1940- Many of the groups of Chinese around Oakland are united by a powerful gang, known as the T'ang Dragons.
1940- Clinton Anderson runs for the state senate in Sonora, winning in his district.
1940 Fiorella LaGuardia resigns from the Governorship to run for Roosevelt's Senate seat, which TR Jr. is not running for in order to concentrate on his race for the Presidency. He hands the Governor's office over to his trusted Lt. Governor, to give him the incumbant advantage in the next Gubernatorial election.
1940 - The Imperial Council is formally renamed the Imperial Senate. All powers of oversight of inter-Imperial relations and foreign relations have been ceded by Westminster to the Senate, which has three elected representatives from each Dominion as well as Great Britain in its composition. The Prime Minister of Great Britain and the Sovereign both may wield a veto power over the Senate, which in turn can be overturned by a 3/4 vote of the Senate or a vote for overturning the veto in 2/3rds of the Dominions plus Great Britain.
January 1940: Seymour publishes an article in a Pulitzer paper again about the nature of comitees. He encourages more men of the people to be invited, and discourages the old tendancy of only bringing in party big whigs.
January 4, 1940 - Officials in Brittany declare the Breton Republic and petition London, Madrid, Lisbon, and Berlin for recognition. Some see this more of an attempt to avoid reparations than a true revolution, but the breakaway region is recognized by most nations by the end of the year.
January 13th 1940- Left wing counter-coup occurs in the South of France, with Marseilles being declared the capital of a Socialist Provencal Republic. The French fleet is taken after a short fight almost intact.
January 16th 1940- Infant Vittorio Emanuelle is declared King of Italy by Giacomo San Pietro, who declares himself regent. In reality the young King's rule was only effective over the lower third of Italy, Sicily and Sardinia.
January 25th 1940- The Saud faction in the Arabian Peninsula is finally eliminated, their pipeline to Russian weapons already dry and with no foreign support. The leaders went either into exile or died but many later joined the extremist Allah’s Will movement.
January 27, 1940 - The Boston, Revere Beach, and Lynn Railroad goes defunct. It is decided by the MTA to purchase the section of the line going from Wood Island to Lynn and convert it to extend the Bowdoin-Airport Line.
February 1940: The convention comitee agrees to adopt Seymours suggestions. Seymour's theory is that Roosevelt's support comes not from party leadership but from the middle class. Though LaGuardia and Cabot-Lodge both reppresent their party's beliefs much better then Roosevelt, they lack the media appeal. Thus Hearst ensured a Roosevelt primary victory. Roosevelt remained unaware of any of this planning.
February 1st 1940- Chaos reigns in France. By now separatists movements are in place in at least two areas of France while the rule of the French monarch effectively only exists in the immediate area of Paris and in Occupied France.
February 7th 1940- Regiment 999 is used by the Austro-Hungarian Army as the parent unit for the creation of an elite division, the Guards Division. Under Michael Skorzeny the unit, while their members were fully trained as airmobile troops, they were an unconventional unit used to defeat irregular forces using the teachings of their commander Skorzeny.
February 13th 1940- Frank Anthony, one of the prominent leaders of the Anglo-Indian community in India, is named as Minister of Education in the Nehru’s cabinet.
February 22nd 1940- First Amphibious Armored vehicles or AAV’s for short were ordered into production by the Department of the Navy. With the reduction going on of the military only 120 were ordered, a quantity considered not enough by many of the leaders in the US Marines. Tracked and capable of 9 mph on water, they were considered to fill the expectations of the Marines’ experts but the actions in Cuba in 1945 demonstrated some changes needed to be made in the design.
March 1940- Erich von Manstein, German Chief of the General Staff, announced his plan for the reduction in size of the German Heer. While personally opposed to this, he was told that the funding for the Heer was being slashed and was forced to come up with a plan to how to use the available funds. The main shock to the press was the announced reduction of the number of divisions from the 52 current post-war divisions to 28. He announced that was going to be a process that they expected to finish by 1946, with the end result being better equip divisions, armed with the most modern weapons systems build by that time. A lot of the available funds were being made available to the Heer’s R&D division to ensure his promise was a reality.
March 1st 1940- Manchurian Republic Army is formally organized. With Manchuria being declared independent since early 1938 only the Treaty of San Francisco guaranteed the continued existence of the nation while Chinese making overt moves to end their existence. While the organization followed the traditions of the Japanese Army in the size and shape of the units, the equipment was a mix of Japanese and Russian equipment on the first years while neutral “advisors”, in majority of the cases American but some Russians and South Americans were also included in the first years. By the end of the year the Army reached the higher echelon level organization that still exists today of four army groups but the composition of the units included in those army groups changed with time but originally were three infantry divisions each of 15,000 per group.
March 7th 1940- Napoleon IV abdicates the French throne in what he stated “to end the cycle of violence our nation is falling.”
March 16th 1940- Irish prime minister Michael Collins steps down due to health reasons. He's replaced by his political ally Richard Mulcahy, former commander of the Irish Expeditionary Force during the Global War and recently Minister of the Interior for Collins' cabinet.
March 17th 1940- Japan began production of the Mitsubishi A5M to replace the remaining American build P-14 on their carrier-based inventory. With a maximum range of over 900 miles, with a maximum speed of 330 mph and armed with two 20mm cannons and two 7.7mm machineguns it was build in duralumin alloy to save weight and made it very maneuverable. It was the best carrier-based aircraft of the early 1940’s but it was superseded by newer designs by 1948.
March 18th 1940- Sir Oswald Mosley is named to the Cripps cabinet as a minister without portfolio. A member of the Labour Party since 1922, Mosley returned to politics after serving in a Territorial Division during the Global War and being wounded in 1936.
March 18th 1940- King Alfonso XIII of Spain dies and his succeeded by his son Alfonso, who took the throne as Alfonso XIV.
March 29th 1940- Malagasy nationalist revolted against the Germans. Although the revolt eventually spread to 1/3 of the island, the Germans were able to defeat the revolt after the arrival of Askaris from Tanganyika and the Congo by the end of the year. Estimates put the casualties in between 20,000 to 30,000 Malagasy with close to 2,000 German and Askaris being counted as casualties. The revolt polarized the politics in the island, forcing the German to rule by decree until 1951.
April 8th 1940- Even with the Russian Baltic Fleet still a threat even in their reduced state, budget cutbacks affected the German Imperial Fleet. Finally after some arm twisting, enough funds were found to build a new class of battleships, a three-ship class with one of the ships being build for the German Far East Fleet. Three ships with three triple 18” turrets, they turned out to be obsolete by the time their construction was ended in early 1947.
April 12th 1940- Germany develops the first ship/submarine launched surface to surface missile. Using semi active MWD the "Raptor" was a Pulsejet/ramjet hybrid that could be launched from any catapult-equipped ship. The "Hawk" the submarine launched derivative used pulse jets with solid rocket boosters and was radio command guided. It was launched from a converted UA type sub. Unfortunatly due to budget constrains a modified version of the Hawk called the Hawk 1A, which used the guidance package of the Raptor, was employed in small numbers as a coastal defence weapon. Become operational in 1942.
April 19th 1940-Japanese Prime Minister Yamashita announces a process of integration of the citizens of the Empire. His idea was to force Japanese culture into the minorities of the Empire in an attempt to eliminate what he called “the dissention that caused our defeat in the past war never happens again.”
April 23 1940 -- A coalition of Asian Canadian groups, reacting to Japan's planned crackdown on its minorities, begins petitioning Parliament to expand immigration quotas and streamline the naturalization process. Millions of Asians arrived in Canada as "war refugees" or through other special programs, but the public is increasingly willing to allow Asian immigrants in through the front door.
April 24th 1940- Leon Blum returns to France from his exile in Mexico and in Calais announces he was willing to lead a coalition of moderate groups to bring an end to the chaos in France. The British and Germans support Blum’s attempts to bring an end to the French quagmire.
May 1940: New oil fields are discovered in Bahrain and Qatar. Petrol prices plummet to 20-year lows, as the post-war auto market in Europe has been dominated almost entirely by fuel-efficient cars while Americans continue their love affair with half-electric hybrids. The more-expensive oil sands petrol fields in Canada and Venezuela begin losing money.
May-June 1940 -- Although a sizeable portion of voters, especially in Quebec, are still opposed to increased immigration, the Asian Canadians seem to be having their "breakthrough moment", as the Toronto Star called it. Parades, speeches, and community action campaigns have gathered hundreds of thousands of volunteers. In the oldest Asian communities, Victoria and Vancouver, there are almost as many White volunteers as Asian.
May 2nd 1940- Lt. General Erwin Rommel is ordered to lead the German advisor team in China to help build the Chinese Army on the German mold. Rommel’s recommendation was to further reduce the size of the Chinese Army, from the current 70 infantry divisions with a small armored complement, into 40 divisions with a preponderance in armored vehicles plus independent brigades included. He stated the process will be a long one and he has his doubts it will completed during his four-year tenure in the post.
May 10th 1940- The city of Paris is captured by forces loyal to the new Republican government of Leon Blum. Air assets of the British and German occupation forces supported the advancing forces.
May 17 1940 -- Canadian Parliament begins debate on a series of new proposals designed to encourage further Asian immigration and continue integrating the existing immigrant population.
May 18th 1940- Igor Sikorsky, the Russian aircraft engineer, unveils the S-7. The very first production helicopter to enter service in any armed forces, they made a very showing during the short 1941 civil war and served with the Russian military for the rest of the decade until replaced by faster and more capable designs.
May 21st 1940- The 2nd and 3rd Cavalry Divisions are dismounted and replaced their horses with armored vehicles. The new Cavalry Corps, with the 1st Cavalry in Fort Riley, the 2nd in Fort Hood and the 3rd in Fort Huachuca, was put under the overall command of the war hero George Patton.
May 22 1940 With the oil prices plummeting, President Gomez orders the sale of Venezuela's oil to its ravaged neighbors in South America at a discount of the world price in an attempt to dominate the market in the area plus he made massive sales of oil to China at special rates. By the end of the year the size of the new markets pushed the Venezuelan economy back in the right direction. President Gomez uses the oil generated funds to begin a crash program to industrialize and strengthen his country as a whole.
June 4th 1940- Henri Petain finally agrees to meet his former opponent in Paris to end the Civil War in France. Petain was very sick due to his age and the months he spent in prison during 1939 and early 1940. The old warrior was very condescend and after days of meetings he agreed to speak to the right-wing factions to lay down their weapons and to work together in a coalition government. Petain was offered the position of President while Blum took for himself the position of Prime Minister. Still Brittany and the Provencal areas refused to acknowledge the new Paris government.
June 8th 1940- China announces the purchase of over 600 surplus American M1A1 and M2A1 armored cars. Those vehicles, with the remaining vehicles from the Global War and the ones donated by the Central Powers from French stock made possible to raise three armored divisions by the end of 1942.
June 25 1940- After news are leaked that money that had been received to help the economy was being spent on the military the public begin to protest the action of President Umanzor, as not wanting to help his country but on the contrary to appease his power base on the military.
June 27, 1940 -- Before a cheering crowd in Rideau Hall, Ottowa, Governor General Charles Colquhoun Ballantyne signs the Reformed Naturalization and Education Acts. He is accompanied by Willie Ah Poy and Stanley Chong, the first two Asian-Canadian MPs. The acts greatly ease the process for Asians, especially ethnic minorities from China, Manchuria, and Japan, to immigrate to Canada. They also reform the educational system, first and foremost to make it easier for Asians to learn English and French, but also so that other Canadians can learn various Asian languages in public schools.
July 1940- The German Army used the lessons of the Great War to bear in the design of their new main battle rifle, the GEW 40. The recognition that the majority of battlefield casualties occurred at shorter ranges brought forward the idea of improved firepower coupled with the use of a smaller caliber round for the main battlerifle. The ideas for the development of this weapons have to wait until the end of the war due to the use of funds for the "Thor Project." Still this weapon was revolutionary. A selective fire 30 round detachable magazine rifle, the use of the 7.92 x 33 MM round made it possible to be used as a submachinegun at shorter ranges but with greater accuracy and range than submachineguns in longer range encounters.
July 4, 1940 - Jews in Salonika start a revolt against Greek rule. They demand the restoration of the Autonomous state.
Jul 4th 1940- William Lincoln Roberts is born in Alexandria, Virginia. The son of a a veteran of the 10th Infantry Division (colored) and a schoolteacher, he was a well educated and athletic boy, receiving allocades by all his teachers and piers during his school years.
August 1940: Hearst gives an official endorsement to Roosevelt.
Fall 1940 - Republican presidential candidate Theodore Roosevelt Jr. holds appeal to several Democrats, who come to be called 'Roosevelt Democrats'.
September 1940 -- Through the financial backing of Spanish-Basque businessmen, especially those with Euskal Europa Party leanings, the University of Deusto sets up a second campus in Rennes, with the mission of "encouraging academic brotherhood between the Basque and Celt peoples." Deusto-Rennes quickly develops excellent linguistics and archaeology programs.
September 8th 1940- Japan goes around the Treaty of San Francisco by raising the size of the Special Naval Landing Forces to a size never seem before. By the end of the decade close to eight divisions of this nation's equivalent to Marines were serving in active duty.
September 9th 1940- Giacomo San Pietro agrees with Pope Paul VI and the Austro-Hungarian ambassador to Rome in the terms later called the Rome Accord. San Pietro agreed to recognize the city of Rome and a small corridor from the coast to that city as “temporal territory of the Pope” and under the eternal protection of the Kingdom of Italy and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Also he recognized the lost of Lombardy and Venetia to the Austro-Hungarians in exchange for the recognition of his Regency as the “true” government of Italy and for the Austro-Hungarians to stop sending support to any other factions in the ongoing Civil War.
September 10th 1940- United States develops the first surface to air AA missile. Using semi-active MWD homing like the Russian Golden Eagle, the Bulldog was designed to be used either in ships or as static air defense due to being too large to be mobile. It enter production in 1942.
September 17th 1940- British Prime Minister Cripps announces that no further construction of battleships or battlecruisers is on the immediate future. Instead major capital ships were going to be send to be refurnished to extend the lifetime of those ships. Also he announced that the five oldest dreadnaughts and the three battlecruisers in the Royal Navy were going either to be decommissioned or transferred to Dominion’s fleets. Critics accused Cripps of reducing the Royal Fleet to “second to the US”, but he defended himself by stating that the Royal Navy has still almost a 2:1 advantage in battleships versus the US and almost parity on carriers with the Colossus class.
Fall 1940 -- With the introduction of the 1941 model year, the two newcomers on the European auto market surge into prominence. Britain's Sopwith-Rolls, which until 1938 had contented itself with the British market, is now #1 in revenue in France, a position largely won because high-end manufacturing has been almost impossible in France. Gesgeshi, meanwhile, has won the #1 spot in Italy through an innovative sales technique -- by only selling their cars at dockside dealerships, they feed on the association of anything Italian with turmoil and failure. Businesses in other industries soon mimic Gegegshi, further warping the Italian economy.
October 1st to 10th 1940- Chicago Cubs won their second consecutive World Series, by defeating the Boston Blue Sox 4 games to 3. Shortstop Paul Dimaggio (.374-37-119) wins the National League Leadership Award by winning the batting crown and leading his team to victory for a second consecutive year.
October 8th 1940- Enrico Fermi is spotted in Moscow by diplomatic attaches under the German Naval Intelligence Department.
October 17th 1940- The Socialist Republic of Italy leader Pasolini is assassinated while reading on his study in Genoa. The assassin was a member of his security detail, disgruntled with the continued bloodshed and no end in sight to the fighting in Italy. A provisional Junta was immediately formed and their first order of business was to ask for a ceasefire with the Italian People’s Republic that was accepted three days later.
November 1940 Despite signs that the economy is reviving, incumbent president Wendell Wilkie is defeated by Republican challenger Theodore Roosevelt Jr.
November 1940- Rafael Espaillat is reelected as President of the Dominican Republic. The next six years saw the economy slowly taking a turn for the better while in the international front the nation was more active in the Caribbean, with the border with Haiti being closed after a border clash with the Gendermerie in 1942 and his nation taking part in the stabilization of Cuba in 1945.
November 14th 1940- Brazil puts an order to the British for the construction of two brand new ones fast battleships to increase the size of their fleet. The ships had a displacement of 27,000 tons, a max speed of 32 knots and armed with three dual 12” guns. The main guns were taken from old decommissioned British ships to save in cost and the armour on the ships really made them battlecruiser. A terrible mistake in the opinion of many naval experts, it was considered a fast ship that handled very well but it lacked the armour and guns to stand up in any fight against the main ships of their possible rivals.
December 19th 1940- The Dominion of India informs the British government their intention of acquiring as many ships as possible from the ones being mothballed by the Royal Navy, to what Prime Minister Nehru stated “to build a true Royal Indian Navy.”
1941- Chihuahua becomes a state of the Union.
