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Old February 12th, 2006, 10:40 PM
Glen Glen is offline
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XXth C: Timeline

The Twentieth Century: 100 years of change.

1901-1910:
1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910

1911-1920:
1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920

1921-1930:
1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930

1931-1940:
1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940

1941-1950:
1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950

1951-1960:
1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960

1961-1970:
1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970

1971-1980:
1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980

1981-1990:
1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990

1991-2000:
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000


XXth C: Discussion Thread

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  #2  
Old February 15th, 2006, 07:51 PM
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1901

1901 -

1901 - AB, a patient who suddenly thought his relatives and friends had been replaced by imposters, is referred to Sigmund Freud. He applies his psychoanalytic theories to the case. He is intrigued by the case and asks his medical colleagues to refer more of them to him. He names the phenomenon 'Imposture Delusion'.

1901 - The Main Line Elevated opens in Boston, Massachusetts, as part of it's growing public transportation network.

1901 After a chance encounter with an American involved with the Pan-American Exposition travelling through Europe, Ferdinand Porsche is persuaded to showcases his hybrid vehicle at the Pan-American Exposition. There, he meets Henry Ford, and the two becomes friends.

January 1901 Heinrick von Mecklenburg-Schwerin during a drunken binge falls down a flight of stairs, breaks his neck and dies.

February 2, 1901 Dr. Ernest Duchesne is in a carriage accident, suffering multiple fractures. He recovers but is left lame, being discharged from the French Army. He returns to civilian practice of medicine, and out of boredom begins to revisit his work on the antibiotic properties of molds. He marries Rosa Lassalas.

March 1901: Struggling writter Thomas Dixon begins to plan trilogy focusing on the ante-bellum south, entitled 'Birth of a Nation' with the first book entitled 'The Leopard's Spots. Having trouble completing it himself, he asks his close friend and former classmate Princeton president Woodrow Wilson for assistance in both writing and researching the novel.

March 3, 1901 General Frederick Funston dies of a bout of Malaria.

March 6th, 1901 An assassin kills Kaiser Wilhelm II in Bremen.

April 1901: General James Franklin Bell takes over as military commander in the Philippines. General Arthur MacArthur serves as military governor and William Howard Taft serves as civilian governor.

July 24, 1901 - A daughter is born to the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, named Sophie. The morganatic status of his marriage means she is not entitled to the title Archduchess.

August 8th 1901-, Santos-Dumont flew his powered dirigible around the Eiffel Tower a 2nd time but sprang a leak and caught suspension wires in his propeller blades, fouling them and then puncturing the dirigible, leading him to crash to his death.

August 28 1901- Shah Mozzafar al-Din grants English industrialist William Knox D'Arcy 40 year cession to search Persia for oil except the 5 Northern most provinces bordering Russia.

September 1901 Kaiser Wilhelm III of the German Empire is married to Queen Wilhelmina I of the Netherlands.

September 6, 1901: American anarchist Leon Czolgosz shoots and wounds US President William McKinley at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York.

October 1901 Konstantin Tsiolkovsky's groundbreaking rocketry article "The Investigation of Outer Space by Means of Reaction Apparatus," is published in Science Survey.

1901 Nov 3 A baby girl named Victoria is born to the Royal Family of Belgium.

December 1901: George Cabot-Lodge buys shares in the Boston ports, continuing the families history of sucessful bussiness.
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Old February 15th, 2006, 07:54 PM
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1902

1902 -

1902- Two more cases of 'Imposture Delusion' comes to the attention of Dr. Sigmund Freud. In the meantime, the first patient with the delusion seen by him dies, and at autopsy it is found that he has a discrete brain lesion. By happenstance, the last case referred to him dies of pneumonia by the end of the year, and is found to have a lesion in a similar location. This leads Freud back to his roots as a neurologist and he begins to examine more of his patients for organic causes for their ailments.

1902: Taft begins a series of public work projects designed to help the Filipino people. They are poorly organize, and constantly sabotaged. Aguinaldo begins to fight a guerilla war against the American troops. Bell begins a scorched-earth campaign.

1902 Leonard Wood is assigned a post in Puerto Rico as Millitary Governor. He does generally well in improving the sanitation infrastructure of the island.

Febuary 1902: Franklin Gatling, a real-estate broker buys out 2,000 acres in northern Texas that he suspects might contain oil.

1902 Feb 22 A fistfight broke out in the Senate. Senator Benjamin Tillman suffered a bloody nose for accusing Senator John McLaurin of Cowardness for suggesting a US withdrawal from the Philippines.

March 2 1902- Using his own money to finance the expedition, William D'Arcy Travels to Persia to begin his search for oil.

April 1902: "The Leopard's Spots" recieves poor critical reviews, and sells fewer then 10,000 copies. Dixon quits writing, and pursues a Ph.D in English. Wilson eventually secures him a spot in the Princeton faculty.

3rd April 1902 Three days before the elections for Senatorship of Var, Clemenceau is allegedly involved in sordid and indecent acts with a female secretary at Le Bloc, the newspaper he founded. Whilst no proof is ever brought forwards, the resulting scandal leads to him losing the election. He believes that the rumour was started by his opponent, and so challenges him to a duel. Despite being considerably younger and fitter than Clemenceau, the man refuses. Days later, he is found dead in a back alley in Paris. Georges is arrested, and taken to court. The trial leads to his aquittal, but he has lost a large amount of popular support. He attempts to return to Le Bloc, only to find he is no longer welcome there. He returns to his first paper, La Justice, and begins to build up a strong base of support with the French Communists.

Summer 1902 A visiting Russian socialist is introduced at a party to H.G. Wells. Having heard of Well's book, "The First Men On The Moon," he mentions to him the article by Tsiolkovsky in Science Survey on rocketry. He agrees to send Wells an English version of the article. Taken with the article, H.G. Wells begins corresponding with Tsiolkovsky.

June 1902: Several prominent Populist politicians see that they have little chance for re-election to congress. Many of them take up local positions as judges, mayors, or Lieutenant-Governors. Some Senators choose to run for the House, wishing to retain some Washington prestige.

June 12, 1902 The Senate passes legislation for a canal through Nicaragua by a narrow majority. While the Nicaragua route had been popular for years, the legislation was almost derailed by a strong lobbying effort for a Colombian canal.

August 1902: Oil is found on Franklin Gatling land, overnight turning him into a very rich man. He is a clever investor, and quickly estabolishes a strong foothold in the oil industry.

August 11th 1902- William Day named to the Supreme Court by President McKinley.

September 1902: William Randolf Hearst, former advocate of the Spanish- America war begins to present a more balanced view of the Phillippine wars in his papers.

September 5-1902
The tension crackled down the picket line. The strikers clumped in front of the entrance to a Pennsylvania coal mine. The men were marching in front of an ornate manor house, the home of a mine operator. Between the yelling crowd and the mine stood a thin line of Pinkertons, in gray overcoats. The protesters grew more and more violent, rubbish flew through the air toward the Pinkertons. Then one brick smashed into a Pinkerton. The man crumpled like a rag doll. Before he hit the ground, the Pinkerton commander gave a hoarse shout. The security officer's rifles came to their shoulders. Then the shooting started. Pundits and historians devated who opened fire first, but one fact is clear. At the end of the day thirty strikers where dead, and several hundred wounded, Five pinkertons were killed, and two dozen more wounded.

September 12th 1902- In response to the coal massacre, Progressive Republicans and some Democrats try to pass legislation that limits the armaments allowed by business security. The resolution fails to gain a majority in either House mostly for constitutional reasons, claiming that it violates the right to bear arms. Also many old guard Republicans actually sympathise with the coal plutocrats.

September 27, 1902 - Twin sons are born to the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Maximilian and Frederick. Neither of them are entitled to the title Archduke either.

October 1902 Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain postpones his trip to South Africa upon learning of Exchequer Secretary Ritchie's plans to campaign against the tariff.

November 1902: The Republicans maintain their firm hold on both the House and Senate. With most Populists switching back to the Democratic Party, the Democrats do gain a few more direct votes.

November 1902: Former Secretary of the Interior and Senator Henry Tellor is elected into the House of Representatives for Colorado.

December 7, 1902 Kaiser Wilhelm III and Queen Wilhelmina I have a son, Wilhelm Frederick.
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Old April 2nd, 2006, 05:02 PM
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1903

1903 -

1903 Russian and British space enthusiasts who have become aware of each other through contacts between H.G. Wells and Konstantin Tsiolkovsky begin the International Rocketry Society.

1903 The Ford Motor Company is founded. Henry Ford hires Porsche as one of his top designers.

1903 Dr. Ernest Duchesne, desperate to help his consumptive wife, gives her an injection of Penicillium extract that he has been building up in his research. While the extract does not cure the Tuberculosis, it does relieve the secondary infection that is killing her. The initial results along with his lab work are presented in Paris, sparking a great deal of interest in mold produced antibiotics.

1903 - Bomber Harry Orchard dies in an explosion while trying to plant a bomb at the Vindicator Mine in Colorado.

1903: MacArthur puts several of Taft’s programs under military control. Operations begin to run smoothly. MacArthur wins the respect of both Taft and to a certain extent the Filipino people. Revolts die down in northern Luzon where the American presence is concentrated.

January 1903-Zola publishes "La Verite", 3rd of his "Quatre Evangiles".

January 1st 1903
Clyde J. Coleman becomes the first automotive fatality of the new year when a Electric Taxi accidentally runs him over while he is celebrating the New Year.

January 3rd 1903- Cadet William Frederick Halsey, Jr is expelled from the Naval Academy for poor academic performance. His father Capt William Hasley,Sr is so ashamed and embarrassed by his son that he disowns him. He heads to The New York waterfront to find work as seaman.

March 2nd 1903- William Moody, nominated by Mckinley, sworn into the Supreme Court.

March 31 1903 Richard Pearse flies a heavier-than-air machine in powered flight near Pleasant Point, South Canterbury, New Zealand. This is witnessed by Farmers and a reporter for the local Paper, who reports that the flight was stoped by tangling in the top of a near by hedge.

April 1903- With the arrival of Nap Lajoie from the rival National League to Cleveland the team was nicknamed the Napoleons in honor of their new superstar.

April 1903- Cy Young jumps to the new Continental League and joins the Boston Blue Socks.

April 1st, 1903-The Continental League begins its first season as a "major" baseball league. It soon emerges as a legitimate rival to the National League. Teams during its first season are the Chicago White Socks, Boston Blue Socks, Detroit Tigers, Philadelphia Athletic, Washington Senators, Cleveland Napoleons, St. Louis Browns, and Toronto Blue Jays.

April 23rd 1903- Chancellor of the Exchequer presents a budget to House of Commons that included a new corn tax levied against non Imperial grain. The Chancellor, on his speech, surprised many stating he personally was against this budget and plea the members of the House of Commons to reject it. Budget is rejected.

April 27th 1903- C.T. Ritchie, Chancellor of the Exchequer, dismissed by Prime Minister Balfour. Still the damage was done.

May 28th 1903- Herbert Asquith named Chancellor of the Exchequer.

June 1903: Aguinaldo travels to the southern islands, where he leads a very widespread resistance far from Manila. He gains almost total political control over the islands.

June 1903 Georges Clemenceau undertakes the direction of the journal L'Aurore, which he founded. In it he leads the campaign for the revision of the Dreyfus affair, and for the separation of Church and State. Though this pleases the Communists, it isolates him from the other voters, and his attempts to gain power do not come to fruition.

June 11, 1903 King Aleksandar of Serbia survives assassination; his wife does not however. He later remarries a German princess.

July 2, 1903 - Alexander Edward Christian Fredrik, son of Prince Carl of Denmark is born stillborn.

August 1903 When talks over right of passage through the San Juan River for access to the proposed Nicaragua canal fail, Nicaragua and Costa Rica go to war.

August 3, 1903 Cardinal Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro is elected Pope Leo XIVth, over the veto of Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary.

September 1903: Bell heads south, and brutally puts down much of Aguinaldo’s rebellions. He forces civilians into hamlets and captures and tortures thousands of civilians. He destroys much of the most fertile farmland in the region. The Americans loose popularity especially outside of Luzon, but Aguinaldo is forced into more isolated regions.

September 1st 1903- Asquith presents a similar budget to the one presented in April.

October 1903: Hearst runs a very critical editorial of Bell, which focuses American attention of possible war crimes in the war.

October 2 1903- D'Arcy expedition hires Bakhtiar tribesmen to protect them for other rivals on the promise of a percentage of the profits from oil.

October 9th 1903- Budget crisis created by new budget, Prime Minister Balfour resigns and Parliament was dissolved.

December 2, 1903 - The Tsarina of Russia gives birth to the couple's first baby boy, whom they name Alexei Nikolaevich (he does not have hemophilia).

December 3, 1903 Costa Rica and Nicaragua sign a peace agreement ceding the San Juan River and the land ten miles south of it to Nicaragua.
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Old April 2nd, 2006, 05:02 PM
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1904

1904 -

1904 The US Patent office reaffirms the patent of Tesla on the invention of the radio. Marconi gives up the fight in the US.

1904 - The East Boston Tunnel Project is completed, creating a tunnel underneath Boston Harbor and connecting East Boston to the transportation network.

1904 - After reading stories on the International Rocketry Society in the papers, Robert Goddard summons up the courage to write to his childhood inspiration, Herbert G. Wells, about his interest in rocketry. Mr. Wells writes back and they begin a correspondence.

1904 Jack London and Upton Sinclair, recent author of a book on the coal mining industry called 'The Cave' tours the country, agitating for socialism.

1904 Republican National Convention, Chicago: Old Guard Republicans and party machines fear Roosevelt, who receives 432 votes on the first ballot, not quite a majority and a long shot from 2/3. The other votes are spread around thin among severall favorite sons. Many conservative Republicans back Mark Hanna, mastermind of the previous administration, or Charles Fairbanks, a pro-trust former corprate lawyer. As it becomes clear that Roosevelt doesn't have enough support, Hanna gains power. By the 7th ballot it becomes clear that Hanna doesn't have quite enough rural or progressive support, though Fairbanks seems like a fair option. By the 16th ballot and the second day the two are neck and neck, with Roosevelt far behind. Desperate for another solution, moderate Republicans wire Admiral Dewey, who had considered running in 1900, to offer his candidacy. Roosevelt drops out and supports Dewey. The admiral agrees, and quickly Fairbanks loses some of his support. Hanna, seeing that his chances are gone, leaves the race and encourages his supporters to vote for Fairbanks. Dewey is too mysterious a figure for the estabolished Republicans, who start working against him on the sidelines. Dewey recieves 539 votes at his highest point, but does not have the support for a full 2/3. Elihu Root, popular McKinley confidante and sucessful Secretary of War emerges as a compromise candidate, and wins a 2/3 majority by the 32nd ballot. Fairbanks is chosen as VP to balance the ticket.

1904 A son is born to Prince Carl of Sweden and his wife.

January 1904 After the failure of Russia to keep its promise to withdraw troops from Manchuria by 1903, the Japanese launch the Russo-Japanese War.

January 3rd 1904 - Angry crowds in the the Costa Rican capital of San Jose force the resignation of Presidnet Ascension Equivel Ibarra, and the government passes a bill calling for immediate elections. The winner is Jose Joaquin Granados, a nationalist.

January 7th 1904- General election gives victory to the Liberal Party, that stands united in regard to Tariff Reforms. Herbert Asquith named Prime Minister. Joseph Chamberlain accepts a post in the new cabinet, Colonial Secretary, to help to move along his dreams of Federation.

January 7th 1904- After consultations with his advisors, Lord Curzon decides not to implement his proposed division of Bengal province, calming the protests of diverse groups within the region when the proposal leaked prematurely.

January 12, 1904 Admiral Togo leads the Japanese battlefleet to Port Arthur, where it executes a close-range attack against the unready Russian fleet. The first half-hour is the most ruinous yet for the Russian Navy. Fearing a torpedo attack on his own ships, Togo turns away from the battle with minimal losses and orders a torpedo attack to be carried out by his destroyers. After they are done, the First Pacific Squadron is no longer a viable fighting force.

Feb 15, 1904 Mark Hanna continues to campaign for the upcoming election (not infected by Typhoid fever).

March 17, 1904 - Construction begins on an underground tunnel to connect North Union Station and South Union Station in Boston, Massachusetts. Despite several cost overruns, the project is eventually completed. One consequence of this is that the Grand Junction trackage begins to be less and less used.

March 18th 1904- A new Corn Tax is approved by the House of Commons but barely in the House of Lords.

March 19th 1904- President McKinley negotiates an agreement were the Dominican government bought out the holdings of the Santo Domingo Improvement Company, a private US venture that was in charge of the administration of the country. This same accord accept the appointment by the United States government officer to oversee the repayment of outstanding debts by using customs duties.

April 1904 Due to continuing harassement from the railroad industries, and generall corruption in eastern markets against rural communities, the Grange begins to grow in membership again. It encourages a renomination of Bryan, but does not gain enough support due to his two previous losses.

April 1, 1904 - A fourth son is born to Franz Ferdinand, named Ernst.

April 10th 1904- Prime Minister Asquith presents an ambitious social welfare programme, including government pensions.

April 23, 1904 First international meeting of the International Rocketry Society begins in Berlin. Given its mostly British and Russian membership, Berlin was chosen as a convenient midway point between the two nations. However, the location encourages German and Austro-Hungarian rocket enthusiasts to join and attend.

May, 1904 The bubonic plague that arrived from China, carried by rats on a boat, breaks out of quarantined Chinatown in San Francisco. The disease begins ravaging several towns and cities in California, and threatens to expand out of the state.

May 28 1904- Facing Bankruptcy and down his last 10,000 pds D'Arcy makes plans to seek new sources of finance to continue his expedition.

June 1904- William D'Archy and his party disappears in Persia. It is believed that they where robbed and killed by the Bakhtiaris Tribesmen they had hired for protection. Britian abandons farther exploration of the area for oil as it believes that the Region is devoid of oil. They concentrate their efforts in India,Burma,Somaliland.

June 7, 1904: Emil Jellinek walks away from Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft after conflicts over his Mercedes concept car.

June 15, 1904 Attempted assassination of Nikolai Bobrikov, Governor-General of Finland.

June 29, 1904: Adlerwerke hires Emil Jellinek, and rushes the Adler Mercedes to market.

August 1904: Hearst and his papers endorse Alton B. Parker, but Hearst decides not to heavily focus on the campaign, believing that Parker is a lost cause who will weaken the Democratic Party.

September 1904: In a hope to gain financial support against Manitoban plutocrat Donald Smith, Thomas Greenway forms the Manitoban Populist-Liberal Party, which supports many Populists platforms, as well as local issue such as a universal educational system for both English and French and cultural unity.

September 1904: A strict radical anti-trust law is proposed, but gains little support, and in the end fails to be even recognised on the House floor.

October 1904 William Jennings Bryan publicly criticizes Democratic candidate Alton B. Parker for betraying the entire former platform. Parker looses the support of many Populist Democrats.

October 1904: There is talk of a Populist Convention being formed to renominate Bryan, but Bryan makes it clear that he has no interest to run on a third party ticket. No other major politicians step forward. In the end, many Populists boycott the elections, only voting for local leaders.

October 8, 1904: While passing off the German North Sea Coast, the Russian Baltic Fleet fires on German fishing boats. Nearby ships from the High Seas Fleet head to the area, and a few shots are fired before peaceful communication is established. Kaiser Wilhelm III demands reparations for the killed sailors.

November 1904: After Fairbanks becomes Vice President, his senate seat in Indiana becomes contested. Republican congressmen James Hemenway tries to claim the title, but fails partly due to political machines and corruption.

Nov 8, 1904 Elihu Root is elected President of the United States. The Democrats with Alton B. Parker have a decent stading in the north east, and of course south, but fail to carry any western states except Utah.
  #6  
Old April 2nd, 2006, 05:03 PM
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1905

1905 -

1905 Alfred Dreyfus is exonerated by the Supreme Court of France and reinstated into the military.

1905 - The venerable New York Giants are sold to a new owner, and to the shock of the baseball world join the Continental League. Alluding to the American Revolutionary War, these new members of the 'Continental Army' of Baseball start playing Yankee Doodle Dandee at their games, and 'Yankees' becomes another nickname for the team.

1905- An expansion team is approved to replace the defecting Giants. The new team, also based in New York, began building an stadium in Brooklyn and named themselves the Metropolitans.

1905 Former Vice President Theodore Roosevelt, back from safari, begins a series of speaking events in New York, including some that address the ongoing war between Japan and Russia. President Root is persuaded to appoint Roosevelt ambassador to Russia.

1905 Inspired by the Finnish Uprising, Josef Dzhugashvili recommits himself to the goal of Georgian independence, even above socialism. He continues to go by the revolutionary name of Koba.

1905 Norway offers the throne to Swedish Prince Carl, Duke of Västergötlan (3rd son of Oscar). His father at first refuses, but after reassurances regarding his rights, he relents, allowing Prince Carl to take the Norwegian throne.

January 1905: A weak anti-trust law is passed. Major corperations quickly find loop holes. The law does not distinguish between board trusts and labor trusts.

January 13, 1905 - Howard Hughes Jr. is born. His mother, tragically, dies in childbirth leaving him to be brought up by his mechanically inclined father, Howard Hughes Sr.

February 1905 Rioting and Strikes break out in Russia, starting the Russian Revolution.

February 15, 1905 Successful assassination of Nikolai Bobrikov, beginning the Finnish Uprising.

Feburary 26, 1905: The Finnish Uprisring becomes much more volatile, with rioting Finns, mostly instigated by Communists, launching revolts in cities such as Helsinki and Turku.

March 1905: Long standing respected Populist Democrat Henry Teller attempts to take over as Democratic minority leader in the House. Though much more prominent then any other candidate, his Populism drags him down.

March 1905 Charles Evans Hughes is given charge of investigations into corruption in New York City.

March 2, 1905: The Socialist Republic of Finland is proclaimed, claiming borders similar to those of the Grand Duchy. The industrialized cities of Finland are the centers of the revolt. Assistance from the other Great Powers is called for, but only a handful of socialists from around the world and a Swedish volunteer regiment joins the brave Finns. Germany gives covert support in retaliation for the attacks on the German fishing boats. Most of the Finnish leaders, however, reject the Socialist Revolution while at the same time still agitating for reversal of the Russification laws and autonomy.

March 10, 1905, The Russian and Japanese Armies finish an inconclusive battle at Mudken, and both fall back to rethink their strategy.

March 19, 1905: The Russian Baltic Fleet passes through La Perouse Strait without incident and arrives in Vladivostok several days later. Admiral Togo's fleet misses Makarov's fog-hidden squadron by less than an hour.

April 1905: Aguinaldo returns to Luzon, hoping that MacArthur is less ruthless then Bell. Bell attempts to take control of the campaign to the north. Both MacArthur and Taft appeal to Root requesting that MacArthur be given full command. Bell is put in charge only of operations outside of Luzon. MacArthur runs an efficient operation fighting Aguinaldo while not stopping the programs he and Taft had created. MacArthur receives very good publicity for his operation back home.

April-May 1905: There are revolts in the Baltics and the Ukraine based on the Polish and Finnish ones, though they are not as powerful or successful as those two. There is also in increase of unrest in Russian cities like Petrograd and Moscow.

