The Coronation of the Hun
At the behest of Nek, here is the TL. There are slight inconsistencies, but all in all I think it's polished and Subforum worthy.
I hope you enjoy. Discussion thread here.
450 AD - Honoria’s relationship with a chamber servant is discovered by her brother and Emperor of the West Valentinian III. The servant is killed and she betrothed to a nondescript senator, but she offers to Attila the Hun her hand in marriage, with the Western Roman Empire as her dowry.
She then bribes palace guards into killing Valentinian III, being seen as both weak and incompetent by his own guards. A few months later, the throne being occupied by no one, Attila arrives in Rome to press his claim on the crown.
In order to gain support among the Church and Rome’s Christian population, Attila converts to Christianity, and accepts the absolute power of the Papacy. Ultimately, Attila’s claims are accepted, although the means he went about achieving this are shadowy.
On August 15th, 450, Honoria and Attila are wed in holy matrimony, and on that same day he is crowned the Emperor of the West. He has the full support of Flavius Aetius, Rome’s greatest general and important military leader.
Hunnic lands are merged with the lands of the Western Roman Empire, and the client states and vassal states of the Huns officially become client states of the Roman Empire. The name of their overlord country has changed, but its leader has not, and to them Attila is now even more terrifying as both REX HVNNORVM and IMPERATOR OCCIDENTALIS.
451 AD - The historic land and army reforms. The army is entirely remodeled and refashioned to be far more cavalry-centric. With access to the training techniques and breeding stock of the Huns, these reforms go over very well.
The land reforms involve the giving out of land to Hunnic soldiers of the original Hunnic army in Gaul, and the official opening of Hunnic lands to Roman soldiers looking to get land after their twenty year tour of duty. The rich lands attract many young men, especially from the poor classes, and the Roman army is bolstered. Money is (temporarily at least) not an issue, because these soldiers will be paid in land, not sesterces.
Attila begins to revitalize the city of Rome using gold from his own war chest.
453 AD - Attila and Honoria bear a son, named Equtius. He is sent frequently to Attila’s relatives, feeling that Equitius should be raised in the style a Hunnic boy should, but with a Roman education and half his time spent among the people of Rome.
455 AD - Vandals do not invade Italy, for fear of Attila. They invest their time in piracy and terrorizing the high seas. This is a small problem though, compared to what they did OTL in 455: the sacking of Rome
Ostrogothic rebellion in Hunnic lands results in the near-genocide of the Ostrogoths. Their lands are emptied, and Attila orders that this land be set aside for use of the Roman soldiers, the first wave of which would be eligible for their retirement pay in 471. During the ensuing battles, Ellakh, Dengizich and Ernakh, Attila’s three sons with any degree of political and military clout, are killed. Equitius is named heir.
457 - 463 AD - Realizing the economic decay of the Roman Empire which he inherited, Attila realizes that a new influx of slaves and plunder is necessary. He turns to the Germanic tribes (Franks, Saxons, etc.), who, because they have been unable to invade Gaul lest incurring the wrath of Attila, had resorted to infighting amongst themselves.
Using the frequent raids of Romano-Britain as a cassus belli, Attila officially declares war on the Saxon tribes in 457. He and Flavius Aetius, his close friend, cross the Rhine with a mixed Hunnic/Roman force (along with a number of Frankish and Visigothic foederatii), and orders the camp not be segregated, encouraging the forging of bonds of comradeship between the two. Realizing that he should endear the army to his successor, the young Equitius is periodically brought on campaign.
The Saxons that weren’t in Romano-Britain are utterly vanquished by the end of 459, and the new influx of slaves immediately bolsters the Roman economy, as Saxons are put in shackles by the thousands. The lands of the Saxons were nearly emptied, and once again were set aside for use by the soldiers who would later retire. Although he encouraged some of his Huns looking for good farmland closer to the influence of Rome to settle there beforehand to maintain order and upkeep the few remaining towns, farms and villages.
From 459 to 463 Attila continued to subdue the tribes of Germania to the Elbe, finding one reason or another to declare war. By 463 AD, the population of Germania up to the Elbe is estimated by some scholars to be only 20% of what it was at the end of 456 AD, the population having been killed or enslaved and moved far from their homeland.
Notably, during the campaign Ricimer, the magister militum, died.
460 - 462 AD - The Suebii attack the city of Lugo. Attila uses this as an excuse to go to war, and declares the Suebii’s foederate status null and void. He primarily uses Langobardi (Lombard) troops, with a good portion of Romans. The Lombards are used as shock troops, and about half of those Lombards who campaigned there died. Many historians think that Attila did this to intentionally weaken them. No Suebii noble is spared the sword, and all are put to death. Most Suebii are executed, the rest are used as slaves in that region. Again, Galaecia was added to the list of locations for resettlement. By 462 AD the Suebii basically cease to exist.
464 AD - The death of Flavius Aetius. Attila uses more of his personal war chest to create a grand mausoleum for him in in his birth place at Dorostolus (OTL modern day Silistra, Bulgaria). For his conquest of Germania to the Elbe, Attila is given the title “Augustus”. For conquering Germania to the Elbe, giving Aetius a lavish Christian burial, and for helping to spread Christianity among the Huns, Attila is granted by Pope Hilarius the title “Beloved of God”.
465 AD - Theodoric demands that for his loyal service to Rome he is given the Septimania region of Gaul. Attila refuses, and Theodoric declares war on the Western Roman Empire. The Visigoths make a terrible mistake. The Roman army is in peak condition at this time, bolstered by the new cavalry-centric reforms and the Hunnic army.
465 - 468 AD - The war is fought between the Romans/Huns/Foederates and the Visigoths. While gaining ground in Gaul briefly, his army is overextended as Franks, Lombards, Huns and Romans enclose themselves around Visigothic territory. On March 8th, 468 Theodoric is slain in the Battle of Burdigala. Just three months later, under serious pressure, his heir Thorismund renounces all claim to the Visigothic crown. This event marks the end of the Visigothic people as a foederate nation. Most Visigoths are slain or put in shackles, and sent as slaves to Hunnic lands. As of this moment the only real foederate nations left are the Burgundians, Lombards, and Franks. Aquitania is added to the land reforms project.
469 - 470 AD - Consolidation of the Empire. Attila pours his personal funding into economic revival all along the empire. He rebuilds the aqueducts and roads, and adopts a new economic policy.
By this time there was far more land than was needed to grant the army retirment pay for a LONG TIME to come, given that the economic policy encompassed many parts of Dacia, Galaecia, Germania, and Aquitania. So he gave the urban poor of Rome, Ravenna, and Neapoli half the land in Germania to make them useful, productive citizens. He mandated that this be a process of some twenty years so that the newly-conquered lands aren’t simply flooded by hordes of urban poor.
For his defense of the empire against the Visigoths and his economic revival policies, he is granted the title “Magnus” (“the Great”) by the Senate.