1941 - An attempted coup by forces loyal to Grand Duke Michael fails, but Tsar Alexis I is killed in the process. His son Tsar Alexis II is proclaimed Tsar by the Duma, which has remained loyal to the memory of the charismatic Tsar Alexis. A civil war breaks out in the nation, with the forces rallying under Grand Duke Michael holding Moscow and Kiev while those loyal to the young Tsar Alexis II and the Duma hold St. Petersburg and Gorky. The Finns remain loyal to the Duma, but the Ukrainians join with the Southern Russians. However, both sides are still suffering from the fatigue of the end of the Great War, and by the end of the year the two sides reluctantly agree to a division of the nation, with the Ukraine and South European Russia froming a new state of Russia Ukraine under Tsar Michael, while Tsar Alexis II continues to rule the Russian Empire under the guidance of the Duma.
January 1941: Though many Roosevelt Democrats have fundamentally become Republicans, they remain in support of Hoover, who keeps his speakership.
January 1941: Three new cities are founded in Ethiopia's new Somali territories -- Point Asia on the easternmost point, Jubba at the mouth of the Jubba River on the Kenya-Ethiopian border, and Garveytown on Somalia's Tuddi coast. To the outside world, it is the beginning of the Second Great Immigration, a 15-year wave where American Negroes again flock to Ethiopia, joined this time by Africans and Carribeans; the wave only ends when the USA passes the Civil Rights Act. To native Somalis, it is the Great Fading, when the Somalis become a minority in their own nation and Somali children grow up learning English and Amharic in the schools.
January 1941 Theodore Roosevelt Jr.’s Inauguration Speech promises, in the words of his father’s generation, a ‘Square Deal’ for the nation.
January 7th 1941- Last of the Hornets, the USS Bonhomme Richard, is commissioned.
February 1941- In a meeting between the different military commanders of the British Dominions celebrated in London it was agreed in the size, shape and training needed for the Dominions to respond to the post-war world. The Canadians have demobilized the eight divisions that fought in the Global War but it was decided that the units that formed the first two divisions were going to form part of the Permanent Force while two more divisions were put into Territorial status. The Canadians depots were close to train stations, their forces being considered the first reinforcements the Empire received after the Irish. In Australia the result of the Japanese invasion was the decision to raise a very large permanent force in comparison to their population, with four permanent divisions been in the books while a large volunteer militia also existed. Australian troops were trained for the defense of their homeland and deployment was considered as a last resort. New Zealand, not directly affected by the events on the Pacific, demobilized the two divisions that fought the Global War and preferred to spent their money in better air and naval defenses with a very small permanent Army cadre taking care of the equipment depots for the militia. South Africa surprised everyone by keeping a large territorial force in place while Ireland and Guyana decided to keep both their permanent and militia forces small to the dismay of the British Royal Army planners. The Indian Army on the other hand was very large indeed, with the process of training Indian officers to replace British ones going very well, with close to 45% of the officer grades in the Indian Army ten divisions being natives. Also it was good news for the British planners than two of the Indian Army divisions were fully motorized but it was a dismay that traditionalist still kept four cavalry brigades on the active list.
February 1941- Chiang Kai-Shek wins the presidential election in China. A hero of the Global War, he criticized President’s Soong achievements in the negotiation table after the war and the slowing down of the economy due to the global recession. Also his promises of further expansion and glory for China were welcomed by many of the veterans of the war that felt cheated by the small territorial gains made by their country even after they suffered millions of casualties. Chiang continued and increased the modernization program for his military started by his predecessor and the seeds for the manufacture of heavy weapons were laid down by his administration. Many considered these actions were directed to the Japanese and the Manchurians. Japanese response was to send support to the growing Indochinese rebels in the Chinese new province of Tonkin and in the puppet Kingdom of Annam. This further eroded the almost non-existent relationship between China and Japan.
February 14th 1941- Charlemagne Peralte returns to northern Haiti. After six months he has northern Haiti under his control and considers the area as Free Haiti.
February 19th 1941- Free elections are announced by the new junta in the Socialist Republic of Italy.
March 1941- After meeting the military leaders of the Dominions the British Royal Army decided what to do with the available resources. The garrisoning of the Empire plus France and the former colonies of the vanquished enemies of the British Empire was costing the British a lot. It made impossible for the Empire to demobilize all Territorial units three years after the end of the War. While all second line Territorial units were already demobilized by late 1938, the 1st line Territorial divisions in the majority of the cases were still active; the 5th and 6th Cavalry Brigades, using American misnamed “armored cars” were used to patrol the deserts in Libya and North Africa while twelve infantry divisions were being used for different garrison duties all over the Empire. The Regular Army divisions began to follow the German example and the five infantry divisions in Europe and in the Middle East began to be fully motorized while the 1st Tank Brigade was created, using the A2 landship instead of the two landship divisions that were still using the heavier A1. The A2 was faster but in reality was very similar to the French CA1 and considered by many as a copy. Finally it was decided to slowly reduce the number of Territorial units still in service while funds were being diverted to the development of newer weapon systems. Also it was decided to raise a test unit, the 1st Airmobile Division, to be evaluated as a rapid deployment force.
March 14th 1941- Stephen Smith, an Anglo-Indian rocket scientist living in Calcutta, designs the Aurora. The rocket was later proven capable of delivering the British atomic bomb and was later produced under contract by Germany and Austria-Hungary.
March 15th 1941- The Austrian Guard Division is sent to Romania to help in the “normalization” of the area. They served in the area for three years and helped to calm down the partisan activity in the occupied territory.
March 18th 1941- The Dominion of India announces the purchase of the former battleship Hercules and the three battlecruisers of the Inflexible class. While all the ships were over thirty years old, the Dominion was willing to pay for the necessary repairs to extend the life of those ships. After consideration they refused to purchase the even older Bellerophon and St. Vincent class battleship. After failing to find takers, the British government demobilized them and later were sold for scrap.
March 18th 1941- Attempted coup led by Grand Duke Michael in St. Petersburg fails, but Tsar Alexis I die in the process. Grand Duke Michael is forced to flee south.
March 22nd 1941- After some soul searching, Georgy Zhukov joins his former commander Grand Duke Michael in his attempt to get the Russian Crown and meet with him in Kiev to try to direct operations.
April 3rd 1941- A fast-motorized ad-hoc force under Zhukov captures Moscow from the still surprised garrison. This was the only major victory of both forces during the short conflict (late March to early October), with the war reducing itself to a positional one due to exhaustion in both sides caused by the Global War.
April 3rd 1941- King Monivong of Cambodia dies and replaced by Norodom Sihanouk. The Thais considered him the ideal candidate for the throne of Cambodia from their point of view because of his youth, his lack of experience and his pliability.
Summer 1941- First portable rocket propelled grenades make their appearance during the Russian Civil War. Called armor gauntlets, they were a 40mm rocket launcher where a 82mm grenade was fitted. The weapon was effective against stationary targets only to 150 meters and versus mobile ones at ranges than less of 100 meters. It could penetrate up to 180mm of armor.
May 1st 1941- The Taejon Massacre. A peaceful demonstration in favor of maintaining Korean culture is broken up by Japanese troops and in the process 150 persons were killed and over 300 wounded. The organizer of the demonstration Joo-Chan Lee is forced into exile in China, were he continued to fight the forced Japanization of Korea.
June 6th 1941- President Roosevelt gives the approval for the construction of a class of light carriers for escort duties. The Miami Class, nine ships named after coastal cities, began construction in early 1942 and were completed by the end of 1946. A nine ship class, they were small compared with the Hornet Class. Their maximum tonnage was 12,000, capable of carrying 35 aircrafts and going at speeds of 32 knots.
July 5th 1941- The first JagerGewehr -41 rifles are issued to the Austrian Guards Division for testing in Romania. A 7.92 x 57mm selective fire semi-automatic rifle, it fired in semi from a closed bolt and automatic from a closed bolt. The feed system was a 20 round box magazine mounted on the left side of the rifle. That caused some problems, like the weapon was unbalanced and in addition automatic fire with the full-powered caliber round being used made automatic fire very difficult to control. The weapon was well liked by the Guards Division but the decision was made not to put this weapon into full production, this weapon being only produced in limited quantity for this division.
July 19th 1941- Ramon Serrano Suñer named Prime Minister by the Spanish monarch Alfonso XIV himself. A very conservative member of the Cortes, he was a supporter of the fallen French and Italian regimes and as such allowed many of that fallen nations intelligentsia to immigrate to their nation. Under his guidance, Spain turned into a supplier of weapons by the end of the decade, especially French designed aircrafts and small arms.
August 7, 1941 - The Greeks and Jews in the Balkans agree to a peace. Salonika will have restored to it autonomous status and its own legislature, but will acknowledge the King of Greece as the sovereign and will only handle domestic matters, leaving foreign policy to the Greek government. They are also allowed to form a small national guard, the Salonika Defense Force.
August 11th 1941- Germany began production of their new combat landship, the Panzer II. A further upgrade of the Panzer I, it had better armor protection and was armed with an 88mm gun in a modified turret while tipping the scales at 32 tons. This vehicle was the main German combat landship of the Heer until replaced by the Panzer III in 1949.
September 21st 1941- Giacomo San Pietro agrees to a ceasefire with the People’s Republic of Italy after failing to defeat them on his 1941 summer campaign. By now the economy of the rump Kingdom of Italy was on shambles and he was very dependent by now of Austro-Hungarian and British help.
Winter 1941: Ethel Roosevelt's daughter Sarah, while studying abroad for her Masters' in Education at Chiapas State, meets a charming music major, Rosario Contreras.
October 1941 -- The Gulf League of Mexican Football forms and buys the rights to the International Tournament, instantly turning the chaos of the early pro era into a regimented system. Along with the famous Mobile Home Boys, its members are the Miami Gators, New Orleans Haitians, Habana Cubans, Puerto Rico Marlins, Veracruz Angels, Villahermosa Ironwood, and Yucatan Maya.
October 1st 1941- Last organized guerilla units surrender near Florina. By 1945 the state of emergency in northern Greece was rescinded.
October 1st to 7th 1941- Pittsburgh Pirates win the Series 4 games to 1 over the Boston Blue Sox. Led by the hitting of Fenn Leonard (.334-47-128) and Joe Foxx (.300-20-105) plus the defensive heroics in his last playing season of the 42 year old third baseman Judy Johnson (.299- 4- 78) Pittsburgh won their first pennant since 1938.
November 7th 1941- In the Australian outback the first British atomic bomb is detonated. While the British deny having received any help from the Austro-German team, it was later proved that indeed they shared technical data with the British.
November 15, 1941 - The Finns and Karelians are rewarded for remaining loyal to Tsar Alexis with the formation of the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland-Karelia, with its own legislature and the complete abolition in perpetuity of the Russification laws. The Finns and Karelians in return swear to honor Tsar Alexis Romanov and his progeny as the rightful rulers of Finland-Karelia for all time.
December 7, 1941 - In a special referendum, the people of Hawaii vote to continue their protectorate status rather than apply for statehood by an overwhelming majority. Many site the thriving example of the Rio Grande and the remaining ill feelings among many after the long military governorship of the islands.
1942-Prescott Bush Jr enters Yale, from were he graduated in 1946. In addition to being a member of all the singing groups, he also proves to be a fine athlete, once scoring 30 points in a basketball game. He decided to go to law school and graduated with a B.A. in law. His father, a US senator, is proud of his son, and hopes he can become very important one day.
1942 The US economy has fully recovered from the post war recession, and is embarking once more on a growth cycle.
January 3, 1942 -- Anton Korošec dies. Known only to Slovenes for most of his life, his Slovenija Europa party suddenly turned him into a cult hero late in life. Two funerals are held, one for family, one for admirers.
January 4, 1942 -- The Unio Europa party forms in a Jesuit residence hall where many foreign admirers were boarding for Korošec's funeral. By now chapters have sprung up among the Basque, Romanians, and Sicilians; Saunders Lewis shows up and excitedly begins preparing for the daunting task of building up a Europa movement in Wales.
Febuary 1942: Roosevelt creates the Departement of Education, and names Cabot-Lodge Jr. secretary. He helps the nation take on the reforms that Massachusetts had already achieved.
March 5, 1942 - The Scottish Equality Movement formally forms on this day. Led by such men as filmaker Basil Wright, it is a movement that crosses party boundaries centered on the reestablishment of the Scottish Parliament with more control over local issues, and representation on par with the Irish (their own Parliament, continued though diminished representation in the British Parliament, and representation on the Imperial Parliament).
March 12, 1942 - To assuage the eastern provinces of the Breton Republic, legislation is passed allowing local governments to choose to have Gallo as a 'heritage language', promoting bilingual signs and offering Gallo as a language of study in their schools, though Breton remains a required language in all publications and a required course in school.
March 14th 1942- 34 year first baseman Joe Foxx is traded by the Pittsburgh Pirates with two minor leaguers to the Cleveland Naps for pitchers Gordon Dobson, Art Harris and Ward Galehouse. His trade opens the first base position finally for Fenn Leonard, forced to play the outfield due to Foxx presence in the team.
April 5th 1942- First Ivan the Great landships enter service in the Northern Russian military. Originally designed in 1939 with a 76mm gun as the main armament, the Civil War of 1941 postponed their development until the end of the Civil war. By them it was considered the main gun was too weak to defeat current German designs so the gun was changed for an 85mm one. The vehicle was an improvement over the Global War Peter the Great landships. Tipping the scale at 31 tons and with 90mm armour. It was very capable and comparable with the German Panzer II.
April 16th 1942- The Royal Small Arms Hactory at Enfield began to design the replacement for the Enfield-Savoie rifle, designing the weapon around the 7x43mm round. The new round was a result of the lessons of the Global War, that demostrated the majority of combat encounters occurred at short ranges and the need of a light, selective fire weapons was a necessity.
April 17th 1942- The Hansa-Brandeburg 70 enters service. Designed by Anthony Fokker, the HS-70 is considered a fighter/interceptor, even when with the use of two engines is considered as a heavy fighter by many. The two engines gave the aircraft a longer range than comparable aircrafts at the time, that at 600 miles it was only exceeded by the 900 of the Japanese A5M. With a maximum speed of 350mph and armed with eight 7.92mm machineguns, it was the mainstay of the German air forces during the 1940’s. It was also capable of carrying rockets, the first fighter capable of doing so.
April 20th 1942- Antonio Salazar elected President of Portugal. During his twelve-year rule the standards of living in his nation increased but still were behind the Central European and British standards. As such he encouraged the emigration of tens of thousands of Portuguese and other European immigrants during his tenure as president, mainly French and Italian to move to the colonies but especially Angola. One of his ideas was to create a head tax to make possible to increase the infrastructure of his colonies. During the next twenty years hundreds of roads were build in all the African colonies and a railroad junction with the British Cape to Cairo Railroad was inaugurated in 1957.
May 9th 1942- Chile and United States sign a new commercial agreement, with Chile selling the United States copper at a discount price in exchange for military hardware and needed dollars.
May 17, 1942
Pennsylvania Railroad buys a small railroad supply company that has been working on tilting-train technology, which allows trains to maintain faster speeds around turns without causing passenger discomfort.
May 29th 1942- The Russian Defender fighter finally reached air units. With their production delayed by the Civil War of 1941 they were beat as the first rocket capable fighter by the HS-70 by only one month. They were also armed with two 20mm cannons and one 14.5mm machinegun, capable of 340mph and with a range of 500 miles it was a very capable little fighter.
June 1942 Quentin Roosevelt sells his businesses for an astonishing figure, goes on a world tour.
July 4, 1942 -- The face of New York City changes, hopefully for the better, with the opening of the new J Train: a subway line from Manhattan's Central Station, across the Hudson to Jersey City inside the brand-new 8-lane Lincoln Tunnel, into Bayonne, across the Kill Van Kull into Staten Island, then across the brand-new Narrows Bridge to its terminus at Coney Island.
August 1, 1942 - The Legislature of the Breton Republic passes the Breton Acts, a legislative package to strengthen the Celtic Language of Brittany. It mostly mandates Breton language classes for all students and the use of Breton in addition to any other languages on all public signs and government publications.
Aug 19, 1942 - Daniel Figueres forms the National Unity Party in San Jose. It calls for an end to the military build-up and animosity towards the Republic of Central America, and instead looking at them as brothers. The National Unity Party rapidly grows in support, as the lower classes are tired of the constant problems with their northern neighbor.
September 8th 1942- All Boxer class battlecruisers are send back to dry docks by the US Navy to be modified to carry two of the new Bulldog AA missile launchers in place of the aft turret, that was removed. The US decided to do this as a test bed for the new AA missiles, to find a place useful use for their remaining battlecruisers in inventory and to copy the Royal Navy use of the HMS Vindicator as an AA platform to support their carriers. This is completed by the end of 1945.
September 19th 1942-Due to US investments, Japanese economy began to recover. These investments, coupled with the ones with China and South America, were very important for the US during the 1940’s.
October 1st to 9th 1942- Pittsburgh Pirates win their second consecutive World Series 4 games to 2 over the Chicago White Sox. Fenn Leonard was honored with the National League Leadership Award for his excellent season (328-41-124).
October 8th 1942- Southern Russia began production of their copy of the Ivan the Great class of landships. Using plans and prototypes left behind in Moscow and Kharkov, the vehicles were incredibly similar and even received the same designation.
November 1942- Luis Muñoz Marin is reelected President of Puerto Rico by a wide margin, thanks to the success of his economic plans for the island. He continued his expansion of the Puerto Rican infrastructure during his next four years in power and was one of the proponents of expanding the Santiago Accords to include military cooperation after the actions in Cuba in 1945. He also believed all Caribbean nations should be included in the Santiago Accords, including South Mexico and the Central American nations.
