single profession, though often linked to particular Sibb’s and / or other Gild’s
Godémíte – A common Norðhymbronese war cry meaning ‘God Almighty!’
Heall – A long-hall where an Anglo-Saxon King would hold feasts and reward his warriors
Héarthweru (also Hird) – Means Hearth-Guards. These men are the household guard of the King, and all of them hold the status of Gesiða. Used rarely, though helpful for referring to the household guard instead of the entire royal household.
Hengist – Means Stallion. An Anglo-Saxon Horse god and the brother of Horsa; who together are less venerated in Anglo-Saxon religious beliefs than amongst the old Germanic tribes of the continent. Also the name of a Jutish King who invaded Centware in the 5th Century
Hérewísa – A title bestowed by the King, making the bearer a General. The Hérewísa lead’s the army if the King is not able to himself
Hide – The smallest land division, which is considered sufficient to support a single Mægð. The size may vary depending upon the Scíre
Hláford – means loaf-ward or load guardian. Can be the ruler of a village, a town or similar position of authority, and also refers to a minor nobleman who ranks beneath a Hund Éaldor.
Horsa – Means Horse. An Anglo-Saxon Horse god and the brother of Hengist; who together are less venerated in Anglo-Saxon religious beliefs than amongst the old Germanic tribes of the continent. Also the name of the brother of King Hengist, who invaded Centware in the 5th Century
Horswealas – The Anglo-Saxon name for Romano-British and later Welsh cavalry
Huscarles (also known as Housecarls) – The Anglo-Danish equivalent of the Hearthweru, though the Huscarles are better armed and significantly wealthier than their predecessors
Hund – A land division administered by a Hund Éaldor, which consists of a hundred Hide’s
Hund Éaldor – A minor nobleman responsible for the organisation and administration of a Hundred of land
Ingui (also Ing or Yngvi) – An Anglo-Saxon god of Fertility, though Ingui is better known as the Norse God Freyr. He is the progenitor of the Ingaevones, a number of Germanic tribes that include the Angles, Jute’s, Frisian’s and Saxon’s. Many Angle’s use the element –Ing as a part of their names, for example Inguec (M) or Ingiflæð (F).
Ing (suffix) – Used to denote male line of descent in later centuries, and similar to Scandinavian usage of son as a suffix. For example, Æthelbranding would be ‘son of Æthelbrand’, or the ‘son of noble-sword’. Many common surnames end with the suffix –ing.
Inga – Means ‘people, followers or family of’ – a common element in the names of many Anglo-Saxon settlements. For example Gódmundingahámmeans ‘village of Gódmund’s followers’.
Ísenscúr – literally means ‘shower of arrows’. A warning for men in the shieldwall that arrows have been loosed against them.
Leodwaldings – The Norðhymbronese aristocratic family which traces its descent from King Ida Flamebearer and who were the first Ruling House of Brytene.
Liðsmann – A warrior who fights both on land and sea. Can mean a pirate or seafarer, but also means the warriors raised by the King’s Scipsoc from the late 8th century onwards.
Mægð – The Anglo-Saxon family, around which the Sibb and the Saetan are based
Mealtealoth – Malted Ale. A popular and widespread drink
Preost – A priest. Able to perform religious rites and oversee the spiritual well being of their congregation from a church
Rídwiga – A Ðegn or a Héarthweru who owns a personal mount and fights from horseback
Rídehére – A mounted warband or a force of cavalrymen
Seax – A single-edged blade weapon, varying in size from a large knife to a short sword. A traditional weapon of the Anglo-Saxons
Saetan – An Anglo-Saxon tribe or people, often naming themselves after the region they have settled in. Their political importance is reduced with the establishment of the Scíre’s in the early 8th Century, but they retain control over local matters through the Folcmoot
Scildburh – Means ‘shield-fort’, a variant of the Scildweall formation where the warrior’s long-spears are driven into the ground and held out before the scildweall. A formation used for repelling charging cavalry
Scildweall – Shield-wall formation
Scildhréoða – A protective battle formation where men raise their shields to protect themselves from incoming projectiles
Scíre – The largest administrative division of a Kingdom. Ruled by an Éaldorman who the King will either appoint to the position or whose Mægð have been granted a hereditary title
Scíregerefa – A Shire Reeve, who oversees and administers the Gerefa of his Scíre, and is also responsible for mustering his Scíre’s Fyrd in times of war
Flotásóc (Also scipsóc) – A land division of three hundred hides that is sufficient to pay for the construction and maintenance of a warship, and to provide around sixty Liðsmenn to man it.
Sibb – A closely-knit sub-group within the Saetan, made up of related families. In some ways analogous to a Scottish Clan
Wælcyrgie – The shield maidens of Woden: analogous to the Scandinavian Valkyrie. Ravens are considered to be the form they will take when in the world of men
Wærgenga – A man or woman who is not a member of a particular Saetan but wishes to join it. Wærgenga’s are often Briton’s living in conquered lands wishing to advance socially or to marry a member of the Saetan.
Witan – Means ‘wise man’. A man who of sufficient rank and social status, or has demonstrated the requisite intelligence and loyalty, to be made a member of the Witangemot
Witangemot - A council of men summoned by a King and responsible for offering him wise council on military, political and mercantile matters. Upon the death of the King, the Witangemot will elect his successor from amongst the Æðeling’s. An Éaldorman will also summon a smaller Witangemot for administration and governance at the Scíre level
Woden (also Wotan and Wudan) – an Anglo-Saxon god to whom many King’s trace their ancestry. He is the God of God of battles, of wisdom and of death. The raven (Hræfen) is considered to be his sacred beast. Wednesday is named after Woden
The Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms
Finally this is a list of the Kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxons, with their old names on the left hand side and the modern pronunciation in the right hand column.
Centware = Kent
East Englas = East Anglia
East Seaxe = Essex
Myrcnia = Mercia
Norðhymbralond = Northumbria
Suth Rig = Surrey
Suð Seaxe = Sussex
West Seaxe = Wessex
Operation Compass Succeeds
The Golden Age of Northumbria (Starring Gérard Depardieu as King Eomær and with Brian Blessed as Erik Bloodaxe)
Last edited by Max Sinister; September 29th, 2008 at 03:14 PM.. Reason: Linky