471 AD - Attila the Hun, Magnus Augustus, Beloved of God, Emperor of the West dies. His final two decrees are that the capital of the Empire be moved from Ravenna back to Rome, now greatly revitalized, and that his heir is his son Equitius.
Equitius is crowned IMPERATOR OCCIDENTALIS ET REGNVM HVNNORVM later that year.
The first wave of soldiers retiring to the lands set aside by Attila. This results in a great movement to the fertile lands in the Pannonian plain of Romanized peoples, bringing with them Roman ideas and Roman innovation. This begins the cultural flourishing of the area. New labor ideas emerge here, as the new farmers look to increase their yield. These however wouldn’t come to fruition until the next few decades.
472 AD - Immediately Equitius’ authority is challenged by one of the client states, that client state being the Gepid tribe. They were crushed and slaughtered to the last man. The rough lifestyle of the Huns which he spent much time living had impressed upon him the need to meet your enemies with utmost hatred, and your friends with utmost generosity. The Gepids weren’t just enemies, they were traitors.
474 AD - The Emperor Zeno’s envoy to the Vandals results in a peace agreement with the Vandal kingdom between them and the two Empires. The piracy ends, and trade in the Mediterranean flourishes, as routes from Europe to Africa open up once again.
Honoria, wife of Attila and mother of the emperor, dies.
475 - 479 AD - Equitius commits five legions to the destruction of the Saxons and Angles that occupied the eastern portion of Britannia. The legions end up killing king Hengest of the Saxon kingdom of Kent and retaking land from Dover to East Anglia. The Saxons are no more.
The Roman legions, however, after four years of fighting, hadn’t the power to destroy the Angles lodged in the far north. That would be left for another day, but Equitius would forever be remembered by the Britons as “the Good Emperor”.
475 AD - Equitius weds the daughter of an influential Hun. That same year they bear a son named Flavius, named after Flavius Aetius. He, like his father, sends him to spend much of his time among the Huns to ensure that he has a proper “Romano-Hunnic” upbringing.
476 AD - The Senate votes to erect a monument to Attila in the Forum. It is a statue of Attila on horseback with the traditional Hun reflex bow drawn while wearing the laurel wreath.
481 AD - Clovis I ascends the throne of the Franks. He is ambitious king, and Equitius does well to keep an eye on him, wondering if he sees the Roman failure to destroy the Angles as a sign of weakness.
482 AD - The retired soldiers in the Pannonian Plain, had for over a decade now adopted a sort of indentured servitude mode of labor for their newly-acquired farms. The movement of urban poor in Italy to Germany had been a long, twenty year process, and at this stage was still only about halfway through. It was popular at this time for the newly-landed soldiers to offer to urban poor in Italy an alternative: work my farm, I give you not only a share of my land but also protection from bandits and whatever the north brings. Thus began the development of a sort of manorial system in the Roman Empire.
486 AD - The fears of Clovis are well-grounded, when Clovis invades the Soissons region of the Roman Empire. He begins rapid expansion in northern France, however he soon finds resistance.
486 - 489 AD - The campaign against the Franks. The campaign was long and bloody, the Franks being at this point very “Romanized”, and not the disorganized barbarian horde it was in generations past.
But ultimately, Clovis is defeated, and he must flee the continent. Thousands of Franks flee with Clovis to Britain. Clovis ends up never being pursued, and sets up his new Frankish kingdom in the lands that just years before were occupied by Saxons and Angles, centered around Kent and later Londinium.
Clovis’ charismatic nature and his control of his own people leads him to establish a very strong kingdom in this region. For the rest of his career Equitius saw that as his greatest failing. While the campaign was successful, and while many new slaves and tons of riches were plundered, he felt it was a failing on his part to truly destroy his enemy. But the way he ultimately saw it, he was rid of Clovis and the Franks, and that territory could now be used to the benefit of the Huns and the Romans.
491 AD - The beginning of the settlement of Germania by the Roman veterans. Although for the most part they are still being sent to the Pannonian Plain.
494 AD - Pope Gelasius delineates the relationship between Church and State, saying that while they are separate, they are to assist each other.
495 - 498 AD - Flavius weds a Hunnic woman, and has two daughters, and a son named Danubius. True to his namesake, he too is sent to spend time in Pannonia Magna.
496 - 497 AD - The weakened Vandal kingdom is the target for a short yet profitable war for Equitius. By March of 497, the Vandal kingdom is destroyed, and the province of Africa is readmitted as a province.
Equitius is granted the cognomen “Vandalicus” for his defeat of the Vandals.
500 AD - The Britons score a major victory against the Angles at Mons Badonicus (Badon Hill), expelling them from the isle of Britain. The British Isles are now divided between the Celts, the Romano-British, and the Franks.
Birth of Theodebert son of Theodoric I.
501 AD - Returning from Carthage, Equitius claims he saw the Christ on the battlefield, instructing him to spread and emphasize Christianity throughout the Empire. In the last nine years of his life, Equitius spends much on the construction of monasteries and churches, especially in Gaul, Germania, and the Pannonian Plain.
502 AD - War breaks out between the Eastern Roman Empire and the Sassanids. The Sassanids are overconfident, and send a weak force into Armenia. They are slaughtered at the Battle of Amida, and the war begins.
502 -505 AD - The Eastern campaign against the Sassanids. Mesopotamia reconquered entirely. Peace is agreed upon that the Sassanids give Colchis, Assyria, (region based around Hatra) and 10,000 pounds of gold. Given the large number of Christians in the region, the Eastern Romans are most welcome.
509 AD - Clovis’ conversion to Christianity.
510 AD - The death of the Emperor of the West, Equitius Vandalicus Augustus. Ascension of Flavius as Emperor of the West.
511 AD - The “manorial system” is now in full swing in Pannonia Magna (Pannonia beyond the Danube), although most of the farmers are coming from Greece and beyond the Empire itself, given that most of Italy’s unemployed are gone, sent to be productive in Germania, Pannonia, or Aquitania.
Introduction of this new system into Germania itself. Economic flourishing of the region. Many new roads are built throughout Germania, and it becomes a hub of trade.
Death of Clovis and division of his kingdom between his son Theodoric and his other son Merowig. (Theodoric was granted all land south of the Thames, while Merowig all lands north of the Thames. This division officially marks the beginning of the Merovingian dynasty.
512 AD - Tensions between Emperor Anastasius of the East and the Pope for his adoption of monopyhtism. The eldest daughter of Flavius is betrothed to Sigismund, the heir apparent to the Burgundian throne, in a Roman effort to both cement relations with the Burgundians and to make sure they are continually involved in the area.
516 AD - Death of Gundobad king of Burgundy. Ascension of Sigismund. That same year they have a son named Gallus.
517 - 518 AD - Roman Emperor Flavius, Pope Hormisdas, and Theodoric I of the Franks work together to convene the First Council of Londinium, with many bishops from Gaul. This cements the ties of the Frankish crown to the Catholic church, and Theodoric begins to help stifle Arian beliefs in his lands.