November 5th 1942- Russian Flute guided ALS missile issued to troops. Too large to be man-portable, it was typically deployed from specialized vehicles. With a range over 6000’ and capable of defeating armour up to 300mm the missile was directed by a wire from an operator’s station. Since the missile spin in flight, a gyroscope is needed to know if the missile is going in the right direction that demanded a high level of operator skill and concentration.
December 14th 1942- The HMS Meridian, the very first aircraft carrier, is decommissioned and set up as a floating museum in Liverpool.
1943- With the ageing fleets of the major powers reaching the end of their serviceable life, in many cases ships being close to thirty years old, many decisions were made. While Germany decided to build newer battleships to face the Russian Baltic Fleet, the other powers when thru other routes. The Russians and the Japanese were banned of new constructions for a while so they began to upgrade their available units. The Austro-Hungarians was still overwhelmed by internal problems and didn’t have the resources to do anything except to upgrade their ships. France was prohibited of even building new ships while the surviving ships of the former Italian fleet were slowly falling in disarray on port. But the British and the Americans, with their huge battleship fleets, decided to concentrate in carriers and to slowly reduce the size of their battleship fleets.
February 10th 1943- The Organization for the Betterment of Africa is incorporated in New York City. It counted with very influential men in their board of directors, with former US president Wendell Wilkie as Chairman. During the decade their attempts to convince US investors in Africa achieve success, and the infrastructure in Africa receives a big boast due to the injection of US capital.
February 18th 1943- United States General Staff announces the activation of a Division to test the feasibility of using the concept of air-mobility. The division was activated with the designation of 77th Infantry Division, in honor of the division raised for duty in the 2nd Mexican War and inactivated immediately after that war was over. Nicknamed the All-American due to taking volunteers from all active duty divisions and National Guard units, it was the first desegregated unit in the United States Army in early 1944 when black soldiers were allowed to join to already formed units instead of raising all black components.
March 1943 - With the nation on the way to recovery from recession and with organized resitance substancially reduced, the Austrian Federated Empire announces that it will be formally annexing the Romanian 'provinces' in the form of two additional 'Romanian' states, Moldovia and Wallachia. The state of Transylvania already exists as a 'Romanian' state within the Federated Empire.
March 1943 -- After 35 years without any teams moving, Major League baseball sees a flurry of activity. The Brookyln Superbas become the Staten Island Bridges. The St. Louis Cardinals become the Los Angeles Zapatistas. Two expansion teams enter the NL: the San Francisco Bears and the Montreal Habitants.
March 18th 1943- The British government announces the reduction of their forces in the Dominion of India, with three infantry Brigades being removed from the area and moved to Africa to replace Territorial Divisions, making possible their demobilization. That left the only British troops in India the so-called “Bombay Division” and the Calcutta Armored Brigade.
March 17th 1943- India announces they are acquiring the whole Iron Duke Class from Great Britain to further expand the size of the Indian Royal Navy. While critics continue to attack the further reductions on the size of the Royal Navy Prime Minister Cripps defended the decision stating the ships were going to still being part of the Empire and the cost of up-keeping the ships now was an Indian responsibility, saving valuable funds to Great Britain that could be spend in other ventures.
April 1943- Mexican Noe Diaz, Canadian Frank Miller, German business man Franz Karl Mettenescher, Cuban Javier Iglesias, Russian Vladimir Povloi, Australian Jacob Hannings, and Joseph Patterson from the USA, all wealthy businessmen, meet in Vancouver and establish what will become known as the Commerce Fund. The Commerce Fund was a communal fund, were members pool capital and resources to be used by any member of the Fund in case of emergency and/or to be used for special projects but needed a majority approval of the board of trustees of the Fund for the capital to be disbursed. It is created for "the forward progress of the world."
May 2, 1943: Sarah Roosevelt-Darby and Rosario Contreras marry, and the two move to New Orleans.
May 12th 1943- The revolutionary RAF Lighting are finally issued to point-defense interceptor squadrons. The aircraft was the first rocket powered aircraft in the world. While an incredible 825mph and very well armed with two 20mm cannons the main problem was the rate of fuel consumption only made possible for the aircraft to stay airborne for around ten minutes, making impossible for this aircraft to replace the Tornados as the main fighter of the RAF.
Summer 1943- The Turko-Arabic Federation Army began a massive reorganization, building segregated units to ensure unit cohesion and to try to alleviate racial and religious problems. The army was massive for the standards of the post-Global War. The Turko-Arabic armed forces purchased landships from all sources, even purchasing Russian vehicles in the late 1950’s. By the end of the 1940’s the infantry units were completed. The army itself was a very large one. Three Jewish infantry brigades were part of the original units, one of them being replaced by an armored brigade equip with 100 Cossack Cavalry lanships purchased in 1959; two Bedouin infantry divisions; five Syrian infantry divisions, and two armored brigades equipped all with 200 French CA1 purchased after the Global War; six Lebanese infantry brigades divided into religious lines; two Arab Palestinian infantry divisions; one Turkish armored division equipped with 350 different landships but primarily German Panzer II’s purchased in 1950-52 and around fifty Panzer III purchased in early 1960’s, two Turkish motorized divisions plus one infantry division. Also the Turks had over 10 each infantry and armored brigades, the armored brigades armed with a mix of many different models; and finally the seven Mesopotamian brigades also divided by religious lines. The fundamentalist bug infected this army in the late 1950’s but it was eliminated after a massive purge. While numerically an impressive force many analysts in Europe considered this Army as an uneven force, with some units being excellent; for example the Jewish and Bedouin units while other lacked in both in equipment and morale.
August 1943- Swiss millionaire Robert Imthurn contributes to the Commerce Fund, so does the US itself
August 12, 1943 After a crash program instituted by President Roosevelt, the United States of America on this day detonates its first atomic device.
October 1st to 9th 1943- The Cleveland Naps win the World Series 4 games to 2 over the Pittsburgh Pirates. Led by the hitting of the former Cajun star Lee Johnson (.324-17-106), the speedster Walt Moses (.270-3-28 with 56 stolen bases) and rookie Negro player James McArthur Robinson (.298-14-74 with 31 stolen bases), acquired in the Foxx trade in 1942, the Naps won the division by two games over the Blue Sox and three over the Yankees. With their hitting star Joe Foxx (.278-14-54) spending half the season out due to injuries they team was forced to rely in speed to win it all.
October 1st 1943- German and British government announce their troops will leave Occupied France by the end of the year.
October 5th 1943- The US Navy announces the surviving ships of the Florida were going to be decommissioned and the four ships of the Oklahoma Class were going to be sold at a discount to the fleets of South Mexico (two ships) and China (two ships) to upgrade their capabilities.
December 6th 1943- First German guided ALS is unveiled. Designed to be cheap due to budget constrains, many said it was a copy of the Russian Flute, but they can’t be farther of the truth. While sharing the same guidance system almost by chance with the Russian one the range was shorter than the Russian’s at 5000’ and only capable of defeating armour up to 250mm and many blamed that on the independent research done by the German engineers. Lacking the experience of the Russian engineers in regard to ALS missiles this missile was inferior to the Russians’ one but being cheap to made was produced in large quantities, even being exported to the British Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire and ten more nations.
1944 Quentin Roosevelt expands the Roosevelt Institute, his non-profit organization, in include bringing technological progress and prosperity to destitute areas of the country and the world.
March 13, 1944 - Mustafa Kemal is elected to a second term as president of the Turko-Arabic Federation.
June 6, 1944 -- Dr. Louise Carson, of the Mellon Institute, publishes Correlation and Causality between Air Pollution, Plant Growth, and Development. Its shocking conclusions about the negative health effects of air pollution spur a lively debate about pollution control.
June 9th 1944- The first German Imperial aircraft carrier is laid down on this date. A 34,000 ton ship capable of reaching 35 knots and carrying 50 modified fighters and bombers, the funds for the construction were allowed after the Dutch delegates assured the Imperial government that they will take care of a large part of the cost of construction. The ship was ordered to the Far East after commission in 1949.
June 18th 1944- Disillusioned with his life and trying to find some meaning to it, Adolf Hitler II ask for a leave for absence of his job as an instructor in the Austrian military academy.
Summer 1944- By now the demobilization of the last remaining Territorial units was completed, with the British Empire now being forced to garrison their Empire with eight infantry divisions, two armored ones, two armored brigades and one airmobile division. The new government considered that major wars were over and they could rely in the Territorial divisions to deal with any emergency.
summer 1944- Heinz Guderian, former commander of the 1st Panzer Corps, relieves Erwin Rommel as chief of the advisor mission to China. Rommel returned to Germany, promoted to the position of deputy Chief of Staff. Guderian continued his predecessor’s agenda in regard to create a professional Chinese army. He also agreed that only the United States had the industrial capacity to equip the Chinese military and purchases of US equipment need to be continued if feasible.
July 1, 1944: Rosario Contreras scores an unexpected hit by putting a little blues and country twist on the rhythm-heavy flamenco classic, La Bamba. The song stays at #1 on the singles chart for 12 weeks, a new record.
July 7th 1944- A secret military and trade agreement is reached between Imperial Japan and Russia. They pledged to share weapon research and equipment plus tariff-free trade between both nations.
August 7th 1944- Charlemagne Peralte regains the presidency of Haiti after an attempted coup fails in Port-au-Prince but decapitated the leadership of the Gendermerie. He took advantage of the situation to march from Cap Haitien to the capital and take control of the nation.
September 6th 1944- Former Home Secretary under Churchill, Robert Butler, is elected Prime Minister in a Conservative government barely beating Cripps. Many considered the slower recovery from the post-war recession in comparison to Germany and the United States was the cause of Cripps’ defeat.
September 14th 1944- Following the specifications of the Austro-Hungarian government, who wanted a well armed fighter to deal with the heavy bomber being produced in Russia and Ukrainian Russia, the aeroplane division of Skoda comes up with is the SK-1 or heavy fighter one. The aeroplane division of Skoda opened after the Global War with the former Hansa-Brandeburg designer Andy Messerschmitt. Having a turret on the tail was a very noticeable feature but it served their purpose for the rest for the decade. While being very fast, this speed was sacrificed at the expense of fuel economy. The range was very short, only 350 miles but the maximum speed was 400mph and it was a very well armed aircraft with four 7.92mm machineguns on the wings and a dual 20mm turret on the back. With a crew of two, it later used as a night fighter where it also performed very well.
September 18th 1944- The B-14 bomber began it’s service with the USAAC. The largest aircraft even build until them; it was specifically designed to carry the new atomic weapons to their designated targets. While slow at only 265mph the range was an incredible at the time 4,200 miles carrying over 18,000-pound payload. Armed for protection with five .50 caliber machineguns, six .30 caliber machineguns and two 30mm cannons on the tail turret.
September 30th 1944- Respected British diplomat William Henry Pratt is named Foreign Minister on the Robert Butler’s cabinet. Pratt, a grandson of a women of Anglo-Indian ancestry, was considered a friend of India. In his impressive resume were the positions of Ambassador to Japan (1927- 1932) and to the United States (1934- 1939). (OTL Boris Karloff)
Fall 1944- The Royal Indian Army memo reports the current size of ten infantry divisions, two mounted cavalry brigades and one armored brigade plus ten independent Gurkha regiments is enough to deal with any current or future threat to the Dominion for the time being. While the divisions were matched according to their postings, with many being trained for mountain combat or just like the 2nd Division being light infantry, at least four divisions were fully motorized and another two partially motorized.
October 1st to 7th 1944- The Boston Blue Sox win the pennant in a playoff game against the New York Yankees and went on to defeat the Pittsburgh Pirates 4 games to 1. With a pitching rotation led by Joe Kersey (17-13-2.49-0), Bob Martin (13-8-3.01-1) and Tom Paltry (19-7-2.83-0) plus the excellent relieve pitching of Rob Crawford (6-6-2.44-17) they made up for a so-so offense that only counted with the incredible bat of the Leadership Award winner Tom Watson (.369-25-127) to lead their way in the offense. Still they beat the Pirates by the excellent pitching performances of their rotation during the Series, with two shutouts on the Series by the Blue Sox pitchers.
October 22nd 1944- Boeing’s P-18 makes their debut. While the proposed purchase of the P-18 by the US Army Air Corps failed to occur, with the AAC deciding instead for the Roosevelt Aviation Falcon V, the P-18 found a niche in the air forces of at least ten nations including Ethiopia, Argentina and China. Trying to achieve the same range as the Japanese A5M, the aircraft unusual design shows their attempts of doing so. With three engines, one in the fuselage and one at each wingtip, the aircraft was capable of a range of 800 miles and speed of 420mph but unfortunately this engine arrangement resulted in poor handling during dogfights. The armament was very impressive with four 20mm guns and pylons to use rockets on the wings.
November 1944 Bolstered by peace, a prosperous economy, and membership in the nuclear club, President Roosevelt is re-elected to the Presidency by a wide margin.
November 1944- Roberto “Tio Beto” Diaz Leon wins a fifth term in uncontested elections. By now both the Dominican and Puerto Rican governments are distancing themselves of the even more reactionary Cuban government while separate resistance movements began to appear in the provinces of Santiago and Oriente. The nation economy was fairly strong but by now a large part of the budget was been utilized for the repression of the Cuban people.
December 9th 1944- The British First Lord reports the construction of the twelve ship Dido class of AA cruisers. They had a displacement of 10,000 tons and capable of going at a maximum speed of 30 knots. Their armament was two triple 6” main guns forward and two dual Arrow missile launchers. The Arrow missile was capable of destroying enemy aircrafts at high altitudes and was very similar to the American Bulldog missile.
1945 - Adolph Hitler Sr. becomes Chancellor of the Austrian Empire after the Pan-Teutonic Party gains the plurality of seats in the legislature.
1945 - A new leader arises among the Romanians in Wallachia by the name of Ion Petrescu. In contrast to previous attempts to resist the Austrian authorities using violence, he instead promulgates civil disobedience.
1945 Gas-Electric hybrid engines manage enough power development to allow for their placement in landships, greatly increasing their fuel efficiency and thus maximum range without resupply.
February 1945 -- One of Ernest Hemingway's friends at Negro Abroad convinces Hemingway to attend the International Mexican Rugby Tournament. For the 10th time in 14 years, the championship game comes down to Mobile versus a South Mexican team. Hemingway's collected stories on the tournament, A Mobile Boy in Mexico, become his most successful work in years.
February 1945- Chiang Kai-Shek reelected President of China. During his second term the modernization process of the military continued but the reduction of the size of the military created certain friction with the growing unemployed officer ranks. Even when the GNP of the nation was increasing, a large part was being used either to increase the military hardware production or to fund the forces fighting the growing insurgency problems in IndoChina.
February 19th 1945- The Roosevelt Aviation Falcon V began to be issued to the US military. A truly revolutionary design, using a pusher-prop, a rear mounted engine and a rear wing design that defeated his competition the P-18 in everything but in range. With a speed of 450mphs and an armament of eight rockets, two .30 caliber machine guns and two 40mm cannons mounted in the nose it was also the first fighter to have their own radar set on board. But as always, the design has it’s problems. The range was mediocre at best, only being around 400 miles; the design caused problems at low speeds and had an unusually high stall speed
March 6th 1945- United States decides to go their way in regard to man-portable armour gauntlets, designing an 84mm recoilless weapon to be used in the same niche as the Russian ones. Using a rifled barrel to spin-stabilize the rounds it was superior to the first generation of Russian armour gauntlets, with a range of 700 meters against stationary targets and 400 meters against mobile ones. Also the penetration was very good, capable of penetrating 400mm of armour. This weapon was sold around the world and was the main armour gauntlet weapon in service during the 1940’s to the 1960’s thru the world.
May 5, 1945 - Eli Wassermann, a brilliant young graduate student at Berlin University, for his PhD thesis isolates the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, Δ¹-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC for short.
May 7th 1945- Tsar Michael of Ukraine Russia announces that Lt. General Zhukov was from that date forward Count Georgy of Kharkov. The Tsar stated that the title was a gift for his years of loyal service “to Mother Russia and me.”
June 17th 1945- Lt. General Bela Ferenc Blasko announces his retirement from the Honved and entered politics.
June 26th 1945- Cuban president Roberto Diaz Leon is assassinated while returning from his mistress house on his automobile. The assassins are never identified but they are suspected to be disgruntled members of the MSB.
June 29th 1945- Chaos ensues in Havana and other major cities when news of the death of “Tio Beto” are made public. A power struggle started between the different factions of the former president’s government while the opposition in the provinces announced their intentions to take over power.
July 2nd 1945- President Espaillat of the Dominican Republic send a note to US president Roosevelt asking him to act before “Cuba goes the way of Haiti.”
July 5th 1945- After emergency consultations with his staff, President Roosevelt approves “Operation Scabbards” in conjunction with the nations of the Santiago Accord.
July 8th 1945- First Russian S-7 helicopters delivered to Japan were they are used as cargo transports by the Imperial Fleet. They received the designation as T1S, or helicopter land-based number one used by the Japanese Navy build by Sikorsky.