April 5, 1905: Hearing optimistic reports of the Finnish uprising's successes in Finland, plotters in Poland launch their long-awaited bid for independence. Overnight, Polish rebels launch an attempt to seize the cities of Warsaw and Lodz, and after a few days of hard fighting against Russian garrisons, the Polish flag flies once more over the cities.

April 8, 1905: Excited by reports that the peasants are rising up en masse throughout Poland, the Warsaw revolters declare the Republic of Poland. An emissary is sent in secret to offer the crown to an Austrian prince in return for support.

April 13, 1905: The new Polish State invites Archduke Karl of Austria to become it's king. He readily accepts, and though the Czar appeals to his relative the Kaiser to order their ally to stop supporting the new Polish state, Wilhelm III says that he won't discuss it until Russia pays reparations for the October 1904 "Fischen-Ereignis".

April 16, 1905: Russian troops capture Viipurii. Large-scale executions of rebels are kept quiet, but rumors spread quickly.

May 1, 1905: An ill-led Russian army enroute from Viipurii to Helsinki is annihilated by Finnish revolutionaries at the Battle of Kouvola.

May 8, 1905 - The Boston Ferry accident occurs when the overloaded Ferry capsizes, drowning several people, including prominant Bostonian John "Honey Fitz" Fitzgerald.

May 9, 1905: In a new attempt to deliver a crushing blow that will force Russia out of the war, Japanese troops begin an offensive towards Vladivostok.

May 12th 1905- United States agrees with the Dominican Republic an agreement that made possible the creation of the General Customs Office, the office thru which the United States administered the finances of the Dominican Republic.

May 24, 1905: The competent Lieutenant-General Count Fedor Keller arrives at Viipurii from the Far East to take command of the forces preparing to suppress the Finns. A short mutiny is crushed ruthlessly, and order is returned to the Russian forces. Negotiations are started with the "Whites" in Finland, in an attempt to weaken the socialists' position.

June 1, 1905: The Tsar announces that he will de-Russify Finland and return the country its former privileges if resistance ends. As a result, the "Whites" agree to not interfere with Count Keller's forces as they march against “the Reds”.

June 10, 1905: The “Siege of Helsinki” begins.

June 12, 1905: After the fifth uneventful sortie of the fleet (which results in the last of its coal supplies being exhausted), the Second Pacific Squadron offloads its guns from its ships, its sailors begin to try to learn how to be foot soldiers and Admiral Makarov prepares to lead the land defense of Vladivostok, as the Japanese forces approach.

June 18, 1905: A large but ill-trained and poorly-led Polish National Army is crushed outside of Warsaw.

June 20, 1905: Japanese troops arrive at Vladivostok, and the siege of Vladivostok begins.

June 21, 1905: Ambassador Theodore Roosevelt presents his credentials to the Court of the Russian Tsar.

June 24, 1905: Russian troops face severe street-fighting in Warsaw, but after a week resistance has ended. The revolutionary leaders, however, escape into exile abroad.

June 26, 1905: Red controlled portion of Helsinki falls. “White” controlled portions of the city are bypassed as the Russians close in on the “Reds”. The leaders of the Socialist Revolution die in battle in a last stand on Esplanadi Street.

July 1905 Gold, Siver, and Quarry miners organize themselves into a massive strike. A large number are fired on the spot, and are replaced by black or immigrant workers who accept less money and are not allowed to join the union.

July 20, 1905: While directing artillery, Admiral Makarov is killed by a Japanese shell. Morale up to this point had been good, but with their leader's death, the Russian sailors become demoralized. Mutinies among the defending troops are only put down with much trouble.

August 1905: The Hemenway Infrostructure Improvement Act is drawn up by James Hemenway. It gives economic aid to states which improve their much needed infrostructure. The legislation provess popular due to its utilization of both federal and national powers, and appeals to both parties.

August 8th 1905- Tyrus Cobb is sold to the Detroit Tigers by a minor league team.

August 19, 1905: As the Japanese begin a surprise offensive against Mukden, the city of Vladivostok falls.

September 1905: Former Senator and Governor Henry Heitfeld of Idaho resigns fromm public office and takes over the now almost dead Grange farm collective. Under his leadership it begins to grow again.

September 3, 1905: The 2nd Battle of Mukden results in a victory for the Japanese. With strikes shutting the nation down, and troops being unavailable to ship to the East due to the uprisings, the Tsar is advised to begin peace negotiations.

September 1905: Despite the defeat of Polish forces in the field, many Poles continue to strike in the cities and to ambush Russian forces in the countryside. Pamphlets from the exiled revolutionary leaders begin to appear.

September 15, 1905 Charles Evans Hughes is severly beaten and knifed in an apparent mugging in New York City. The attack leaves him crippled and disfigured, removing him from public service. The chief investigator into the assault believed it to be related to his corruption investigations, but no concrete evidence is discovered.

September 15th to 20th, 1905-Earlier in the year, St. Louis Browns' rookie catcher Branch Rickey declared his team "the best in the world," and challenged the National League's leading team, the Pittsburgh Pirates, to prove otherwise. The teams' owners like the idea, and play a best-of-5 exhibition when their seasons end. Pittsburgh wins, 3 games to 1.

September 22, 1905: Peace negotiations begin in Washington, DC with President Root mediating.

September 1905 Tsar Nicholas II attempts to end increasing violence and disorder in Russia with an offer of establishing an assembly called the Duma. However, the proposal gives little real representation or power to the body, and is rejected by most out of hand as a rubber stamp for the Tsar.

Fall 1905 - Robert Goddard travels to Cambridge, England to study rocketry under a scholarship provided by the British branch of the International Rocketry Society.

October 1905: Hearst newspapers criticize Root for a weak diplomatic stance in negotiating with the Russians.

October 1905 On the heels of the exoneration of Dreyfus Emile Zola is convinced by his fellow pro-Dreyfusards to publicly announce that he is joining the Parti Socialiste.

October 1905: William Jennings Bryan founds a newspaper, the Freeland Journal, which recieves wide circulation throughout the west and mid-west. He receives financial support from media emperor William Randolph Hearst, who is a part owner of the new paper.

October 25, 1905: Russian intransigence leads to the break-down of talks, despite a skilled effort on the part of President Root to mediate. Russian delegation is recalled to Russia for ‘consultation’.

November 1905 The Tsar begins to heed the advice to announce reforms with Russia and more autonomy for the minorities in a bid to return civil order.

November 1905 Tsar Nicholas II is forced by continuing chaos in the nation and the failures of the Russo-Japanese War in the East to make significant concessions. The new Duma will be a true representative legislative body and will have real powers in the government. The continuing unrest in the Grand Duchy of Finland is also addressed in the new proposal by having a similar body established there, the return of a separate Finnish military, and the repeal of all the previous Russification laws of the past several years. Although mostly autonomous, Finland will remain in personal union with Russia through the Tsars.

November 1, 1905 Ambassador Roosevelt, having learned of the breakdown in negotionations, begins to petition the Tsar himself on resuming talks to end the war. In the few months that the American Ambassador has been there, he has made a favorable impression on Tsar Nicholas II and begins to sway him to resume talks.

November 3, 1905 The Tsar, having been convinced of the necessity to end the war and the Revolution, orders negotiators back to Washington.

December 1, 1905 The Russians announce plans to restore the Congress Poland Constitution if the strikes and attacks on Russian troops end in Poland. The revolutionary leaders in exile reject this offer, but the people of Poland are beginning to tire of an increasingly difficult resistance, and most stop active resistance.

December 20, 1905 The Russian Revolution technically ends, as Tsar Nicholas is forced by events to sign "The Manifesto on the Improvement of the State Order". Importantly, the Duma is given the power to override the Tsar's veto in certain situations. In addition, autonomy as previously promised is formally granted to the Grand Duchies of Finland and Poland. Some fighting in the countryside continues, but the strikes have come to an end by December. Unfortunately, the Tsar is advised that the situation in the Far East has become dire, with winter hampering Russian ability to reinforce their beleaguered forces.

December 29th 1905 Two men are caught trespassing on former Governor Frank Steunenberg's property. They confess to attempting to assassinate the Govenor for breaking his promises to Union workers.
  #7  
Old April 2nd, 2006, 05:03 PM
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1906

1906 -

1906- A Pure and Food Act is enacted. A law that provided for federal inspection of food and drugs, is a result of better education and the efforts of distinguished citizens like former Vice-President Theodore Roosevelt, authors Upton Sinclair and even President Root. It orders the labeling of all products correctly and nothing more.

1906- Freed from the burden of dealing with creditors, the Dominican Republic government of president Caceres dedicated itself to political reform. Caceres nationalized the public utilities and established a bureau of public works to administer them. Constitutional reforms eliminated the town councils independence and put them under central government control in an attempt to eliminate corruption. He also extended the presidential term to six years with the possibility of reelection for two other terms only.

1906-There is an eruption of Mount Vesuvius, near Naples. The Italian government needed money to rebuild the zone situated at the foot of the volcano and asked that the Games of the IV Olympiad, which should have taken place in Rome, be given to another city. The bid is given to the city of Berlin.

1906 - The Austrian branch of the International Rocketry Society establishes a scholarship for the study of rockets.

1906 Young artist Adolph Hitler starts up a relationship with a half-Jewish girl in Linz. Starts doing a series of sketches and drawings of her.

1906 Sparked when President Palma seeks to extend his presidency, General Enrique Loynaz del Castillo launches a successful rebellion in Cuba. President Root of the USA considers sending troops, but given the troubles in the Philippines decides not to intervene when Castillo agrees to respect the Platt Amendment.

January 12, 1906: The Russo-Japanese War comes to an end with the Treaty of Washington DC. Russia withdraws all of its troops from Manchuria, transfers its lease of Port Arthur to Japan, and cedes Vladivostok and all of Sakhalin to Japan. Japan's influence in Manchuria and Korea is recognized. Many ‘in the know’ behind the scenes credit Roosevelt for convincing the Tsar to resume negotiations. Roosevelt himself is dissatisfied with the treaty, fearing it gives too much to the Japanese, disrupting the balance between the two nations that he believes would benefit the USA in the Pacific.

February 1906 Zola is elected as a deputy for Valenciennes, mainly a personal vote after the success of his book on the region's miners, "Germinal".

February 1906: Bell, desperate to regain face, doubles his efforts in the south, forcing many civilians into reconcentration camps and hunting down everyone even rumored to be a rebel. He tries to cover up his war crimes. MacArthur demands that Root be relieved. Root claims that Bell will be closely monitored, but fails to take real action, knowing that Bell actions were quelling the rebellion.

March 1906 In the case Iowa V the Grange, the Supreme Court enforces anti-trust violations on farm syndicates. It is quickly followed by a case that accuses Unions of anti-trust violation. (this type of thing did happen)

March 1906 -- The Philadelphia Phillies move from the NL to the CL, hoping that they can boost business by playing the Philadelphia Athletic more often. The A's are better on the field, though, and the move does little more to highlight inter-league tensions. The National League evens itself out with a new team in the South's largest city, the New Orleans Cajuns.

March 1906: Aguinaldo leaks the stories from the south to a British newspaper. Soon news of the atrocities are spread all over the world. Anti-war protests start up all across the countries.

April 9th 1906- Bull Halsey travels to France and joins the French Foreign Legion.

April 18, 1906 San Francisco is hit by a massive earthquake followed by a runaway fire that destroys most of the city. Nearly 7000 people are believed to have been killed in the blaze.

April 24th 1906- David Lloyd George, Chancellor of the Exchequer, presents his budget to the House of Commons and to the House of Lords. His bold plan was to pay for the new naval race and the new social welfare reforms by raising taxes from the wealthy. Of course that affected more the members of the opposition Conservative Party and the majority of the members of the House of Lords.

May 9, 1906 -- Gertrude Stein moves to Paris.

May 14th 1906- House of Lords voted down the proposed budget of Lloyd George. Nation shocked by actions of the House of Lords.

June 1906: Henry Stimson is flung from a car and receives a serious head injury. He makes a full recovery, though many of his close friends and family commented that he never seemed quite the same after the event.

August 1906: To solidify power in Manila, MacArthur imposes some small measures such as a curfew. After several clashes between the two, Taft complains to Washington. Root decides that MacArthur is too valuable, and appoints Taft to the Supreme Court partly to get him out of the way.

August 14, 1906: Henry Cabot-Lodge Jr., son of George Cabot-Lodge, is born.

Sept 25, 1906 - Daniel Maria Jose Hipolito Figueres Ferrer and his twin brother Jose Marcos Enchandi Figueres Ferrer are born to a wealthy Costa Rican family.

Fall 1906 - Rose Fitzgerald matriculates at Wellesley College.

October 1906 Aristide Briand becomes Prime Minister of France.

October 12th 1906- General election declared and ended in a hung Parliament, with the Liberals not having an overall majority. They formed a minority government, thanks to the support of the Irish nationalists.

November 1906: Root's popularity begins to lower, which hurts the Republican Party in mid-term elecitons. Though Democrats fail to gain a full majority, together with Republicans who were fearful of his power, the Democrats are able to throw congressional warhorse Joseph Courney Cannon out of the Speakership, and replace him with James Hemenway.

December 17th 1906- William Taft, nominated by Elihu Root, sworn into the Supreme Court.
  #8  
Old April 2nd, 2006, 05:10 PM
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1907

1907 -

1907-First elections in the Philippines for the lower assembly. The upper assembly was composed of US citizens named by the US president.

1907 Upton Sinclair publishes a similar book, this time about the meat packing industry, called 'The Jungle'. It greatly outsells his previous book on coal mining but mostly due to the lurid descriptions of men falling into meat grinders, not for its message of socialist change.

1907 Ford releases the Model R (analoguous to OTL's Model T). The car is an instant hit.

January 1907: A progressive in the war department leaks that Root had refused to take direct action against Bell. MacArthur privately contacts Aguinaldo to discuss a peaceful American pullout.

February 7th 1907- King Edward VII names 500 new Liberal Peers into the House of Lords, ending the stronghold of the Conservative Party on the upper house of Parliament. The proposed David Lloyd George’s budget this time is approved by the new House of Lords later on the year.

March 1907: Populist Democrat Henry Teller writes up legislation calling for withdrawl of troops from the Phillipines. In the past such legislation had been stopped by Cannon in the Rules Commitee. Hemenway allows it to be debated, and helps draw press attention to the anti-war movement, though the legislation is not passed.

March 18th 1907- The Detroit Tigers trade Ty Cobb to the Cleveland Naps for outfielder Elmer Flick. In what is considered one of the worst trades in the history of baseball, Cobb went to hit .350 that season in his way to a Hall of Fame career while injuries forced Flick to retirement by 1910.

April 1907-Walter Johnson is signed by the Washington Senators and made his debut in the majors that same year.

April 8, 1907 Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia suffers a minor stroke. While he has been ailing for years, he continues to be able to govern.

May 1907: Dissidents in Luzon revolt. They avoid attacking MacArhur’s men on Auguinaldo’s orders. Root orders three more divisions into the Philippines. MacArthur publicly sates that he no longer believes that the war can be won. Root fires him, a unpopular move in the US.

May 10th 1907 High-performance motorcycle builder and racer Glen Curtiss is killed in attempt to set a land speed record.

June 1907: Joseph Pulitzer begins to defend the Root administration partly to separate from his principal rival Hearst. He expands his newspaper chain, which is viewed as somewhat more reliable then Hearst's, though with a slight Republican bend. The Hearst papers have a greater circulation.

June 1907: The Hearst papers criticize Sinclair for making several potentially falible statements in his books. Other newspapers criticize Hearst for attacking Sinclair simply because he appeared to be politically strong.

June 1907- Tris Speaker contract purchased by the St. Louis Browns. He finally won the regular centerfield position in 1909.

June 1907: The Hearst newspapers publish articles both covering the need for progressive reform while at the same time criticizing La Follete for trying to organise a Progressive political movement.

August 1907: Democrats and Republicans in congress relunctantly come to an agreement abolishing anti-trust laws.

August 2, 1907: Edward McCarthy is born to parents Bridget Tierney and father Tim McCarthy.

August 5th 1907- Theobald von Bethmann named German Chancellor by Kaiser Wilhelm III. He stayed in power until 1919, when he resigned due to health. His foreign policy was one of detente with the British, trying to reduce conflict with them while at the same time being tough with the French and the Russians. He tried to carve a buffer zone between Germany and Russia, supporting the Polish independence movement. On the domestic front his attempts of taking a “centrist” approach, trying to work with both the liberal and socialist of the left and the right-wing nationalist of the right only succeeded in alienating most of the political establishment.

September 1907: The Hearst papers feature a passionate editorial discussing the need for new stable anti-trust laws.

September 1907: Congressmen Teller and Senator La Follete together try to somehow find a more adequate fair anti-trust solution, but recieve little support from either party officially, though Populist Democrats and Progressive Republicans due offer some political assistance.

September 10th 1907- King Alfonso XIII of Spain marries HRH Dagmar Louise Elizabeth of Denmark in a ceremony in Madrid Cathedral.

October 1907 Adolph Hitler barely passes the admission tests to enter study in the Vienna Academy of the Arts. He is warned that he needs to improve his drawings of people if he wishes to stay in school, but that his architectural sketches show promise.

November 1907 Adolph Hitler marries his girlfriend of over a year and brings her to Vienna to live with him while he prepares for the start of his Art studies.

November 1907 A.A. Campbell-Swinton writes a letter to Nature Magazine describing his concept of electronic television using the cathode ray tube, which had been invented in 1897 by the German physicist and Nobel prize winner Karl Ferdinand Braun. He proposed using an electron beam in both the camera and the receiver, which could be steered electronically to produce moving pictures.

Novermber 17th 1907- Oklahoma is admited as the 46th state

December 2, 1907 Freshman Idaho Senator Frank S. Steunenberg joins the 60th session of Congress.
  #9  
Old April 2nd, 2006, 05:11 PM
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1908

1908 -

1908 Republican Convention: The Republicans renominate Root. Root decides that a more popular Vice President in needed. Progressive Republican La Follete openly refuses. War hero Admiral Dewey in put on the ticket.

1908 Democrat Convention: Populist William Jennings Bryan, who is supported by both the Progressives, labor, and agriculture, is the clear favorite, nominated by the fourth ballot. Bryan refuses to allow a conservative politician onto the ticket. He proposes several radical progressives that prove to be unpopular in the convention. Senator John Walter Smith, a moderate Progressive who had served as a successful and popular governor of Maryland is eventually named on the ticket. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Walter_Smith

1908 Georges Clemenceau becomes increasingly bitter, and launches a scathing attack on the French political system in both L'Aurore and La Justice. The French Government does not take kindly to this, and Clemenceau is arrested on trumped up charges. He serves a year in jail, which excludes him from further political ventures, and his papers collapse whilst he is behind bars. In prison, he contracts recurring dysentery, and loses a large amount of weight. He becomes very frail, and has to walk with the aid of a stick.

February 1908: La Follete and Teller's Anti-Trust Bill fails to pass either House of congress, and because the issue was viewed as 'done to death' (according to Pulitzer) it recieved little media coverage.

February 1908: George Orson Welles is born to Richard Welles and Beatrice Ives in Chicago.

February 2, 1908 King Carlos I and Prince Manuel of Portugal assassinated. The heir, Luis Filipe, survives with a wounding only, becoming King of Portugal.

March 12th 1908 - President Granados of Costa Rica forces through amendments giving the executive branch more power, and launches a military buildup. He wins re-election the same year.

March 15th, 1908-Business competition between the National and Continental Leagues reaches a fever pitch when the floudering Phillies and Boston Braves, both facing tough competition from their crosstown rivals, both try to move to Buffalo, NY. The league owners meet and decide to merge, creating a trust corporation called Major League Baseball. The Braves move to Buffalo, while the Phillies become the Baltimore Saints.

June 1908: James Hemenway, Champ Clark, and other moderates attempt to reverse the current anti-trust law, and replace it with the one written by La Follete and Teller the previous year. The Bryant Administration refuse to budge on the issue.

June 30, 1908 Outgoing Ambassador Theodore Roosevelt was near the end of a farewell scientific expedition through Russian Siberia with a camera crew to document the expedition when they witnessed a fireball streak through the sky and explode. The event is captured on film, as is the aftermath when Roosevelt leads the team to the explosion site.

August 1908 Tom Watson, leader of the Populist Party, formally throws the Populist Party's support to Democratic candidate William Jennings Bryan. The Grange also supports Bryan.

September 1908: Hearst throws all of his resources toward campaigning for Bryan. His newspapers are the only eastern papers to support the candidate.

September 14th to 20th, 1908-Major League Baseball, recalling the 1905 exhibition, formalizes an annual "Best-in-the-World Series". The Tigers beat the Pirates, 3 games to 2.

September 25 1908- Oil is discovered in the Malaysian State of Sarawak on Borneo.

October 3, 1908 - The occupied Ottoman provinces of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Novi Pazar are annexed by the Austrian Empire. Several prominent Serbian newspapers call for war, but are silenced by the pro-Austrian Serbian government. Russia issues a complaint, but does not escalate the crisis.

October 7th 1908- Emilio Aguinaldo dies from a bout from malaria in the island of Cebu. The Filipino leader died one year before his nation achieved his dream of receiving their independence from the United States.

October 24th 1908- Infante Alfonso is born to HM King Alfonso of Spain XIII.

November 1908 After returning from Russia, Theodore Roosevelt runs for and wins the race for Senator of the State of New York.

November 1908:The Republicans remain in control of the Senate, but lose their majority in Congress.

November 1908: William Jennings Bryan defeats Elihu Root, carying all deep southern states, all border states except West Virginia, all of the plains states, and every western state except Washington.

November 1908: The Democrats gain a majority in congress. Despite Bryan's influence, no Populist Democrats gain enough support to become speaker, so Missouri moderate Champ Clark is given the job.
  #10  
Old April 2nd, 2006, 05:12 PM
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1909

1909 -

1909 Ford buys Cadillac and establishes it as a 'cutting edge' division for the company. Porsche is chosen to head the new division.

1909 Georges Clemenceau goes bankrupt; spends his remaining years campaigning (unsuccessfully) against both the French government and legal system.

1909 President Castillo of Cuba and President Bryan of the USA agree to overturn the Platt Amendment, and Guantanamo is returned to Cuba.

1909 William E. Borah (R) is elected to the House of Representives.

January 1909 -- Emperor Menelik II begins devolving his powers by placing Princess Zauditu in charge of Foreign Affairs. The Princess shows her cunning, and her devoutness, early on by co-ordinating with the various Christian missionary groups that are just beginning to penetrate the interior of Central and East Africa. Over several years, this simple move will help the spread of Christianity in the Sahel and cement Ethiopia's reputation among the imperial powers as a "civilized" nation.

February 1909: Before taking office, Bryan reorganizes the Freeman’s Journal to survive when he is gone. He sets up three major offices in Milwaukee, Lincoln, and Denver, along with countless small offices throughout the plains states and some of the south covering mostly local news. Though all papers have the heading The Freeman’s Journal, the paper varies widely from county to county due to the importance of local matters to most Populists. Foreign news is handled primarily through collaborations with Canadian (and indirectly British) newspapers, while most West Coast and East Coast news is handled by freelancers or bought from city non-affiliated newspapers.

March 1909: Elections are held in congress for the new Speaker of the House. Non western Democrats make it very clear that they require a non-Populist speaker if they are to continue support of Bryan. Missouri congressmen Champ Clark is selected.