523 AD - Leptis Magna is sacked by Berber raiders.
523 - 525 AD - Flavius sends mostly Huns to deal with the Berber problem. Flavius knew that the best way to deal with the fast-moving warfare of the Berber tribes was to send in the terrible Hunnic horsemen. The Berbers are turned into client states of the West and subdued by 525.
525 AD - Danubius marries a Roman woman, breaking away from tradition, and that same year has a son named Attilanus.
526 AD - Earthquake kill ~300,000 in Antioch and Syria.
527 AD - Ascension of Justinian to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire. Belisarius appointed by the new Emperor to command the empire’s army in the East.
Kavad the king of Persia attacks the Eastern Empire again, and is crushed by Belisarius through superior generalship.
527 - 535 AD - The court in the East asked for the West’s assistance in this matter, and they sent legions to help secure the area around Antioch. For eight years the war dragged on, and the Romans proved themselves to be unstoppable. (NOTE: IOTL, the major reason that the Byzantines did not do so well in this war was because they were tied up in the West, and so couldn’t afford to divert forces to the East. ITTL, they didn’t have that problem to worry about)
In 530 AD Belisarius proved to be worthy of his generalship when he routed the Persians at Dara, and thanks to Western reinforcements, wins again at Callinicum. Belisarius presses his advantage, and begins the invasion of Mesopotamia.
Belisarius wouldn’t leave for another five years, and during this time he would absolutely ravage the Sassanids in this region.
The campaign would end with the acquisition of Mesopotamia into the Eastern Roman Empire, and Belisarius would be granted the title “Persicus” for his defeat of the Sassanids.
Justinian takes a page out of the West’s book, and sets aside much land in Mesopotamia for similar land payments to his own soldiers.
528 AD - Another earthquake in Antioch, which destroys the Great Church built by Constantine.
532 AD - Nika Revolts. Belisarius is too far away from Constantinople to help, but Mundus, and a force of Western Romans traveling by land to assist in the campaign in the East were in the city and able to suppress the rebellion.
Later that year, Justinian orders the construction of the Hagia Sophia.
533 AD - Death of Theoderic I of the Franks. Ascension of his son Theodebert.
Death of Sigismund. Ascension of Gallus the Roman as king of Burgundy.
534 AD - Completion of the Codex Justinianus
535 AD - Conclusion of the war. Mesopotamia is added to the Eastern Empire’s holdings, and the Sassanids are for all intents and purposes pushed beyond the Zagros mountains.
The death of the Emperor Flavius. Danubius succeeds him at 37 years of age.
536 AD - The Franks under Theodebert begin to expand in Britain. Western Romans choose not to assist the Romano-Britons, feeling that their interests lie on the continent. It was a decision that would have been decided differently had Flavius lived one more year, but Danubius didn’t have the emotional sting of personally not having destroyed the Franks that his father had.
537 AD - Hagia Sophia completed.
Inspired by the Hagia Sophia, Danubius decides to create a grand church in Pannonia, to be called the “Church of Danubius.
542 AD - Beginning of the Plague of Justinian.
Completion of the Church of Danubius. Danubius granted the title “Sanctus” by the Pope for the splendor of his Church.
Theodebert now rules all of Wessex and is pushing into central England. In order to keep up, Merowig begins an invasion of Northumbria. The Celts and the Romano-Britons once again form a coalition.
543 AD - Simmering tensions in Burgundy erupt in civil war, with one side (the smaller one) supporting Gallus the Roman, the other side supporting a Burgundian leader by the name of Gundioc.
Death of Merowig king of the Franks (East Anglia). Ascension of his son Clovis II.
544 - 546 AD - When Gundioc sends assassins to kill Flavia, the eldest sister of the Roman Emperor (mother of King Gallus) and one to who the Emperor was very close, they succeed.
This triggers a war between the Western Roman Empire and Gundioc. Western Empire rents out Belisarius to be general alongside Danubius. Within two years Gundioc’s forces are slain, and his supporters enslaved, sent to Aquitaine and Germania.
Danubius is granted the title “Gundiocus”. They were considering “Burgundicus”, but the Burgundian nation was technically not destroyed, and continued to exist with a Roman king.
547 AD - Death of Theodebert and ascension of his son Merovech as the king of the Franks (Kent).
550 AD - Clovis II dies on the battlefield, with no heir, his only son having died as a boy. Union of the Frankish kingdom under Merovech.
555 AD - Attilanus marries and bears a son by the name of Theodotus.
558 AD - Invasion of the Bulgars. The Bulgars, push through Pannonia quickly, ransacking very little, for their goal was the Eastern Roman Empire, seeing it correctly as still richer than the wealthy Pannonia Magna province.
Historians speculate that Danubius purposely allowed the Bulgars through, feeling that his Eastern counterpart was far too strong for his own good, and having resentment toward him for his monophysitic beliefs. At either rate, the Bulgars are repelled by Belisarius, and that is the last the Romans hear of them for some time.
563 AD - Saint Columbia begins preaching to the Picts.
565 AD - Death of Danubius Sanctus Augustus Gundiocus, Emperor of the West. Ascension of Attilanus.
Death of Justinian. Ascension of Justin II. (ERE)
Death of Belisarius.
566 - 570 AD - In order to curb rampant inflation (which was a problem left un-dealt with under previous emperors’ reigns, and as a result many areas of the empire reverted back to a sort of quasi-barter system) the emperor orders the halt of all coin production. After just one year he puts coin production back on, albeit very controllerd. For the next three years one sees a decline in inflation.
570 AD - Birth of Muhammed the Prophet
574 - 576 AD - Lombard king dies, Lombards have no heir. Gallus convinces his uncle Attilianus to install a Roman as the head of the Lombard kingdom. This once again causes serious strife, as the Lombard king’s son was still alive.
This begins a war between very divided Duchies in Lombardia and the Western Roman Empire. Very soon the Lombards are destroyed outright and absolutely, the king’s son having been killed.
Attilianus is granted the cognomen “Langobardicus” for his victories.
575 AD - Death of Gallus the Roman. Ascension of his son, Leontius.
Theodotus and his wife bear a son, named Petrus.
578 AD - Death of Justin II. Ascension of Tiberius II Constantine. (ERE)
579 - 587 AD - Invasion of the Slavs. They are called “Sthlaueni” by the Romans. The “Sthlaueni Occidentalis” invaded the West, apparently with the desire to settle in Gaul, while the “Sthlaueni Orientalis” invaded the East, pushing their way through to Greece.
While the Roman armies were strong, these were a people hell-bent on resettlement in new lands. The western Slavs were bringing with them their families, and refused to turn back until they were aoffered sanctuary.
In 583 AD, Attilianus offers the Sthlaueni Occidentalis (Western Slavs) status as federates in northwestern France, a small area in the Brittany region.
The Eastern Slavs are beaten back, due largely to the fact that they spent a long time in Pannonia Magna, where they were constantly attacked by the Huns, so that they were softened up by the time they got to the Eastern Roman Empire.