July 11th 1945- Operation Scabbards is launched two weeks after the assassination of President Diaz Leon in Cuba. By now the city of La Havana is on chaos, with MSB and army troops fighting on the streets while the rest of the country wasn't in better shape. The 77th Airmobile division is dropped on the La Havana airport south of the city while the 10th Infantry Division (Negro) is landed on the beaches near the hotels. Meanwhile a joint Dominican-US Marines force is landed near Santiago while another Marine Brigade is landed in Matanzas. All operations went flawless during the first day, with resistance been minimal due to the shock of the Cubans.
July 12th 1945- The airport is declared secured while the 10th Infantry defeats some resistance in the Presidential Palace and in the National Capitol and by the 14th they declared the city of Havana secured. Further east Matanzas was also declared secured.
July 14th 1945- Battle of the Moncada Barracks. Last remaining troops of the Cuban Army resisting the landings in Santiago were eliminated in an assault by Dominican troops. The battle was a very bloody for the standards of this operation but true heroes emerged on both sides, tragically both of them died. On one side; CSM Rafael Leonidas Trujillo of the Dominican Army led his battalion in capturing the main building of the Arsenal but suffered wounds that resulted on his dead while Cuban Senior Sergeant Fabricio Batista dies leading a suicidal charge over overwhelming odds and is remembered still in Cuba as the “Heroic Taino.”
August 1945- In Cuba the arrival of US troops (around four army divisions and one Marine) plus Dominican and Puerto Rican troops helped to calm the situation on the island and by the end of the month the nation was on the way to normalization. It was announced later in the month a provisional government under exiled politician Jose Guzman Torres was going to take charge of the day to day affairs and elections were going to be celebrated by the middle of next year.
September 13th 1945- Argentina orders 300 P-18 fighters from Boeing Corporation. They were delivered in batches of 100 a year with the last ones delivered late in 1947.
Fall 1945 - The Austrian Federal Government makes German the official language for the entire Empire.
October 1945- With the situation in Cuba beginning to return to normal President Roosevelt announces the US troops were returning home except for the 10th Division for the time being. Also on this month the Dominicans and Puerto Rican troops began leaving Cuba.
October 1st to 9th 1945- The New York Yankees win their first World Series since 1936, led by Mickey Marble's second Triple Crown in the last four years. With the pitching of 38 year old Max Gomez (15-5-3.74-0), 35 year old Rodrigo Amador (21-7-3.31-0) and 28 year old Hank Baxter (21-7-2.57) leading the staff and the hitting of Leadership Award winner Mickey Marble (.371-56-155), leftfielder Al Serrano (.298-31-100 with 30 stolen bases) and rookie 23 year old outfielder Luis Olmo (.309-18-109 with 21 stolen bases) this Yankee team won the pennant by seven games over last year champions and defeated the Los Angeles Zapatistas 4 games to 2.
November 1945 -- After reaching a trademark agreement with The Baltimore Saints and Major League offices, the Philadelphia A's change their name to the Philadelphia Phillies.
November 1945- Filipino president Roxas wins the reelection in a very close election against former president Ramos of the Unitarian Party. With the economy suffering due to trade with their neighbors being curtailed by the effects of the Global War the popularity of Roxas suffered accordingly.
November 1945 to March 1946- German and Austro-Hungarian scientists work together to create the Gelfaschter Mond, the first artificial satellite
November 17th 1945- The lack of suitable armour in the AAV’s plus the lack of defensive weapons was the main concern in the post-actions reports of the Cuban operation and the beginning of the second generation vehicles started in earness. By the end of the decade over a 1,000 of the AAV-2’s were in the Marines’ order of battle and production of an export model began in late 1951.
December 9th 1945- George Patton named Army Chief of Staff of the United States by President Theodore Roosevelt Jr . The hero of the Battle of Minsk, he was a believer in motorization and a supporter of President Roosevelt’s order desegregating US military units. During his tenure three more Regular Army infantry divisions were fully motorized, raising the total of motorized divisions to seven out of ten, and the US cavalry divisions began the transition from M3A1 landships to M4A1 ones.
December 14th 1945- Adolf Hitler II leaves Tel Aviv after staying over a year there trying to get closer to his Jewish roots. He met David ben Gurion while being on that city and he was converted into the Zionist movement by that man during his stay in the largest Jewish city in Palestine. He received a letter of recommendation from ben Gurion himself to find work in the Jewish city of Salonika, Hitler trying to hide his relationship to the Austrian Empire Chancellor.
December 16th 1945- Russia explodes their first atomic bomb in Siberia.
December 1945- A new heat resistant material is found by German scientist Karl Mascher
1946 - Figueres and the National Unity Party win Costa Rican elections, defeating opposition candidate Rafael Ángel del Socorro Calderón Guardia.
1946: Rosario "Roosevelt" Contreras, Jacob "Chinee" Gillespie, and Bailey "One Eye" Robinson come out with albums that come to define the early "Gulf sound" that springs from New Orleans to eventually become the most popular musical form in the world. Gulf music combines soul, country, and folk-Mexican influences. Its unique features are a backbeat that "rocks and rolls", and a highly energetic style of play that lends itself well to the new "electric" instruments that plug right into amplifiers. Unusual nicknames seem part of the genre. "Chinee" Gillespie is so named because his half-Black, half-Bahai Persian ancestry makes him look (to Dixie eyes) Chinese. Bailey "One Eye" Robinson is so named because he nearly went blind from glaucoma as a child, and tends to squint through his right eye. One Eye's vision was saved, albeit barely, by copious amounts of marijuana, resulting in a habit that will haunt him later in life.
1946- Another attempt to abolish the 1917 Drug Laws fails to achieve the necessary votes. Same reasons as in 1933. By now Marijuana products were exported to Europe and around the world while Coca-Cola was turning into the most recognizable name in the face of the Earth. Further attempts to amend the Laws failed until the opposition changed tactics in the late 1970's.
January 17th 1946- Last US troops leave Cuba after the island nation was declared stable with no know violent acts since early October. The 10th Infantry returned to their home base in the Seattle area.
February 1946 - The German and Austrian Federated Empires sign a landmark trade agreement designed to form the two and their territories into a single free trade block. This move was in part spurred by the successful economic recovery seen in the British Imperial Preference system, and in part by the desires for closer ties between 'Teutonic' nations promulgated by the Pan-Teutonists.
February 1946- With the reports of the good performance of the American 77th Division in Cuba, the British decided to raise another airmobile division, a first line territorial. The division elected was the 52nd Infantry Division.
February 5th 1946- With relations with China still chilly, Manchurian military is forced to rely more and more in Russian and Japanese weapons to improve their military. On this date it was announced that Manchuria agreed to purchase 300 Ivan the Great landships and 400 halftrack troop carriers over two years. These vehicles were used to convert the 9th Infantry Division into the 9th Armored Division in 1949.
February 17th 1946- The US Navy atomic capable aircraft is unveiled. The A-2 Sparrow was very fast, capable of 420mph with a payload of 12,000 pounds and a range of 1000 miles, but more important it was capable of being deployable by the new class of carriers being completed at the time by the US Navy.
March 12th 1946- Russia announces they now have nuclear weapons but that they were only defensive in nature and no threat should be implied by their announcement.
March 21st 1946- The First Lord of the Admiralty announces that a eight-ship carrier class, the Arn Class, were going to be laid down on the summer. The ships with a displacement of 30,000 tons, a speed of 32 knots and carrying 60 aircrafts were the largest carriers build by the British Navy until the supercarriers of the late 1960's and the first carriers build with armored decks since the Victorious in 1937. The First Lord also announced the old carrier Argus was being decommissioned at the end of the year.
March 22nd 1946- British Prime Minister Robert Butler, after consulting with the German Chancellor Theodor Heuss and his Austro-Hungarian counterpart Adolf Hitler, announced that while distraught by the Russian announcement his nation and the Central Powers will not go to war with the Russian government due to their violation of the Treaty of Stockholm. Still he requested the Parliament to put economic sanctions to Russia. While many considered Hitler was ready to go to war, the more liberal and anti-war Heuss considered it was too dangerous and Butler finally relented.
May 27th 1946- Wendell Wilkie dies from a heart attack. The former President of the United States is replaced as chairman of the Organization for the Betterment of Africa by former Secretary of the Interior during his administration Cordell Hull.
Spring 1946 - The Austrian Federal Government passes legislation requiring all schools in the Empire to teach in German, and for Teutonic Culture and Mythology classes to be a mandatory part of the curriculum for all levels of education.
April 1946- The last excess divisions are mustered out in Germany. By now the German Heer consisted of four Panzer Divisions equip with the Panzer II and with the Panzer III already being develop, the two Guards divisions, six Bavarian divisions, two Saxon divisions, twelve infantry divisions and two mountain divisions. All the divisions except the mountain ones were fully motorized. The German Heer of 1946 was the only armed force using a self-loading medium size caliber round rifle as their service weapon and copies of the Russian designed armor gauntlet acquired from Ukrainian Russia were ready for general issue by the end of the year.
Summer 1946 - Ion Petrescu and several of his followers are arrested by Austrian authorities for disrupting classes in German and Teuton culture by walking through the classes singing Romanian folk songs in Romanian. The American and British press pick up on the story and make him something of a celebrity.
August 1946- The Gelfaschter Mond is launched.
August 1946- Jose Guzman Torres wins the Cuban presidential elections. He created a unity government, with moderate members of the past administration and opposition leaders of the rule of “Tio Beto” working together to normalize the nation. The first years were difficult but by the end of his first administration a working agreement has been reached by all factions and the nation began to move forward in a peaceful way. One of the first actions of the new Cuban Congress was to pass a Presidential term limit bill that only allowed the President to be reelected once, a response to the “Tio Beto” years.
August 12, 1946 - Due to pressures from beer and wine manufacturers and prohibitionist lobbies, Federal Legislation is passed in the US limiting the amount of THC that may be present by weight in marijuana products.
September 1946-The Rakete Kapsel, a metal capsule plated with Mascher's heat-resistant material that will hold a man inside and be sent into space by a rocket, began to be develop on this date. A working prototype will be ready by October of 1948.
September 9th 1946- President Roosevelt signs Executive Order 8973 that effectively eliminated segregated units by ensuring equal treatment and opportunity in the armed forces to all races. By the end of the decade over 90% of the US forces were fully desegregated and completely integrated by 1955.
October 1st to 5th 1946- New York Yankees win their second consecutive World Series by sweeping the Buffalo Braves 4 games to none. Led again by the hitting of Mickey Marble (.347-49-124), Luis Olmo (.294-20-97 with 15 stolen bases) plus new arrival Cuban third baseman Orestes Miñoso (.324-10-79 with 31 stolen bases) together with the pitching of Hank Baxter (23-6-2.48-0), Max Gomez (10-3-1.98-18) and Rodrigo Amador (18-9-3.42-0) the Yankees barely won the pennant in one of the closest pennant runs in the Continental League in many years. 36-year-old leftfielder Al Serrano (.298-17-69 with 25 stolen bases) has his first sub-par season in his fourteen-year career and many in the front office considered his skills were eroding.
November 1946- Luis Muñoz Marin is reelected for a third term as President of Puerto Rico. By now the economy of the island was finally booming after the end of the world recession thanks to the change to manufacturing coupled with the continued sale of their excellent coffee in the European markets. Still the events in Cuba were used in the campaign as a scare tactic by the opposition, resulting in the Presidential Term Limit bill of 1947, that barely pass both Houses and was not vetoed by the President to ensure his nation he was nothing like the deceased Cuban leader. His good will tour to both Mexicos and the Central American nations in 1948 is considered one of the reasons of the expansion of the Santiago Accords.
November 1946- Ramon Tapia Espinal elected President of the Dominican Republic. During his term he supported the attempts of the Puerto Rican president to expand the Santiago Accords to other Caribbean Basin nations but he considered the United States was “a necessary evil” if they desire to expand. “The United States will never let us grow if they are not included in any arrangement made by the nations in the Caribbean,” he stated in an interview to a British reporter in 1948. On the local front the economic development continued but with the normalization of the situation in Europe the flow of new arrivals basically ended.
November 1946: Ted Landry is elected congressmen from Michigan, where he becomes a strong supporter of Roosevelt and his partial big government policies.
November 1946: As the post-war boom continues, the Ethiopian economy hits a GDP of $4,000/capita, blowing past France. The Senate swiftly passes a bill authorizing parades and celebrations for "the Negro economic miracle."
January 7th 1947- The three ships of the new Kaiser Class enter service in the German Kriegsmarine. The aircraft carrier name was changed to Deutschland so that all three ships could be named in honor of the Wilhelms. To keep with the cutbacks the old Kaiser Class, over thirty years old were finally decommissioned and sold for scrap.
January 17th 1947- The first Automatic Enfield Rifle or AER made his debut with the Royal Marines. The rifle was of the bullpup layout, with the magazine and the barrel chamber behind the trigger guard and pistol handle. It was a very well balanced and laid out rifle, accurate, reliable, capable of firing both in semi and auto fire with a 20 round magazine, using non-adjustable optical sights for aiming but has emergency iron ones. The AER served with the British forces for over thirty years before being replaced by the AER-2 in 1979.
February 12th 1947- China began to build a license copy of the Mauser 98 and the MP-25 to standardize the small arms of the Chinese Army.
March 12th 1947- British Foreign Minister William Pratt tried to revive Wilkie’s initiative of a world organization but found no interest except for the US.
Spring 1947- Lt. General Guderian announces that 16 Chinese infantry divisions will be permanently send to 1st line reserve duty, with their equipment being kept in depots in 16 major cities to ease mobilization concerns. Also he announced the purchase of 600 American M3A1 landships, enough to raise two more armored divisions.
May 18th 1947- United States announces their replacement to the bolt action Springfield 1903 service rifle, the Springfield 1947. It was a gas-operated selective fire 20 round magazine fed rifle that was well liked by the US troopers that used it during the 1950's, being sold to at least 15 countries during the next 20 years and designed around the 7.62x51mm round. The rifle was the only one of the new generation not following the German idea of putting a pistol handle like in submachine-guns and many said it was the reason it was replaced by the Remington 1961.
June 9th 1947- Chile is the first nation to receive the export version of the Roosevelt Aviation Falcon V fighter. With 250 ordered, they lack the onboard MWD unit and they replaced it with a less quality Russian one in late 1949.
June 13, 1947 - Boston Airport is renamed Governor Roger Wolcott International Airport as a large-scale expansion and renovation of the twenty-year-old facility ends.
June 17th 1947- The United States announces the construction of a six-ship AA cruiser class, the Indianapolis Class, the first class of ships only carrying missiles instead of guns. Carrying three Bulldog AA missiles launchers and 45 reloads the ships were designed to be attached to the carrier task forces and to complement the Boxer class battlecruisers in the AA role for the fleet.
August 1947 -- The Pennsylvania Legislature's first attempt to regulate air pollution collapses over concerns about the "balloon effect", where dirty businesses will simply move across the state border.
August 9th 1947- Second-Generation Russian armour gauntlets made their appearance. Similar to the original ones, the only change was the grenade was now a 93mm one. Accurate now to 300 meters against mobile targets and capable of defeating up to 330mm of armour, this weapon was standard issue to the armies of Northern Russia, Japan, Manchuria and some Latin American nations during the 1940‘s and in some cases until the 1970‘s. Also was the favorite weapon of the Unified Islamic Army during the Arabian War, being used to good effect versus British and Turko-Arabic landships.
September 23, 1947 - The Costa Rican military stages a coup to put Rafael Calderon in San Jose. He declines the position, and is forced to flee with Figueres to Cartago, where they form the Costa Rican Legion. The military takes direct control of Costa Rica, and then places all of Costa Rica's provinces under military control.
September 29, 1947 - Daniel Figueres is assassinated by a military assassin.
October 1, 1947 - The Republic of Central America announces that it is against the coup, and offers to aid the Costa Rican Legion with troops. They decline the offer of troops, but do buy weapons.
October 1st to 10th 1947- The Pittsburgh Pirates won a last hurrah for their veteran first baseman/coach Fenn Leonard (.255-7-19), retiring as an active player after the season, by beating the Toronto Blue Jays 4 games to 3. The Pirates brought forward a new generation of Negro players to follow the steps of Judy Johnson and Fenn Leonard, making possible for them to continue the dynasty started in the early 40’s to continue well into the late 1950. Negro rookies second baseman Larry Walker (.301-14-66) and third baseman Curt Thompson (.289-20-91) plus three year outfielder Merrill Irvin (.299-15-89 and 12 stolen bases) together with new acquisitions 34 year old first baseman Art Trojovski (.295-25-93) and 37 year old outfielder Al Serrano (.278-15-75 with 21 stolen bases) led a very balanced offense into victory. Many consider the trades with the Cajuns and the Yankees as one of the reasons of their victory in 1947 but some of the minor league players given in the trade, like outfielders Woody Hertz and Dennis Ennis that went to the Cajuns and pitcher Delmont Newcombe to the Yankees, went on to have very long and productive careers in the majors.
October 11th 1947- First of the four ship class Wake Island carrier laid up by the United States. With a weight of 68,000 tons and with a maximum speed of 33 knots they were designed to carry nuclear capable aircrafts and as such their complement was small, 12 bombers and 54 escorts. One interesting feature of the class was the lack of an island on the deck, a necesity due to the size of the original bombers.
October 14, 1947 - The Costa Rican Legion finally enters battle when the San Jose Government attempts to seize Cartago. Taking heavy casualties, the Legion holds and begins to push the military back.