March 1909: Bryan is sworn in as president, calling it the return of the common man, and attacks big business in his address, focusing especially on railroads.

April 1909: George Cabot-Lodge, son of Senator Henry Cabot-Lodge, recovers from illness, and decides to follow his father's footsteps into politics.

April 1909: Bryan announces a pullout from the Phillipines, and puts Arthur MacArthur in charge of the operations in an attempt to seem bi-partisan. The operation goes smoothly with many of the Public works projects surviving intact.

April 1909: George Cabot-Lodge, son of Senator Henry Cabot-Lodge, recovers from illness, and decides to follow his father's footsteps into politics.

April 15, 1909 Emperor Franz Josef of Austria-Hungary is persuaded to make a rare state visit to the newly incorporated A-H province of Bosnia-Herzigovina on the first anniversary of its annexation. Despite beefed up security measures, a Bosnian terrorist manages to assassinate the elderly Emperor. Archduke Franz Ferdinand ascends to the throne of the Empire.

May 1909: Many other midwestern Progressive Republicans form a coalition with La Follete siding with Bryan. Together they pass a minimum wage law, lower tariffs, and pass a new, incredibly harsh anti-trust bill, but which excludes labor movements.

May 1, 1909 - The Emperor Franz Ferdinand raises Countess Sophie and their children to the royal titles that would traditionally be given to the members of the Imperial Household. Many see this as a prelude to an eventual ending of their morganatic status.

May 7, 1909- The Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (IAAUS) is formed to regulate collegiate sports in the United States.

June 1909: Bryan attempts to pass a bill putting the railroad industry under partially under the governments controll. The Republicans object, and to avoid the takeover they appease Bryan on many other pieces of legislation.

June 1909: Charles Seymour, a member of a prominent family in Yale administration, after years of study and family business away from Connecticut, returns to New Haven and begins to study at Yale. Having already recieved most of his education at Columbia and Berkeley, he decides to take a job in the New Haven branch of a Hearst newspaper.

June 1909 - Robert Goddard successfully defends his thesis on liquid rocketry, and caps it off with a demonstration of one of his rocket designs, which flies for a total of 4 seconds before crashing to the ground. Herbert G. Wells is at hand for the demonstration and congratulates the young man on his modest yet monumental success.

Summer 1909 - In the wake of the panic of '07, Democrats pass legislation regulating stock purchases, including one that seriously curtails buying on Margin.

July 7, 1909- Upon the suggestion of President Bryan, the IAAUS bans the sports of football and rugby as too violent and vulgar at the collegiate level, effectively killing these games.

August 1909: Prohibition is passed as a law but not an amendment. It excludes beer and wine. The US is put under the silver standard, though it no longer has any major effect.

September 14th to 20th 1909- The Detroit Tigers defeat the Chicago Cubs, 3 games to 2. The decisive game was a 2-1 thriller won by a pinch homerun by Elmer Flick in the 9th inning. Flick a disappointment since his arrival in 1907, was a reserve outfielder by now after losing his regular spot to 25 year old Clyde Engle. Engle hit .276 with no homers, 83 ribbies and 18 stolen bases but the true stars of this team were Sam Crawford with .326- 6- 103 and 30 stolen bases and George Mullin with his best season ever with 31 victories and 7 defeats plus a 2.26 ERA.

Fall 1909- Unable to play the more contact oriented sports, "soccer" teams form at nearly all the schools where football was played before.

October 1909: MacArthur is named head of the Joint Chiefs of Staff again as a way to appeal to Progessive Republicans. Bell is forced into early retirement.

October 1909- After three non-impressive seasons, Walter Johnson is traded to the Yankees in a straight cash transaction.

October 1909: Hearst supports women's suffrage and other progressive reforms, but continues to warn the public of the danger that La Follete and other radical progressives could produce, and supports mainly Democratic politicians.

October 1909 The sixteenth amendment to the Constitution providing women's suffrage, is passed in Congress and sent to the States for ratification.

November 1909: The Pulitzer papers begin to openly criticize the Bryan administration. The papers begin to gain more circulation at the expense of the Freeman’s Journal and the Hearst chains.

November 1909- First election for the Filipino upper assembly and the Filipino presidency after the US pullout. The recently formed Nacionalista party wins the election, with young Manuel Quezon sweared in as president in January 1910.

November 1909: The Republicans try to pass a bill overriding the president to reclaim the Phillipines, led by Senate Republicans. Senator La Follete filibusters. The Republicans try to stir up interest in the Wisconsin legislature to replace La Follete. They fail and La Follete along with most of the Wisconsin legislature form what they call the Progressive Party.

November 1909: Richard Ballinger, former mayor of Seattle, is elected governor of Washington as a Republican. He receives support from Hearst, who he had helped legally when starting up a newspaper in Seattle. He is generally regarded as the most powerful 'traditional' Republican on the West Coast.

December 9th 1909- Herbert Asquith proposes an Irish Home Rule Bill as a reward to the Irish Nationalist Party support of his Liberal government.

December 25, 1909 - Negotiations with the Vatican for a formal denial of the morganatic status of Franz Ferdinand's are revealed, and the Vatican announces the granting of the request on Christmas Day. This angers some supporters of Franz Josef, saying that Franz Ferdinand is disrespecting his predecessor.
  #11  
Old April 2nd, 2006, 05:13 PM
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1910

1910 -

1910 - Nicolai Tesla uses royalties from his radio patent to start a new venture, Tesla Transistors, to develop his patents in this area.

1910 - Gladys Smith becomes a major player in New York based motion pictures at the tender age of 16.

1910 - Sigmund Freud publishes 'Localization of the Human Mind' a seminal work localizing several neurological phenomena, and downplaying the psychoanalytic model of the mind.

January 1910: Hearst publicly criticizes Bryan in his paper for favoring some Americans over others, and for having lost sight of the true goals of the party. He accuses Bryan of pandering only to his public, while ignoring the rest of America.

January 5, 1910 -- Prime Minister Boutros Ghali petitions for Egypt to become a member of the Imperial Council, as a way of ending the uncertain status Egypt has wallowed in since the British ousted the Ottomans in 1886. Hard-liners are disappointed that he is not demanding immediate independence, but Ghali predicts that such a direct request would be met harshly.

January 1910 Booker T. Washington is invited by President Bryan for the first of several visits to the Executive Mansion, angering Southern Democrats.

February 1910 Penicillin becomes available clinically for the treatment of bacterial infections.

Febuary 1910: Hearst invests in London, Paris, Berlin, and Rome papers, trying to improve the international coverage in his American chains.

February 2, 1910 -- British Parliament works out a compromise with Egypt short of independence. Under the agreement, Britain will gradually grant more autonomy whenever Egypt's local politicians meet certain defined goals, such as increasing literacy or eliminating starvation. Egyptian Parliament considers repudiating the agreement as a symbolic gesture, but Ghali finally persuades them to sign on.

February 14th 1910- It's announced special elections will occur during the year in Canada, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand to elect the representatives of those nations to an Imperial Council, the first step of Joseph Chamberlain's dream, the Imperial Parliament.

February 18, 1910 Attempted assassination of Boutros Ghali, the first native born Prime Minister of Egypt.

February 22, 1910 -- Recovering from the attempt on his life, PM Boutros Ghali defiantly defends the controversial "Independence Plan," declaring the Egypt will be "not only free, but prosperous, within 30 years." In the popular mind, this 30-year deadline becomes better known than the actual contents of the Plan.

March 1910 Emperor Franz Ferdinand calls for greatly enlarging the Imperial Navy, alarming Italy in the process.

March 29th 1910- Irish Home Rule Bill is approved barely by both Houses of Parliament.

April 1910: Bryan nominates progressive Republican Albert Beveridge as Attorney General in order to appeal to the Progressives.

April 1910: Henry Wallace is hired by the Iowa branch of the Freeman Journal to cover primarily the science and practice of agriculture. He also publishes a number of opinion pieces in support of President Bryan.

April 1910- Muslims in Mindanao and Sulu perceived the new Christian government as a threat and began armed resistance against the government in Manila.

April 1910- With disputes between teammates Nap Lajoie and Ty Cobb getting more frequent, Cobb is traded to the Philadelphia Athletic for third baseman Frank Baker and pitcher Charles Bender.

April 1910: American pro-labor laws are passed that clearly favor farm syndicates over labor and nativists over immigrants. Many factories begin to hire an all Catholic workforce to avoid the unions, and encourage greater immigration.

April 26th 1910- MP’s from Northern Ireland, with the backing of the Conservative Party and some members of the House of Lords, forced through an amending Exclusion of Northern Ireland attachment to the Bill. The Irish MP’s were furious and withdrew their support of the Liberal government.

May 1910: James Hemenway replaces Albert Beveridge as Senator from Indiana.

May 1910: Hannoversche Maschinenbau releases Europe's top-selling electric sedan and coupe, the Wolf and the Donner. They use their position to buy up the French company Castoldi, clearly modelling themselves after the French-German company dominating the gasoline market, Opel-Darracq.

June 1910 Emperor Franz Ferdinand proposes the creation of a Triple Monarchy; Austrian, Hungarian, and Slavic. Over the next several weeks, rioting breaks out in Hungary against the idea.

June 1910 - Rose Fitzgerald marries Fiorello H. LaGuardia after being introduced by a friend at school the year before.

June 10th 1910- The four ship Oklahoma Class are authorized by the US Congress. The ships are completed by late 1914. The ships, armed with twelve 14” guns introduced the “all or nothing” concept in armouring. The most powerful armed ships on the world by the time of them being laid down, by the time of their completion were under gunned compared to the British Queen Elizabeth Class.

June 17th 1910- New King George V orders Asquith to dissolve Parliament and asks for a general election.

July 1910: The Freeman’s Journal opens up another major office in Mobile. Local offices begin to become more plentiful among the south. The Lincoln office is declared the official headquarters coinciding with the expansion of Plains and western mid-western cities. The Freeman’s Journal begins to be strong enough to fully complete with Hearst and Pulitzer's chains.

July 29th 1910- Conservative Party barely wins the election, Bonar Law declared Prime Minister.

August 14th 1910- Conservative government tries to slow down the implementation of the Irish Home Rule Bill. Riots in Dublin, Cork and other counties as a result. Bonar Law authorizes the movement of troops into Ireland to quell the riots. Beginning of “The Troubles.”

September 1910: Extreme business regulations cause a dramatic fall for big business. Huge farming subsidies make Bryan and La Follete into heroes in the west, but lose the support of almost the entire eastern middle class.

September 1910 A plot to assassinate Emperor Franz Ferdinand and to declare Hungarian independence is unearthed by Imperial officials and many arrests of Hungarian nationalists follow. This is a major setback for Hungarian nationalists.

September 14th to 17th 1910- In a complete domination, the Pittsburgh Pirates blank the Chicago White Sox 3 games to none to easily win the World Series. Honus Wagner was declared the series best player.

October 1910 Honduran president Miguel Rafael Davila proposes legislation that would limit concessions to banana companies in Honduras.

October 3rd 1910-Portuguese Army defeats a mutiny by the fleet. Still the young King Luis Felipe announces he will name writer Teofilo Braga as Prime Minister to placate the Republican sentiments on the country.

November 1910 A planned coup sponsored by US Banana Companies is discovered in Honduras. President Davila is incensed and presents emergency legislation to nationalize the Banana industry in Honduras and strip US businesses of their power.

November 1910- President Enrique Loynaz del Castillo reelected president of Cuba after achieving the overturning of the Platt Amendment.

November 1910: George Cabot-Lodge is elected as a congressmen from Massachusetts.

November 1910: Congressional elections across the US dramatically change the face of the US Senate. Progressive Democrats win across the west and mid-west while the Republicans make a clean sweep over much of the north. The House is retaken by the Republicans, but the Senate remains in the hands of the Democrats. Some Progressive Republicans run as Democrats.

November 1910 Emperor Franz Ferdinand, after several attempts to gain support for a Triple Monarchy, abandons the plan in favor of a different course of reform, a federalized Empire consisting of 26 regions. The proposed federated Empire's Parliament would still have the Austrians and Hungarian states as roughly equal majorities, but would give Slavs their own representation.

December 1910 President Bryan himself instructs the State Department that the USA will not intervene in the Honduran situation on behalf of the Banana interests.

December 4th 1910- While some leaders in the Irish movement favored classic conventional warfare in order to legitimize their cause in the eyes of the world, groups led by Michael Collins opposed this idea and began irregular warfare.
  #12  
Old April 2nd, 2006, 05:13 PM
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1911

1911 -

1911 - On a broadway tour in Boston, Gladys Smith is introduced to financier Joseph P. Kennedy.

1911: Hearst begins to take a more conservative turn arguing for a middle path between two radicals. He goes on a massive spending spree buying up several new small papers and thus making his agenda better known. He begins to become an apologist for traditional Democrats in the east.

January 1911 Snubbed by President Bryan, US companies turn to the Nicaraguans. Knowing of Zelaya's dream of a greater Central American nation, they agree to bankroll an invasion of Honduras in return for continuation and expansion of their banana concessions in the North.

January 1911: The Philippines and Japan enter into a non-aggression pact, and a Japanese naval port is planned for Luzon. MacArthur calls for intervention in the newspapers, and is fired by Bryan.

January 1911: Bryan attempts to force a bill taking control of the railroad industry. It is stopped by Democrats in the senate. Using support from Progressive Republicans Bryan forces a ridiculously low tariff, and begins to veto almost any piece of Republican legislation, no matter how partisan.

Jan.29 1911 The anarchist PLM seizes Mexicali on the Mexican-US border.

February 1911: The Republicans refuse to budge on railroads. Many of the congressmen have strong connections to the industry. La Follete uses his extreme influence in Wisconsin to pass a state law seizing control of all railroads. Republicans object to this, and demand that a law be passed preventing such actions. Bryan encourages it, and states across the entire south begin to pass such resolutions. When brought to court, La Follete successfully defends his arguments using Eminent Domain.

February 1911: Bryan supports congressional legislation limiting the power of the American territorial governor of Hawaii, giving more power to the territorial legislature, which has a majority of 'aboriginalists' in power at the time.

Febuary 1911: Former Nebraska Senator William Allen goes back into politics and reorganizes the Populist Party. Officially it still supports Bryan and the Democrats, but unoffically it pushes Populist sympathizers towards their side. They win several local seats, but fail to nominate any serious congressional candidates.

February 7th 1911- The Earl of Aberdeen, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, killed by a squad of IRA gunmen. The Earl of Dudley recalled from Australia to take over as Lord Lieutenant.

March 12th 1911- Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier signs a trade reciprocation agreement with the United States. The Conservatives used this as a weapon to gain power.

April 1911: Franklin Gatling invests in newspapers, helping create local branches of Hearst papers in Houston, Austin, Dalas, and Lubbock.

April 1911 Nicaragua invades Honduras.

Apr.17-May.6 1911 The siege of Ciudad Juárez: Madero’s forces suddenly appear and demand the town’s surrender. Federal forces raise the siege and later defeat an attack launched by rebel generals Orozco and Villa. This event is considered by many the reason Porfirio Diaz decided to stay as president of Mexico. Madero goes into exile into the US.

May 1911- Outfielder Joe Jackson signed by the Baltimore Saints and hit 417 in his rookie season.

May 1911 - Howard P. Lovecraft graduates from Brown with several poems and short stories already published.

May 5, 1911: Leland motors releases the Bolt, the first successful, mass-produced electric car not released by Ford in the USA.

May 7th 1911- After some local victories, President Porfirio Diaz of Mexico announces after being convinced by some of his advisors that he's the duly elected President of Mexico. He also stated he will continue until his enemies were defeated or to his bitter end.

May 08 1911 Tijuana is captured by the anarchist Magonistes - Lower California is now almost entirely in the hands of the PLM.

May 13-19 1911 Zapata takes Cuautla in fierce fighting - ~he orders all villages in the district to reclaim land seized by the haciendas.

May 16 1911 Villa resigns from Madero’s army. He states that force is led by a weakling and stronger men are needed if the revolution will triumph.

May 18th 1911- German government, worried over the new naval race between his allies Italy and Austria-Hungary, says it's willing to host a naval conference between both nations to try to end their rivalry.

May.18-21 1911 Supported by the landowners, the Pro-Madero Figueroa brothers occupy western Morelos, including Jojutla and Cuernavaca, preventing the more radical Zapata from fully controlling the state

May.20 1911 In control of Lower California, the anarchist PLM publishes a proclamation for peasants to take collective possession of the land.

May 29, 1911 In Morelos, Zapata reaches an accord with the rival Figueroa brothers.

June 1911: In an official meeting of moderate, mostly Catholic labor and eastern Industrialists, an agreement is formed, and the groups begin to work together against more radical Progressive movements.

June 1911 The capital of Honduras falls to the Nicaraguans. While a robust guerilla movement will continue for years, most Hondurans who live in crushing poverty want peace, and are brought over to the Nicaraguan side with promises of new social programs using money from the Nicaraguan Canal deal and from future tolls.

Jun 02, 1911 The Figueroas install a conservative provisional government.

June 5, 1911 - Aristide Briand is assassinated.

Jun.24 1911 Madero issues a conciliatory manifesto, asking for wide land reforms in exchange to end the revolution and the promise of new elections in 1912. Of course his offer is refused but still provokes criticism from many of his followers.

July 1911: The Hearst newspapers try to downplay the issues in Mexico, hoping to prevent a war in a potentiall future Republican administration.

July 1911: Having graduated from Yale, and taking his time before pursuing a Ph.D in history, Seymour moves to New York to take on a full time job in journalism. There he catches the eye of Hearst, who quickly gives him more responsibility.

Jul.12 1911 In Puebla, Federal troops use machine guns to suppress unrest, mowing down over a hundred Maderistas. Diaz declares the Maderista movement to be 'on its dead bed'.

Jul 14 1911 Miners form a national union. Diaz declares them to be illegal; still rising union activity and waves of strikes sweep Mexico.

August 1911: Hearst attempts to buy out the New York Times. Donors from across the nation donate money to keep what they view as the least biased newspaper afloat. The newspaper does lose lots of money, and loses about a quarter of its circulation. As the Hearst newspapers begin to get printed internationally, the Times becomes more and more limited to the north-eastern seaboard.

Aug.11 1911 Federal General Victoriano Huerta ordered to defeat the rebellion in Morelos. The first armed clash occurs between the Federals and Zapata’s forces. Figueroa brothers gave Zapata control of the rebel forces in the area.

September 1911- Ty Cobb plays on his first World Series.

September 1911- First Japanese “instructors” arrive to the Philippines to aid the Filipino troops in defeating the growing revolt in Mindanao and Sulu.

Sept 01 1911 Zapata escapes to Puebla after a botched attempt to capture him.

September 14th to 19th 1911- The Philadelphia A’s wins the first of three pennants in this decade and the first of two consecutive World Series 3 games to 1, thanks in part to the incredible season of Ty Cobb, who hit .423-8-129 and with at the time a record 91 stolen bases.

Sep.26 1911 Huerta declares Morelos to be pacified, and moves into Puebla in pursuit of Zapata - on Sep.27, Zapata issues an anti-government manifesto.

October 1911- Cy Young announces his retirement from Baseball after winning 509 games thru his career with the Cleveland Spiders of the old national league and the Boston Blue Socks.

Oct.06-07 1911 As Huerta advances deep into Puebla, Zapata doubles back into Morelos.

October 8th 1911- Conservative Robert Borden is the new Canadian Prime Minister and lobbies heavily for both Imperial Preference and the Imperial Council.

Oct.24 1911 Zapata’s forces take Milpa Alta, only fifteen miles from the heart of Mexico City.

Oct.27-28 1911 A cabinet crisis is brought on by the Zapatista victories; at Diaz’s urging, Huerta is sacked as Federal commander in Morelos.

November 18th 1911- President Caceres wins reelection in the Dominican Republic, with fraud being claimed by the losing candidate Juan Isidro Jimenez. Caceres felt compelled to appoint leaders from different factions in an attempt to broaden his support.

November 1911: Al Smith, one of the leaders of the Catholic community in the New York legislature officially switches to the Republican Party along with many other prominent Catholic politicians across the country.

November 27, 1911- Chinese Revolutionaries capture Yuan Shikai and dissolve his army.

Nov.28 1911 Zapata’s Plan of Ayala is issued, calling for rural reform and the fulfillment of the Madero’s revolution; by then considered by many dead. The Zapatista revolt is formalized - on Dec.15; the Plan is published in Mexico City.

Dec 7 1911- With Federal forces busy fighting south, a refurbished Madero’s army under General Orozco capture Ciudad Juarez and began asserting their control over Chihuahua.

Dec.11 1911 Yaqui Indians in Sonora seize their ancestral lands. Federal forces send to try to deal with this new problem.

December 12th 1911- Delhi Durbar occurs with the presence of the British King. While small tokens of royal generosity were given the main announcement was the changing of the capital of India to Delhi and the declaration of Bengal being now a Lieutenant Governor province akin to Bombay and Madras. Completely autonomous in local concerns, the measure was well received in Calcutta.
  #13  
Old April 2nd, 2006, 05:13 PM
Glen Glen is offline
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1912

1912 -

1912 - Tired of preferential treatment of the Western and Central Provinces and wishing more representation within the new Imperial system of the British Empire, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island break off from Canada and unite with New Foundland and Labrador to form the Maritimes Union, a new Dominion within the British Empire.

1912 - The Cambridge Line of the MTA system is completed from Park Street to Harvard Stations. It will later be expanded to Dorchester.

1912- The decision in the Dominican Republic of President Caceres of creating a cabinet that has member of all the factions in the Republic was a failure. The internecine conflicts that resulted only weakened the government and paralyzed the decision making process of the Republic. This forced President Caceres and his Secretary of War Desiderio Arias to disband his cabinet and Congress and ask for new elections for Congress. The response was the expected. The followers of Jimenez began a low-level resistance in the East and North of the island. President Caceres began ruling by decree until what he considered the end of the “emergency.”

1912 Georges Clemenceau dies of recurring dysentery. His funeral is attended only by his children and a gaggle of interested journalists.

1912 Democratic Convention: Trouble begins even before the convention can start when a split occurs in the credentialing committee between Bryan appointees and members supported by the moneyed business interests of the Democratic Party. Chaos ensues with one side disallowing the delegates of the other. Eventually, both sides go to different parts of the host city, proclaiming theirs the true Democratic Convention. The ‘Loyalist’ Convention nominates Bryan quickly. The ‘Real’ Convention decides that a southerner should be nominated for president due to the fact that if Bryan were to run, the Democrats would have to carry the Old South. Hearst is the keynote speaker and declares the true Democratic Party a party of compromise between a polarized America. He tries to reconcile the differing world views of the south and the north-east.They choose Speaker of the House "Champ" Clark of Missouri as their candidate. He appeals to the western more Populist southerners.

1912 Republican Convention: The Republicans, after the less then successful Root presidency search for a unifying platform, and eventually decide on pressure against Japan. Incredibly influential Senator Henry Cabot Lodge is an early favorite in the convention. Robert LaFollete makes a bid for the Presidential nomination with his upstart Progressives, but they are roundly shot down. With the news of the split in the Democrats, LaFollete feels emboldened and makes an ultimatum to the party to put a Progressive on the ticket. However, he is rebuffed and instead storms out of the convention with the Progressive candidates. With their departure Lodge is quickly made the Republican candidate with his friend Roosevelt acting as his floor manager. Though Arthur MacArthur has no stated political affiliation, he agrees to join the ticket due to their foreign policies. Many of the delegates from New York and New England were purposefully chosen due to their Catholicism.