581 AD - Death of Merovech, and ascension of his son Clodio. However, Merovech’s other sons, Cherobert and Dagobert also claim lands. The Merovingian kingdom is once again divided, with the Midlands/Mercia area going to Cherobert, the East Anglia area going to Dagobert, and Clodio retaining the rest.
582 AD - Death of Tiberius II Constantine. Ascension of Maurice (ERE)
590 AD - Death of Attilanus Langobardicus Augustus. Ascension of Theodotus as Emperor of the West.
596 AD - Beginning of renewed Berber raids. One by one the Berber chiefs throw off Roman governorship, and the African provinces begin to feel the strain. While these raids are not devastating, they are a nuisance, and force Theodotus to tie-up his troops in Africa.
598 AD - The Celts of Brynaich force the Franks out of Northumbria. In this same year, however, Clodio’s kingdom absorbs all but the westernmost parts of Cornwall.
603 AD - Death of Maurice. As per his last will, his eldest son Theodosius reigns over the Empire east of Constantinople, while his younger son Tiberius is to rule over the Eastern Empire west of Constantinople. Tiberius establishes his capital at Constantinople, while Theodosius establishes his capital at Antioch.
604 - 605 AD - Seeing the split of the Eastern Roman Empire as a sign of weakness, the Sassanids begin renewed raids. The Sassanids at his time begin sending entreaties to the Client states of the Romans near the Caspian and Black Seas, some of which result in the breaking away of client states. The elite Hunnic cavalry are sent to quash these rebellions, but the Huns of 604 are far more sedentary and less fearsome than those of 450.
Ctestiphon is sacked by the Sassanids. Theodosius has little choice but to surrender the southern half of Mesopotamia to Persia. The war would have gone in the Romans’ favor had the two brother Tiberius and Theodosius hadn’t been bitter rivals, Tiberius believing he was cheated out of Anatolia.
606 AD - Death of Clodio King of the Franks (Kent). Death of Cherobert King of the Franks (Midlands). Ascension of Merowig II (succeeds Clodio). Ascension of Sigebert (succeeds Cherobert)
607 AD - The Pantheon in Rome is made a Church by Theodotus.
608 AD - Death of Dagobert. His son Childebert was to take the throne, but a joint coup organized by both Merowig II and Sigebert results in the division of the Frankish Kingdom (East Anglia)
610 - 613 AD - Renewed raids on Pannonia, Illyria, and Moesia by the Eastern Slavs and particularly the Serbs, a subdivison of the Eastern Slavs. The Western Romans had to take care not to anger their federates the Western Slavs, who saw their Eastern counterparts as brethren. Theodotus let the Eastern Slavs pass through Illyria into Moesia. Tiberius and Theodotus have little choice but to give them status as “joint federates”, due to the fact that they demanded land in both empires’ territories.
613 AD - Muhammad begins to preach Islam publicly.
620 AD - Death of Theodotus Augustus. Ascension of Petrus as Emperor of the West.
Medina is converted to Islam.
621 AD - Death of Tiberius. Ascension of his son Pius as the ruler of the Empire of Constantinople.
625 - 627 AD - Rebellion brews in Gaul and Spain. It is the inevitable result of the emergence of the manorial system, and the apparent freedom of the new Slavic peoples that have entered the Roman empire. Petrus utilizes the Roman army to violently put down these revolts.
630 AD - Western Slavs elect Gwrytheyrn, a Welsh or Cornwallis (the latter being most likely) man of some importance (exact status unknown), who fled the Frankish onslaught, is elected king of the Western Slavs.
Muhammad’s armies take Mecca bloodlessly.
632 AD - Death of the Prophet Muhammad. Ascension of Abu Bakr as the first caliph, Successor of the Prophet.
Khan Kubrat establishes Great Bulgaria. In doing so the Bulgars throw off the status as Roman client state. This triggers a chain-reaction among the client states.
634 AD - Death of Abu Bakr. Rise of Omar as Caliph. Arabs invade Palestine. The Roman Empire of Antioch is ill-prepared to defend against the zealous onslaught, hell-bent on the capture of the Holy Land. In that same year Damascus falls to the Muslims.
The failure of the Eastern Roman Empire to defend itself against the Arabs stems from the fact that it is divided, and the very unified and powerful Western Empire is too busy putting down the odd revolt led by a shadowy local ruler here and there. The Huns, as has previously been mentioned, are very different from what they were in 450.
While still a Horse culture, and while they still speak a unique language, the wealth of the Romans has made them sedentary and non threatening. More and more Huns over the years were content with settling down rather than join the army, and learned horseback skills for tradition rather than practicality’s sake.
The Roman Empire found itself in a condition similar to that of 449 AD.
635 AD - Death of Prudentius. Ascension of his son Honorius as ruler of the Roman Empire of Antioch.
636 AD - Arabs invade the Persians, who are also ill-prepared.
The Muslims overrun Syria.
City of Basra is founded by the Caliph.
637 AD - Arabs take Ctestiphon, and many cities in Palestine. Jerusalem still stood, however, being heavily protected by the Roman forces.
Death of Pius. Ascension of his son Callistus.
Spurred-on by the weakness of the Romans, more and more client states break away, and raids begin all along the European border.
638 AD - Destruction of Susa.
639 AD - At great cost the Muslims take both Antioch and Jerusalem.
640 AD - Merowig II dies, his son Clodio II taking the throne after him.
Birth of Theodorus, son of Leo.
642 AD - Muslims invade Egypt, take Alexandria that same year. The Roman Empire of Trapezus has now officially adopted a “damage-control” strategy, trying to save its core rather than its outlying territories.
Most historians feel that Honorius, seeing the last of the great cities in his empires’ outliers fall, felt there was no longer a point to the fighting.
643 AD - Muslims encroach upon Western territory, as Tripoli falls. The Burgundian foederatii are called upon and sent to Carthage, to prepare a defense of the city.
644 AD - Sigebert dies. His own son suffered a nervous breakdown in battle five years earlier, and was rendered permanently unfit to rule. Reunification of Frankish lands. Resurgence of Frankish power in Britain.
Death of the Caliph, Omar. Succeeded by Uthman.
647 AD - Death of Petrus Augustus, Emperor of the West. Ascension of his son Leo.
649 AD - Arabs take Cyprus. Leo is able to reunite the dying Western Empire, saying that if they do not present a solid front to the Muslim, then all of Christendom is doomed.
Death of Gwrtheyrn. For reasons unknown, the Western Slavic Kingdom falls into disarray, and that chaos spills over into Roman lands nearby.
654 AD - Arabs attempt to invade Rhodes, however Callistus puts up an intense fight, and Rhodes is spared. Realizing that the last remnants of the Colossus, precious artifacts, were threatened, the remaining pieces are shipped to Constantinople.
656 AD - Death of Umar. Succeeded by Ali.
657 AD - The civil war in the Caliphate begins, as Ali fights Muawiyah, governor of Syria.
658 AD - Due largely to the civil war in the Caliphate, the Romans regain Antioch, although find it a shell of what it was when they left.