October 17, 1947 - Groups allied with the Costa Rican Legion overthrow the military governor of Limon peacefully.
Winter 1947- Chinese government announces the beginning of the construction of their first home build landship. The model 47 was in reality a copy of the American M2A1 armored car and it was considered a transitory model to allow the Chinese industries to acquire experience in building landships. By the end of 1949 enough of them has been build to raise three armored divisions.
November 1947- China receives the first of 300 purchased Boeing P-18 fighters that transformed into the bulk of the Chinese fighter force during the 1950’s.
December 1, 1947 - San Jose falls after heavy fighting. Jose Figueres is made President of Costa Rica. He moves the capital to Cartago due to the damage San Jose took, and to honor Cartago for supporting the Legion.
December 17th 1947- Boston Blue Sox acquire Naps speedster Wally Moses and two minor leaguers for journeyman pitcher Al Heineman and third baseman Sid Gordon.
December 25, 1947 - Costa Rica and Central America sign a landmark trade agreement that ends nearly a half-century of animosity.
1948-George Herbert Walker Bush graduates from Yale and decided to take a career in investment banking like his dad. He continues to drink heavily.
February 15th 1948- The United States began the construction of a three ship class concept “mini-carriers”, designed to be used to support Marine Expeditionary Operations similar to the 1945 Operation in Cuba. The baptist of fire for this small ships was the Marine landings in Haiti during the 1952 operation together with the nations of the Santiago Accord to end over forty years of chaos in that island. The small ships with only a displacement of 9,000 tons, carrying 18 aircrafts but very fast at 34 knots, were a fixture on the Caribbean for over forty years, all ending their careers later as part of the fleets of South Mexico and Puerto Rico in the late 1990’s.
April 17th 1948- Adolph Hitler II announces his conversion to Zionism to his father after returning from traveling to Salonika and Jerusalem, where he met zionist leader David ben Gurion. He surprised his father by announcing him he was learning Hebrew and was moving to Salonika to help in achieving a Jewish state. His father was furious and they never talked to each other after this meeting.
April 18th 1948- Lt. General Michael Skorzeny named commander of the 1st Corps of the Austrian Heer. Composed of his former command the Guards Division, the 1st Uhlan and the 1st Dragoon Divisions, this units were considered the first line divisions of the Austrian Heer and an honor to the new commander.
March 12th 1948 - President Theodore Roosevelt Jr. dies of a heart attack, making him the first president to die in office since Henry Cabot Lodge. The nation mourns.
March 17th 1948- Japan explodes their first atomic bomb in the Palau islands. The Japanese team, led by Yoshio Nishina and Hideki Yukawa, accomplished this after ten years of secret preparations.
March 9th 1948- US Navy purchases the Wright Shark to equip their carrier fighter squadrons. The first composite propulsion aircraft, it could be considered a failure and they were phased out of active duty by 1953. Slower than the British Fury, at 426 mph and with a weaker armament than the Japanese A5M with only eight .50 machine guns as main armament, the Shark wasn’t a popular aircraft at all but now is considered an important step in the development of the current aircrafts.
Summer 1948- Recently appointed German Chief of Staff Erwin Rommel recall Guderian to Germany to take over his former position as Deputy Chief of Staff. By now the position in China began to be seen as a stepping stone to reach the leadership of the German Army and it was a highly sought position. In his last report Guderian stated that the present size of the Chinese Army; 19 motorized divisions, 13 infantry, 8 armored divisions, 15 motorized brigades and 2 mountain brigades, was adequate but small changes could be performed in this order of battle if necessary.
May 7th 1948- The Socialist Republic of Italy announces they will merge with the Provencal Socialist Republic, taking the name of the Provencal Union. The announcement took by surprise the French government, caught in negotiations with Provence themselves.
September 22nd 1948- The Royal Indian Army announced that instead of taking the British AER as their new service rifle they were ready to issue a homegrown service rifle designed around the 7x43mm round by the Indian and British engineers in Ishapore Rifle Factory. The Indian National Rifle, or the national for short, was a twenty round magazine fed selective fire similar in shape to German service rifle instead of taking the bullpup approach. It was a very succesfull weapon but had a shorter life than the AER, being replaced by the Indian version of the AER by 1971.
October 1st to 9th 1948- The Cleveland Naps beat the Pittsburgh Pirates 4 games to 2 for their first championship since 1943. With fireballer veteran Bill Feller (22-8- 3.50 and 210 strikeouts), second year pitcher Lloyd Jensen (18-12-3.61), Bernie Koslowski (11-14-2.50-4) and a journeyman pitcher having his best season in the majors by the name Al Heineman (17-10-3.02) leading the pitching during the Series the Naps took care of the hitting of the Pirates, who only hit for a .190 average for the Series. The Naps hitting was led by batting champ third baseman Mac Robinson (.349-16-125 with 39 stolen bases), four year player outfielder Willie Marshall (.291-36-107) and former Blue Sox third baseman/outfielder Sid Gordon (.299-30-107) who has career highs in homeruns in what it can be considered his best season of his career.
October 16th 1948- Chile orders the construction of an aircraft carrier to the Japanese Empire. The Tacna was completed in early 1952 and was a design completely different to the other ships been built by the Japanese Empire at the time. With a displacement of 14,000 tons, capable of reaching a max speed of 31 knots and with a complement of 30 aircrafts it lacked the armored decks typical of the Japanese designs.
November 1948: Democrat Thomas Pinkney defeats Fiorello LaGuardia becoming the first southern president since Andrew Johnson.
December 19th 1948- Japan laid down two aircraft carriers, the first new capital ships being build since 1938. The ships entered service by 1952 as the Soryu and the Hiryu. The ships were capable of 32 knots and carried 50 aircrafts. They had armored decks and they were the first Japanese ships protected by AA missiles, using the Russian Starburst missile in four batteries.
December 15 1948- Argentina orders six Type VII Submarines from Germany.This is done as both a counter to the news of the Chilean carrier purchase and an attempt to save money.
January 14th 1949- First Japanese A6M fighters enter service in the Imperial Japanese Navy. The A6M was the first aircraft designed as a flying wing. Using two engines facing to the rear plus flaps on the leading and trailing wing edges the A6M can reach a service ceiling of 50,000 feet and had a fearsome weapon payload of two 50mm and two 70mm cannons plus either MWD led rockets or conventional ones. While slower to the current designs of the era at 450 mph, it has been considered the last of the great prop fighters. It was replaced by the A7M in the late 1950’s.
February 1949- President Chiang is defeated by a coalition of the industrialist and disgusted military officers led by Field Marshall Zhu De, at the time commander of the Chinese forces fighting the insurgency in their new provinces and a hero of the Global War who receives the command of the National Chinese Army from the new president Kung Hsiang-hsi. One of the first acts of the new administration was to announce further reductions of the size of the military were cancelled and that the forces fighting the insurgents in Tonkin will receive priority to achieve their final purpose. Also he brought back many social programs eliminated by the Chiang administration in an attempt to raise the standards of education of the Chinese population in general, with the idea to create a better work force able to cope with the changing post-war World.
February 9th 1949- Prime Minister Yamashita of Japan announces the process of integration is showing progress, with the remaining natives in the Outer Territories and in Karafuto fully integrated into the Empire.
February 17th 1949- First Spanish RA-1 rifles entered production. Cheap and easily to produce, they were designed by emigre French arm designers during the 1940’s and were the main battle rifle of Spanish military forces until the 1970’s. Sold mainly to Latin America, China, South Africa, the nations of the Socialist Bloc and Portugal, they were preferred by that nations due to their price compared with the German, British and American designs available on the markets. With a caliber of 7.62 x 51mm, it was a semi auto rifle with an integral ten round magazine but nothing revolutionary about if compared with the British and German rifles, being closer to the US Springfield-47 in shape.
March 5th 1949- Cleveland Naps acquire Bradley Slaughter from the Los Angeles Zapatistas for two players. Slaughter, a good contact hitter and defender, was acquired to play centerfield to try to solidify the team defense.
March 19th 1949- South Russia began construction of their first aircraft carrier, the Canopus. With a displacement of 15,000 tons, a max speed of 30 knots and capable of carrying 36 aircrafts it changed the balance of power in the Black Sea after completed in 1953.
April 1949 - Mustafa Kemal steps down from the Presidency after two terms in office.
April 16th 1949- First Panzer III landships entered service with the German Heer, the Austrian Federated Empire Armies and the British Royal Army in the first important sign of the growing cooperation between the former allies of the Global War. While in Great Britain it received the name of Conqueror, it was basically the same vehicle in all three countries. It was a sign of cooperation, using a suspension of British origin and the armament was a German designed 105mm gun with a coaxial 20mm rapid fire gun for use against soft skinned targets. Tipping the scale at 52 tons and with a maximum road speed of 40 miles per hour, it was slower than the Panzer I but it had comparable speeds to the vehicle it replaced and it was the covered by 120mm armor on the sides and front and 160mm on the turret.
April 22, 1949 -- Freddy Ball makes his first on-screen appearance in 11 years, once again with a controversial box office hit: "Love versus Virginia." Ball plays the segregationist mayor of Williamsburg, Virginia, who is horrified to discover that his daughter seeks to marry a Black William & Mary student, played by Paul Robeson, Jr. Robeson becomes the first Black man to win Best Actor; Ball receives the NAACP's lifetime achievement award.
May 1949- The first man into space is German Air force sargent Adolpus Maeger.
May 1949: Rosario Contreras releases Sarah, the first "concept album" in gulf music. Although the concept -- all the songs are about his wife -- is rather simple compared to the complex masterpieces that will dominate gulf music in the 1970s, it wins over critics and becomes the first gulf music album ever to win a Note Award.
May 17th 1949- Germany began construction of a new carrier to replace the Deutschland. The new carrier was completed by late 1952 and was considered almost a copy to the first German-build carrier.
Pennsylvania Railroad completes testing of its tilting-train designs. It settles on model BX-13, rechristened the Hammock.
July 4th 1949- Leon Blum fails in his attempts to reunify the secessionist French provinces, finally accepting a free trade and a defensive agreement between France, the Brittany and the Provencal Union.
August 1949: Bainbridge Colby, now a very old and mostly forgotten man writes "The True Party" which criticizes Hearst for destroying both the Democratic Party and the Progressive movements. He presents well researched and logical arguments pointing to corruption connecting Hearst, Seymour, Senator Gatling, and other political figures in a web of lies. He claims that they formed the ultimate political machine. At the time his work was dismissed by critics as the pessimistic work of a cynical old man.
August 2, 1949: Juliet Cabot Lodge, daughter of Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. is born.
Fall 1949- China began to build a licensed copy of the German Panzer II landship. The vehicle proved to be too difficult to build for the Chinese industries due to lack of experience and design problems and the production need to be supplemented by the purchase of 150 German Panzer II’s. By the end of 1950 these vehicles made possible to replace the landships of the 3rd Armored Division by newer models, while the older ones were used to build two independent armored brigades.
October 1st to 6th 1949- Cleveland Naps win their second consecutive World Series by beating the Staten Islands Bridges 4 games to 1. The Naps, after winning 103 games the season before, were heavily pressed to win this time due to the injuries and slumps to the pitching and offensive stars. Using 12 different starters and no player hitting over 26 homeruns they still played good enough to beat the competition on their way to the Series. Outfielder Sid Gordon (.284-26-90), third baseman Mac Robinson (.285-12-85 with 32 stolen bases) and Willie Marshall (.307-12-70) had sub-par seasons on the hitting side while Al Heineman (6-11-4.29-2), Lloyd Jensen(15-16-3.85-0) and Bernie Koslowski (8-10-3.87-3) had the same problem in the pitching side. But thanks to good pitching performances by Bill Feller (26-5-2.18 with 329 strikeouts) and veteran journeyman turned into full time reliever 32 year old Jim Kowalski (16-7-2.66-22) leading the league in saves on the first year it was tabulated as an official stat the pitching did OK while outfielder Bradley Slaughter (.336-13-96) performed to his accustomed numbers and rookie Ed Zernial (.318-7-38) played the three outfield positions and first baseman to be a revelation for the team.
November 1949 Popular philanthropist Quentin Roosevelt is elected Governor of New York.
November 28th 1949- Outfielder/first baseman Ed Zernial is traded by the Cleveland Naps to the Chicago White Sox where he went to have two good offensive seasons and led the team to two second place finish on the Continental League.
December 28, 1949: Former President and media magnet William Randolph Hearst dies. His funeral recieves wide publicity. The Hearst foundation continues to run a wide circulation. Charles Seymour is becomes a member of the board to help continue Hearst's political legacy.
Last edited by Glen; May 15th, 2007 at 02:33 AM..
1950- Nicolaus Tornij is born in Alaska to illegal Russian immigrants
January 12 1950- German sells the old carrier Deutschland to Argentina.She is later named the Veinticinco de Mayo.
February 14, 1950 - Austrian Chancellor Adolph Hitler Sr. announces his retirement from government when he also announces he has the early stages of Parkinson's Disease. He wishes to devote the rest of his life to creating 'Teuton inspired' art.
Spring 1950- Chinese landship factories resolved their engineering and production problems, with over 150 of the Model 49 landship entering service a year. By the end of 1951 the landships of the 1st Armored division were replaced by the new vehicles and the old ones were used to raise two more independent brigades.
April 1950- With the end of the “troubles” the former Austro-Hungarian government began to rebuild their armed forces. While the Landwehr, the Common Army and the Honved were allowed to continue their existence it was decided to began a reduction of their numbers plus it was announced a new Slav army was going to be raised.
May 1st 1950- The very first Nicholas II class of landships is seeing in a parade in St. Petersberg. At the time the most advanced landship in the world, by the time it’s frontline service ended in the early 1960’s it has been superseded by other nations’ designs. Tipping the scale at 48 tons, with a crew of four, a 100mm main gun, protected by 200mm of armour and capable of going 30 miles per hour on the road but their main advantage was the very first landship to have a gyro stabilized gun capable of recovering their target faster than any vehicle at the time.
May 13 1950- In responce of Chile's order of a carrier from Japan, Argentina purchases the Langley from the United States. The Independencia, as the ship was renamed after it arrived, tipped the naval balance in power in favor to that of Argentina
June 1950-German and Austro-Hungarian scientists began to develop the multistage rocket Mutter I, the first phase of Project Mond-Landung, which is the joint effort to put men on the moon. A working prototype was ready by February 1952.
June 13, 1950 - The Massachusetts Legislature passes the Railroad Reorganization Act, which completely restructures the leadership of the state Metropolitan Transit Authority. Many of the changes will take the rest of the year to implement before major changes are seen to customers. The law also expands the area of jurisdiction the MTA can operate in, in hopes of eventual expansion of the lines to the South Shore.
July 4, 1950 -- The state legislatures of Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, Maryland, and New York sign the Sunshine Pact, setting a multi-state standard for the maximum allowable range of a wide array of industrial and automotive pollutants. The Dayton and Pittsburgh-based auto companies ended up supporting the pact when they realized that they could use new technology like "catalytic converters" to reduce emissions, giving them an advantage over the less-advanced automakers in Detroit and abroad.
Fall 1950 - A driven Adolph Hitler Sr. has a large art showing of new paintings and architectual sketches in Vienna. They receive critical acclaim for capturing 'Teutonic' feeling in a surrealistic manner. One of the sketches becomes the design basis for the new Teutonic Arts Center of Vienna.
October 1st to 6th 1950- The New York Yankees win their first pennant since 1946 and the World Series over the Staten Island Bridges 4 games to 1. The team hitting was led by their outfield of Mickey Marble (.301-39-122), Cuban rookie Pedro Centeno (.320-13-70) and Luis Olmo (.287-19-87 with 29 stolen bases) plus the Cuban third baseman Orestes Miñoso (.313-15-104 with 25 stolen bases) and shortstop Vic Lopez (.326-2-51 with 69 stolen bases). The pitching was led by Hank Baxter (12-12- 4.19), Rodrigo Amador (16-12-3.72-2), rookie Mike Ford (10-1-3.12-1), Del Newcombe (19-11-3.70-3) and reliever Joe Parker (3-7-5.04-17)
October 27th 1950- George Patton retires as Army Chief of Staff. He’s replaced in the post by Lt General Dwight D. Eisenhower. Former commander of the 10th Infantry Division (Colored) during the Global War and overall commander of Operation Scabbards in 1945, he was considered a perfect man for the position by many thanks to his proven record as a combat commander and a military observer during his career.
November 1950- Ernesto Ramos Antonini, a protege of President Muñoz Rivera, elected on a landslide as the new President of Puerto Rico. The first Negro President of Puerto Rico, he was a defender of workers’ rights, campaigning for a minimum wage law and a workers compensation law during the next four years. On the international front, he was a supporter of the Haiti action and continued his predecessor’s attempts to increase the size of the member nations of the Santiago Accords.
December 14th 1950- Even after having a good hitting season, Bradley Slaughter (.290-10-101) was traded by the Cleveland Naps to the Detroit Tigers due to according to team officials “a disruptive presence on the team.” Many blamed his segregationist views as the reason of the trade, with the rivalry between him and his Negro teammate Mac Robinson being well known on the team.