1912 Progressive Convention: LaFollete is quickly nominated in the hastily called Progressive Convention in Milwaukee. But during the convention, a telegram is received from Bryan suggesting a fusion ticket between Loyalist Democrats and Progressives, with LaFollete as the VP on the ticket. After several days of argument and debate, the Progressives decide to fuse the tickets, leading to a Democratic Progressive ticket of Bryan/LaFollete.

1912 Upton Sinclair, Jack London, and several other pro-Socialist writers and artists abandon the Socialist party to support the new Progressive party and campaign for the fusion Bryan/LaFollete ticket.

Jan. 1st, 1912 Sun Yat-sen gains control of China and would be elected Provisional President of the Republic of China soon after.

Jan. 04 1912 The Zapatistas attack Yautepec.

Jan.09 1912 Zapatistas blow the Cuernavaca-Tetecala Railroad.

Jan.19 1912 Martial law is declared in Morelos, Guerrero, Tlaxcala, and parts of Puebla and Mexico State as the revolt spreads.

Jan 28 1912 Diaz is getting desperate due to the victories of the rebel leader Zapata on the south, He names his nephew Felix Diaz as commander of the forces tasked with defeating Zapata.

Jan 29 1912 Due to the deterioration of the situation in the border, Texas calls for US intervention in northern Mexico. President Bryan refuses.

Febuary 1912: Edward (Ted) Landrey is born in East Lansing Michigan.

Feb.02 1912 Fighting breaks out amongst the Federal garrison of Ciudad Chihuahua. General Orozco is authorized to raise troops and sets out for western Chihuahua.

Feb.03 1912 Orozco persuades the Federal forces in Ciudad Chihuahua to surrender. The state is on the hands of the Maderistas.

Feb.06 1912 The Zapatistas announce that they’ll blow up every train that enters Morelos and launch a renewed drive on Cuernavaca.

Feb.09 1912 Federal troops burn down Santa Maria, the hopes of Morelos moderates for the restoration of peace are shattered.

Feb.10 1912 Felix Diaz arrests Zapata’s relatives and institutes widespread ejections of officials and executions in Morelos.

February 10th 1912- Free and secret elections finally approved in Argentina by the Saenz Peña Law. First test is the elections in the province of Santa Fe, won by the Radical Party.

Feb.15 1912 Felix Diaz begins the systematic burning of villages and the forced ‘resettlement’ of rural populations throughout Morelos.

February 18th 1912- Robert Borden resigns as Prime Minister of Canada to take over as Prime Minister of the Maritimes Union after being offered the post. He stated “that in good conscience I couldn’t stay as Canadian Prime Minister when my own province is not part of Canada anymore and I have to follow the call of my people. If they have a need for my services, who am I to refuse?”

Feb. 23 1912 A secret report send to President Diaz stated that widespread rural unrest was endemic in the Laguna (Torreón) region of eastern Durango and southwestern Coahuila.

February 26th 1912- Sam Hughes, a member of Borden’s cabinet, barely elected Prime Minister of Canada. A well-known Orangeman, his administration was one of the most controversial in the history of Canada due to his anti-catholic stand and his charges of corruption later during his administration.

Spring 1912 - Hermann Oberth wins the Austrian branch of the International Rocketry Society's scholarship for the study of rockets. He begins his classes in engineering in the fall.

March 1912 -- Successful in his goal of instituting a nationwide modernization plan, Prime Minister Boutros Ghali retires with his most radical reform yet, requesting that the British allow his successor to be chosen through universal suffrage. Their hand forced by an appeal to democratic principles, British accept the challenge and use their occupying forces to oversee a fair election. Abdel Khaliq Sarwat of the Muslim Brotherhood wins.

March 5, 1912 - The Boston Elevated Railway builds the Harvard Elevated, which stretches from Harvard Square in Cambridge to a tunnel underneath the Beacon Hill and a connection to Park Street, with stops at Hancock, Central, Smith, Kendall, and Longfellow before trains enter a subway with stops at Bowdoin and Park Street. Because the line runs in a more straight path, the traincars are much larger than on the Main Line, in fact, they are the largest subway cars in the world for the time.

Mar.07 1912 Signs of panic in Mexico City. US Ambassador is frantically requesting arms from the US State Department and urging American citizens to flee.

Mar. 14 1912 Felix Diaz sends forces north to try to defeat Maderistas in Chihuahua.

March 20, 1912 Artist Adolph Hitler's wife dies in childbirth, but their only son lives. His father gives him his name, Adolph. Hitler entrusts his infant son to his in-laws while he deals with his grief in part by traveling Europe, staying with several artist friends and acquaintances.

Mar.24 1912 Battle of Parral. Maderista forces defeat the Federal force under the command of Felix Diaz on the city of El Parral in southern Chihuahua. Chihuahua under full rebel control.

Mar. 26 1912 Zapatista activity is accelerating due to Felix Diaz main forces, with nearly full control of countryside; the Zapatistas take Puebla, but are defeated in attacks on Tres Marias and Parque del Conde

Mar. 28 1912 Diaz imposes press censorship after some disturbing articles asking for his resignation.

Apr. 08 1912 Zapata briefly takes several key towns in Morelos, but is unable to hold them for long. Mass executions by Federal forces in Jojutla reported.

April 1912 -- Sopwith-Rolls Engine Company is founded in Manchester, England. It quickly develops a reputation for craftsmanship in the auto, rail, and aviation industries.

Apr. 13 1912 Zapatista-inspired revolts overrun much of southern Puebla and often cut its communications with Oaxaca until summer.

Apr. 15 1912 A revolt in Guanajuato starts but is suppressed by the end of the month.

April 17, 1912 - President Jose Joaquin Granados is assassinated in San Jose, in an election year. His successor does not inspire the same confidence, and is defeated in elections that year, and the Granados family begins to fade into the background. However, General Federico Tinoco, brother of the late president, remains a strong presence in the army.

April 30, 1912 RMS Titanic arrives in New York, completing her maiden voyage and becoming the largest luxury liner of the time.

May 1912- Young Pedro Albizu Campos decides to follow a military career in the budding Puerto Rican army instead of accepting a scholarship to study in the United States. He instead accepted an offer to study in the French Cavalry School in Saumur.

May 1, 1912 - Bulgaria and Greece sign a secret agreement to divide the Ottoman Empire, which becomes known as the Balkan League. They have the quiet support of Russia in this.

May 10 1912 Orozco captures Monclova in Coahuila from Federals’ control.

May 15, 1912 - Montenegro attempts to join the Balkan League, but is threatened with attack from Austria.

May 20, 1912 - Austria and Germany condemn the Balkan states aggression, and they are joined by France and Britain soon enough. However, Italy signs a secret agreement with the Balkan League.

May 29 1912 A revolt erupts in northern Oaxaca: rebels besiege the state capital.

June 1912: Rick Gatling graduates with honors from Yale and returns to Lubbock to work for his father. He becomes a prominent fixture in Texas society and the cultural scene.

June 3rd 1912- Ernst Heinkel takes a job at Zeppelin workshop as a machinist.He feels excited to work on what most fascinates him most, aviation.

Jun. 11 1912 The rebels in north Oaxaca defeat a Federal punitive force at Ixtepeji.

June 16th, 1912 William E. Borah marries Alison Roosevelt, Daughter of former Vice President Theodore Roosevelt.

August 1912: A new charter is writen for the Manitoban Populist-Liberal Party that tends to favor British Canadians over the large German and Polish minorities.

August 1912: Buddy Bulden, jazz great from New Orleans usually attributed with inventing jazz is recorded by RCA Victor. It is the first jazz recording, and an immediate smash hit. Both black and white imitators immediately start releasing jazz records.

August 1912: The Grange endorses the Progressive ticket. Watson and the Populist Party work with both Progressives and Democrats. Watson disdains La Follete, and admires Clark though he favors Bryan as president.

August 14, 1912
Madeline Fiermonte and Vincent_Astor meet at a Harvard-Radcliffe ball. They become quite enamored of each other, and marry the next summer.

September 1912: In accordance with the unification of the Populists and Progressives, a major office of the Freemans Journal is opened up in Oakland.

September 1912: Henry Wallace is first recognised as a prominent journalist after publishing both a solid and critical interview with Champ Clarke. Wallace, along with the Journal, endorse Bryan.

Sep. 14 1912 Rebels again attack Ciudad Oaxaca and ravage the central valley

September 14th to 19th 1912- With Ty Cobb once again leading the way in average with .412 and stolen bases with 63, the Athletics post a 96-57 record to repeat as the Continental League Pennant winner. In the World Series the A's would be matched again by the Chicago Cubs. After the Athletics took Game 1, Mordecai Brown and Eddie Plank hooked up in scoreless pitcher's duel. However, with 2 runs in the 11th the Cubs were able to tie the series at one game apiece. However, even Brown and the rest of the Cubs could not derail the Athletics locomotive as Philadelphia went on to win the next 2 to capture the series in 4 games.

Sep.20 1912 The Yaqui in Sonora decisively defeat the invading Federales at San Joaquín. Remnants of the Federales force abandon the province.

October 1912: Champ Clarke criticizes Bryan for using federal measures to supercede state rights. Many traditional Democrats and a few grass roots Populists side with Clarke on the issue. Hearst runs a 1,500 word feature on the topic which is published in over 30 newspapers.

October 8, 1912 - A Christian revolt breaks out in Macedonia, but is quickly put down. Immediately, an ultimatum is issued from the Balkan League to the Ottomans. The Ottomans reject it.

October 10, 1912 - War is declared. Greek troops move into Macedonia first, where they encounter heavy resistance from the Ottomans. The Bulgarians stay on the border.

Oct.16 1912 Félix Díaz crushes revolt in Veracruz.

Oct 17 1912- After preliminary naval bombardments, Italian marines capture Tobruk in Libya.

Oct 18 1912- Italian Marines capture Tripoli.

October 21, 1912 - Bulgaria launches an offensive into Ottoman territories near the border, and scores a major victory in Thrace. They decide to turn west towards Salonika.

Oct 22 1912- Army takes control of operations in Libya under recently promoted Armando Diaz, a protégé of the Chief of Staff Luigi Cardona.

November 1912 Henry Cabot Lodge wins the plurality in the election for President of the United States of America. Bryan comes in a surprisingly strong second, mostly due to sweeping the West and progressive Mid West. It will go to Congress in January.

November 1912: George Cabot-Lodge takes his father's seat in the senate, which he keeps over the next two decades.

November 1912: Bussiness expert and humanitarian Herbert Hoover is elected congressmen from Oregon with the support of the north-western Republican machine that supported Ballinger in Washington.

Nov. 01 1912 The Zapatistas decide to burn the cane fields of haciendas that refuse to pay ‘taxes’. By late January, half of the state’s sugar crop has been burned.

November 14, 1912 - Naval battles in the Aegean cut off Ottoman supply lines in the Aegean, and the Ottoman effort in Greece begins to fall apart.

Nov 17 1912- Diaz considers his forces are ready and began operations to conquer the province. Fighting will continue for at least two more years, even after the Treaty of Venice is agreed.

November 21, 1912 - Riots break out in Belgrade demanding the overthrow of the pro-Austrian Obrenovic Dynasty and calling for joining the war. They are barely put down, with Austrian aid.

December 2, 1912 - Battles break out outside Salonika between Bulgarian and Greek forces. Meanwhile, Turkish successes lead to supplies again reaching the beleaguered city.

December 13, 1912 - An attack on Adrianople narrowly takes the city, but Bulgarian forces are stalled due to heavy losses and an outbreak of plague.

Dec 8 1912- Italian forces land in Albania and began advancing to the interior. Austria privately protested but assurances were made by the Italian government that their tacit agreement to this act will be rewarded.

December 25, 1912 - The Balkan League and the Ottomans agree to arbitration by Great Britain.
  #14  
Old April 2nd, 2006, 05:14 PM
Glen Glen is offline
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1913

1913 -

1913 - Congress passes an amendment to the Prohibition laws allowing for the production of hard liquors for export only.

1913 - Rising star Gladys Smith marries Boston financier Joseph P. Kennedy.

1913 Ford releases the Cadillac Model 30GE (gasoline-electric), the company's first hybrid vehicle. Interestingly, it is considered primarily an electric vehicle with a gasoline engine to back up the electric motor, as evidenced by the small gas tank. The car is popular in urban areas and especially with delivery services.

January 1913 Congress in a tempestuous but short session chooses Henry Cabot Lodge as the President of the United States and Arthur MacArthur as Vice-President.

January 1913: Charles Seymour returns to New Haven, where he returns to both his studies and minor administrative laws. He also is elected into city council, and becomes embroiled in Connecticut politics.

January 5, 1913 - The Treaty of Venice is signed. Most of the Aegean Islands and coastal Macedonia west of Salonika go to Greece; territories east of the Chalcidice go to Bulgaria. Thessalonika and the nearby peninsula become an autonomous state led by the Jewish population under Ottoman protection. The remaining territory becomes the Neutral State of Albania-Kosovo, divided into Austrian and Italian zones, north and south.

January 14, 1913 Porfirio Diaz, President of Mexico, dies in office. To end the current conflict, former Diaz supporters agree to recognize Francisco Madero as interim president in return for promises of continued patronage. Pancho Villa reconciles with Madero.

January 17th 1913- After close to three years of “The Troubles” , King George V orders Bonar Law to dissolve his government and ordered new elections.

January 31, 1913 - Albania-Kosovo is divided by Austria and Italy. Austria gives Kosovo to Serbia, while retaining the coastal areas.

February 1913 Sung Chiao-jen elected as President of China.

February 3rd 1913- Liberals win the General election and Herbert Asquith returns to the Prime Minister chair. A cease-fire is arranged in Ireland and amnesty given to all leaders of the Irish Troubles as a sign of reconciliation.

March 1913 Theodore Roosevelt is named Secretary of War for the incoming Lodge Administration. Over the next several months he works with a maniacal energy, trying to rebuild the US military after years of neglect.

March 1913 Philander Knox is named Secretary of State.

March 7th 1913- Irish Home Rule Bill finally implemented. Ireland is divided into two territories, Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland with separate Parliaments. Each territory was intended to be self-governing except for subjects reserved to the Crown, defence, foreign affairs, international trade and currency. A Lord Lieutenant represented the King and a Council of Ireland coordinate matters of common concern for both Irelands.

April 1913 Indian and Hindu leaders in the Guyanas contact Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, asking him to come speak to them on gaining more rights in their region. He travels to South America at this time.

April 2, 1913 The flag of revolution is once again raised over the city of Warsaw. The immediate cause of the revolution was the Tsar's crackdown on pro-independence newspapers in Poland. When the Polish legislature doesn't act against the papers, the Tsar orders its dissolution. The Poles refuse.

April 3-10, 1913 All of Poland raises the flag of revolt against the Russians. The garrisons are driven out of the cities in bloody fighting. The revolutionary leaders meet in Warsaw to deliberate on whom to offer the throne of Poland to.

April 10, 1913 The Poles, reputedly at the suggestion of the German Foreign Ministry, offer the throne of the Kingdom of Poland to Archduke Karl, the nephew of Hapsburg Emperor Franz Ferdinand.

April 12-18, 1913 The Tsar furiously demands that Karl refuse the throne. The German Foreign Ministry, assures Franz Ferdinand that Germany will support them if his nephew accepts the throne.

April 18th 1913- The first of the French five ship Normandie Class is laid down. Due to the war and the economic problems after the war they weren’t completed until late 1919.

April 20, 1913 Karl secretly accepts the throne of Poland, but does not yet travel to Warsaw. The German and Austrian armies begin to mobilize.

April 22, 1913 France demands that Germany remain neutral in the "current difficulties" in the East.

April 24, 1913 Germany rejects the French demand and continues mobilizing. British attempts to halt the "diplomatic train wreck" are ignored by all parties.

April 29, 1913 The initial columns of German and Austrian troops march into Poland to "preserve the peace".

April 30, 1913 Russia declares war on Germany and Austria-Hungary.

May 1913: Austrian composer Alban Berg, student of Schoenberg, joins the army becoming a low ranking officer while continuing his studies of atonalism. He believes that fighting in the war will help him gain the respect needed to be recognised by Viennese and Berlin donors.

May 1913 Only months after Francisco Madero assumes the Presidency of Mexico, Victoriano Huerta attempts a coup d'etat with limited success. He takes command in Mexico City, but President Madero evades capture and begins to rally supporters against the military coup. US President Lodge agrees to recognize Madero as the rightful president of Mexico in opposition of Huerta’s dictatorship. They provide Madero with military supplies and money, and the strife in Mexico continues.

May 1913: President Lodge creates the Department of Labor, and names Al Smith as its first Secretary. Smith creates decent labor laws which benefit the workers while not infringing upon business. Progressive supporters of La Follete and Bryan criticize Smith's actions for being too mild. Smith in turn denounces ultra-liberalism and calls for a middle way. More conservative Republicans are fearful of Smith, but others see him as a major positive force for the party.

Early May, 1913 The German Army prepares to execute the unmodified Schlieffen Plan, since the Netherlands is willing to allow German troops to march through enroute to France. The forces in the east, with the Austro-Hungarians, will defend the German and A-H borders, leaving the Poles to fend for themselves until the war is won in the West.

May 1913 Mohandas Gandhi had passed over into Dutch Guiana when the outbreak of the war leads to a closing of the border and his being trapped in the Dutch colony. He is hidden from the authorities and rallies the Indian and Hindu portion of the populace to protest the Dutch involvement in the War and for greater civil rights.

May 1, 1913 France declares war on Germany and Austria Hungary.

May 1, 1913- The United States Football Association is founded. Ten teams begin play in Chicago, Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Washington, St. Louis, Cleveland, Cincinnati, and Hartford.

May 3th 1913 El Salvador joins Nicaragua with the signing of the Second Pact of Amapala. This was the result of the invitation of the new Salvadorian leftist regime to the Nicaraguan government to help in the supression of supporters of the former regime early in 1912.

May 9, 1913 -- Hoping to avoid tension with the Ottomans during the upcoming war, Britain pays the Ottomans for the remaining legal title to the territories under its de facto control -- Egpyt, Sudan, Yemen, and Kuwait. Killing two birds with one stone, Britain settles the Yemen-Ethiopian border, too; Ethiopia gets the Aseb, Dahlak, and Hanish Islands, and cedes the remainder to Britain.

May 14th 1913- German 1st Army cross from the Netherlands into Belgium in the direction of Antwerp.

May 15th 1913- Great Britain declares war to Germany due to their violation of the Belgium neutrality. Beginning of battle of Liege that will last until the 25th of May, slowing down the progress of the German 3rd Army.

May 16th 1913- German Chancellor von Bethmann is upset by the British declaration of war, stating in the press that “how Britain could go to war over a piece of paper while our hand stretched in friendship is just pushed away.”

May 17th 1913- Battle of Mulhouse. French following their Plan XVIII launched an offensive to capture the city of Mulhouse. They captured the city on the morning of the 18th.

May 18th 1913- Painter Adolph Hitler is arrested by French authorities as a "hostile foreigner." His experiences during his internment were the basis for two of his most famous paintings.
May 19th 1913- German counteroffensive forces French forces to abandon Mulhouse.

May 20th 1913- Antwerp falls to the German 1st Army, that continued their advance south in the direction of Brussels.

May 23rd 1913- Battle of Brussels. The Belgium Army, under pressure from the German 2nd Army, was forced to face the German 1st Army on their capital or being pocketed. Under the direct leadership of King Leopold, the Belgium forces fought long enough to ensure the escape of close to 70,000 men south but King Leopold is captured trying to escape.

May 23rd 1913- Princess Patricia Canadian Light Infantry Regiment created for service in Europe. It actually made it to the war, with the unit being the only Canadian unit to see combat, in South West Africa.

May 24th 1913- Battle of Morhange-Sarrebourg. French forces launched an invasion of Lorraine and captured both cities. The battle lasted until June 7th, with a German counter offensive recapturing both cities but being decimated trying to advance into French territory.

May 25th 1913- The Japanese Empire declares war to Germany.

May 26th 1913- Invasion of Togoland by Franco-British troops. The invasion lasted five days. With the French surrender in August the British asked the French troops out, who agreed.

May 26th 1913- Tsar orders Imperial forces to enter Poland to quell the rebellion before the German reinforcements could arrive to the area.

May 27th 1913- Capture of Bialystok. Russian 1st Army defeats Polish rebels and capture the city after a short battle.

May 28th 1913- Battle of Rodno. Polish rebels defeated by the advancing Russian 11th Army.

May 28th 1913- Battle of the China Sea.- The German East Asiatic Squadron intercepted by a Japanese fleet trying to escape near Formosa. The Japanese semi-dreadnaughts and semi-battlecruisers decimated the German fleet from the distance but the cruiser Emden escapes.

May 29th 1913- Provisional Polish government asks the Austrians and Germans for help.

May 30th 1913-Three major battles started on this date. The battle of Neufchateau was also part of the French Plan XVIII and was considered by many launching this offensive event with news of the German advance in Belgium as a very obvious mistake. This battle lasted close to six days and the French withdrew from the areas when news from the West made obvious the battle was a waste of resources. The siege of Namur started on this date and lasted until the 5th of June. Last was the battle of Charleroi. A French attempt to help the Belgium defenders in Namur was repulsed by the German 3rd Army.

Summer 1913- King Habibullah of Afghanistan entertains a German mission, but the crafty Afghan ruler clearly viewed the war as a way to play one side of the other. Finally he received assurances in early 1914 from the British government that they will end their control of his nation foreign policy in exchange of assurances of his part to never involve his nation in any type of military alliance.

June 1st 1913- 1st Battle of Lille- First battle between the British BEF and the German forces. German suffered heavy losses but forces the British to move west in the direction of the coast.

June 1st 1913- German 9th Army entered Poland. At the same time the Austrian 1st to 4th armies also entered Poland.

June 2nd 1913- Battle of Brest-Litovsk. Polish force decimated by Russian 5th Army. Situation considered serious by many in the Polish Provisional government.

June 3rd 1913- Battle of Maubeuge. The German 2nd Army captured the city and continued their advance south. The French 5th Army under Lanrezac, facing three German armies began a a withdraw in the direction of Avesnes, leaving a gap between them and the BEF.

June 4th 1913- Battle of Kowel-Lutsk. Two Russian armies defeat the token Polish forces in the area and continue their advance west.

June 5th 1913- Battle of Cambrai. A small French force put together to slow down the German advance is annihilated but still stopped the German 2nd Army for two days.

June 6th 1913- Battle of Loos- A rearguard action fought by the BEF trying to slow down the advancing German 1st Army. The BEF retired to protect the Channel ports. Later historians said the lack of action by the BEF was one of the factor of the French defeat.

June 3rd 1913- Montenegro declares war to Austria-Hungary in support of the actions of their ally Russia.

June 6th 1913- Battle of Dubno. First encounter between Russian and Austrian troops. After a three day battle the Austrian 3rd Army is forced south by Russian forces.

June 7th 1913- 1st Battle of the Bug River. Russian 2nd Army forces a crossing of the river. The token Polish forces in the area are unable to stop the Russian advance in the direction of Warsaw.

June 7th 1913- Puerto Rican president Luis Muñoz Rivera presents to the Puerto Rican Congress an offer to lease the area east of the island and the island of Culebra to the United States for a period of 75 years starting from the approval of the lease.