660 AD - Birth of Leo II, son of Theodorus.
661 AD - Death of Leo Augustus. Ascension of Theodorus as Emperor of the West.
Civil war in the Caliphate ends. Mauwiyah ascends to the throne and begins the Umayyad caliph.
662 AD - The Franks under Clodio begin the first raids into Wales itself in over fifty years. The Franks have near complete dominance of England proper.
Death of both Callistus and Honorius. Renatus succeeds Callistus, and Maurice (II) succeeds Honorius.
665 AD - Muslims take Antioch once more.
666 AD - Renewed by strong leadership, the Muslims push for a final assault on the Sassanids. The Sassanids were tired after many years of war with the Romans and now the Arabs. The people of Persia no longer wished to fight, and the armies of the Shah begin to melt away.
668 AD - Conquest of the Garamantes by the Caliphate.
Western Slavs settle down, but re-divide. They are now a collection of smaller units, headed by more local rulers. However, already there are plans being made for stronger local rulers to rise. The Western Slavs will not stay divided forever...
670 AD - Islamic conquest of Persia completed.
674 AD - Arabic raids into Anatolia, met with stiff resistance, the Romans having had much time to fortify.
Death of Clodio II. Ascension of his son, Theodebert II.
680 - 683 AD - Bulgars migrate into the Roman Empire of Constantinople. The armies here are better prepared than the armies of Trapezus, however the Bulgars succeed due to superior leadership, and are admitted as federates into Dobrudja and Moesia in 681 AD. The Emperor Renatus sees them as a powerful ally, and so chooses not to fight them after losing only a few battles, even after winning a few.
This move is greatly opposed by the western emperor Theodorus, however Theodorus is prepared to do little about it, as he is ailing, has Arab invasions to contend with, European raids to contend with, and now his own Bulgar problem to worry about.
Kuber the Bulgar invaded at the same time as Asparukh invaded the East with his Bulgars. He pressed on from Bohemia into Pannonia Minor, which he saw as the soft underbelly of the West. He was proven correct. In 683 he was granted foederate status with land in the Alps, corresponding roughly to the location where the Lombards once occupied, along with land in Pannonia Minor.
680 AD - Death of Muawiyah. Ascension of Yazid I.
683 AD - Death of Theodorus Augustus, Emperor of the West. Succession of Leo II.
Death of Yazid I. Ascension of Muawiyah II.
687 AD - Construction of the Dome of the Rock has begun.
691 AD - Dome of the Rock is completed.
692 - 695 AD - Arabs begin a renewed offensive onward to Armenia. They are turned back, but take much plunder and some land with them.
695 AD - Theodebert II is succeeded by Clovis III.
696 - 699 AD - The Arab conquest of Western Rome’s Africa province. In order to get the federates there to fight, they demanded that the Emperor himself lead them.
In the final assault on Carthage, Leo II tries to rally the broken and battered Roman army. He fails to do so, and is himself killed. His body is recovered in the heat of battle, and the last ship leaving Carthage bears his body back to Rome.
Leo during his life tried many times to bear a son, but ended up with five daughters. He dies without an heir, after the Senate votes down any bid for an Empress. While officially the Senate has no power over him, he knew that to put a daughter on the throne would invite the assasination of his entire family.
Leo is posthumously given the title “Fortis”, meaning “The Brave”. Leo the Brave is interred in Rome herself, and this date begins the start of Rome’s final collapse.
700 - 701 AD - The only interregnum period in the West with any degree of peace.
Death of Renatus. Ascension of his son Nicephorus.
701 AD - Death of Maurice II. He had no heir, and as such an Armenian general by the name of Philippicus. Philippicus, being a soldier himself, endeared himself to his men and had a loyal following in the army.
In that same year, however, Nicephorus, claiming that he has a rightful claim to IMPERIVM ROMANVM AB TRAPEZO, begins coastal raids on the Anatolian coastline, although this fails to escalate into anything major.
Death of Asparukh king of the Eastern Bulgars. His son Tervel succeeds him.
Conversion of the Western Bulgars to Christianity.
702 AD - Carloman King of the Burgundians is turned-down by the Senate in his bid for the crown of the West, claiming relationship to the Emperor based upon his relation to Gallus the Roman . So is Nicephorus, who claims that as Emperor of the East (as he now styled himself, no longer the Constantinopolitan Roman Emperor) he has the right to the throne.
703 AD - Again Carloman is turned down, and the Senate replies with but this phrase: “Non Es Romanus.” You are not Roman. This time he chooses to invade Italy to claim his crown. Within weeks this sparks absolute and utter chaos in the entire Empire, with the Bulgars invading from out of the Alps, and Nicephorus devoting his army to take Rome.
This triggers the Western Slavs to move down the coast, realizing that the Roman Emperor no longer exists, and because of this they felt that their “contract” with the Empire had expired. They swiftly take all of western France and begin raids into Hispania.
704 AD - Frankish raids begin on the northern coast of Gaul.
In this year the Burgundians consolidated control of their corner of France, and were able to sack Mediolanum. Senatorial forces were able to create a defense along the Po, and Burgundian advances are temporarily stopped.
The Western Bulgars meet with a similar fate. While they indeed take much wealth, they are stopped at the Po.
In this same year the Western Roman Empire arranges for a peace agreement with the Arabs. One major condition is that the Romans maintain a mosque in the city of Rome for Muslim travelers.
Nicephorus’ forces land in Italy after a major sea battle, and succeed in taking both Tarentum and much of Cantabria.
705 AD - Stalemate along the Po, consolidation in northern Italy. Nicephorus advances up the eastern and western coasts, and begins the siege of the wealthy city of Capua.
706 AD - The two-sided front proves to be way too much for the Senate’s forces, who have no choice but to withdraw some of their forces from the Po in order to halt Nicephorus’ advance.
This year marks the beginning of the year of two successor states. Germania and Hispania. The name should fool no-one, these were not large political units, only the beginning of post-Imperial kingdoms.
707 AD - On January 1st Capua fell, and the city was sacked an plundered as no city had ever been sacked before. Later historians would mockingly refer to Nicephorus as “the Goth”, in reference to Alaric who had sacked Rome.
Breakthrough in the Po by the Bulgars. They quickly establish themselves along the coast. The Burgundians break through as well, albeit later and closer to the end of the campaigning season, and end up establishing themselves in Tuscany, whereas the Bulgars push as far south as Ancona.
708 AD - More advances. Nicephorus, Carloman, and the Bulgars all convene around Latium, and the Senate has nowhere to hide from the onslaught.
709 AD - Rome is surrounded by Nicephorus’ forces. The Bulgars, in their fashion, already begin raiding Nicephorus’ gains in southern Italy.
710 AD - The Bulgars strike at the forces of Nicephorus, and end up surrounding the city of Rome itself. Carloman, not wishing to provoke the Bulgars, withdraws. Nicephorus’ forces are exhausted. The Bulgars begin the final siege of Rome.
Death of Clovis III. Ascension of Charles I.