December 17th 1950- The Cleveland Naps continued their dismembering of their team by trading disgruntled Mac Robinson to the Yankees for Joe Parker and Luis Olmo. Robinson feuds with Naps teammate Bradley Slaughter were legendary, even with a fist fight between them in late July 1950.
1951:Jonathan Bush graduates from Yale, and is immediately signed by the St Louis Cardinals as a center fielder, reaching the majors in 1953. He goes on to have a decent career, and unfortunately is addicted to pain killers late in his career.
1951 - The Metropolitan Transit Authority of Massachusetts is massively reorganized. The Tremont Street Subway becomes the Tremont Line and is assigned the color Green. The Elevated network is consolidated and is granted the color Orange. The Harvard Line gains the color Red, and the Harbor Line is given the color Blue. The Fairmount Line is colored yellow.
1951 -- A new pharmaceutical company based in the New Orleans "Research Quarter", Xavier Inc, makes big waves with two major innovations: an oral polio vaccine and a cannabis-based pill that treat the effects of glaucoma.
January 23rd 1951- Japan began the construction of three carriers and four cruisers specially designed to serve as AA platforms, copying the US and British ideas in that regard.
February 17th 1951- Oil is discovered in the Cabinda enclave in Angola, being exploited mainly by settlers.
February 18th 1951- The first of the SSB’s is commissioned. The German submarine Bavaria was one of a six-ship class that carried six nuclear missiles. They were copied fairly fast by the British in 1954 and the Russians and Americans in 1956.
March 1951- A Mexican immigrant, Juan Santos-Medina and Carlota Gomez de Santos-Medina cross the border to the United States
April 7th 1951- After consultations with the United States, the South Mexican government agrees to sign the Santiago Accords, the first nation to join the original signatories.
April 17th, 1951- Javier "El Rayo" Hernandez is purchased by the Los Angeles Zapatistas from a Mexican farm team.
April 18th, 1951- Javier Hernandez plays his first game with the Zapatistas, scoring 2 runs and stealing two bases.
June 11th 1951- Pope Paul VI dies from a heart attack.
July 9th 1951- British government announces that a six-carrier class will be laid down in January of 1952. The ships, being designated as the Africa Class, were designated to be conventional carriers but the decision to change to jet aircraft in the middle 1950’s forced the designers to build a partially angled deck to be used by the new aircrafts. Those changes slowed the completion of the ships, with two of them finally cancelled by the Bevin administration while the other four were completed by late 1958. With an armored deck, a displacement of 30,000 tons, a speed of 32 knots and capable of carrying 50 aircrafts they were very well build ships, comparable to Japanese designs of the 1950’s but still small compared with the larger US carriers of the era.
August 8th 1951- People’s Republic of Italy joins what will later will be called the Socialist Bloc. Mainly a trade union, they were too weak to resist the powers in Europe in the conventional sense but thanks to their cheap but well manufactured consumer items they began to flood world markets.
September 18th 1951- The new United States landship entered service. It was designed in the early 1940’s and by the time it entered service it was already obsolete. Tipping the scale at 58 tons and with a maximum speed of 40 miles per hour it was comparable to the recent Anglo-German Panzer III in that categories but sorely lacking in both armor and weapons to the Panzer III with only 100mm on the sides and 120mm on the turrets plus with a main gun of 90mm with a coaxial 37mm cannon and three .50 machineguns.
October 1951: Quentin Roosevelt declares his intention of running for the presidency of the United States in '52. Even having political experience and being the brother of the two term President Theodore Roosevelt Jr., Quentin fails to recieve support from many party leaders. However Quentin is a popular bi-partisan figure, and is supported by many Roosevelt Democrats. Pollsters suggest that Quentin could carry some traditionally Democratic states in the plains and western south.
October 1st to 8th 1951- The New York Yankees repeat their performance of the year before with a victory 4 games to 2 over the Los Angeles Zapatistas. The Yankees set the all time record for victories in a season with a record of 112 victories and only fifty losses. The pitching was led by Mike Ford (25-4-2.74-1) in his first full major league season and Del Newcombe (20-9-3.28) supported by veteran forty one year old Rodrigo Amador (17-8-3.05-7) in his last great season and a pitcher acquired in the middle of the season from the Buffalo Braves called Johnny Sanford (7-14 - 4.18- 9 total numbers). Even with Mickey Marble (.261-12-63) being hobbled by injuries the offensive was excellent. A pesky offense with no player having a truly overachieving season , their offensive leaders were Pedro Centeno (.293-17-74), rookie outfielder/first baseman Joe Pantagliano (.267-13-65), third baseman Mac Robinson (.338-19-103 with 25 stolen bases) , shortstop Vic Lopez (.347-8-74 with 81 stolen bases) and outfielder/third baseman/ first baseman Orestes Miñoso (.320-19-116 with 18 stolen bases).
October 7th, 1951- Javier has shown promise with his team, hitting .290-17- 82 with 13 bases stolen while playing shorstop for the team.
1952- Nicolaus and his family move back to Russia
January 8, 1952 - A train catches fire at Mattapan Station on the Massachusetts MTA Streetcar network, and the blaze rapidly spreads as everything that can go wrong does. The near-complete destruction of the station serves as a proof that the streetcar network needs major changes.
January 22nd 1952- Russian Tokarev-51 rifle enters service in Russia. A 7.62 x 39-mm rifle with a 20 round box magazine, it was very well build and used an unconventional operating system using roller-delayed blowback. It was the service rifle of the Russian military until the 1980’s.
January 29, 1952 - Large areas of the MTA Streetcar network in Boston, Massachusetts, are closed for renovations. There are complaints from commuters, especially when it is announced that the system will remain closed through the winter and most of the spring.
February 1952: In order to restore some party faith, Quentin Roosevelt announces that he has no intentions of running under a third party. Other Republican candidates such as Fiorello LaGuardia, Rev. Baldwin (note: non-OTL preacher who is TRJR's second VP and briefly president, also a maverick), La Follete Jr., and Herbert Brownell failed to gain widespread political support. La Guardia led polls in the north east, Baldwin led pulls in the west coast and south, La Follete led polls in the western midwest, and smaller favorite sons led in Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan. Quentin came in second in almost all regions, and came in first in Pensylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Delaware.
February 1952- Both partners of the American-Oman oil company T&M Oil give to the fund
March 5, 1952 - On the tenth anniversary of the formation of the Scottish Equality Movement, the monarch opens the first session of the Scottish Parliament in centuries.
March 13th 1952- Outfielder Ed Zernial is traded to the Detroit Tigers in a multiplayer trade that brought veteran players shortstop Lewis Beuregard and outfielder Harry Funicello from the Tigers to the White Sox, making possible for them to win the pennant for the first time since 1942.
March 17, 1952 - The Boston MTA finally announces its plans for the streetcar network. Much of it is to be dismantled completely and replaced with bus service, an unpopular decision. However, the rest will be completely renovated and opened in stages, to be merged with the Tremont Line to create the Tremont/Trolley Line.
March 17th 1952- The Yamamoto Memo. Fleet Admiral Yamamoto sends a memo that recommends the use of helicopters to move the Special Naval Landing Divisions, the construction of ships especially designed to carry helicopters and the troops being carried by the helicopters and the development of what he called “flying landships” to support those troops. His ideas weren’t well received initially by the Army dominated military junta but they recognized this could be the only way they could project power, with the regular army units tied up either in Korea or in garrison duty in Japan and Formosa facing China. The funds were finally approved for this late in 1952.
March 17th 1952- Haitian President Charlemagne Peralte is killed while visiting the southern city of Le Caye. Chaos erupts in the nation, with different factions launching themselves into a fight.
March 18th 1952- Bela Ferenc Blasko elected Prime Minister of Hungary in the Federated Empire. One of his first acts was to rescind the orders of the former Imperial Prime Minister Hitler in regard to Germanization in Hungary and was a political rival of Hitler’s political heirs during the 1950’s.
April 1952- The German and Austro-Hungarian scientists working on the proposed Moon mission develop the Mond-Kapsel, a modified version of the Rakete Kapsel that will be used for both the moon landing and reentry. A working prototype is ready by April 1953 and work start to ensure that both modules work flawlessly before being used for their intended mission.
April 4, 1952 - Hammock tilting trains go into service on Pennsylvania Railroad's longest two lines, New Haven - Cleveland Airport and Milwaukee - Memphis, boosting both lines to a stunning average speed of 90 miles per hour. PRR's young VP of Engineering, Antonio Iacocca, cheerfully predicts, "We'll knock out Republic Air and the New Haven RR out of business by next Friday!"
April 8th, 1952- Javier Hernandez makes a splash in the second game of the season, hitting for the cycle and going 5 for 5.
April 15th 1952- United States began construction of the first all missile battlecruisers. The Bull Run Class, they were named in remembrance of Civil War battles and completed by late 1956. With a weight of 16,000 tons and capable of a speed of 34 knots, their weaponry is what made them different. The main weapon was the anti-ship missile Tiger Shark, capable of carrying 1000 lbs of explosive or a 350 KT atomic weapon. With 8 missile launchers in four dual missile launchers and carrying twenty four missiles as main armament plus one dual Bulldog AA missile launcher these ships served well into the 1980’s.
April 16th 1952- With thousands of refugees fleeing from the fighting in Haiti into the Dominican Republic, President Espinal asks the other members of the Santiago Accord and the United States for help to try to normalize the situation on the island. At the same time he ordered his troops forward ten miles across the border into Haiti, to try to create a safety zone inside Haiti for the refugees.
May 11th 1952- In an emergency meeting in Santiago de Cuba, the Santiago Accord nations’ leaders agreed to do something to normalize Haiti. At the same time United States President Thomas Pinckney announces in TV that “our nation have the mission to try to bring an end to the sufferings of the people of Haiti. As such, together with our Caribbean neighbors, we will take upon ourselves to bring peace at last to that nation.”
May 17th 1952- Operation Broadsword starts. Dominican troops advanced deeper into Haitian territory together with Puerto Rican troops while Cubans, South Mexican and US troops land in major Haitian port cities.
May 19th 1952- US Marines are landed in Cap Haitien and Mole St. Nicholas while joint South Mexican-US troops are landed in Pestel and joint Cuban-US troops are landed in Gonaives and Port-au-Prince. Resistance when from none in Pestel to moderate in Port-au-Prince to heavy in Gonaives.
May 26th 1952- Final organized resistance in Haiti is eliminated. In meeting between the US commander and Santiago Accord nations’ military commanders in Port-au-Prince a division of the country into administrative areas is agreed upon, with each nation getting an area to administer for the time being.
June 1952- Baldwin drops out of the race, and endorses Roosevelt. La Follete recieves very little support outside of the traditional Progressive regions, and drops out in favor of Brownell. Brownell recieved support from traditional Democrats in the plain states, and was viewed as a greater champion of farmers rights than Pinkney, gaining Populist support. Frederick Hanslow makes an announcement saying that he would endorse Brownwell if he were nominated. Republican party leaders believe that Brownwell would expand the party, and by getting rid of the Democratic-Populist aliance make the Republican Party stronger in the future. Brownwell showed himself in campaigning to be a small government conservative, appealing even to classic Smith Republicans such as La Guardia.
June 7th 1952- Southern Russian military unveils their new cavalry landship, build to replace the remaining armored cars in their cavalry brigades. Named the Cossack Cavalry Landship, the compact vehicle had a torsion bar suspension with five roadwheels and two return rollers; the engine runs the length of the tank on the right side with the driver on the left. The speed was an incredible 50 miles per hour on the road. It was deemed necessary due to the armour protection only reaching 25mm. Tipping the scale at only 16 tons but well armed with a 85mm gun fed with an automatic loading system with two six round magazines revolver type. A weakness of the small size was that the reloads were mounted externally, thus requiring the crews to reload the magazines outside the vehicle.
Summer 1952- The reorganization of Central Federation Armies is considered completed. The Austrian Heer consisted of eight divisions; the Guards Division and the 1st Dragoon (motorized) included, plus the landship 1st Uhlan division and an independent mounted brigade. The Hungarian Honved consisted of eight infantry divisions and three-mounted cavalry divisions. The newly raised Vojna consisted of four infantry divisions. The Common Army was reduced in size to ten infantry divisions, half of them motorized, and two landship divisions.
July 1952-Fiorello La Guardia withdraws from the race, endorsing Brownwell.
July 1952- A huge pro-Roosevelt media campaign is launched by Quentin's personal friend Hemingway.
July 15th 1952- King Habibullah of Afghanistan dies from what it seems food poisoning but many said he was assassinated. During his reign of over fifty years his nations stayed as a backwater nation, ruled by Islamic law and with almost no progress all out of the three major cities. Many blamed the British and later the Indians as the main culprits, happy to see their neighbor to the north stayed on the 19th century.
August 1952- The European tour of the British Foreign Minister William Pratt is considered by today’s historian as the basis for the creation of the European Defense Organization in 1968. Pratt visited Germany, the Central European Federation, Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, the TAF, the rump Kingdom of Italy and Spain before returning to London on August 30th. After his return he stated “Europe is on the path of peaceful coexistence between all the nations in the continent and its on our best interest to help in keeping Europe that way for a long time.”
August 1952- Jose Guzman Torres reelected President of Cuba. He continued his mission to try to heal the wounds of the “Tio Beto” years during his second term and the political stability of Cuba during the later part of the century is considered to be his legacy to that nation.
August 1952- The Democratic Party uses the name recognition of former Army Chief of Staff Patton on the party ticket, with Patton being put in the ticket as candidate to the vice-presidency.
August 6th 1952- Inayatullah, oldest son of Habibullah, is crowned King of Afghanistan. Many considered the real power of his reign his brother Amanullah, who as his army commander and Treasurer of the Kingdom began some reforms based in the ones made by Kemal Ataturk in the Turko-Arabic Federation.
August 18th 1952- A provisional Haitian government under emigre lawyer Phillipe Lebrun is formed to take care of the day to day affairs, with the troops in the nation being used to ensure the continued normalization of the nation.
October 1952 -- Attempts by several other U.S. states, and by the French, Ethiopian, and Australian governments, to pass pollution-control legislation mimicking the Sunshine Pact flounder.
October 1st to 5th 1952- The Chicago White Sox win the World Series, led by the hitting of veteran shortstop/outfielder Lew Beauregard (.295-9-101),third year shortstop Pete Carrasquillo (.248-1-52), second baseman Nick Fox (.285-3-72) first baseman Bill Robinson (.296-22-104) and veteran outfielder Harry Funicello ( .295-16-91) and the pitching of Walt Pierce (18-12-2.72-3), Joe Davidson (14-10-2.51-1), Ed Grissom (12-5-3.12-2) and reliever Jose Mendocino (8-4- 2.47-21), over the Pittsburgh Pirates 4 games to 0.
October 7th, 1952- Javier Hernandez has had an even better season, hitting .308-19-84 and 43 stolen bases, Cajuns coach Beaux R. Johnson is quoted with saying "that Mexican boy sure can hit, and run too."
October 18th 1952- Admiral Chester Nimitz retires as Chief of Naval Operations after eight years on the post. A well respected officer and commander of the Pacific Fleet during the Global War, he was a supporter of the aircraft carrier and the use of missiles for naval purposes, his construction plans demonstrating that, with United States taking the lead in the construction of aircraft carriers and being the first nation to build ships carrying missiles as their main armament.
November 1952 Governor Quentin Roosevelt is elected President of the United States of America.
November 1952- Rafael Tapia Espinal reelected President of the Dominican Republic by a landslide. Popular with the military thanks to his support to increase their budget due to the ongoing peacekeeping operations in Haiti and with the civilian industrialists that saw the end of the Haitian unrest as a welcome sight of a possible increase of trade and expansion of their businesses with their neighbor in the island.
November 1952 --American Weekly magazine coins the phrase "The Big Green Belt" to refer to the mid-atlantic Sunshine Pact states, which in two years have already seen a noticeable drop in air pollution and a sudden emergence of "green" entrepreneurships that hope to make fortunes helping the railroad, automotive, steel, and mining businesses meet their new pollution targets.
December 1952- Two new expansion teams join the Major Leagues,both in the National League. A resurrected St. Louis Cardinals team together with the Milwaukee Brewers are the new teams, bringing the size of the National League teams to twelve. Due to concerns in regard to travel it was decided to divide the Leagues into two divisions to try to ease the travel concerns. The division was as follows: NL East-Brooklyn Mets, Buffalo Braves, Pittsburgh Pirates, Montreal Habitants, New Orleans Cajuns and Staten Island Bridges; NL West-Chicago Cubs, Cincinnati Reds, LA Zapatistas, Milwaukee Brewers, SF Bears and St. Louis Cardinals; CL East-Baltimore Saints, Boston Blue Socks, New York Yankees, Philadelphia Phillies and Washington Senators; CL West-Chicago White Socks, Cleveland Napoleons, Detroit Tigers, St. Louis Browns and Toronto Blue Jays.
1953 - In a series of agreements over the course of the year, the Germano-Austrian trading union is expanded to include the non-Teutonic states in their respective economic spheres such as Serbia, Bulgaria, Georgia, Byelarus, and Poland.
1953 - The revitalized MTA announces a plan to reimplement rail service on the Greenbush network, and connect the line to the Fairmount Line via Savin Hill Station (Harvard Line). The entire Fairmount Line is replaced with bus service for over five years to bring the thirteen new stations online.