June 8th 1913- 2nd Battle of the Bug River. The Austrian 4th Army stops the Russian attempt to cross the Bug River west of Kowel.

June 8th 1913- Beginning of the Siege of Tsingtao. Lasted a month and a half with the Japanese in effective control of the Shantung Peninsula by the end of the siege.

June 8th 1913- Some leaders of the former IRA still considered the new Home Rule was not enough met in Cork and plans were being drafted by some of them, like Eamon de Valera, to rose against the “imposed regime” using the ongoing war as an excuse. It was decided to acquire weapons and funds from both the US and Germany.

June 9th 1913- Battle of Guise-St. Quentin- The remains of the French 5th Army under Lanrezac launched a counter offensive to buy time for reinforcements to arrive to the area. Lanrezac forces recaptured both St Quentin and Guise but his forces were considered spent and both cities were recaptured by the Germans three days later. Lanrezac was fired as an scapegoat.

June 10th 1913- Battle of Amiens- Small French force defeated by advancing German 1st Army. The road south laid open.

June 13th 1913- 1st Battle of Warsaw. The German 9th Army’s attempt to save the Polish capital. While finally failing in achieving that objective, the city being captured two weeks later, they bloodied three Russian armies and the advance west was stopped in northern Poland.

June 16th 1913- Battle of Brody. Invasion of Austro-Hungary launched by Russia. Austrian troops forced south after a two day battle.

June 16th 1913- French government escapes to Bordeaux.

June 17th 1913- 1st Battle of the Marne- The recently created French 6th Army and the remains of the 5th Army defeat in a six day battle the advancing German 2nd and 3rd Armies, forcing them to dig in.

June 17th 1913- 3rd Battle of the Bug River. Russian forces finally force a crossing of the river in face of heavy Austrian opposition. Austrian 4th Army forced to retreat into Austria-Hungary.

June 18th 1913- Georgian pro-independence activist Iosef Dzhugashvili, alias Koba, meets secretly with Ottoman officials in Trebizond. The Ottomans offered large quantities of money and weapons to help Koba achieve his dream of a free Georgia. Many later historians considered the Ottomans just middlemen for the Germans in their attempt to further undermine the Russian position.

June 20th 1913- Battle of the Seine- The German 1st Army and the recently created 7th Army defeated the French 7th Army on a five day battle. The German forces crossed the river and swing east to try to encircle the city.

June 21st 1913- Tarnapol falls to the Russian 11th Army.

June 23rd 1913- Battle of Lublin. Austrian troops forced in the direction of the Vistula River after being defeated on a three day battle against superior numbers.

June 23rd 1913- Battle of Reims. Side action launched by the German 3rd Army supporting the 4th Army in pushing the French 4th Army south. The city falls after a short fight.

June 24th 1913- Italy declares war to France.

June 25, 1913 In response to the Italian declaration, Great Britain declares war against Italy.

June 25th 1913- Battle of Fountainbleu-Etamps. A three day battle were the French 6th Army is defeated by the German 1st and 7th Armies, forcing them north in the direction of Paris.

June 27th 1913- 2nd Battle of the Marne- The German 2nd and 3rd Army crossed the Marne and defeat the weakened French 5th Army, they joined with elements of the German 1st army north of Melun on July 1st, effectively surrounding Paris.

June 28th 1913- Lemberg surrounded by Russian troops. Situation considered desperate by the Austro-Hungarian High Command.

June 29th 1913- Battles of the Alps-Name given to the three Italian offensives launched between July and August 1913. All three failed in achieving any significant breakthroughs and casualties were horrific.

June 30, 1913 Italian forces take Djibuti.

July - September 1913 The Uprising spreads from the Indians to the Maroon population. With military assistance from the neighboring colonial British and French, they manage to take the area, proclaiming a Guianan Free State.

July 1913: It is discovered that Japanese 'businessmen' have bribed several members of the Hawaiian legislature, as well as having gained control of the Hawaiian Japanese community. The many 'aboriginal' legislators are removed from office, giving control of the government to pro-US legislators, who vote for the institution of martial law and call for a military governor from the USA. John Pershing is appointed military governor of Hawaii on the recommendation of MacArthur, who never liked the man and was looking for a way to get rid of him. The Japanese government protests when anti-Japanese demonstrations in Hawaii turn violent.

July 2nd 1913- Siege of Paris- Lasted for two months. The French launched two failed attempts to relieve the city, one on July 7th, called by many the 2nd Battle of Chalons sur Marne and another on August 10th called the Battle of Dreux. That second attempt almost achieved the objective intended but fast reaction by the 7th Army commander Paul von Hinderburg defeated the French force composed mainly of recruits and North African troops.

July 3rd 1913: After his immediate supperiors are killed, Berg is forced to take command of a larger force. His personal bravery in the Battle of Kosmenice-Ivangorod wins him press recognition. He was shot in the torso, which caused slight breathing problems which forced him to leave the military.

July 3rd 1913- Battle of Kosmenice-Ivangorod. Attempts to cross the Vistula defeated by Austrian troops after a six day battle. Both sides suffered terrible casualties and were too exhausted to continue. Russian advance stopped on the Vistula river by combined German-Polish-Austrian forces.

July 4, 1913 While leading a protest, Mohandas Gandhi and several others are shot down and killed by the Dutch colonial forces. This ignites the Guianese Uprising. Mohandas Gandhi will go down in history as a great Martyr of the cause.

July 14, 1913 A plot to overthrow the ailing Ethiopian Emperor Menelik II and join the Italian side of the war, is broken up with several arrests. The Emperor's nephew, Lij Iyasu, is one of the key players in the conspiracy, and is executed.

July 14th 1913- Battle of the Dniester River. With the arrival of fresh troops from the Balkans, front is stabilized on the Dniester River. End of Russian advance into Poland and Austro-Hungary.

July 14th 1913- General Armando Diaz launches an invasion of Tunisia from their new territories in Libya. The advance is very limited but their presence served to them asking for Tunisia at the end of the war.

July 16th 1913- Battles of the Lakes. Name given to combat between two Russian Armies and the understrength German 10th and 11th Armies thru late July and early August. The casualties were terrible on both sides but by the middle of August half of East Prussia was under Russian occupation. German public opinion and the sight of refugees were a hit for German morale.

July 22nd 1913- 2nd Battle of Liege- British BEF tries to relieve the French pressure. The city of Lille falls to the British and is hailed as a victory by the British press.

July 26th 1913: Berg is given a heroes welcome in Vienna, where he starts making appearances in the local military and naval leagues and helping encourage volunteers.

August 1913- Puerto Rican cadet Albizu-Campos wounded while helping in the defenses of the city of Paris. He returns home after the war to recover from his wounds but he was back in France in 1915 to end his education as a cavalry officer.

August 11th 1913- Battle of Java Sea- A combined Australian-British naval force defeats the Dutch naval forces near Surabaya with the German cruiser Emden in tow.

August 19th 1913- Tsar Nicholas offers the German and Austrian governments a return to pre-war borders and for them to repudiate Polish independence. Both governments refuse.

August 20th 1913- After a long debate the leasing agreement with the United States is approved by the Puerto Rican Congress, but only for 50 years, after which both nations must agree to extend the lease further.

August 21st 1913- Paris surrenders to the German forces.

August 27th 1913- French government asks for a ceasefire to discuss terms of surrender.

August 29th 1913- Germany accepts a ceasefire and start moving forces to face the British on the Channel.

August 29th 1913- A small military force sailed from New Zealand and captured German Samoa without any bloodshed.

August 30th 1913- British began evacuation of the BEF. Operation last close to a week with very weak German response, them trying to get the British to accept the fait accompli.

September 1913: A group of Madero supporters led by Pancho Villa raid Mexico City killing hundreds of innocent civilians. Madero marches into the city and quickly establishes his own near dictatorship. Huerta flees to the south-west, and forms a large army of loyalists.

September 4th 1913- South African forces launch an invasion of German South West Africa. Due to the overwhelming number of South African forces, the German troops plus Boer allies offered delaying resistance.

September 5th 1913- The Netherlands lodges a protest to Great Britain for their unprovoked attack to their East Indies Fleet. After British refusal to discuss the event, they declare war to the United Kingdom.

September 6th, 1913 Ethiopian and British forces launch a coordinated attack on Eritrea and Italian Somaliland. Djibuti is occupied by the Allies.

September 7th, 1913- Dutch government secretly request the United States to station US Marines in the Dutch West Indies to ensure "the war doesn't spread to the Western Hemisphere."

September 8th 1913- Lt Col Maritz of the South African Army declares his attempt to create a Free Boer nation. Supported by the Germans and close to 12,000 went to his side.

September 9th 1913- The Canadian Automobile Machinegun Brigade created by Brigadier General Raymond Brutier. The unit was the very first fully mechanized unit in the British Army. Using Ford Motors cars and vehicles, the unit was too late to be mobilized to Europe but instead of being disbanded at the end of the war it was used as a test unit for motorization feasibility tests.

September 14th 1913- Australian troops land in German New Guinea.

September 14th 1913- With ceasefire with French in place, the Germans began moving the 2nd and 3rd Armies East.

September 14th to 20th 1913- The Cleveland Naps, who shocked the baseball world by winning the Continental League pennant and the World Series after finishing fifth the season before, defeated the Cincinnati Reds three games to two. While their captain Nap Lajoie had a sub-par season compared to the one he had in 1912; with his average dropping 32 points to .334, his ribbies dropping by 20 to 69 and his stolen bases been reduced to 18 the team was led all the way mainly by the efforts of Chief Bender and Frank Baker. Bender pitched in 50 games, starting 22 of them and finishing 22 of them to have an incredible record on 22 victories with 8 defeats and an ERA of 2.24 plus he had what later was called 15 saves. Meanwhile Frank Baker won the homerun crown for a four consecutive time with 14 of them and the ribbies crown with 124 plus adding a hefty .339 batting average and 32 stolen bases.

September 16th 1913- Japanese troops began landing in the German Micronesian islands, encountering token resistance.

September 18th 1913- Australian troops landed in Timor. Island declared secure by the end of the month.

September 19th 1913- First United States marines are landed in the Dutch West Indies to ensure their safety.

September 21st 1913- Martial law declared in South Africa by Prime Minister Botha.

September 24th 1913- German New Guinea surrendered. Australian troops began to be ferried to the Solomon Islands and Nauru to forestall any attempted Japanese intentions of moving into the area.

September 25th 1913- With the German surrender, Japanese troops took ownership of all German Micronesian colonies.

September 27th 1913- Anglo-Indian force landed in northern Sumatra and began moving south.

September 28th 1913- Russians renew their attacks after a month to replace losses and rebuild their supply lines. Still Polish partisans made the rear areas very dangerous.

September 30th 1913- Lemberg surrenders to the Russians.

September 30th 1913- Boer rebels are defeated in a lighting campaign directed by Jan Smuts. Surviving rebels are forced to flee into German West Africa.

October 1st 1913- Battle of Soldau. The Russian 12th Army launches an attack to the flank of the defenders of East Prussia. Chaos ensues with fear of encirclement.

October 2nd 1913- German 1st Army sent East.

October 4th 1913- Battle of Radom- Two day battle between the Russian 4th Army and Austrian 2nd. Austrian forced west with heavy casualties.

October 4th 1913- Treaty of Reims signed. The terms are considered lenient by most observers. France must revoke all current alliances, ending their participation in the Entente. Small payments imposed on France for a period of five years to Germany and Italy. French Congo and Gabon are ceded to Germany. The area of Briey and Lowny are placed under German administration for five years. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is allowed to become part of the German Empire if it so chooses. Very small border adjustments are made in favor of Italy on the French-Italian border. Tunisia is ceded to Italy. Belgium’s independence is guaranteed under German protection with no changes on the borders. King Albert of Belgium is made to sell the Belgian Congo to Germany.

October 5th 1913- Battle of Friedland- Russian troops defeats the German 11th Army and force them in the direction of Konigsberg.

October 6th 1913- Australian troops enter Dutch New Guinea.

October 7th 1913- Przemsyl falls to Russian forces after a nine-day battle. Austrian forces began withdrew to the Carpathian Mountains. Talks of leaving the war began to be rumored in some circles.

October 8th 1913- Battle of Zinten-Landberg. The recently arrived German 2nd Army, veterans from the French campaign, defeats the Russian attempt to encircle Konigsberg. Battle ends six days later and the city of Konigsberg still has a landline with the rest of Germany.

October 8th 1913- British troops move inland into Borneo. Japan offers help but politely refused by the British.

October 9th 1913- Germany offers Great Britain and Japan peace with all gains achieved until August 30th being accepted. Of course they both refused.

October 11th 1913- Battle of Allenstein- Russian 10th Army defeats the remnants of the German 10th Army and forces them east.

October 12th 1913- 1st Battle of Lodz- German 9th Army faces two Russian armies and forced west in the direction of the Worte River.

October 16th 1913- Battle of Osterode- Two Russian armies defeat the recently arrived German 3rd Army and the last surviving units of the 10th Army. A bloody two day battle, many consider the German sacrifices as the reason the Russians been stopped in the later battle of Deutsch-Eylau.

October 18th 1913- British force landed in Palembang in Sumatra and began to move north to meet with troops coming from the South.

October 19th 1913- The United States offers the Dutch government to purchase the Dutch West Indies for 25 million dollars.

October 21st 1913- With situation desperate in the Dutch Indies and with fear of their fall just being a question of time, Queen Wilhelmina ask her husband to make peace with the British before the rest of the area falls under their control.

October 21st 1913- The German 3rd and 5th Armies defeat the tired Russian forces and forces them west in the direction of Tannenberg, Homestein and Allenstein, were they began to dig in.

October 22nd 1913-Dutch government agrees to US offer to purchase the Dutch West Indies.

October 23rd 1913- Tarnow falls to the Russian 8th Army.

October 24th 1913- Germany offers a ceasefire to the British to discuss peace.

October 25th 1913- Battles of the Carpathian Passes. Two battles fought between October and November 1913. Both attempts ended in failure and front stayed with the Carpathians as the front lines.

October 26th 1913- 2nd Battle of Lodz- Name given to the German counter-offensive launched by the German 9th and 1st Armies that pushed the tired Russians east and ended in the recapture of Lodz by the Germans nine days later.

October 31st 1913- Battle of Krakow- Last victory of the so-called Russian Fall Offensive. Both sides spent by the fierce fighting. Both sides launched no major operations until the end of the winter in March of the next year.

October 31st 1913- Great Britain accepts German offer of a ceasefire to discuss end of their conflict in a neutral nation.

November 3rd 1913- United States announces they want to be invited to the negotiations due to their concerns in regard to possible violations of the Monroe Doctrine.

November 4th 1913- Great Britain after some backdoor negotiations accepts the United States presence in the negotiations.

November 9th 1913- Raymond Poincare dismisses his whole government and resigns as President of France. Beginning of the “Three-month Crisis” and the end of the Third Republic.

November 13th 1913- Japan laid down the first of the four Yamashiro class battleships. Last ship of the class commissioned by 1918. While faster than the US battleships at the time with 25 knots, they were under-gunned compared to the contemporary US New Mexico Class, just having ten 14” main guns.

November 21st 1913- Negotiations almost ended due to three issues, the status of Borneo, German West Africa and Belgium. While the British had some troops in the first two, their control of both areas was still being disputed and the status of Belgium under the Reims Treaty was being disputed by the British.

November 23rd 1913- Germany relented, agreeing to British acquiring German West Africa in exchange for some preferential trade treatment with their former colony.

December 1913- Many historians state that the Treaty of Madrid is an example of the foreign policy of von Bethmann, trying to create an atmosphere of friendship with the British that as time went by created the objective desired by von Bethmann; an alliance in everything nut name by the early 1930's.

December 4th 1913- Germany finally acknowledge the British control of Borneo in exchange for the British agreeing to the Belgian Congo being put under German protection with the former also receiving an extraterritorial corridor to build an transcontinental railroad. The Belgium Congo is purchased by the German Crown from King Albert, but then transferred to the Dutch in compensation for their losses overseas. However, it was for all intents and purposes German now.

December 5th 1913- Corporal William Roberts(Halsey) is promoted to Sargent and receives the Croix de Guerre for his actions during the Siege of Paris.

December 12th 1913- Remains of the Montenegrin army surrenders near the Serbian border. The nation is put under military administration until the end of the war.

December 18th 1913- The last two ships of the British Revenge Class battleship are cancelled. Only the Revenge and the Royal Oak are completed.

December 19th 1913- Pope Leo XIV dies.

December 28th 1913- Treaty of Madrid agreed by all parts after some horse-trading. Japan acquires the Shantung Peninsula and the former German Micronesia. Australia annexes both German and Dutch New Guinea plus the Solomon Islands and Nauru. Portugal was ceded the western half of Timor Island. United States purchase of the former Dutch West Indies is recognized by all signatories. Belgium is returned to their former position as a neutral nation with no changes on the borders. Great Britain incorporates into their Empire the former German colonies of Togoland and German West Africa and the former Dutch colonies of Sumatra and Borneo. Italy cedes Eritrea to Ethiopia, and Italian Somaliland to Great Britain. Djibuti is returned to France. Despite early attempts by the British to incorporate Guiana into British Guyana, the US support for the independent state leads to its recognition as an independent nation.
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Old April 2nd, 2006, 05:14 PM
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1914

1914 -

1914 In response to the growing US military involvement in Mexico, the Roosevelt family sponsors the raising of a new volunteer force of Rough Riders to serve in Mexico. While the elder Theodore Roosevelt seriously contemplates resigning as Secretary of War to join the force, he is persuaded that he is needed most in his current post. Instead, his eldest son Theodore Roosevelt Jr. heads the force, with his brother Kermit as one of its officers. The newest generation of Rough Riders serve throughout the Mexican conflict with distinction, becoming the most decorated volunteer force since the Civil War.

1914: La Follete leads a Progressive movement against US military action in Mexico, claiming that it is a 'toy war' where nothing can truly be gained, and that it is causing senseless loss of life simply for American Imperialist gratification. Traditional Democrats claim that they want a speedy end to the conflict and hope for some victory, trying to play both sides off each other to make themselves look like an appropriate middle road. Hearst uses his papers to spread notions of compromise. He utilizes anti-Catholic sentiment to attempt to discourage expansion into Mexico.

January 1914: The US drops their support of Madero after his presidency proves to be a disaster, and recognizes Emiliano Zapata as the rightful president of Mexico. Zapata quickly consolidates his support in southern and central Mexico. He gains popularity in the Yucatan for treating the local inhabitants as equal citizens.

January 2nd 1914- Rafael Merry del Val elected as Pope after the fifth ballot. With a war brewing it was considered important for the Cardinals to elect a Pope with diplomatic experience and who better than the man in charge of the Vatican’s diplomatic corps. He took the name of Gregory XVII.

January 14th 1914- Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti forced to resign due to critics’ accusations that both the Germans and the British robbed them in the negotiation table.

January 21st 1914- Sidney Sonnino named Prime Minister again for the third time in his career.

February 1914: Huerta recaptures Mexico city. Pancho Villa raids El Paso in protest to the US removing support of Madero. Zapata creates diplomatic ties with Central American nations which have close cultural ties with southern Mexico. These are especially strong tie with other nations close to the US such as Nicaragua and Guatemala.

February 7th 1914- With the growing concern caused by the ongoing war with the Germans, the Defense of India Act passed. Many leaders in the Indian communities considered the measures as trampling their liberties given by the Delhi Durbar.

February 8, 1914 Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia suffers a massive stroke and dies several days later. Zauditu is declared Empress of Ethiopia.

February 18th 1914- Gabriele D’Annunzio returns to Italy after being interned in France during the war. He began his political writings almost immediately, blaming the government for their mistake of attacking France. He stated “we gained nothing for the blood of our men while the lands that truly belong to our nation still are on the hands of the Austrians.”

March 1914: To cover for his pro Yale legislation, and to avoid corruption charges, Seymour actually becomes a leader of anti-corruption measures in Connecticut.

March 1914: Huerta’s forces destroy the principle Zapata army. The USA stubbornly refuses to recognize him as the leader of Mexico, however. Madero gains increased support from the north especially from those who criticize Americans and have lost favor with Huerta. A Japanese syndicate tries to purchase Magdalena Bay from Mexico. With US/Japanese relations still strained from the Hawaii situation, protest and threaten intervention if this sale proceeds, including cutting off Japanese access to the new Nicaragua Canal. The Japanese government claims they have no ties to the syndicate.

March 2nd 1914- Alexandre Millerand named President by a coalition of Socialist, Centrist and the Military in an attempt to save the nation of further chaos after three months of civil disturbances and near civil war.

March 8th 1914- Millerand names Socialist leader Jean Jaures as his new Prime Minister. While Germany applauded this decision, some sectors in the French military were nervous by this announcement.

March 12th 1914- Jack Schneider a financier, balloonist and aircraft enthusiast announced he would hold a contest for seaplanes for a trophy and cash award.He hoped to encourage technical advances in aviation.

March 27th 1914- Beginning of the German Spring Offensive. Launched two weeks before the planned Russian offensive, it was a long drawn affair that lasted to early June 1914. By them a little over a quarter of a million Germans and Austrians were either dead or wounded but the Russians suffered over half a million men and were expelled from East Prussia except for everything north of the Niemen River and a small section of East Prussia by the Masurian Lakes. Also the Russians either thru defeats and the fear of being encircled were forced to the Vistula and Narew Rivers to anchor their lines in Poland. The gains in Austro-Hungarian territory were minimal.

March 27th 1914- Battle of Homestein. Name given to the breakthrough of the Tannenberg-Homestein-Allenstein defensive line by three German Armies in their attempt to clear East Prussia. A two days battle, the defending Russians was pushed east but the terrain helped the defender.

March 30th, 1914- In the last year of his presidency, Liberian president Oran Saint-John gets a bill limiting the president to one term passed.

March 31st 1914- Battle of Bartenstein. Russian 13th Army routed by the attacking Germans after a three-day battle and the Russian secondary line anchored on the Alle River broken.

April 1914 A Japanese fleet is spotted off the north coast of Luzon. The US is concerned, but does not have cause to take direct action. Later that week another Japanese fleet is reportedly spotted off the coast of Latin America, headed towards southern Mexico. The Russians suggest they have intelligence that this fleet may head to the canal after establishing themselves in Mexico. The US sends an ultimatum to Japan and Mexico, who deny everything. The USA sends troops to occupy Veracruz and Magdalena Bay.

April 1914: Arthur MacArthur draws up the Military Reorganization Act, which reforms West Point into a rigorous academic school, makes it somewhat easier for non-commissioned officers to become Lieutenants, removes wasteful training such as bayonet practice for training camps, and moves to save money by replacing old equipment with a smaller number of newer equipment, taking away the old practice of wastefully maintaining out of date equipment. It easily passes both houses of Congress.

April 6th 1914- Battle of Bolimov. Two German armies pushed the Russian defenders in the direction of Warsaw.

April 11th 1914- Haitian President Cincinnatus Leconte assassinated while driving thru the streets of Port-eu-Prince by a grenade being thrown into his car. The chaos that ensued in the capital gave the excuse to the US government to intervene in Haiti. The main concern was that Germany controlled 80% of the country’s international commerce thru their small German community in the nation plus they also owned important commercial properties on the nation.