711 AD - When the Western Bulgars begin to take Pannonia minor, the Pannonia Magna province declares that it is a “Confederatio Romanorum et Hunnorum”, a confederation of Romans and Huns, and as such they band together, albeit loosely, to fight the tide of Bulgars.
Sicily is told by the Roman senate to “look to its own defenses”. Sicilia is proclaimed to be an independent republic.
712 AD - The fall of Rome to the Bulgars. This date is generally regarded as the year in which the Western Roman Empire falls.
713 AD - The proto-kingdom of Hispania collapses entirely. Most of what is left of the Roman armies in the area rent themselves out to local rulers, who immediately begin looking to their own defenses, isolating themselves entirely from the outside. There is no need for any trade at this point, as these farms established centuries ago by Roman veterans have become as worlds unto themselves. They can provide their own food, and in many instances they can forge their own weapons. Any outside interaction was considered both risky and dangerous to the point of insanity.
This begins a trend across Europe that brings about the Dark Ages.
714 - 720 AD - The push of the Slavs into Hispania. The Slavs are free to expand as they please. But Roman “Domini” (masters, or lords) begin to hire out Berber and Arab mercenaries from Maghreb, who do fighting for them.
The Slavs meet their first real opposition when they attempted to press southward beyond the river, where they meet an army of ex-Roman veterans and Arab mercenaries. The battle is lost, and the Slavs withdraw. The loss of this battle signifies the end of the brief period of Slavic unity that accompanied the year 703 AD and once again the Slavs begin to divide. Six major rulers emerge, dividing the Slavic kingdom into Bretanja, Galie, Akvitan, Luzitanja, Belgija, and Galisja.
The Arab mercenaries find that they did not want to leave beautiful southern Spain, which they referred to as “al-Andalus”. This creates a very unique Romano-Arabic culture, but it also sets up Hispania for invasion, which would not come for a while.
718 AD - Ajjar succeeds Tervel as the king of the Bulgars.
719 AD - Nicephorus tightens his grip on his foederates, believing that the Eastern Slavs are planning to revolt. His fears were well-founded, and the Slavs begin to migrate once again into Byzantine territory, demanding that their foederate status be renounced.
The Bulgars under Ajjar quickly join the Slavs, making the same demand. Both parties were sick of having their lands occupied by Roman troops, troops who often caused trouble for them, troops who drained away local resources.
720 AD - The siege of Constantinople begins.
721 AD - Constantinople is saved only by a last-minute surrender by an ailing Nicephorus, who was persuaded only by the patriarch of Constantinople. The Bulgars are given independence without any conditions.
722 AD - After the sacking of Athens by the Eastern Slavs, the Slavs are granted full independence along with the areas of Albania.
723 AD - Nicephorus dies. Ascension of his son Aktion.
726 AD - In an impassioned series of essays, the Pope declares iconoclasm to be heresy, and this causes revolts in Constantinopolitan Italy. The southern Italians break up into smaller city-states, Napoli, Taranto, and Reggio.
Death of Phillipicus. Ascension of his son Bardanes II.
732 AD - Small independent states emerge from the ashes of Hispania, to help combat the Slavic incursions by Akvitan, Luzitanja, and Galisija. More Arabs and Berbers are not brought into Spain, due to the Papacy making another statement, condemning the use of Arab mercenaries, saying the “lands of Christendom were laid to waste by the ancestors of these very men.”
733 AD - Infighting begins amongst the Slavs. Galie begins to overrun Belgija and Bretanja, while Luzitanja and Galisija go at it. The only Slavic kingdom not fighting another is Akvitan, who takes the opportunity to expand its influence beyond the Pyrenees.
734 AD - Breakup of the Eastern Slavs. The various kingdoms that emerge are Epir, Dunav, Rascia, and Illirik.
735 AD - Nicephorus dies. This creates a power vacuum, and a general by the name of Kabasilas seizes the city of Constantinople. Other generals seize other major regions, and all bid for the crown of the East.
736 - 741 AD - Infighting continues on in the Constantinopolitan Empire. This is a very shadowy period, but in the end a man by the name of Basilides ends up ruling the Constantinopolitan Empire as “Kyrios Kai Prostatis Romanoi,” The Lord and Protector of the Romans. This regime is similar to a police state.
737 AD - The Bulgars attack the Burgundians, wanting greater dominance over Italy. When the Pope heard this, he reportedly fell to his knees, palms raised to the sky, shouting, “O Domine, Vindica e Bulgaribus!” Oh Lord, Deliver us from the Bulgarians. Not much later, this would turn into a rallying cry.
738 AD - The Burgundian kingdom, already suffering from corruption and still worn out from its war with the Western Empire, crumbles under the weight of the Bulgarian hordes. They begin a slow withdrawal.
The first West Bulgarian king on record: Sabin.
739 AD - A peace agreement is reached, whereby the Burgundians give up all their holdings beyond the Alps. This begins the period of decline for the Burgundian kingdom.
740 AD - Death of the last Merovingian king. Ascension of Lorraine I, foundation of the Lotharingian dynasty of Frankish rulers.
741 AD - Basilides becomes “Kyrie kai Prostatis Romanoi”, rather than Emperor. Basilides wanted nothing to do with the responsibilities that came with that title, and so shunned it.
742 AD - Bretanja is conquered by Galie, Belgija deals with internal unrest, led mainly by the Roman lords that settled the region earlier. This revolt is backed by the REGNVM GERMANIA, in hopes that another Roman state can be set up in Belgica.
743 AD - Death of the Akvitan king. His two sons split the kingdom into Taragonija and Akvitan. Taragonja continues to push further into Hispania, known to the Slavs as “Ispanija”.
747 AD - Abu Muslim unties the Abbasids against the Umayyads.
750 AD - Last Umayyad caliph overthrown by Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah, the first Abbasid caliph. The Abbasids are quick to make peace with the Eastern Romans, as the Abbasids still have instability to deal with. Namely, they have enemies to hunt down and have to deal with fractious North African emirs.
This same year the Bulgars invade southern Italy, and the troops there are unable to hold out against the oncoming Bulgarian horde.
When the king of Belgija dies at the hands of Roman rebels, the king of Galie, Stefan (who is the first confirmable king of Galie, the previous leaders being unknown due to the poor recordkeeping of the era) takes control of Belgija, and sent the heads of all the Roman lords who rebelled to the King of Germania, Carolus.
751 AD - Many lords swear oaths of fealty to Carolus, seeking protection from Galie.
753 AD - All of Italy is unified with the sack of Naples, Taranto, and Reggio by the Bulgarians.
755 AD - Abd-ar-Rahman, an Umayyad lands in Iberia, and by inspiring the numerous local Muslims in the region, quickly takes control of the southernmost tip of Spain. The still-disorganized local Roman lords lose a great source of manpower, as the persecuted Arabs and Berbers which had taken hold in their land pour in to Abd-ar-Rahman’s newfound kingdom. Already loosely-aligned and losing manpower, the lords can only watch on in horror as Rahman’s numbers swell.