1953 - Riots break out in Muscat, capital of Oman. The Emir of Oman attempts to placate the rioters by terminating his treaty with the British.
Both Russian governments are secretly giving the rioters weapons.
January 1953 - In his Inauguration Speech, President Quentin Roosevelt, the first man to fly solo across the Atlantic, challenges the nation to be the first nation to put a man on the Moon.
February 1953- Chinese president Kung Hsiang-Hsi barely wins reelection by defeating former President Chiang, who stood for a stronger response to Japanese's support to resistance movements in the province of Tonkin and the puppet of Annam. Still President Kung social reforms won the majority of the population in the interior of China and that was the difference, with that provinces voting almost in masse for the incumbent.
February 1953: George Cabot-Lodge dies, and by almost unanimous consensus his Senate seat is given to his son.
February 14th 1953- President Jose Figueres of Costa Rica sign the Santiago Accords, his nation being the fifth nation joining that loose association of Caribbean nations.
February 16th 1953- New York Yankees pitcher Rodrigo Amador announces his retirement after 19 years in New York. The Cuban pitcher had six twenty-game winning seasons and finished his career with 302 victories.
March 12th 1953- United States troops leave Haiti, leaving the Santiago Accord nations to continue to ensure their protection of Haiti for the time being.
April 1953- Rioting Basques set houses and businesses on fire in Spain
April 7th, 1953- In the first game of the season, Javier Hernandez hits a grand slam and 2 triples and the crowd screams Ole!, what it turned to be the rally cry of the Zapatistas for the decade.
June 1953- Juan Santos-Medina and wife Carlota have a son, his name is Miguel.
June 1953- Basque rioters in Seville throw homemade bombs at Spanish buildings, and also fire guns
August 10, 1953 - The Imperial Reorganization Act passes Commons, but is vetoed in Lords. It calls for the transformation of the Imperial Council into the Imperial Senate, the expansion of the British Parliament into an Imperial Parliament, and a separate England only Parliament.
October 9th to 18th 1953- "El Rayo" leads the Zapatistas to a 4-3 victory over the Detroit Tigers. Javier "El Rayo" Hernandez (.314-20-87 with 39 stolen bases) was the hero of the Series but the leadership of Frank Musial (.337-30-113), the Leadership Award winner of the National League,was the one that took the team to the pennant.
November 1953- Spanish police are called out, and suppress rioters, after a Basque attempt to blow up the Palace
November 1953- Mutter I rocket manned mission is launched to ensure the integrity of the system. The rocket worked flawlessly and the two men crew were recovered in the Indian Ocean by a German carrier.
November 25th 1953- The New York Yankees, that finished third on their division, trade third baseman Mac Robinson to the Pittsburgh Pirates for a young 19 year old outfielder from Puerto Rico called Raul Clemente and another minor leaguer. Clemente went on to win the right field position in Spring Training, making possible for Mickey Marble to move to first base and for Orestes Miñoso to go back to third. Clemente went on to play for twenty four years with the Yankees until his retirement in 1978.
January 1954- The Basques declare the Basque Republic
January 3, 1954 -- Euskal Europa, the leading Basque independence party, repudiates the declaration of a Republic. They release a statement declaring, "Independence is worthless without peace. Those who shed blood in the name of independence only perpetuate the vile slur that the Basques are a violent people."
February 19th 1954- Prime Minister Serrano Suñer orders the military to use "all means necessary to eliminate the threat to the stability of Spain" after his attempts for a compromise with separatists Basques fails.
February 22nd 1954- The Spanish Army invades the Basque provinces and uses mustard gas to defeat any heavy resistance. Thousands of refugees escape to France, were the men are turned back but women and children are allowed to stay.
March 11, 1954 - The revered but elderly Mustafa Kemal comes out of retirement to resume the Presidency of the Turko-Arabic Federation in response to the threat of the UIE and the Allah's Will movement that has tried to penetrate the nation. An immediate crackdown of religious extremists commences.
April 6th 1954- The Basque provinces are declared secured by Spanish Army commander Francisco Franco, who declared the provinces under martial law. The suppression of the Basque movement and their eventual exodus from Spain during the 60's and 70's is well documented.
April 17th 1954- British first SSB enters service. The Narwal Class subs were capable of carrying six nuclear-armed ballistic missiles but it was forced to shoot their missiles on the surface, like the German Bavaria class SSBs.
May 14th 1954- The Royal Indian Army announces that four of the ten independent Gurkha regiments were going to be trained to be used as airmobile units, to make possible their fast deployment in case of emergency.
June 5th 1954- Japanese Prime Minister Yamashita dies suddenly from a heart attack. A rush for power ensues but finally won by Lt. General Seizo Arisue, the commander of the Home Islands troops.
June 6th 1954- China began mobilizing their naval forces in response to the dead of Japanese Prime Minister Yamashita.
June 7th to 9th 1954- Clashes occur between Chinese and Japanese naval and air forces near Formosa. At the time it was believed war could had been a possibility between the two nations, but it was just a show of force by the Chinese taking advantage of the situation in Japan to ensure themselves a good bargaining chip in regard to the situation in Tonkin.
July 8th 1954- Japan secretly agree to stop their support to Tonkinese separatists in exchange for Chinese recognition of the current status of the island of Formosa. The agreement is considered the main cause of the defeat of the Kung government in the 1957 elections, the outroar of the renouncing of the claims to Formosa being used by the Popular Front Party to bring their leader back into power.
July 9th 1954- A new six-ship class of AA cruisers is ordered by the US Navy. The Abraham Lincoln Class, they were named for 19th Century presidents and completed by late 1958. With a weight of 12,000 tons and capable of 35 knots, they were armed with six dual launchers for the new AA missile, the Boxer. A two-stage MWD guided missile, it was more effective against maneuverable targets than the predecessor the Bulldog but had a shorter effective range than the Bulldog.
September 16th 1954- Wilhelm Canaris, head of the German Imperial Intelligence Service, presents a report to the German government that is considered inflammatory. It presented the connection between the US based Organization for the Betterment of Africa and pro-independence movements in all the African colonies. Some parts of the report are leaked to the press and the Roosevelt administration is forced to respond that they were unaware of the activities of the OBA in Africa.
October 9th to 17th 1954- Detroit Tigers win their first World Series since 1909 by defeating the Pittsburgh Pirates 4 games to 2. Led by the hitting of their trio of outfielders Ed Zernial (.284-42-108), Bradley Slaughter (.300-11-101) and the batting champ second year player Al Calero (.340-27-102), the Tigers went on to win their division by three games and them to defeat the New York Yankees 3 games to none to go to the World Series.
October 12th 1954- OBA Chairman Cordell Hull announces his resignation after the OBA received a Federal order for an auditory of their books and finances. He stated he was unaware of any misuse of funds of the Organization but the damage was already made.
October 21st 1954- Phillipe Lebrun is elected President of Haiti in the first elections in that nation in more than a decade. The Santiago Accord nations announced a reduction of their troops in Haiti but agreed to keep troops in the nation, “to ensure the path of democracy” in the words of the Puerto Rican president Antonini.
November 17th 1954- The last of the Japanese AA designed cruisers laid down in 1951, the Kuma is commissioned. Named after rivers the Kuma, the Oi, the Kiso and the Isuzu were considered obsolete by the early 1960’s and that saves them of destruction in the Battle of the Marshall Islands in 1967. They were being used as AA cover for the PI Task Force due to the expected Filipino response was considered to be weak. The ships had a displacement of 5,000 tons, capable of reaching 32 knots and their armament was an incredible 8 dual turrets carrying 120mm dual-purpose guns directed by a MWD system linked by a computer on the bridge.
December 15th 1954- Germany announces they were closing all the offices of the OBA in their African colonies, following the arrest of dissidents in the colonies of Congo, Tanganyika, Ivory Coast and Guinea. Their TV trials were used as a show to implicate the connection between the US and dissidence in the African colonies. The resulting embarrassment to the Roosevelt administration in the World opinion was followed by a minor embargo by the African colonial powers.
1955- The Chinese Mafia is mostly united, with only a few rogue gangs left.
1955 - Tens of Thousands of Romanians gather in Bucharest to hear Ion Petrescu speak on the greatness of the Romanian people and the need to gain true equality within the Empire.
1955 - A bill to amend the Constitution to limit the presidential term to one four year period is first introduced to the Congress. It also limits Senators to one term, and Representatives to three terms.
1955- William Bush graduated from Yale, goes to Harvard Business School, and decided to go into the oil business, on the suggestion of a friend of his father.
January 5, 1955 - Dr. Nicholai Nevski in Russia publishes a controversial paper laying out a theory for 'cryogenic suspension' of human beings, based on studying the chemistry of certain antarctic fish and other species adapted to extreme conditions.
February 5th 1955- Ramon Serrano Suñer assassinated by Basques terrorists. Repression againsts Basques increases, with thousands been deported to Spanish Sahara or to the Portuguese colonies after arrangments are reached with the the Portuguese.
February 18th 1955- The Organization for the Betterment of Africa is disbanded, their operations and assets being taken by over by the US government. President Roosevelt announced the assets of the disbanded organization were going to be used to continue their work in Africa but with no political connotations. Still Germany announced they would not allow any successor organization to reestablish themselves in their colonies.
May 8, 1955 - The Imperial Reorganization Act goes into effect. The next elections shall see the establishment of an Empire-wide Imperial Senate and Parliament and the formation of a separate Parliament for England. Critics in other parts of the Empire complain that the representation formulas are heavily skewed towards 'Anglo' Dominions and Crowns within the Empire.
June 5th 1955- The Japanese Arisaka combat rifle entered service. Basically a copy of the Russian Tokarev-51, it used a smaller caliber after it was considered the size of the soldiers using it. The caliber decided upon was the 5.56 caliber that made possible for the weapon to use a fifty round box magazine. It also was decided to shorten the weapon to better fit the Japanese soldier.
July 1955- Mutter V is the first manned vehicle to make an orbit around the Moon. The mission went without a hitch and a go was given to launch Mutter VI early the next year.
September 5th 1955- The last of the Japanese carriers laid down in 1951 is commissioned. Named the “Falcons”, the Kaiyo, the Chuyo and the Unyo were very capable ships, the first ones to carry jet fighters in the late 1950’s after the Imperial Japanese Navy began phasing out prop fighters. They carried armored decks like their predecessors, capable of reaching 32 knots, with a displacement of 40,000 tons and capable of carrying 60 aircrafts.
Fall 1955 - The Equality League and several other organizations come out in favor of a Term Limit Amendment to help fight corruption in the Federal Government.
October 9th to 14th 1955- Led again by their trio of outfielders Al Calero (.317-27-128), Ed Zernail (.254-30-84) and Bradley Slaughter (.291-6-89) the Detroit Tigers repeat as World Champions by defeating the Cincinnati Reds 4 games to 1. The Tigers hitting continue to dominate their division but they have to got to the max of five games to defeat the Boston Blue Sox for the Continental League pennant.
October 17th 1955- Guatemala agrees to join the Santiago Accord nations, the sixth nation to join the group of Caribbean nations.
1956 - The Allah's Will movement has been crushed in the Turko-Arabic Federation, despite its flourishing in the Arabian Peninsula. It is believed that the crackdown was more effective in the TAF due to the previous reforms of the 1940s.
1956 - The Sultanate of Muscat and Oman falls, and is replaced with an Allah's Will-dominated regime known as the United Islamic Emirate.
February 1956 - President Quentin Roosevelt signs the Civil Rights and Voting Act into law. It is one of the most sweeping pieces of legislation in American history, prohibiting discrimination in public facilities, government, housing, and employment; outlawing literacy tests and poll taxes for voter qualification, and providing for federal registration of voters all over the United States.
February 1956- The Mutter VI is launched and lands a capsule on the Moon surface. The first men on the moon are German Adolphus Maeger and Austro-Hungarian Franz Ludwig. Reentry is successful and both men were hailed as heros of their respective Empires.
February 7th 1956- The Mannerheim is the first of a six-boat class of SSB build by the Russian Navy. Similar to the submarines in service in all navies at the time, carrying six nuclear tipped missiles.
February 11th 1956- The first operational jet fighter aircraft in the world, the Fokker XXIII had a service ceiling of 45,000 feet, a speed of 620 mph, a range of 800 miles and an armament of four 60mm cannons with pylons for rockets. A very capable aircraft, it went into service with the Imperial German Air Forces five months before the aircraft entered service with the Central European Federation, the new name of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire.
March 1956 - US President Quentin Roosevelt during a press conference is asked about the the Austro-German landing on the moon in light of his previous comments about the US being the first to the moon. In reply, he states, "Well, I guess we'll just have to be the first to Mars, then!"
Spring 1956 - President Quentin Roosevelt surprises the world by announcing that he will not seek re-election to the Presidency, due to feeling he has done his duty to his country. He wishes to retire from public service on a high note, after a fruitful first term that has seen as one of its shining achievements the formation of the Department of Extraterrestrial Exploration, devoted to reaching beyond the Earth's surface to outer space.
Summer 1956 - Quentin Roosevelt speaks in favor of a Constitutional Amendment limiting the Presidency to one term, feeling this will allow the President to be a statesman and not a politician.
April 19th 1956- The first United States ballistic missiles enter service on this date. The Albacore class was a six-boat class but it was longer than other ships at the time, carrying eight nuclear missiles.
May 7th 1956- Manchuria makes another big purchase of landships to Russia, but this time 300 Nicholas II landships and 400 tracked armored troop carriers. These vehicles are used to convert the 10th Infantry Division into the 10th Armored Division by the middle of 1958.
June 4th 1956- The British Hawker Valiant enters service with the RAF. The first jet aircraft of the RAF, it entered service four months behind the German Fokker XXIII, the first operational jet fighter of the world. With a speed of 610mph, a range of 600 miles and an armament of four 60mm cannons with pylons for rockets it was a very successful aircraft, comparable to the other first generation jets.
June 4, 1956 William Bush is sent to Austrian Romania to work on developing trade ties between the two nations for oil shipments in the post-war world.
August 6, 1956- Tsar Alexei II Romanov has a seizure and dies at age 31. All of Russia mourns for him, and Russia's first manned mission into space is postponed two months. His son Alexander ascends the throne as Tsar Alexander IV.
August 8th 1956- With the failure of the Wright Shark, the US Navy put to the test the possible replacements to that aircraft and the eventual winner was the Boeing Phantom. The aircraft was slower than the new generation of land based jet aircrafts of the time but it was considered by the naval services that an aircraft too fast could not perform adequately from a carrier, still it was replaced by the Wright Barracuda in late 1958, giving the Phantom the shortest operational service time in the history of the US Navy. The aircraft had a speed of 500 mph, a service ceiling of 40,000 feet, a range of 700 miles and an armament of four 40mm cannons with pylons for rockets.
September 1956- A cabal of influential military officers, businessmen, and scientists known as the "Wolf Pack" begin planning the overthrow of the Tsar
September 4th 1956- Sir Oswald Mosley is named as Head of the Exchequer in the new Labour cabinet of Prime Minister Aneurin Bevin.
September 17th 1956- The six Boxer Class battlecruisers are decommissioned after 30 years in service. Two of them are sold to China while one each were sold to the South Mexican and Puerto Rican navies with the other two remaining units being put in mothballs.
October 5, 1956 - Ethnic Romanian terrorists kidnap American businessman William Bush and demands the release of dozens of Romanian 'political' prisoners in return for his release.
October 9th to 17th 1956- Cincinnati returns the favor the Detroit Tigers, by defeating them this time in a repeat of the World Series of the year before by winning the Series 4 games to 2. Led by the hitting of veteran shortstop Phil Rosado (.324-7-66-28), veteran outfielders Charlie Post (.309-40-109)and David Benson (.308-27-104) plus rookie outfielder Bob Robinson (.290-38-83) in the offense and by Joe Newman (13-11-3.72-2), Lee Lawrence (19-10-3.99), Art Foster ( 18-9-3.27-2) and Dutch Klein (14-5-3.40-18) leading the pitching for the team, this team won their division by ten games and easily dispatched the Staten Islands Bridges three games to none.
October 14, 1956-Vostok, Russia's manned mission, explodes its launchpad, killing the two astronauts within. It is discovered twenty years later that this terrible tragedy was actually a planned sabotage by members of the "Wolf Pack" to further demoralize the spirit of the Russian people.
October 15th 1956- The Roosevelt Aviation Hawk VI enters service as the first jet fighter of the USAAC. While slower and with a weaker armament to the European jets entering service at the same time, it had the advantage in range and service ceiling, points that the Roosevelt’s designers found important due to the size of the United States. The aircraft had a speed of 580 mph, a range of 1,100 miles, a service ceiling of 47,000 feet and an armament of four 40mm cannons and two .50 caliber machineguns that make it the main land based aircraft of the US until the arrival of the P-20 in the middle 1960’s.
November 1956: Democrat George Welles defeats Herbert Bronell for the presidency.
November 7th 1956- Yankee outfielder/first baseman Mickey Marble announces his retirement after a twenty year career with his team. He hit 621 homeruns during his illustrious career, winning three Continental League Leadership Award and six World Series rings.