April 14th 1914- First US Marines land in Port-eu-Prince and take control of the city. Within six weeks, US representatives controlled Haiti’s customs houses and administrative institutions.

April 15th 1914- Battles of the Johannesberg Forest. Name given to the slow fighting thru this forest that was one of only two Russian victories in East Prussia during this campaign and resulted in the ending of operations on this area by the end of May.

April 19th 1914- Russian troops evacuate Krakow due to fear of being encircled.

April 19th 1914- Japan announces they had no intention of purchasing any Mexican territory and disavow any ties to the consortium trying to purchase Magdalena Bay. The Japanese also state their fleet was on exercises and had no intention to approach North America.

April 21st 1914- Combined Austro-Polish Army defeats Russian forces and began pushing defenders to the Vistula.

April 21st 1914- Small detachment of US Marines is landed in Magdalena Bay.

April 22nd 1914- Japanese fleet is once more sited off the coast of Luzon. Whether the fleet was always intended to return or was recalled is unknown at the time.

April 23rd 1914- Battle of Mlawa. A Cavalry Corps under Von der Goltz defeats a Russian Corps in the area and pushes the Russian flank on the direction of the Narew River. Remembered by the German innovative use of motorcycles and trucks to create an ad-hoc motorized brigade to keep up with the cavalry forces.

April 23rd 1914- Home Rule League founded in Bombay. They were asking for an status similar to the one in Canada and Australia.

April 25th 1914- Provisional Brigade lands in Veracruz. A patchwork unit of one Marine Regiment and an Army one with artillery support neutralizes the port defenses with naval support and occupies the city.

April 29th 1914- Ciudad Juarez captured by the 2nd Division. Madero asks the people of Mexico to oppose the invaders of their homes.

May 1914: Seymour begins to go after some business' leaders more then others, claiming that when there is corruption, go after it, but when there isn't, there's absolutely nothing wrong with business. In reality he utilized personal favoritism and political support, slowly becoming the most powerful political manager in the state.

May 2, 1914 The Nicaragua Canal officially opens.

May 7th 1914- Battle of Insterbert. This battle, with the battles that followed them in East Prussia, were some of the bloodiest one of the war and were referred as the “Bloody Battles“. Russian losses in these three battles close to 75,000 dead and wounded with 45,000 Germans suffering same fate. German victory that pushed Russians farther East.

May 7, 1914: Ethel Roosevelt, serving as a nurse in the Rough Riders, meets José Vasconcelos, a pro-Madero politician now aligned with the Zapatistas. The two form a strong friendship.

May 8th 1914- Battle of Tarnow. Russians defeat Austrian attackers but forced to abandon the city one-week later due to the crumbling of the front north of them.

May 9th 1914- Battle of Darkemmen. One of the so-called “Bloody Battles”. German victory.

May 11th 1914- Battle of Ciudad Chihuahua. American forces defeat a force under General Orozco and force the Maderistas to the hills of Chihuahua.

May 11th 1914- The new Constitution of the Fourth Republic was unveiled.

May 16th 1914- Battle of Gumbinnen. Last of the so-called “Bloody Battles”. Germans on the center began to dig in.

May 19th 1914- Lieutenant Omar Bradley is killed in an ambush outside of Veracruz.

May 26th 1914- 2nd Battle of Warsaw- A three-month long battle. Russians tried to hold on to the city and only finally forced out by the German Fall Offensive that almost cut the defenders off.

June 1914: Theodore Roosevelt, not to be outdone, proposes a Naval Reorganization Act which follows a similar strategy to the previous legislation and proves a worthy follow-up to the changes already instituted by Roosevelt to the military and the Navy in particular.

June 1914: Though the home rule bill has passed a year ago, attempts by the British to conscript the Irish on the breakout of war, which triggers a revolt by Eamon de Valera and other radical Irish leaders . They launch a failed Uprising, which only lasts a week. Due to De Valera being held at the same prison as James Connoly and other radical Irish leaders, he's executed at the same time. His US citzenship is comes into factor, but it's decided he's too dangerous.

June 5th 1914- Battle of Tilsit. City captured after a ten-day battle and front anchored by the Niemen River. End of offensive operations in East Prussia until the early fall. Last major battle of the Central Powers Spring campaign.

June 17th 1914- The four ships of the New Mexico Class are authorized by the US Congress. The ships are an improvement over the preceding Oklahoma Class but armed with ten 16” guns in dual turrets, the first ship in the world with that caliber. The main drawback is the max speed of 21 knots, the same of the preceding class. The four ships are completed by late 1918.

June 17th 1914- Yankees signed a 19 year old catcher from the International League call George Herman Ruth.

July 1914: Hoping to expand his financial power, Hearst invests in several businesses and industries. He is careful to reward businessmen and industrialists who have helped him in the past. Franklin Gatling becomes his main man in the oil industry.

July 1914: The Hearst newspapers began to quote Seymour as a good respectable moderate when it comes to issues of corruption, both business and political.

July 8th 1914- Kaiser Wilhelm requests a change on the strategies used to defeat the Russians due to the terrible casualties of the Spring Offensive. Helmuth von Moltke replaced as German Chief Staff by Alexander von Kluck, former commander of the 1st Army during the Franco-German War and a new favorite of the Kaiser. Von Kluck was promoted over some other more senior officer and critics charge he gained the position riding on his success during the last year.

July 8th 1914- Japanese government takes their first order of war material for the Russian government. By the end of the war in 1915, the Japanese were helped by the diversification of their industries and they were a creditor nation for the first time in their history.

June 18th 1914- The US ambassador asks the Lodge administration to recognize Huerta as president of Mexico to end the bloodshed. Lodge’s administration refuses and replaces the ambassador.

July 23rd 1914- Paul von Hinderburg is promoted to Army Group East Prussia commander, as a reward for his excellent work during the Franco-German War. Erich von Lunderdorff named his chief of staff. Lunderdorff began immediately to find a solution to the Kaiser’s requests.

July 31st 1914- Zapata announces his refusal to be declared President of Mexico without elections. But he also adds that the man in Mexico City is not the true leader of Mexico and needs to be defeated.

August 4th to 6th 1914- US forces fight in battle for the first time with Huerta’s forces in Battle of Puebla. US artillery and Marines from the Provisional Brigade support Zapatistas in the recapture of Puebla.

August 6th 1914- Great Britain delivers the Reshadieh and the Sultan Osman I to the Ottoman Navy.

August 18th 1914- Sonora declares the US invasion of their state illegal and join forces with the Maderistas.

August 19th 1914- Count Sergei Witte sent to Sweden to try to negotiate an end to the war with the Germans and Austrians. After two weeks of negotiations, both sides were deadlocked and Witte returned to Russia. He died on September 02 1914, many saying he was heartbroken due to his failure to end the war.

August 20th 1914- Small force of US national guardsmen in Nogales forced back into Arizona by rebel leader Obregon.

August 23rd 1914- Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich killed during an artillery barrage while inspecting the front. Replaced as overall Russian commander by his deputy Nikolai Yudenich.

August 24th 1914-German forces in East Prussia began practicing the concentration of force in narrow sectors of the front and them pour troops as fast as possible as soon as a gap is achieved. Practices being done close to roads, with brigades beginning to be formed of mixed cavalry, motorcycle, truck mounted and primitive armored cars to exploit those gaps.

August 25th 1914- In Poland, General Oskar von Hutier recommendations to how to reduce casualties during assaults were implemented and some troops began to be trained to achieve the desired effect.

September 1914: Al Smith utilizes his new Department of Labor to draw up mild anti-trust regulations which would not impose too harsh penalties on either business of labor. In Congress conservative Democrats along with some old guard Republicans support legislation to allow clear loopholes for trusts while imposing harsher penalties on labor. The bill passes the House but not the Senate. Smith gains the respect of most moderate Republicans and even some Progressives for his efforts.

September 09th 1914- German zeppelins bomb Riga. First major air raid of the war. Russians began crash production of the massive Sikorsky’s designed four-engine bomber Ilya Mourometz as a response after further attacks. The Russian aircraft still was too late to reach any combat units and was only operational by late 1916.

September 12th 1914 -- The "Raid on Veracruz." Huerta's forces launch a surprise raid in an attempt to recapture Veracruz, but are beaten back after a full day of merciless back-and-forth raids. A few well-placed artillery shells hit a petroleum cache in the Zapatista camp. Capt. Kermit Roosevelt dives in and out of the conflagration, saving 12 lives before perishing of smoke inhalation. Zapata dubs him "the angel of Veracruz."

September 14th to 20th 1914- In a surprising season, the Buffalo Braves won the National League pennant with a team lacking any true stars, with no player having what it could be called an outstanding season but still are defeated by the Boston Blue Socks 3 games to 2. In a series were all games were decided by one run the offensive turned to be Duffy Lewis, who won two games with game-winning singles on the 9th inning.

September 18th 1914- Battle of Saltillo. US forces capture the city of Saltillo after heavy casualties. Defenders use dynamite as miners and rurales begin guerilla warfare on the US lines.

September 21st 1914- Alvaro Obregon defeats another US force in Cananea. Chaos and panic spread on the Arizona/New Mexico/California border.

September 28th 1914- Zapata’s forces begin to receive an influx of US weapons and money. After capturing Puebla they still resist the temptation to capture Mexico City, instead concentrating on pushing Huerta’s troops out of their territory.

October 3rd 1914- 1st Division with the 1st Cavalry Brigade attached move to the Arizona border to deal with the Sonoran Army.

October 4th 1914- Paul von Hindenburg announces his forces will not be ready to launch a fall offensive and request more time to prepare. He uses the excuse of “trying to save German lives” to get the Kaiser to agree to it.

October 5th 1914- The 4th Infantry Division is activated from the Texas and Oklahoma National Guard and tasked with replacing the 2nd Division in Chihuahua.

October 6, 1914 - The Grand Duchess of Luxemburg agrees to join the German Empire.

October 6th 1914- August von Mackensen, commander of the Combined Army Group Poland, also states his forces will not very ready for a general offensive but a limited one could be launched in conjunction with the Austrians in Galicia to force the Russians to leave the “bleeding ulcer of Warsaw.”

October 8th 1914- The 2nd Provisional Brigade of two 'colored' regiments and artillery capture Tampico. Secretary of War Roosevelt praises the actions of the 'colored' soldiers in the battle.

Oct 18th 1914- US forces capture Matamoros.

October 18th 1914- Combined Austrian-Polish 6th Army forces a crossing of the Vistula river and began moving east.

October 19th 1914- German 9th Army forces crossing of the Vistula south of Warsaw and began to turn north to try to pocket the city. Fear of excessive casualties makes the advance very slow but a force trying to stop them was defeated three days later.

October 19 1914: Joseph Pulitzer dies and is buried in a large ceremony in the Bronx. Tributes are giving to him, including an especially moving oration by his main rival Hearst. Pulitzer Inc. continues to be the main competition to Hearst's empire, and remains mostly pro-Republican, though willing to break the party line in some issues.

October 23rd 1914- Russian forces began evacuation of the parts of Warsaw they still controlled.

October 25th 1914- Battle of Krasnik. Austro-Polish 6th Army defeats Russian forces and continues their advance east.

October 27th 1914- Battle of Jaroslau. Austrian 4th Army defeated in attempt to cross the San River.

November 1914
The Rough Riders and Zapatistas soon develop a remarkable camaraderie. During the lulls in between battles, the Rough Riders teach Zapatistas how to play American football. The sport, now forever associated with liberation, becomes popular among the Southern Mexican population.

November 1914: Burton Wheeler is elected as a Montana representative under the Populist wing of the Progressive Party.

November 1914: Seymour is elected state senator in Connecticut as a Democrat. His first move is to push directly and indirectly for legislation that assists Yale.

November 1914: Fiorello LaGuardia is elected as a Representative from New York. He is a very pro-Smith moderate Republican.

November 1914: Disappointed over not been named Secretary of war, Stimson runs and is elected into Congress for Albany. He becomes a strong supporter of the Mexican engagement, and even favors a harsher stance in Europe.

November 18, 1914 - Gladys Kennedy gives birth to Joseph P. Kennedy Jr.

November 1914: Bainbridge Colby, former attorney general of New York and major eastern leader of the Progressive Party, is elected Congressmen from New York. There he becomes one of the strongest Progressive voices in the house. He is chosen as minority leader for the party.

November 1914: Labor Secretary Smith's allies in Congress propose a labor bill which encourages businesses to come to separate arrangements to individual workers rather then unions. This type of legislation is already in place in individual states with high numbers of Catholic immigrant blue collar workers who are often shunned by organized labor. The bill also makes closed house labor unions, where all workers are required to be members of the union, illegal. This measure is supported by almost all Republicans and southern Democrats, and thus can not be defeated by northern Democrats and Progressives. The bill passes.

November 1914: Congress passes the Hoover Educational Restoration Act, which meets with general approval from all parties giving benefits in the business world to those who decide to stay through out high school rather then leave for early employment. Hoover becomes a champion for popular tri-partisan legislation and is able to utilize a pro-capitalists philosophy while promoting small measures of welfare reform.

November 1914- President Castillo of Cuba, barred from seeking reelection by the Constitution, gives his support to former general Jose Miguel Gomez who wins the election.

November 1914- Gomez's opponent Roberto "Tio Beto" Diaz-Leon gains support among the people of Cuba but still not enough to win the presidential election.

November 2nd 1914- Zacatecas surrender to US troops. Huerta's position is becoming desperate.

November 08th 1914- Battle of Lukov. German 9th Army defeats the Russian 5th Army after a four-day battle. Fear of casualties let the Russian forces escape east. First combat by the Italian Volunteer Corps.

November 9th 1914- Ciudad Durango falls to the US troops. Captain George S. Patton leads cavalry charge that cuts off the withdrawal of Maderistas forces. He himself captures Madero, at the time meeting with Villa and Orozco on the city. The two generals escape.

November 12th 1914- Tijuana captured by forces from the Californian National Guard.

November 12th 1914- Battle of Komarov- Austro-Polish 6th Army defeats Russian 9th Army forces them to cross the Bug River. The political decision to name Josef Pilsudski as commander of this Army actually paid off, with his forces being extremely loyal to their commander and showing in their performance.

November 25th 1914- Russian evacuates Przemsyl due to fear of being encircled.

November 26th 1914- US 1st Infantry division pushes into Sonora. Sonoran leader Alvaro Obregon designs his defenses based on the lessons of the European war. The highest US casualties of the war result. After the war Secretary of War Roosevelt called Obregon "the only true general on the Mexican side."

December 1914: The Freemans Journal opens up a major office in Montgomery Alabama.

December 2nd 1914- Adolph Kegresse modifies twelve Austin Putilov armored cars with halftracks for service in the Russian Army.

December 7th 1914- US forces, under command of Leonard Wood, began the drive in the direction of Mexico City. The 3rd US Infantry Division and two National Guard divisions being send since August began the drive to try to get rid of Huerta.

December 11th 1914- Front stabilizes on the Bug-Dniester Rivers line after another defeat to the Austrian forces. Political climate in Austria is very volatile due to the poor performance of their forces and the casualties suffered during the last two years.

December 15th 1914- Obregon forces slowly being pushed south. Nogales and Cananea are in the hands of the 1st Division.

December 16th to 19th 1914- Battle of Mexico City. US forces capture the city from Huerta forces. Felix Diaz dies while defending the city. The Huerta faction lost their best general.

December 17, 1914 Major Archibald Butt is cited for bravery in the Battle of Mexico City. He is short-listed for Promotion to Colonel.

December 21st 1914- Huerta began the militarization of the areas of Mexico he still dominates. Mass conscription of people and the forced enlistment of children.

December 28th 1914- Zapata declares that South Mexico is now separate of the rest of the nation. His areas have been under relative peace for some months now and his being supported by the US. President Lodge dismayed by Zapata's decision to separate southern Mexico from the rest of the nation.
  #16  
Old April 2nd, 2006, 05:15 PM
Glen Glen is offline
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1915

1915 -

1915 - One of H. P. Lovecraft's short stories is optioned as a radio play for a New York station.

1915- Representatives of the United States wielded veto power over all government decisions in Haiti, and finally after close to a year under military administration a provisional President was named by the US. Philippe Dartiguanave, a mulatto, was named President while a state of martial law was declared by Admiral William Sims, military commander of Haiti. A treaty was arranged that pretty much made the country a US colony, with the US being in complete control of the finances of Haiti in a similar arrangement that the one with the Dominican Republic but also put the US in control of the government and public health affairs. A professional military force was created to assist in the USMC in the policing of the nation.

1915 Ford releases the Cadillac Model 30GE (gasoline-electric), the company's first hybrid vehicle. Interestingly, it is considered primarily an electric vehicle with a gasoline engine to back up the electric motor, as evidenced by the small gas tank. The car is popular in urban areas and especially with delivery services.

January 2nd 1915- US forces capture Hermosillo.

January 6th 1915- US forces capture Torreon. General Orozco surrenders to US troops.

January 2nd, 1915- John B. Tillings wins in a landslide election, using the platform of "making Liberia powerful"

January 17th 1915- Zapata declares the Republic of Southern Mexico. Recognized by the US, Guatemala and Salvador the same day.

February 21st 1915- Alvaro Obregon surrenders to save civilian lives in Sonora.

February 24th 1915- Turning point in the Georgian war of independence with the capture of the cities of P’ot’i and K’ut’ais by rebel forces.

March 7th 1915- Last anarchist forces in Baja surrender to Californian National Guard troops.

March 18th 1915- City of Bat’umi captured by Georgian rebels. Direct land communication with the Ottomans is achieved.

March 21st 1915- Russian forces from Stravka’s reserves ordered south to the Caucasus to deal with the growing rebellion.

April 5 1915
Adolph Hitler, previously only known for his paintings, publishes his first book, The Jewess and the Gendarme, an account of the death of his wife and his ordeal with French military police. Hitler wrote most of the book while imprisoned as a "hostile foreigner" in France. Despite its formulaic style, Jewess is widely praised for "restoring smoldering passion to the heart of modernist literature," and wins several minor German literature awards. In France, however, the book is immediately banned for "vile slander and murderous threats against the continued existence of the French Race."

April 18th 1915- Capt. Douglas MacArthur, son of the Vice President, dies in an ambush by guerillas near the city of Puebla.

April 19th 1915- Upon receiving word of his son's death, Vice President Arthur MacArthur suffers a massive heart attack, dying later that day.

April 22nd 1915- The German Spring Offensive starts. The new tactics showed their worth in both the Polish and East Prussian fronts.

April 23rd 1915- German forces outflank Russian defenders in the Johannisburg Forest and forced a crossing in the Pizo River, with cavalry-motorized columns racing for Kolno.

April 25th 1915- Battle of Vilkovisk. German forces defeat the Russian rear area forces and send the Russian right flank in East Prussia in disarray. The utilization of columns of mixed cavalry-motorized forces and the slow reaction of the Russian forces on the front caused the debacle. Panic ensues in the Russian 14th Army. The new tactics were a surprise to the Russians, who were slow to react to the fast moving units or the storm troopers tactics being used in Poland and cost them dearly.

April 27th 1915- City of Brest-Litovsw complete surrounded by German forces. German forces continue their advance east.

April 29th 1915- City of Kovno captured by fast moving German forces. By now they were reduced to just the cavalry and motorcycle forces due to the bad performance of the trucks and armored vehicles. But the purpose of creating chaos has been achieved.

April 30th 1915- Crossing achieved by Grodno and city captured. A young officer, Erwin Rommel, later promoted to Captain and awarded the Iron Cross for actions during this action. By now the “flying columns” have been reduced to cavalry and motorcycle forces.

May 1 1915: President Lodge names Washington Governor Richard Ballinger as his choice for Vice President to replace the deceased Arthur MacArthur.

May 5th 1915- Battle of Lutsk. The Austro-Polish 6th Army defeats a Russian force and push them into the marshes.

May 6th 1915- US forces begin their so-called "last offensive" in the direction of Acapulco.

May 7, 1915: Progressive investigators discover evidence that Ballinger may have embezzled money from several local businesses and firms while securing himself as a major stockholder in a major Seattle shipping corporation.

May 7th 1915- Capture of Vilna by German forces. The Russian 10th Army pocketed. Panic began to ensue in the Stravka.

May 8th 1915- Georgian rebels capture Tiblis.

May 11th 1915- Memel recaptured by German forces.

May 12th 1915- Russian 10th Army tries to break free from their encirclement. In a very close affair defeated and Russian Field Marshall Sievers surrendered his army on May 16th 1915.

May 13th 1915- City of Rovno captured by the Austro-Polish 6th Army. Russian forces in Galicia began to evacuate the area.

May 13 1915: Conservationists begin to criticize the VP choice of Ballinger for granting some of Washington's rich wilderness to real estate companies and large scale farming corporations much criticized by Progressives.

May 15th 1915- City of Pinsk captured by advancing German forces. Any coherent Russian defense seems to be disappearing.

May 15 1915: President Lodge travels through Denison, Iowa. A poor local Progressive who had lost his farm to a farming corporation, reads about the Ballinger controversy. During a stop by the president's group, this farmer simply walks up to the president and his group with his gun concealed in his shirt, and offers to shake his hand. He shoots him at point blank range. The President dies that day.

May 16th 1915- DW Griffith's epic "The Birth of Texas" was first shown in New York City. A very popular film, now is considered a piece of propaganda, with the Mexicans and their allies runaways slaves being presented as rapists and murderers of prisioners. The lurid scenes of the capture of The Alamo and the killing of Davy Crockett while leading a suicidal bayonet charge are considered classics still.

May 16 1915: Secretary of State Philander Knox, who has since word of the death been ‘acting president’, claims that he is in fact the rightful president of the United States, as Ballinger has not be confirmed by Congress, and takes the oath. He receives the official recognition of many prominent Republicans, including former president Elihu Root.

May 17, 1915 – Richard Ballinger files suit against Philander Knox, claiming he has acted unconstitutionally and that he, Richard Ballinger, is the true President of the United States.

May 18th 1915- With the situation getting desperate, Huerta resigns and goes into exile to Peru. This date considered the end of the conventional war in Mexico.

May 18th 1915- Demonstrations in both St. Petersburg and Moscow asking for the end of the war. Privately, many advisors ask the Tsar to sue for peace.

May 18th 1915- First unit completely issued Kegresse armored cars sees combat in Belorussia. A couple of damaged vehicles recovered by advancing German forces.

May 19 1915: Prominent members from both the Progressive and Democratic parties meet in a lounge in a prominent Washington hotel. Hearst, La Follete, and Johnson are among those present. They look through Ballinger's records, and agree that he would be a defeatable candidate in the 1916 election, and a way of breaking Republican growing popularity. Moralists such as Johnson and Perkins disapprove of the plan, but fail to sway the assembly. The leaders begin lobbying in the press and congress in favor of Ballinger.

May 19th 1915- Minsk captured by the advancing German armies. It seemed to many the Russian army was “just melting away.”

May 21st 1915- Last Russian forces leave Galicia. Central Powers territory was finally free of Russian occupation.

May 25th 1915- Tsar Nicholas II asks for a ceasefire to discuss terms. After deliberation, the Germans refused.

May 31st 1915- Zhitomir captured by the now famed Austro-Polish 6th Army. The road to Kiev lays open.

Summer 1915- Thomas Eliot studies philosophy at Marburg, Germany. He falls in love with Laura Etz, a female student at the university, and marries her. Satisfied and happy, he takes a job as a teacher in a Berlin university.