While shadowy, in this same year there seems to be a schism in the Roman and Hunnic Confederation, with the Hunnic majority in the south seeming to have a disagreement involving borders, trade, and inheritance with the Roman majority in the north.
756 AD - Abd-ar-Rahman’s numbers were so great that he was able to, in a single push, subjugate all of Spain except its northernmost parts. The kingdoms of Taragonija, Luzitanija and Galisija were infighting at the time of his arrival, and many refused to take them seriously.
Abd-ar-Rahman’s forces run into trouble, however, at the borders of Akvitan along the Pyrenees. Akvitan had not been involved in major fighting during its years of existence. ar-Rahman, however, can not stop. He is compelled to continue on his route of conquest at great cost, however, because he knows as soon as he stops he is going to have to deal with the natural fractiousness of his rag-tag Arab/Berber army.
In this same year, the Bulgars begin to exert their influence in Germany. The Bulgar king offers protection to the Roman lords beyond Regnum Germania’s borders, those lords who wish to be, at least politically, more aligned with a (perceived) pseudo-Roman state.
757 AD - ar-Rahman pushes through the Pyrenees at great cost to himself, and it took all his resources to keep the Romans and Slavs in his newfound state from destroying his power. While the king of Akvitan, Karol, wanted desperately to sign a peace with the Arab, his international reputation would be up in smoke, because the Papacy would see it as “bargaining with the enemy”. The war goes on.
Death of Sabin. Ascension of Tavkhan.
758 AD - The Aquitaine region is taken over by the Moors. Karol flees to Galie.
759 AD - The Galien forces stop Abd-ar-Rahman at the “Battle of the Garrone”. This battle causes the Akvitan people to rebel against the Ummayyads. Abd-ar-Rahman has no choice but to withdraw beyond the Pyrenees, and try desperately to consolidate his fractious state.
Karol really had no choice but to accept Stefan’s demand for Septimania, given that without Stefan, Karol would have no kingdom. Septimania is given to Galie, and Akvitan focuses on assisting the new, unified kingdom of Galisija-Luzitanja.
A peace was signed in this very year between the Moors and the Galien kingdom. Stefan Vladislavljevic is often referred to as the “Savior of Europe”.
761 - 763 AD - Taking advantage of his popularity, Stefan, claiming that “Galie” belongs to Galie, declares war on Burgundy, citing many incidents involving Slavic traders in Burgundy.
Slowly but steadily Galie takes over Burgundy. In the end, Burgundy is all but destroyed. The unique German culture of the region, however, would remain unaffected by the Slavic conquest, and indeed it would be the conquerors of the Burgundians to be affected by the Germanic culture of Burgundy.
761 AD - Ascension of Lorraine II, king of the Franks.
762 AD - Baghdad made the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate.
766 AD - The end of the Confederation of Romans and Huns. The two divide, the “Romans” preferring to ally themselves with the West Bulgars, while the “Huns” prefer to remain neutral in European affairs. (Technically, their stance was to support the Emperor in Constantinople, however their was at this time not an Emperor but rather a “Lord and Protector”)
768 AD - When the Bulgars announce their intentions to invade Sicily, and they outright refuse Papal requests not to do so, the Pope petitions Stefan Vladislavljevic (Latin: Stefanus Ladislaus) to “deliver Rome from the Bulgar”. He accepts the opportunity to get on the Pope’s good side.
769 - 772 AD - Galie’s war against the West Bulgars ensues. This was a tough war, and it was made even tougher by the Alps. However, the Slavs pushed through the Alps, and slowly but surely the Bulgars are beaten out of most of Italy. The situation was made tougher when the Italians revolted against the Bulgars.
In the end, with the natural death of Tavkhan in 772 dividing the West Bulgarian kingdom into Alpine Bulgaria, Dalmatia, and Pannonia, came the end of the war. For all intents and purposes Italy was saved from the Bulgarian menace, and for his actions Stefan is crowned by the Pope “Emperor of the Romans”. This begins what is known as the “Holy Roman Empire”.
Germania was quick to assist Galie, so as to cement relations with Europe’s emerging superpower.
773 AD - Death of Lord and Protector of the Romans Basilides. Once again the Empire falls into disarray.
With the death of Karol II of Akvitan, the Akvitan kingdom passes on to Stefan.
780 AD - Emperor Aktion of Constantinople is coronated. Once again it’s crown has a head upon which to sit.
785 AD - Death of Stefan Vladislavljevic king of Galie.
787 AD - The first Viking ships reported. They plunder small coastal settlements in France.* This date usually marks the beginning of the Viking Age.
788 AD - Foundation of Morocco
789 AD - Bardanes II never enthralled the army, and Aktion, a man of military merit himself, had supporters in the Roman Empire of Trapezus. In 789 Aktion backs a coup, and Bardanes II is slain. Within days Aktion is crowned in Constantinople as the Roman Emperor of the East. The Eastern Roman Empire is reborn.
790 - 796 AD - Being the Holy Emperor of Rome, Stefan II decides to attack the Moors, to reclaim, at least in some small part, the lands of Christendom. The campaign was long and hard, but the people of Galie were at this point magnanimous. Their late great leader Stefan had unified the Slavs of the West, had beaten back the Bulgar, and had been given by the Pope the crown of the West. Despite having been embroiled in war in the last sixty years, the Empire was eager to prove its military mettle once more.
The army of ar-Rahman was never a very agreeable bunch, and when not at war there was a constant struggle with his own generals to maintain control over the Emirate of al-Ispanya. This did not bode well for the Emir.
But, despite all this, they were all Muslims, and were absolutely fanatical in combat. This made the war tough for Stefan.
In the end, little was conquered, but the region of Taragonija was in a small part recaptured, and it did destabilize the Emirate enough for the Galisija-Luzitanja kingdom to make gains in the north.
The paltry gains in this war at the enormous cost in men and money would help lead to the end of the Holy Roman Empire as a unified political entity, although the fact Stefan II will die without an heir doesn’t help either. The common people are happy with Stefan II because he retook Christian lands from the Saracens, however the military generals and nobility couldn’t be more displeased with him.
793 AD - The sacking of Lindisfarne by the Vikings.
795 AD - Attack of Iona, Inisbofin, and Inismurray in Ireland by the Vikings.
796 AD - Death of Lothaire II. Ascension of his son Louis. Louis immediately adopts a defensive strategy for the Northumbrian coast, pouring money into the construction of small forts, in an attempt to prepare for more raids by the Northmen.
802 AD - Iona is sacked again by the Vikings.
805 AD - Death of Stefan II. His sons Petar, Matija, Gregor, and Ioan begin to negotiate the division of his kingdom.
807 AD - The negotiations break down. While Petar and Gregor remain civil and continue negotiating between themselves, Ioan and Matija argue over whom Burgundy (Burgundia) belongs to. Matija argues that the Bugundy is rightfully his, claiming it to be an extension of his father’s North Italian conquests. Ioan claims the area around the Rhone (Rona) and Burgundy (Burgundia), saying that Matija should be content with just Italy. This erupts into full-scale war.