November 10th 1956- Amanullah travels to St. Petersberg were he signs a commercial treaty with Russia, with secret clauses to help to bring the Afghan Army to modern standards. Indian Prime Minister Nehru protested but the Afghani response was “the arrangement we had was with the British not with you Indians and the British are gone.” The mum silence of British Prime Minister Bevin in this regard further separated the Indians from the British.
December 1956 - The Term Limit Amendment proposal to limit the Presidency and Senate to one term, and the House to three terms, is altered in the Congress by an amendment from Representative Commer of Pennsylvania.
December 1th to 10th 1956-"Ten Days in December"- the first great Nuclear Crisis. The Russian SSB Mannerheim and the German SSB Tirpitz are both lost at sea in the same area of water in the Norwegian Sea with their loadouts of nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles. In the next few days, Germany and Russia continue to up the ante until a deal favorable to Germany is brokered by the United States.
December 11th 1956- In one of his last official acts, President Quentin Roosevelt announced he brokered the deal that resolved the crisis between Germany and Russia but stated “the dream first brought forward by former President Wendell Wilkie and later by the British Foreign Minister William Pratt is truly a necessity of this world of ours. An organization that helps all the nations in this planet in a peaceful way is a must if we expect to never repeat the horrors of the Global War.”
December 24, 1956- The "Ten Days in December" Crisis has made Tsar Alexander's rule seem weak and ineffective, and a decidedly anti-monarchy government rises to power.
1957 - A major shake-up of the Cymru Europa party occurs due to its failure to gain support in the UK which is attributed to it being seen as a 'foreign' movement. The party officially renames itself the Cymru Equality Movement, and severs its official ties with Europa parties on the continent, though many of its members still retain personal ties to Europa politicians.
1957- The left leaning government of Bevin began slashing the military budget, considering the high military expenditure “as wasteful” and started a campaign to reduce the number of atomic weapons available.
1957 - Wahabbi Bedouin in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula, led by the surviving members of the al-Saud clan, declare loyalty to the UIE. Raids begin chipping away at British ruled portions of the Hadrhamut.
January 13th 1957- The Calcutta Armored Brigade is demobilized by the cutbacks of the Bevin administration, their vehicles being “donated” to the Commonwealth of India, were they were used to raise the 1st Landship Division of the Royal Indian Army with the already existing landship brigade.
February 1957- Former President Chiang returns to power after close to a decade away from power. One of his first acts is to dismiss his political rival Marshall Zhu De as commander of the Chinese National Army.
February 1957 - The Term Limit Amendment fails in its previous two incarnations, but is revived in a more restricted form, only limiting the President to one term.
February 1957- George Patton is named Secretary of the War by the new Democrat Administration.
February 10, 1957- Young tsar Alexander survives an assassination attempt. His advisors soon discovers that it is the "Wolf Pack" that is behind the attempt.
February 13, 1957- The "Wolf Pack" moves before the Tsar advisors can react. In a quick palace coup that suffers little opposition, the cabal proclaims the Russian Republic and installs a puppet as a President. The Romanov family escapes into exile to Great Britain.
February 17th 1957- Japanese Prime Minister Arisue recognizes the new Russian government and stated “Japan expects their working relationship with the Russian nation to continue for a very long time.”
March 15, 1957 -- The Geneva World Peace Conference begins. The Conference's primary and more practical aim is to update the Rules of War. They are now woefully out of date, as no Convention has been passed since the 1864 Geneva Convention and 1899 Hague Convention. The Conference's secondary and more bold aim is to create a Permanent International Congress, composed of diplomats from all nations.
March 31, 1957 -- The Geneva World Peace Conference hits a setback when, on the fourth ballot, it becomes clear that some of the major powers, as well as smaller nations concerned about the right to a last-ditch defense, will refuse to sign on to a Chemical Weapons ban. The Turko-Arabic Federation and Chile, the major proponents of the ban, begin working on an optional side treaty.
April 2, 1957 -- Germany and Poland submit a joint proposal at the Geneva World Peace Conference for a Federation of Nations, with heavy emphasis on strict free trade agreements and an "international troop reserve." Both nations acknowledge that they are over-reaching in order to present a bold vision out of which a smaller, more realistic, body can form. The result is a maelstrom of media activity, as newspaper and television coverage of the conference spikes.
April 4, 1957 -- The Socialist International announces its opposition to the Federation of Nations concept, calling it "a wicked tryst of the religious capitalist-military movement." Several Socialist bodies in Europe run advertisements against it raising the spectre of a wave of African and Asian immigrants caused by the free trade agreement. The British Labour Party condems the ads as "a crass appeal to racist instincts," and imposes temporary censorship. Socialist International compels the local bodies to stop the ads, insisting, "racism is in total opposition to our beliefs."
April 6th 1957- The Russia unveils their first operational fighter, the MiG-1. The first design of the team of Ustin Gudenich and Vadim Mihailov, the aircraft was named for the team but it was found lacking after being compared to the current European land based jet aircrafts. With a speed of 565 mph, a range of 500 miles, a service ceiling of 43,000 feet and armed with three 37mm cannons plus pylons for rockets it was inferior in all that characteristics to the other designs entering service.
April 17, 1957 -- Major progress at the Geneva World Peace Conference on the Rules of War --
The Red Cross organization adopts several alternative symbols, satisfying all the world's major religions
The rules of battlefield casualties are extended to sea and air
Nations commit to "all feasible efforts to preserve the lives of civilians under their military control", banning both the active and passive forms of the maltreatment of captured peoples that some scholars had taken to calling "geno-cide."
Classifies all people in war zones as "soldiers", "non-combatants", and "spies and saboteurs". The first two groups are called "Lawful Prisoners of War" and are given a wide array of rights, roughly equivalent to the rights of accused criminals in Western nations. "Spies and saboteurs" are granted only (1) the right to have their names reported their homeland, and (2) freedom from torture, but not freedom from military execution.
May 1, 1957 -- In the largest May Day Riots since 1894, the Socialist International gathers 250,000 protesters from all over Europe and marches on Geneva in opposition to the Federation of Nations. The march is completely undisciplined -- racist rowdies, chanting slogans in opposition to Kenya's admission as a full Dominion and to the several proposed laws by European national parliaments mimicking the USA's Civil Rights and Voting Act, have hijacked the protest; almost no one is discussing the Geneva Conference. Police gain control after hours of fighting; the "African Quarter" of Geneva suffers serious property damage.
May 2, 1957 -- In response to the previous day's riots, Adolphus Maeger becomes the first astronaut ever to make a political statement. Live on German TV, and broadcast soon thereafter throughout Europe, he reveals that he was a Socialist, but tears up his membership card and announces he will join the Social Democrats. His speech becomes famous for the line, "That any Germans at all should have participated in this disgusting, racist violence marks the darkest day in the history of the German Race."
May 3, 1957 -- In a voice vote, the Geneva World Peace Conference adopts the preambulatory phrase, "All peoples are equal, and therefore all nations have an equal right to sovereignty." The federal and military aspects of the Federation of Nations proposal, however, are quietly dropped, and all of the talk is now focusing on a "World Agreement on Trades and Tariffs."
May 11th 1957- The Japanese A7M arrives for service in the Imperial Naval Japanese fleet. The first jet on service in the Japanese naval forces, it was pretty much a redesign of the A6M but carrying a pair of Mitsubishi jet engines instead of a pair of prop engines. The A7M was capable of a range of over 650 miles and a speed of 590 mph, at par with the first generation of jet fighters making their appearance in the last years of the 1950’s.
May 18th 1957- The Royal Navy suffered the biggest by the new proposed cutbacks to the military, with the remaining battleships of the Orion, King George V and Queen Elizabeth classes being ordered to be demobilized.
Summer 1957 - The final vote on the Term Limit Amendment fails to garner the necessary number of votes to pass the Senate, mostly due to a loss of support from Senate Republicans.
June 3, 1957 - Kenya becomes the first Black African Dominion. Many credit its importance as the main launch site for the British Imperial Space Ministry giving it the status and clout to do so.
June 25, 1957 -- The Geneva World Peace Conference passes the World Agreement on Trades and Tariffs. The Agreement's immediate effects are mainly informational, as secret trade agreements are banned and an international wire service is created to distribute information about laws and rules affecting international trade. The long-term effects look to be huge, though, as the WATT Organization, a treaty-making body, has been charged with the mission to lower the barriers to international trade by roughly half over the next 2 years, and half again over the next 10.
July 7, 1957 -- Led by the Turko-Arabic Federation and Chile, 25 nations, mostly Muslim and Latin-American, agree amongst themselves to ban chemical weapons. In addition to the leaders, the most notable signatories are Mexico, South Mexico, and Argentina.
July 9, 1957 -- The Geneva World Peace Conference ends on an up note with the creation of the Permanent Diplomatic Forum in Geneva, which will serve as a place where diplomats from all nations, even those at war, can always discuss bilateral or multilateral agreements. The Rules of War, WATT, and Forum treaties, and the optional chemical weapons ban treaties, now go to the national governments for ratification. Bodies will come into existence when they gather 2/3 ratification, although they will have no power over non-members.
August 12th 1957- Dwight Eisenhower retires as Army Chief of Staff and is replaced by Lt. General Mark Clark. Eisenhower when on to be President of Yale until his dead in 1971. Mark Clark, who led the United States troops in France during the Global War, has the shortest stay as Army Chief of Staff in the history of the position.
September 17th 1957- Vostok 2 was a success. The first Russian manned mission to space, it was hailed “as a triumph of the Russian nation” by the Russian junta.
October 9th to 17th 1957- Javier "El Rayo" Hernandez (.322-20-89 with 51 stolen bases) leads his team on the World Series, winning a 4-2 victory over the Chicago White Sox. Him, together with outfielder Frank Musial (.351-29-102) and Negro outfielder Howie Mayer (.333-35-97 with 40 stolen bases) led the Zapatistas to win the Western Division by nine games and the pennant 3-1 over the Staten Island Bridges.
October 9th 1957- The Bayern Class of SSB entered service, being the second class of German ballistic submarines. Carrying eight nuclear tipped missiles, they suffered from the same problem as the other SSB’s by not being capable of launching while being underwater and measures were being taken to resolve that problem.
December 9th 1957- Lt. General Mark Clark announces he was stepping down as Chief of Staff due to health reasons and been replaced by Lt. General Matthew Ridgway, a veteran of the Pacific front in the Global War. His main achievement during his short stay was his lobbying to get benefits for the veterans from the Global War suffering from cancer related to the atomic blasts in Rheims and Amiens plus to the survivors of chemical and nerve weapons. He died two years later in what is considered to be cancer acquired while touring the destroyed French cities in 1937.
1958- After only three lunar landing missions, the funding for the Austro-German space program is slashed by both nations' governments, which considered that with the moon been reached the money could be spend in other matters. Both nations continued to launch satellites into space, but is forced to cull its manned missions. Both nations' space program is virtually canceled for the next 15 years, with only sporadical communications and military satellites been launched.
1958- The Commerce Fund owns several businesses, and has funded the buying of land and construction of a headquarters in American Polynesia.
January 1958- Albert West, after seeing a bullfight in Ciudad Juarez, starts advocating bullfighting in the US.
January 9th 1958- Lt. Colonel Robert Ferguson of the United States Marines is the first American to set his feet on the moon after winning a bet with his comrade Major John Hamilton of the Army Air Corps. His words setting his feet on the moon were “we Marines always have to lead the way for the damn Army”, as a jest to his crewmate.
February 10th 1958- Nigeria accepted as a Dominion by the Imperial Council, the third African nation to receive that designation.
March 20th 1958- Both Russian nations sell landhips to the UIE. Ukrainian Russia sells 150 Cossack Cavalry Landships while Northern Russia sells 200 Nicholas II vehicles. The nations of the area see this as very provocative actions but after assurances being given to the Bevin government, the British Prime Minister relented in allowing the sale. President Kemal of the Turko-Arabic Federation stated that “the mighty British Empire is truly a weakened giant. The nation that gave us our freedom back twenty years ago now kiss the feet of a group of goat herders.”
April 9th 1958- President Welles announces the assets and operations of the former OBA are being transformed into a non-profit organization named the African Relief Society based in Monrovia.
May 16th 1958- Beginning of “Bloody May.” On this day a two weeklong series of riots protesting that Korean language was banned on the schools started in the port city of Inchon and them expanded to other major cities in Korea. By the end of the month thousands were dead and the movement was sent underground.
June 14th 1958- Secretary of War George Patton dies from complications from a bout with bronchitis.
July 27th 1958- First operational Wright Barracuda enters service with the US Navy. With a speed of 550mph, service ceiling of 32,000 feet, a range of 1,300 miles and an armament of four 40mm cannons and two .50 caliber machineguns with pylons for rockets the aircraft was important due to being the first aircraft with one straight ram duct with its entrance in the nose.
August 1958- Will Roberts is accepted in Yale University in a soccer scholarship. While considered he could have gone pro, he decides to continue his studies after graduation from Public Administration.
October 9th to October 18th, 1958- Javier "El Rayo" Hernandez(.317-21-91 with 53 stolen bases) again is the hero of the Series, leading his team to victory in a 4-3 series against the Baltimore Saints. Again, Howie Majors (.347-29-96 with 31 stolen bases) with Frank Musial (.310-27-109) in his last great season and Javier Hernandez led the offense of the Zapatistas, who won a National League record of 106 games.
November 1958: Ted Landry is elected Governor from Michigan.
1959 - The Emirate of the Hejaz becomes a formal British protectorate as it struggles to fight off radical Islam. This shocks many fundamentalist Muslims, and the Hashemites become a target.
March 17, 1959 - Adolph Hitler unveils one of his last major pieces, the Jewish Valhalla, mixing surrealistic elements from Norse Mythology and Jewish symbolism. It is considered one of his lesser works, but is of interest to students of Hitler's life as it is believed to be a reaching out to his son, Adolph Hitler Jr., with whom he had been estranged from for nearly a decade.
March 18th 1959 - President Kemal is elected to his fourth term in office.
April 9th 1959- Punica accepted as a Dominion by the Imperial Council, the third new Dominion in three years.
April 10, 1959 - Some small riots break out in front of the British Embassy in Washington, DC, by American Muslims angry and protesting at Dominion status for Punica. Protests, mostly non-violent, occured in other countries with large Muslim populations as well, and major Muslim leaders had condemned the recognition of Punica, saying it was a "Crusade against Muslim land".
May 14th 1959- The German Kaiser gave a vote of no-confidence to the Chancellor and orders him to dissolve the government. In the resulting elections a coalition government allowed Jan Eduard de Quay to be the first Dutch Chancellor of the German Empire. His election by the coalition to lead the government came as a surprise to all the political analyists in the world. During his tenure he helped to further assimilate the Dutch, Walloon and Flemish citizens into the Empire, while deciding to expand the funds to the Colonial Office and the General Staff to upgrade the equipment in the last one and to help give the colonies a needed help in their infrastructures.
June 1, 1959 -- With China's ratification of the Forum Treaty, the WATT now has the necessary 2/3 ratifications to become an official international organization.
June 9th 1959- Prime Minister Bevin dies from cancer in his bed accompanied by his wife and immediate family.
August 8, 1959 - The Nevski Center, a cryogenic research facility, successfully freezes and revives a mouse.
August 11th 1959- Rab Butler returns to the position of Prime Minister of Great Britain after what was considered a public response to the extreme left -leaning government of Bevin.
August 18th 1959- First Japanese T2M are delivered to the Imperial Fleet. While they could be used in ships also the designation as land-based was kept. They received priority in the production schedule but they began to share production with the arrival of the U1M in early 1962. They were divided between “dolphins”, the troop carrier ones and “sharks” the ones carrying support weapons. They can carry 4,000 pounds, equal to 12 infantrymen and crew or the equivalent weight in cargo. The speed was 135 mph, with a range of 300 miles and a service ceiling of 19,000 feet. The dolphins carried two 7.7mm machine guns on the side for protection while the Sharks carried heavier machineguns on the side-doors and a 40mm grenade launcher in a small turret on the front.
September 19th 1959- Second base George Smalls of the St Louis Cardinals break the single season stolen base record with his 103 against the Cubs. Smalls finished the season with 111 stolen bases.
October 9th to 17th 1959- The New York Metropolitans win their first World Series ever by defeating the Chicago White Sox 4 games to 2, the first of four consecutive National League pennants won by this team. The offense was led by the first baseman Osvaldo Fernandez (.317-27-105), outfielders George Brandt (.270-12-57 with 29 stolen bases), Charlie Kirk (.272-22-68 with 20 stolen bases) and veteran Don Snyder (.308-23-88) while the pitching was led by Johnny Torio (19-10-3.10-1), Sammy Jackson (21-15-2.83-4), Mike Studebaker (12-16-3.99-4), John Stanley (15-12-3.16-1) and closer Len Miller (8-7-2.83-15).
November 1959- After years of financial problems and losing seasons the St. Louis Browns franchise announces their move to the city of Lincoln, Nebraska. The final nail in the coffin of the St Louis Browns was the arrival of the expansion Cardinals in 1952, followed by a string of near the basement seasons by them.The team takes the name of the Lincoln Plainsmen for the next season.
December 9th 1959- The Metropolitans trade starting pitcher Johnny Torio, veteran outfielder Don Snyder and outfielder George Brandt to the St. Louis Cardinals for veteran pitcher Johnny Paterno, young shortstop Marvin Willis and outfielder Tommy Richards.