Summer 1915 - Joseph Kennedy moves his family out to California in support of his wife's film career. He also has become interested in investing in the industry, and begins to build his own production company, with his wife's advice.

June 1st 1915- Riga captured by the Germans after a three-day battle breaks the defensive line in the Daugava River.

June 3rd 1915- City of Vinnitsa captured by Austrian forces moving south in the direction of the Black Sea.

June 7th 1915- With his army in disarray and the German rejection of his peace offer, Tsar Nicholas is forced to abdicate in favor of his son Alexei, with his brother Grand Duke Michael as regent.

June 7th, 1915 The Supreme Court renders a decision on the presidency, coming down on a very narrow 5-4 decision mostly along partisan lines in favor of Ballinger’s claim to the presidency. The world waits to see what Philander Knox, who has been acting in the role of President, will do.

June 8th, 1915 – Philander Knox announces that he will not see the nation torn apart by this issue. While disagreeing with the decision of the Supreme Court, he steps down from the office, allowing Ballinger to take the oath and assume the Presidency of the United States of America.

June 8th 1915 The Dutch navy begin to test a snort system for their submarines.The Snort allows the use of ther diesels while underwater to increase their recharge time.It's problematic and work is continued to improve its funtionability.

June 12th 1915- Russian forces began a pullout of Georgia to try to stop the Austro-German steamroller.

June 17th 1915- President Ballinger declares forces will begin a pull out of Mexico when a responsible government is in place and announces election for March 15th 1916.

June 18th 1915- Grand Duke Michael takes direct command of the forces defending the capital.

June 21st 1915- Battle of Kiev. A twelve-day battle. Russian troops under Alexei Brusilov defeat the Austrian attempt to capture the city and began slowly pushing them west. The supply lines of the Central Powers forces were very strained by now.

June 25th 1915- City of Odessa captured by Austrian forces.

June 26th 1915- Koba declares “a new nation exists on the face of the Earth and the name is Georgia.” Immediately recognized by the Ottomans, the Austrians, the Germans and the Italians.

June 28th 1915- Battle of Psvok. Grand Duke Michael stopped the weary German forces moving in the direction of the capital. Still the German forces continued their advance north thru Estonia.

June 29th 1915- Republic of Southern Mexico recognized by Great Britain and other European powers. The so-called ABC Powers consider this "a sign of the Imperialistic designs of the United States in Latin America."

July 1915 President Ballinger names Henry Stimson Secretary of State.

July 1915: Massive strikes spring up all across the mid-west and west as Progressive labor unions complain about losing power to the recent labor union laws that have just come into force.

July 1915 Ballinger, a political opportunist, tries to regain face not only by removing a quarter of the troops from Mexico, he vetoes a minor civil rights law. He takes up traditional west coast issues, including halting Japanese immigration. He receives severe opposition from moderate Republicans.

July 1, 1915: Japan formally annexes Korea and Manchuria, over the protests of all of the Great Powers and China.

July 3rd 1915- Battle of Narva. Another clear Russian victory that saved their capital. With the German supply lines being severely strained the German advance has reached zenith.

July 5th 1915- Grand Duke Michael sends a note again requesting a ceasefire. This time the Germans agree to a ceasefire and begin negotiations to end the war.

August 7th 1915- Treaty of Stockholm. Russia renounces any claims to Poland, the Baltic States, Greater Litva, Bessarabia and Georgia. Ottoman Empire purchases the districts of Erdehan, Kars and Batum for $25 million rubles. Russia will pay an indemnization for the damages caused to the nations of Germany and Austria-Hungary for a period of 10 years. Russia will give 20% of the Ukrainian grain production to Germany and Austria-Hungary for a period of five years, followed by 10% for the next five years afterwards. Austria-Hungary receives the former Russian province of Bessarabia as compensation for renouncing to their rights to Polish ethnic parts of Galicia. Germany will maintain a military occupation of the Baltic States and Greater Litva until a stable government is established. Georgia is recognized as a Republic. Montenegro is incorporated into the Austro-Hungarian Reich. Serbia receives the former coastal lands of northern Albania from Austria-Hungary.

August 8th 1915- Villa's guerillas hit an US supply convoy near Monterey. All troops died and it seemed some were shot after surrendering. Military Governor Wood announces no mercy will be given to the bandit Villa.

September 1915: Ballinger helps negotiate the Borah Anti-Trust Act. He slowly begins to earn the trust of the moderate conservatives, and Bryan's Freeland Journal begins to praise Ballinger for trying to find comprimise.

September 1915: Hearst founds the Hearst foundation to run his newspaper during his absences while serving in Public office.

September 1915: While overseeing the withdrawl of US troops from Mexico, Secretary Stimson becomes privately critical of America's recent peaceful acts, believing that strong intervention may be needed in times of war.

Sept 1st 1915 José Santos Zelaya Issues a presidental decree uniting the former nations of Honduras, El Salvador and Nicaragua in a revived United Republic of Central America.

September 4th 1915- Georgy Zhukov promoted to officer for his excellent work in a cavalry unit after the recommendation of this commanding officer, that stated “the young man have a mind for military things.”

September 8th 1915- Great Britain delivers the Almirante Latorre to the Chilenian Navy.

September 17th 1915-Prime Minister Jaures assassinated by a right-wing revanchists. Replaced as leader of the Socialist Party and as Prime Minister by the young Leon Blum, a protege of author Emile Zola. Blum was the first Jew Prime Minister of France.

October 1st to October 8th 1915- With the number of games in the regular season being increased and the growing popularity of the World Series Major League Baseball decides to move the series to October and to raise the number of games to a best of seven series. In the first World Series with the new format the Baltimore Saints defeated the National League pennant winners Brooklyn Superbas. Led by the outfielder Joe Jackson with .324-5-81 with 20 stolen bases, and the leading power hitter of the Continental League Gavvy Cravath that hit 25 homers and finished third on the league with 113 ribbies the Saints hitting overmatched the Superbas by defeating them by more than five runs in their four victories in the Series.

October 4th 1915- Alvaro Obregon freed from US custody but under watch. He returns to his home state of Sonora and pledges to work for the well being of the Sonoran people in a peaceful way.

October 4th 1915- Louis Bleriot became president of an aircraft company that he calls Societe Pour l’Aviation et ses Derives. That company was the leading producer of French aircrafts by the end of the decade.

November 17th 1915- French investors purchase deceased William Know D'Arcy claim to search for oil in Persia from their remaining partners.

November 1915: Hearst becomes the governor of New York having run on a moderate plank. He carries almost all of upstate New York who had benefited from Bryan's policies, but had believed he had gone too far. He wins by a very slight margin. He is criticized by Al Smith and other major moderate leaders, but their cries are drowned out by Hearst's media machine.

November 1915- President Quezon of the Philippines is reelected in what many considered as fraudulent elections.

November 14th 1915- Kingdom of Poland created under Archduke Karl of Hapsburg. The new nation encompasses portions of the former Russian Poland, former Austrian Galicia and the former Ukrainian district of Kholm.

December 1915: The Pan-American Foundation opens with Roosevelt seed money. Its main function is to promote pan-American scholarship and encourage travel abroad. Ethel Roosevelt chairs the Foundation.

December 18th 1915- With body count of US soldiers rising, especially in the north, "special measures" ordered by the General Staff. General Woods obeys the orders but decries publicly these actions "as being a repeat of the Philippines fiasco and will take us on the same path."
  #17  
Old April 2nd, 2006, 05:15 PM
Glen Glen is offline
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1916

1916 -

1916- Olympic games celebrated on Milan. Jim Thorpe repeats his performance of the 1912 Olympic Games, winning the decathlon but loses the pentathlon to another American, Captain George Patton.

1916 - Lovecraft's Tales of the Macabre become a new radio serial for New York stations and begins to be picked up by other stations.

1916- Clinton Andersen joins the army and receives order for Mexico after finishing his indoc period.

1916 - Hughes Scandal breaks when an arrest leads to one of the assailants of Charles Evans Hughes in 1905 turning state's evidence in a plea bargain on an unrelated charge, re-opening the old case. He implicates several New York political machine bosses as at least knowing about the attack.

1916 Republican Convention: Leading up to the convention, President Ballinger loses all the primaries he runs in, but this counts for little as most states do not have a primary system. It is the general consensus that he still couldn't win in Progressive states due to their new unity, and that after alienating the moderate and Catholic immigrant vote, he might lose to Democrats in the east. The convention develops a more urban conservative platform which appeals to Catholic voters. Ballinger loses badly on the first ballot, and drops out of the race. Within only a few ballots, Philander Knox is chosen as the Presidential candidate, a further slap in the face to the former Ballinger Presidency. Senator Charles Townsend is chosen as his vice-presidential running mate, in an attempt to appeal to Midwest voters.

1916 Democratic Convention: Former Vice President, popular governor and senator from Maryland, John Walter Smith is the clear choice for the nomination. Hearst had been advertising his qualifications across his papers over the last month. He has clear support from Maryland, West Virginia, New Jersey, Delaware, and perhaps Pennsylvania. A very flexible platform is adopted that could be molded to work for any politician.

1916 Progressive Convention: The previously agreed upon platform is ratified, and La Follete delivers a speech emphasizing more moderate policies. He is still a powerful orator and incredibly popular, and receives the nomination. Johnson is named as his running mate.

January 1916: Ballinger proposes The General Immigration Act, establishing quotas for the number of immigrants allowed into the United States, based on the 1900 census. Ballinger also presents a Labor Act which more or less revokes Al Smith's previous efforts. This act leads to increased wages and rights to mid-western and west-coast laborers while harming the fragile peace between east-coast blue collar workers and their managers.

January 3rd 1916- Leonard Wood and John Pershing change places as military governors of Mexico and Hawaii respectively. While announced as being in the making for a while many agreed Leonard Wood was being fired due to his resistance to taking hostages.

January 11th 1916- Prime Minister Blum supports subsidies for the military industries, “to get the nation back on his feet.” Many critics insist this measure was to placate some right-wing members of the government and the military.

January 18th 1916- Dwight Eisenhower, West Point Class of 1915, assigned to staff of US commander Mexico, John J. Pershing. His gift for organization was recognized by his superiors and promoted to 1st LT by the end of the year.

February 1916: Al Smith resigns as Secretary of Labor. Ballinger begins to gain popularity among Progressives. Hearst uses his media control to prevent further publicizing the former Ballinger scandals, saving them for September before the elections.

February 11th 1916- Pershing first official order was to eliminate the taking of hostages ordered by the General Staff but continued the forced relocation of Villa supporters to "protection camps." President and General Staff furious but have to accept these actions.

March 1916: La Follete continues to harshly criticize Washington, while maintaining almost socialist policies back in the mid-west. The moderate wing of the Progressive party demands a meeting. La Follete, Bryan, Johnson, Borah, and other prominent members meet. Johnson and Borah threaten to rejoin the Republicans. Much to La Follete's dismay, his son sides with the moderates. In the end La Follete is forced to agree to a much more moderate and somewhat smaller government platform made to appeal to the entire west, including pro-expansion south-western constituency. La Follete still maintains considerable power in the mid-west and thus is able make the gradual switch.

March 1916 With the situation in Mexico calming down, Theodore Roosevelt feels it is time to resign his office.

March 1916: Strikes break out at the Boston ship yards. Authorities and labor leaders try to come in and restore order, but are met with surprisingly peaceful opposition. Upon investigation it turns out that the strikes were organised by local political machines with the support of major politicians including Al Smith.

March 9th 1916- Baja California and Sonora declared "secured". In reality some very small resistance still exist but nothing compared to what is going on farther east.

March 15th 1916- Elections in Mexico under US administration. Pascual Ortiz Rubio elected President. Villa repudiates the results and declares himself the real President of Mexico from his hideout in Chihuahua.

March 18th 1916- Prince William of Urach offered the crown of Lithuania, a nation that will be under a personal union to the German Reich.

March 21st 1916- Grand Duchy of the Baltic's created under Adolf Friedrich of Mecklenberg. This nation also was under a personal union to the German Reich.

March 27th 1916- Plans are secretly drawn for forced relocalization of the Armenian populations to Iraq and Syria in case of war. Some relocations of Armenians in the new provinces were implemented.

April 1916 Hearst begins to release the muck he has on President Ballinger.

April 1916: The New York Times is awarded the very first Pulitzer prize due to its unbiased coverage of city bosses discussing both the pros and cons.

April 9th 1916- Borders between Mexico and Southern Mexico negotiated by the US and recognized by the new Mexican government. Pascual Orozco offered a post under the new administration and accepts to be in charge of the newly created Federal Army.

April 9th 1916- With the tacit agreement of the young King and his advisors, Colonel Sidoneo Pais launches a coup and dissolves the government of Prime Minister Braga. This was recognized by Republican elements in the country as a monarchist plot to set back the democratic process in the country. Political instability started in the country that lasted close to ten years.

April 15th 1916- President Ballinger approves a pull out of central Mexico slated to start by May 1st.

April 17th 1916- Nishihara Kamezo negotiates with the Chinese government the later called Nishihara loans. While they actually helped the Chinese government they also put the Chinese into further debt with the Japanese.

April 24th 1916- The Kingdom of Belarus created under Prince Karl Maria Luitpold of Bavaria. At a difference from the other two nations created from the Baltic States, this nation was not under a personal union with the German Reich.

May 1916: Robert La Follete criticises Ballinger's programs, despite their liberal sentiment, claiming that he'ed work towards a more reasonable national programs based around regional differences. This makes him somewhat more appealing to the moderate Republicans while not upsetting any Progressive branch. Hearst, still in charge of his Newspaper despite his political position, emphasizs the fact that this goes against La Follete's traditional policies.

May 1916 - Hermann Oberth graduates from his engineering course and starts doctoral work on rocket science, funding by continuing scholarships from the International Rocketry Society.

May 1st 1916- John J Pershing moves his headquarters to Tampico.

May 3rd 1916- President Ballinger announces the US will annex the former Mexican states of Coahuila, Chihuahua, Sonora and Baja California plus they will maintain the administration of the other border Mexican states to ensure the safety of the border states.

May 6th 1916- Villa’s response to the US president announcement was a massive raid to Ciudad Chihuahua that cost hundreds of lives.

May 7th 1916- Georgian government began secret negotiations with the Russians to purchase the remaining Armenian areas under their control.

May 21st 1916- August Borms named Prime Minister of Belgium.

Summer 1916 Congress awards Kermit Roosevelt a posthumous Congressional Medal of Honor.

Summer 1916- The original founders of the Dedalist take a paperknife and stab a French dictionary with it to find their name. The knife lands on dedal: a thimble.

June 17th 1916- Great Britain gives women the right to vote.

July 7th 1916- Mexican President Pascual Ortiz signs the agreement ending the US occupation of Mexico and acknowledges the new borders of his nation. Many, including his young army commander Pascual Orozco privately disagree of these forced events but admit there is nothing they can do at the time.

July 9th 1916- Grand Duke Michael is convinced by advisors to sell the Armenian holdings to Georgia as a way to influence the new regime.
July 11th 1916- Russian government agrees to sell their remaining Armenian holdings to the Georgians. The money for the sale was given forward by the Germans.

July 20th 1916- Otto Frank decides to stay in the military after his enlistment is up.

August 18th 1916- General Staff orders an engineering board to examine the captured Kegresse armored cars and to gauge the feasibility of using the design as base for future “Flying Columns.” The board after six months of studies recognized it could very possible help.

September 1916: Jazz great Buddy Bulden receives spiritual counseling, and recovers from his paranoia. He hires Jellyroll Morton as his arranger to help lower stress levels.

September 1916: Alban Berg rejects an earlier plan to compose the opera Wozzec in atonal form, and instead returns to more traditional operatic technique. He works openly with both the Austrian and the German government to compose nationalist pieces.

September 4th 1916- Nikola Tesla proposed principles regarding frequency and power levels needed to detect objects using electronic waves. This ideas were used for his invention of the Electrowave Detector or EWD for short. He used low frequency signals for detection, making necessary a large antenna. This made his invention impractical for ships and later for aircrafts. His EWD can detect the presence of an object but not his exact location or velocity. Tesla’s EWD has a range of over 25 miles.

September 18th 1916- Germany delivers the battleship Vasileus Georgios to Greece. With eight 14” guns in dual turrets and with a max speed of 23 knots it was considered a counter to the new Ottoman dreadnoughts purchased in Great Britain.

September 19th 1916- Painter Adolph Hitler's "Beauty in a sea of despair" is displayed publicly for the first time. It is considered by many, including Picasso, as a true masterpiece. The first canvas painted by Hitler following the cubist style, it presented a light colored female form surrounded by other figures darker in color and in different poses of despair. On the background the guard tower could be seen.

October 1st to 8th 1916- The Brooklyn Superbas returned to the Series, but this time they left with the victory, defeating the Philadelphia A’s 4 games to 2. With a team that has no player having an extraordinary season, the Superbas beat the star studded A’s, with Ty Cobb leading the way for the A’s with 371-6- 82 and a new record of stolen bases of 96.

October 3rd 1916- Machinist Ernst Heinkel is interested by the latest developments in heavier than air vehicles and is hired by Hansa Brandeburg as a designer engineer after his schematics are considered excellent by some members of the company.

October 12th 1916- Radical Party wins the presidential elections in Argentina and began making some social reforms in the country.

October 18th 1916- With the fiscal stability that had resulted from the 1905 agreement with the US was eroding, mostly to finance military campaigns against the rebels. On this date President Caceres send a note to the US government asking for a more direct support to his government to end the impasse on the island.

October 21st 1916- Adolph Hitler marries his model and inspiration for the canvas "Beauty in a sea of despair" in a private ceremony.

November 1916- Nap Lajoie announces his retirement from baseball after injuries and fading skills only produced a .246-2-38 season with 15 stolen bases.

November 1916: Burton Wheeler is elected Senator of Montana. He becames the principle Populist voice in the senate as a new younger leader of the movement.

November 1916: James Couzens is elected as a Representative from Detroit. He is a moderate Progressive who has chosen to remain in the Republican Party.

November – December 1916: The USA is much divided with the west going Progressive, the Democrats winning the south, and the middle states they suspected to win, and the Republicans sweeping the rest of the north-east. The Progressives gain congressional and senatorial seats throughout the west while the Democrats gain in the east. The election goes to Congress when they convene again in December. The Senate quickly confirms Johnson as the Vice Presidential winner, but the House is deadlocked.

November-December 1916: Invigorated by his lecture tour of America, Marcus Garvey travels to Ethiopia to pay homage to the newly-crowned Empress Zauditu. The Empress is very flattered by Garvey's passionate interest in the Ethiopian Coptic Church; even though she has to constantly correct him on its beliefs. He convinces her to support the Back-to-Africa movement, with some help from her chief advisor, regent Tafari, who realizes this is an excellent way to win the Empress over to his modernization plans. The Empress issues a proclamation banning slavery and opening her Empire to immigration "by all Jews and Christian Negros."

November 5, 1916 -- Boutros Ghali dies at the age of 70. The reforms he forced through 6 years ago have already shown themselves in an economic boom and artistic and literary renaissance, and therefore led to greater autonomy from Britain. Over 2 million attend his funeral. Prime Minister Abdel Khaliq Sarwat eulogizes, "Never have so many Muslims mourned the death of a Christian, and justly. For no force besides Allah has brought more prosperity to Egypt."

November 8th 1916- President Ortiz assassinated while visiting Acapulco. Vice-president Carranza blames persons opposed to the agreement that ended the US occupation.

December 1916
Wojciech Świętosławski publishes Liquid Chemistry, a general theory of how chemicals interact in all types of liquids. The work proves very practical to engineers in developing better wet cell batteries.

December 11th 1916- Herbert Asquith barely wins the national election.

December 13th 1916- Great Britain laid down the first units of the Formidable Class battleship. A 32000 tons armed with eight 15” main guns and with a max speed of 27 knots, the bill for their construction called for eight ships been build but the Canadian government paid for three additional units for the RCN and India paid for one additional unit.

December 19th 1916- Adolph Kegresse opens a factory, under the auspices of the Grand Duke Michael himself, to produce his armored car for service in the Russian cavalry.
  #18  
Old April 2nd, 2006, 05:15 PM
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1917

1917 -

1917- With a rise in the number of drug using citizens on the rise, the La Follete administration made the decision to try to stop the growing problem. After considerations and debates it was concluded that opium-based habit forming drugs should be made illegal but other ones should be taxed as way of controlling them. A rush to also include cocaine in the banned list was barely defeated. A bill that only allowed designated "distributors" to sell habit forming drugs was enacted and past the Senate and House floors. Those distributors were forced to pay a very large quantity of money for their licenses and renewal was annual. Also a tax was included into any transaction that involved the sale of habit forming drugs. Doctors and farmacies were given a discount in the licenses as long as they were sold under prescription and kept a detailed record of their sale. Thousands of companies that can't afford the license fees went out of business, but Coca-Cola wasn't one of them. A force by now, they continued using their original formula after some debate to eliminate cocaine of the recipe was defeated in the board of directors.

1917 The first diesel-electric locomotive enters service.

1917 Ford releases the Cadillac Metropolitan, their first automobile to be marketed as a hybrid vehicle.

January 14th 1917- Adolf Hitler returns with his new bride to Vienna, a very well know painter in the artistic circles of Europe by now.

January 19th 1917- Germany began construction of the Bismarck class battlecruisers. (OTL Mackensen Class with bigger guns.) Four units were laid down and completed by 1921. The ships were armed with eight 15” main guns and were faster than any British capital ship at the time with 30 knots max speed.

February 1917 Li Yuanhong, of the Progressives, is elected to a four year term as President of the Republic of China, with Vice President Liang Qichao. In the last four years something of a merger has happened. Sun leads the Nationalist Party, also known as the Kuomintang or the KMT, and Li leads the Progressives that supported the more traditional and military visionaries bent on modernizing China.

February 24th 1917- In one of the first decisions of the La Follette administration, President La Follette refuses to get involved in the ongoing problems in the Dominican Republic.

March 2nd 1917- The New York Yankees announce a major trade sending their former number one starter Christy Mathewson, center field Benny Kauff and first baseman Fred Merckle to the cash stripped St. Louis Browns for Tris Speaker and pitcher Bob Shawkey.

March 4, 1917 The House of Representatives is recognized as permanently deadlocked, with no side being willing to compromise. Under the Twelfth Amendment of the Constitution, the Vice-President elect, Hiram Johnson becomes the acting President of the United States.

March 5, 1917 Acting President Hiram Johnson announces the appointment of La Follete as Secretary of State, then promptly resigns office so that La Follete may take the oath of office of President of the United States, in accordance with the order of succession. Johnson states he is doing this for the good of the Nation and the Progressive party, to bypass the deadlock in Congress and restore the Executive Mansion to the man who won the most votes in the nation. He cites the Ballinger precedent justifying the succession going to an unconfirmed appointee.

Early March, 1917 Now that the bickering has become moot, enough members of the House of Representatives cross party lines to vote La Follete into the office of President, for the good of the nation and to remove any lingering doubts of legitimacy.

Spring 1917- Eliot discovers that his wife has been cheating on him with one of his fellow professors at the university. After a messy divorce, a hate-filled and world-despising Eliot joins the Dedalist movement in Zurich.

April 1, 1917 - The second phase of the Harvard Elevated, the Dorchester Tunnel, goes into place, with stops at Winter Street, South Station, Broadway, Southampton, and then followed an Old Colony Right of Way (purchased in a somewhat suspicious arrangement) to Crescent Avenue, Savin Hill, Harrison Square, Fields Corner, Ashmont, and Cedar Grove.

April 20th 1917- A massive rebellion starts in the northern provinces of Haiti that almost overrun the troops in the area. Only the arrival of more troops from the United States made possible the defeat of the rebellion by the end of the year. Over 5,000 Haitians were accounted as being killed facing US troops but the number could had been higher.

May 17th 1917- Captain Benjamin O Davis appointed to the American Embassy in Ethiopia as military attache.

May 18th 1917- Recently promoted captain Bela Ferenc Blasko decides to stay in the Hungarian Honved. He’s posted in the new province of Montenegro to fight “separatist” guerillas.

Summer 1917 - The International Rocketry Society holds its annual meeting in Sweden. A round table discussion with participation of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Herbert G. Wells, Robert Goddard, and Hermann Oberth becomes the highlight of the convention and the stuff of legends.

June 1917 - The Russian Duma passes a series of legislation modernizing the Russian military in the wake of the war, and abolishing many of the bars to talented commoners rising to high rank within the Russian army.

June 1917 In response to the recent series of presidential succession crises, an Amendment to the Constitution is passed by Congress to make the line of Presidential Succession only applicable to congressionally confirmed cabinet members, to move up the date of the Inauguration to January 2, and to stipulate that if the House has not elected a president by a majority vote in a contested election by January 2 after the election, the post automatically goes to the candidate with the highest electoral count in the election.

June 1917: La Follete attempts to nominate long time political ally Debs to the post of Secretary of Commerce. Moderates immediately stop the process before it goes public, and instead go with New Mexican rail-road manager Fredrick Hanslow. Hearst gets tipped off by a staffer, and quickly the story is spread across the nation, emphasizing not only the potential political promotion of a socialist, but also the division among the Progressive Party.

June 2, 1917 -- Gertrude Stein publishes Sacred Sarah, her fifth book of poetry. Like all her works, it earns greater appreciation in academic circles than among the public at large, but it becomes famous for one pair of lines: Gold is gold is gold is gold, but only in poetry is it gilded.

June 7th 1917- A young Jew activist, David ben Gurion, is expelled from Palestine by Ottoman authorities due to his political activities. He moves to New York City, pledging to return to Palestine in the future.

June 15th 1917- The new Naval Station, MacArthur Roads, named after the former Vice President and war hero finally is completed. It will be the new home of the Caribbean Squadron and the island of Culebra will be used for the training of the Marine Corps.

July 1917: La Follete proposes the Labor Liberation Act, which would actually take Ballinger's programs and push them to a greater extent. Moderate Progressives convince him to keep to his campaign pledge however, and La Follete allows an amendment to be added on basically allowing local nullification. He claims to insiders that he is hoping on establishing a precedent in the case that liberal Progressives never regain the national government. Ballinger is appointed Secretary of Labor as an attempt to show bi-partisan co-operation. He is viewed as a hero, especially on the west-coast.

July 18th 1917- Refugees from the Ottoman Empire tell lurid tales of “massacres”.

August 1917: Mid-western states take advantage of the Labor Liberation Act to create near socialist regimes. Bryan believes that the government is begining to take too much in their own hands, and the Freemans Journal returns more to its Populist Origins, and reflects the slow change of small-town rural politics towards a more individualist sentiment.

August 1917: Disturbed by La Folletes radicalism, Wallace and other major Populist media figures begin to attack La Follete, and begin to support revisionist Democrats such as Congressman Hoover.

August 17th 1917- Henri Bourassa demands to the Imperial Council in a letter to step in to resolve the suppression of the French language in the Ontario Public School systems. He stated “the situation could turn into something worse if not resolved eventually.”

August 27th 1917- Japan laid down the first of the four Mutsu class battleships. Build as a response to the New Mexicos, they were armed with ten 16” guns in dual turrets and raised their main speed to 26.5 knots. The last unit was commissioned in 1921.

Aug 28 1917 - An independent international benevolent organization, the Diplomats of the Eastern Rites, is formed. It was inspired by conversations among Ethiopian, Georgian, and Greek diplomats. Its chartered purpose is "to peacefully advocate improved conditions for the various Eastern Christian communities living in nations that are predominantly of another faith." The DER immediately proposes that the Geneva Convention be modified to recognize the Red Crescent symbol, and that in return the Ottoman Empire shall allow International Red Cross/Crescent officials to investigate requests for relief from the Ottoman Armenian community.

September 5th 1917- Jaroslav Hasek publishes his masterpiece The Good Soldier Schweik. His satirical piece was very well received in the veterans circles of Eastern and Central Europe.

September 18th 1917- George Ruth is the first man in baseball history to hit 55 homeruns.

Fall 1917 - A coalition of Progressives and Moderate Republicans manage to pass by a narrow margin federal anti-lynching legislation.

October 1917: La Follete tries to push his long time beliefs that machine politics are corrupt, and that city managers are more effective as mayors. The legislation fails to pass either house of congress, and La Follete becomes more unpopular among his own party, a fact used by Hearst. He also tries to take direct control of railroads with similar legislation to those that Bryan had originally proposed earlier in the decade.

October 1917: Fearing Hearst growing media influence over the public, rich mainstream Republicans begin investing in back room deals with political machines to try to gain local support. Smith and other moderate Catholic Republicans help influence the predominantly poor Catholic machines to side with the Republican base, though officially most politicians deny their existence.

October 1st to 10th 1917- The Cincinnati Reds beat the Boston Blue Sox 4 games to 3 in the World Series. The Reds, led by their pitching, won 95 games and beat the Superbas by only two games for the National League pennant on their way to this victory.

November 1917: La Follete considers legislation returning the control of the Mexican states to either Mexico or granting them independance. He is stopped by moderates.

November 1917: Charles Seymour defeats Clifford Wilson to become Lt. Governor of Connecticut. He serves under a popular Republican Governor, but retains popularity himself due to a seemingly strong sense of justice and responsibility. In reality he uses his seat of power as a way to control the state behind the governor's back.

November 2nd 1917- Japanese mission visited the United States to discuss the situation in China.

November 1917- Moro resistance pretty much defeated thanks to extreme measures by Filipino and Japanese troops.

Winter 1917- The poem "I Hate Laura" becomes Eliot's and one of the Dedal movement's crowning achievements.
  #19  
Old April 2nd, 2006, 05:16 PM
Glen Glen is offline
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1918

1918 -

1918 - Howard P. Lovecraft sells the rights to one of his radio serials to be turned into a serial for the movies.

January 13, 1918 William E. Borah is appointed to take the place of Senator James H. Brady.

January 20th 1918- Ireland send the first representatives to the Imperial
Council.

February 1918: Seeing the wave of the future, Hearst buys up huge amounts of shares in the upstart movie industry in Hollywood. Over the next 30 years Hollywood would continue to support the Democratic Party through all its twists and turns.

February 1918- Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves elected as President of Brazil and serves until 1922.

Febuary 1918: Much to the surprise of the Progressive Party, the Freeland Journal publishes an article discusing and praising La Follete's position toward's Mexico, and attacks Vice President Johnson and other moderate Progressives. Hearst then uses his own media empire to bash both Bryan and La Follete for tearing apart the nation.

Febuary 1918: Hoover helps form the first comprehensive foreign aid legislation. Instead of raising the amount of money spent, or raising taxes, he simply redistributes already collected savings to support those in need. As an expert in China, Hoover sucessfully helps the government introduce Democracy in more remote areas, often using volunteer missionaries and bussinessmen. La Follete personally objects, but fails to veto the move because of its popularity due to extreme promotion in all Hearst newspapers.

Febuary 1918: The Hearst newspapers accuse Smith of using illegal political machines to secure his new position as governor. Seeing a potential opportunity in the future, Hearst quietly encourages Democratic politicians to end ties to machines. Legal action is taking against many of the larger ones, many of which were also involved in bootlegging.

February 8th 1918- The new Naval Attache to the German Embassy in Buenos Aires, Wilhelm Canaris, is expelled after accusations of spying are lodged against him.

February 12th, 1918- Tillings gets St.-John's bill repealed, saying that " making the Liberia of today the Liberia of tomorrow is a task which require a longer time to accomplish.

February 26th 1918- Germany began construction of a six light cruiser replacement program. The ships, the Berlin Class, were a quantum leap in capabilities of the light cruisers of the era. Armed with nine 5.9” guns in triple turrets and having a 33 knots max speed, they were faster and better armed than any ship of the same type by the time of their completion in late 1920.

March 11th 1918- Hara Takashi elected Prime Minister, first commoner to serve as Prime Minister. He used his influence in the military and the House of Peers to achieve a fast clipped democratization of Japan. Still the influx of Western Customs and an emerging labor movement was a worry to many.

March 27th 1918- Yankees acquired a young shortstop called Roger Hornsby from the St Louis Browns. The young man was moved to second base, where he stayed for the next fifteen years.

April 1918: Hearst decides not to seek re-election as Governor of New York, planning to devote himself full time to managing the party. He is officially named Chairman of the Democratic Party. The Democrats use the Hearst papers to magnify regional issues, and to try to attack Republicans in the east and Progressives in the west. Democrats are portrayed as the middle of the road compromise party. The party actualy has very little real unity with candidates running as general opposition across the political spectrum. However the Democrats begin to gain the ultra-rich clientele of extreme conservative north-eastern Republicans.

April 1918: La Follete proposes a large welfare package that would raise taxes and give huge amounts of revenue directly to needy citizens. Hoover counters with his own legislation creating a lighter welfare package which is used to promote helpful organisations and schools rather then the individual citizen. It achieves this again through monetary redistribution rather than raised taxes. Most Progressives, all Democrats, and a few Republicans support the Hoover resolution, and it passes.

April 1918: La Follete names Colby Secretary of the Treasury.

April 23rd 1918- Cavalry officer Manfred von Richthofen asks for a transfer to the growing Luftwaffe.

May 1918 - The Russian Duma passes mild agrarian reforms that help mollify the peasantry, though they do disturb the nobility who fought to have them fail outright.

May 1918 Quentin Roosevelt graduates from college with an engineering degree and begins his own aircraft and automobile design business.

May 5th 1918- French physicist Paul Langevin & electrical engineer Constantin Chilowski develop a underwater sound detection device. The hydrophone was immediately picked up by French navy for testing and development.

May 18th 1918- A French officer invents deflector blades, making possible to put a machine gun forward in an aircraft. French kept this secret until at least 1921.

May 18th 1918- Germany began the construction of three battleships for the Dutch Navy. The ships, 32000 tons armed with eight 13.8” main guns and a max speed of 27 knots, were finally delivered to the Dutch Navy in 1923.

Summer 1918- Eliot's controversial tour of the United States. He is admired by many, but hated by more. Before Eliot departs, he has written "Uncle Sam", a snide and viciously sarcastic work that only thinly conceals his hatred for Americans and their way of life. It is the toast of Europe when it is published the following year.

June 1918, Under Yuanhong's presidency an amendment is made to the Chinese constitution making governors of the provinces elected offices by the people of China, and not an appointed position. Provincial Powers would increase continually during the Yaunhong presidency.

June 1918: La Follete tries to restore the Progresesive Party before congressional elections. He starts proposing popular reform legislation.

June 8, 1918 A.A. Campbell figures out the design for electronic television, patenting it that very week.

June 12 1918 King Aleksandar of Serbia marries Princess Viktoria Luise Duchess of Brunswick-Lunenburg.

June 15th 1918- Young captain Charles de Gaulle joins the right-wing faction in the French Army led by Henri Petain.

June 21st 1918- The four ship South Dakota Class approved by the US Congress over the veto of President La Follette. First ships in the US Navy to be armed with triple turrets and speed raised to 23 knots. Completed in 1922.

July 1918: The Hanslow Tarriff is passed. It slightly cuts the down the tariff while promoting international trade, appealing to the entire nation.

August 1918: National Tax Reform Bill is passed with the support of all Progressives and some moderate Republican.

August 17th 1918- Josip Broz arrested in Croatia for sedition. Sentenced to five years in jail.

August 22nd 1918- The battlecruiser Indefatigable is transferred to the Royal Australian Navy and renamed the HMAS Canberra. All ships of this class are now serving in the South Pacific, either in the Australian Navy or in the New Zealand Division.

September 18 1918- President La Follette orders the demobilization of the National Guard but is forced by moderates in the administration to recognize the situation in Mexico needs the Army's regular forces to be fully manned. One brigade each in the 8th and 9th Infantry Divisions plus one independent cavalry brigade are declared Colored by executive order.

September 19th 1918- Chamberlain Declaration announces the Imperial Council will be a permanent fixture in the British Empire politics and implied the Commonwealth nations have the rights to directly advise his Majesty in regard to matters concerning their territories.

October 1918: Charles Seymour recieved his Ph.D in American history. He had been studying off and on during his political career. He also abused his family connections to speed up the process, though his hard work and intelectualism allowed him to enter academia as an expert.

October 1918: Hearst steps up his attacks on the administration, publishing all of the dirt he has on Bryan, Ballinger, and La Follete. He also emphasizes the questions of prohibition and the teaching of evolution. These are both issues that cause a greater division in the Progressive Party. La Follete fails to take a stance, but Bryan and the Freemans Journal take up the cause of Prohibition, and anti-evolution. Johnson publicly critizes these polices.

October 1918- Led by Ruth, Johnson and Hornsby, the New York Yankees won their first Continental League pennant. They went to defeat the Cincinnati Reds on the now called World Series 4 to 2.

October 1918: 'Pursuit of Happiness' a film directed by D.W. Giffith is released. It is viewed by many film historians to be the first great film ever made. The movie is a re-telling of the historical Bacon's Rebellion, and focuses on the plight of the small farmer going up against the greater political interests.

October 14th 1918- Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck ends his tenure as military commander in East Africa and returns to Germany.

November 1918: Henry Stimson returns to Congress as a Republican. He attempts to block all of La Folletes foreign policy agendas. He becomes the leading radical Republican in the House Foreign Relations Committee, which he chairs.

November 1918- Due to health reasons, Puerto Rico’s president Luis Muñoz Marin declines running for a second term. His vice-president Jose de Diego losses the election by a very small margin to the Socialist party candidate Santiago Iglesias-Pantin. While the Socialists Party had the support of the urban workers, many later considered the campaign launched by the Socialists stating the “US was returning” based in the recent arrangements with the US as enough to swing some votes in the direction of the Socialists.

November 1918: The Progressives lose all political stability after disputed primaries, and even multiple candidates. The Democrats make gains all across the board, though the congressmen have no ideological unity other then political opportunity. No party has a majority in congress. Congressmen Herbert Hoover, a former Republican turned Democrat becomes Speaker of the House as a compromise.

November 1918: Al Smith is elected Governor of New York.

November 1918: Phil Swing is elected US Representative from Imperial County California as a moderate Progressive.

November 9th 1918- Austria-Hungary laid down the battlecruisers Wien and Budapest. Armed with four dual 13.8” guns and with a max speed of 28 knots, they were the fastest capital ships of in the Med after their completion in 1924.

November 19th 1918- After a commission send by President La Follette stated that while the infrastructure of Haiti has been improved by the US occupation of that nation “the social forces that created instability still remain; poverty, ignorance, the lack of a tradition of orderly government and deep racial differences between the mulatto and negro population.” La Follette decides to leave the island as “a waste of money and time” and to turn over the administration of the government and military to the mulattos that have been the administrators under the American government but leaving the financial administration of the nation still under the hands of the US.

November 21st 1918- Mustafa Kemal made military commander of the Syrian military district.

December 24th 1918- Joseph Chamberlain dies from a massive stroke while eating with his family on Christmas Eve. The architect of the Imperial Council , he was considered one of the most influential men in British politics during the late 19th and early 20th century.
  #20  
Old April 2nd, 2006, 05:16 PM
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1919

1919

1919 - A molasses explosion is narrowly averted in the North End of Boston.

January 1919: Herbert Hoover blocks almost all of President LaFollete's radical legislation initiatives, proposing in their stead more reasonable compromises that address the issues while failing to take as radical a position. Many traditional Republicans start to question the huge ammount of legislation going through Congress, and advocate for a less activist government. This move proves unpopular, and is criticized by many mainstream Republicans. Moderate Republicans begin to lead in upcoming local primaries.

January 1919 The trickle of blacks from the USA following Marcus Garvey to Ethiopia starts to flow much faster. Among the more recognizable names are: Sammy Davis and Will Mastin, two rising new stars to the vaudeville circuit who dream of finding nice girls and raising kids some day in a nation free of racism, Claude McKay, a brilliant agronomy professor (and sometime poet) who studied under George Washington Carver, and his wife Eulalie Lewars, and Frederick M. Jones, an engineer who had been having poor luck at garnering attention for his inventions.

February 1919- Henry Wallace is made director of the Iowa branch of the Freeman Journal.

February 18th 1919- Russians laid down the first of the four ship Varth yag heavy cruisers class for duty in their Pacific Fleet. While the ships are considered to be the main combat units of the Russian Pacific Fleet after their delivery in 1923, they were armed with twelve 8" main guns in triple turrets and a max speed of 31 knots, they were smaller than any capital ship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Still Japan viewed their appearance in the area as a possible threat.

March 1919: Franklin Gatling dies from tetanus due to a puncture wound while inspecting one of his oil rigs. Rick Gatling takes over the business. Though young, his seven years of experience and Yale Business College have prepared him for the job.

March 1919: The Adler Otto, an innovative gas-electric hybrid, helps Adler temporarily leap over Opel to claim the top spot in the German car market -- until Opel responds the next year with the Opeleszenz.

March 3rd 1919- Russians laid down the first of the four ship Aleksandr Nevsky class. Massive twelve 16" guns in triple turrets with a max speed of 25 knots, by the time of their completation in 1923 they changed the balance of power in the Baltics. The Germans were surprised by their size and capabilities.

March 17th 1919- Last US Marines leave Haiti. The nation’s president Dartiguanave ask the world’s community for help to consolidate his government weak control of the situation.

March 19th 1919- The Commitee for a Communist India is formed in Chicago, Il.

April 17th 1919- Beginning of the Italian Civil War. The right wing movements failed in their attempt to march to Rome to ask for the resignation of Prime Minister Sonnino and were faced by troops. Called the “Florence Massacre” by the Fascisti and was later celebrated annually.

May 1919: Many moderate Progressive become disastisfied with Hoover and his redistribution policies, and side with moderate Republicans for what they call real political reform.

May 1919 - Hermann Oberth successfully defends his doctoral dissertation on the use of multi-stage liquid fuel rockets.

June 1919: Having lost much of their former Progressive support, Hearst returns to his Populist origins, donating vast sums of money to the near dead Grange and other rural movements. He encourages Democrats to push Populists agendas. In some regions Hearst newspapers actually unite with local branchs of the Freemans Journal.

June 1919 Using a ghost writer, Ballinger publishes a book entitled "Out of Many, One" an optimistic portrayal of American politics. In it he emphasises the importance of co-operation. It appeals to all political factions, and is a national best-seller.

June 2, 1919 Quentin Roosevelt marries Flora Payne Whitney, daughter of Harry Payne Whitney.

July 1919: The Freemans Journal suffers from lower circulation, and the Oakland branch goes out of business.

July 20th 1919- Robert Hillary is born in New Zealand.

July 26th 1919-Kaiser Wilhelm III names war hero Paul von Hindenburg as Chancellor. Many considered the four years of his administration as “the most boring in the history of the Reich.” A supporter of the right, he only was interested in military spending and in agrarian subsidies for the junkers. But his disinterest in politics was used by the Reichstag to pass, with the secret support of the Kaiser, the change to Article 15 of the Empire’s Constitution.

August 1919- Hoover draws up the Agricultural Workers Rights Act which would use his policies of redistribution to favor poor rural communities. He is famous for saying "We have come back and saved the forgotten regions of America."

August 11th 1919- Secret report by chemist Fritz Haber is studied by German General Staff. The General Staff found his discoveries fascinating and decided to continue to fund his research.

August 21st 1919- Walther Rathenau, social theorist and economist, named Foreign Minister. His pro-British leanings were viewed by many as a change in the direction the German nation was going.

September 1st 1919- Japan laid down the first of their response to the US South Dakota class. While armed only with ten 16” guns like their predecessors, the speed was raised even more, reaching a max speed of 30 knots on trials. Last units commissioned in 1923.

September 3rd 1919- France announces their naval construction plan for 1919. With the end of the payment of reparations, funds were raised for the construction of more capital ships against the wishes of the Prime Minister. The socialist representatives of the dockyards were very influential in the approval of this naval bill, knowing full well of the lack of work since the end of the war. Six battlecruisers were approved, armed with three triple 13.4” main guns and a max speed of 28 knots.

September 8th 1919- Massive protests in Ontario due to the supression of more rights to the French speakers in the province. Henri Bourassa blamed the Imperial Council for their lack of action in this situation.

September 13th 1919- Otto Frank promoted to officer rank and assigned to the German Embassy in Poland.

September 18th 1919- Oil is discovered in Persia and in the province of Basra in the Ottoman Empire by the French.

October 1919: Wheeler announces his support of the Democrats.

October 1919- Some Democrats scared of Hearst try to convince Hoover to run against him for the nominations. Hoover declines stating that he believes that he can best serve the party as Speaker of the House. Privately Hoover knows that Hearst has the power to destroy his political career.

October 1919- The Agricultural Workers Rights Act fails to pass. Most Populists throw their support towards the Democrats rather then Progressives. Some Progressives openly announce that they are switching over to the Republican Party. Some Populist Progressives trying to save their own political skins join the Democrats. They are welcomed with open arms by Hearst and Hoover.

October 1st to 5th 1919- The New York Yankees win their second consecutive World Series after defeating the Cincinnati Reds again, but this time sweeping them 4 games to zero. Led by the magnificent seasons of catcher Herman Ruth with .322- 50- 136 and Walter Johnson with 28 victories and an minuscule 1.46 ERA, the Yankees won the pennant by eight games over the Chicago White Sox on their way to their Series victory.

October 9th 1919- First EWD station build in Newfoundland to detect icebergs. Later followed by more in Greenland and Iceland.

November 1919: After choosing not to seek a second term as Lt. Governor, fearing a possible cover up, Seymour takes a teaching position at Yale, while in private keeping up his political machine.

November 12th 1919- Hearst and Hoover meet privately and draw up the Democratic agenda. They become close political allies. Hearst privately states that he intends Hoover to be his presidential successor. Hearst's newspapers try to picture Hoover as a American political hero.

November 21st 1919- The 8th Infantry Division and the 9th Infantry Divisions assigned to the West Coast after being withdrew from Mexico.

December 1919- The Freeman's Journal follows the lead of the Hearst newspapers in their praise of Hoover. Bryan states that he will support Hearst in the 1920 election.

December 3rd 1919- Major Albert Kesselring asks for a transfer to the growing Luftwaffe.

December 3rd 1919- Ernst Rohm given command of the 27th Infantry Brigade in the Grand Duchy of the Baltics.

December 5th, 1919 China and Germany meet in Alsace to discuss increasing the German role in the Chinese market.

December 12th 1919- Carl Mannerheim promoted to commander Russian 9th Army, the army in control of Finland. First Finnish born officer in charge of the Russian forces in the autonomous province.
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