808 AD - Founding of Danevirke by Godfred.
Matija loses ground in Burgundy. But Ioan’s plan to strike into Italy itself to score a war-ending victory fails, as his army arrives too late to push through the Alps, and the scouts he sent in never return.
Petar and Gregor settle. Petar receives Galie Zahod (West Gaul) while Gregor receives Galie Vzhod (East Gaul)
809 AD - Ioan is decisively victorious at Massilia. Matija pushed the majority of his army into Burgundy, forcing his way through the stalemate. However, when he reaches Massilia he is crushed. He is outflanked by land and by sea, and his army is defeated. Matija agrees to renounce all claim to Burgundy, while in exchange all the brothers acknowledge the right of him and his descendents to the title “Holy Roman Emperor”. The remainder of the Empire is divided into Rona and Italija.
The East Bulgars begin renewed raids into the Byzantine Empire.
811 AD - The Bulgars begin a siege of Constantinople, and are defeated by a force of Romans that crossed by night the straits of Bosporus, and surrounded the Bulgarian force.
812 AD - The Hunnic Confederation with its myriad cavalry ride in support of Emperor Aktion. The Bulgars are taken aback, and the Bulgars have little choice but to ask for peace on terms favorable for the Empire. 6,000 pounds of gold apiece to the Hunnic Confederation and the Empire.
815 AD - Death of Aktion, Emperor of the East. Ascension of Michael I.
816 AD - Matija adds Corsica and Sardinia to the Kingdom of Italija.
818 AD - Petar, seeking a base for naval raids on Al-Ispanya, peacefully adds the Balearics to Galie Zahod.
820 AD - Death of Petar. Ascension of his son Tomaz as king of Galie Zahod.
823 AD - Crete conquered by the Arabs.
824 AD - Death of Gregor king of Galie Vzhod. Ascension of his son Pavol.
826 AD - The Danish king accepts Christianity.
Death of Louis. Succeeded by Charles I.
Death of Ioan king of Rona. Ascension of his son Teodor.
827 AD - Arab invasion of Sicily begins. Matija and Tomaz jointly send their navies to attempt to stop them, but are destroyed in a major naval battle.
829 AD - Death of Matija king of Italija. Ascension of his son Adrián.
The Dalmatian coast is ravaged by the Saracens.
831 AD - Palermo falls to the Saracens.
832 AD - The Vikings begin to raid the Germania coast. Germania was up until this point a near-unspoiled land, a land frozen in time, where troops similar to the legions of yesteryear still marched and the aqueducts still ran with fresh water. Now its northern coast was ravaged greatly. While the Vikings fail to establish a permanent presence, and while they also fail to push far up into the Rhine, much was destroyed.
This immediately prompts the “First Lord” of Germania to invest nearly all the kingdom’s coffers into the construction and development of fortifications along the Rhine and on the coast. The people don’t mind, as they too are fearful of the Vikings.
In this same year, Clondalkin is sacked by the Vikings, and the Vikings are there to stay. First real Viking encampment in Ireland.
833 AD - Revolt in Galie Zahod. Many local lords do not approve of Tomaz’ rule, which was fraught with Saracen raids and higher taxes levied on the lords.
835 AD - Ragnar Lodbrok rises to power as the King of the Swedes and the Danes.
This same year, the gathering revolts in Galie Zahod succeed, as Akvitan and Taragonija both declare their independence. The success of their revolt was due mainly to the fact that none of the West Slavic kingdoms were fond of each other, each one frequently plotting to take either more land or to take the Holy Roman crown.
836 AD - Major raids into the south of Francia by the Vikings. Also raids in Northumberland intensify.
838 AD - Arab raids into Anatolia resume. A few major towns fall to the Abbasids.
The Khazars convert to Judaism.
This same year Tomaz of Galie Zahod recognizes the independence of both Akvitan and Taragonija.
Death of Michael I Eastern Roman Emperor. Ascension of Michael II.
840 AD - Foundation of Dublin by the Vikings, primarily as a center for the Viking slave trade.
843 AD - Union of Scots and Picts. Foundation of the Kingdom of Scotland.
844 AD - Another raid by the Vikings on the shores of Germania. Similar success.
845 AD - Vikings under Ragnar Lodbrok sack Lutetsija, a major city in Galie Vzhod. (Paris) Ragnar Lodbrok demands a huge ransom for the city, and Pavol has little choice but to pay it.
Left unchecked, the Moors begin renewed attacks on Galisija-Luzitanija.
846 AD - Rome is sacked by Arab pirates.
847 AD - Death of Tomaz of Galie Zahod. Ascension of his son Vlatislav.
849 AD - Death of Adrián. Ascension of his son Stefan III. Stefan III is crowned Holy Roman Emperor.
850 AD - Death of Teodor. Ascension of his son Marek.
Viking raids begin on the Welsh coast. In response to this, the Franks and the Welsh sign a treaty of co-protection.
851 AD - Vikings permanently establish themselves in Batavia, with their capital at Traiectum (Utrecht).
Vikings fail to sack London, an army of Welsh and Franks happening to be there at that time and place. However, communities along the Thames are ravaged.
852 AD - Death of Pavol king of Galie Vzhod. Ascension of Stefan III (different from Stefan III of Italija).
Stefan III of Galie Vzhod marries his daughter off to the First Lord of Germania, Marcus. He marries his other daughter off to Crown Prince Lukáš of Italija.
Holy Roman Emperor Stefan III King of Italija decisively defeats the Arabs at the Battle of Capua.
853 AD - The Moors make more advancements in Iberia. Galisija-Luzitanija is once again on the defensive.
855 AD - Michael II invades Bulgaria, using primarily Hunnic and Khazarian forces. Later that same year, the king of Bulgaria has little choice but to convert to Christianity officially.
Last Arab raiders forced from Italy.
860 AD - Harald I of Norway becomes king.
Vikings attack Constantinople, called “Miklagard”.
Death of Charles I. Ascension of Lothaire III.
862 AD - Rurik takes control of Novgorod. (Called by the Vikings “Garðaríke” )
The relatively sparsely-populated land in Russia attracts many Viking immigrants, and begins a movement of Norse culture into Russia. The wave upon wave of fresh blood from Scandinavia ensures that the Viking culture doesn’t die out.
863 - 865 AD - The death of Marek of Rona left no clear successor. He had one son, only ten years of age, many daughters, and many local lords vying for control of the kingdom. When he died, the kingdom of Rona immediately divided. Rona was inherited by Marek’s son, Marek II. The Lord of Massilia, Vladimir, was able to seize control of the region he governed and held sway over, while a Burgundian by the name of Carloman recreated the Burgundian kingdom.
865 AD - Ragnar Lodbrok abandons his plan to invade England upon hearing from his relation, Rurik, tales of the wealth of Miklagard. He sets sail with his army of Vikings for Novgorod, where eventually he’ll work his way to Constantinople.
866 - 868 AD - Ragnar and Rurik team up, and begin to seize control of the Volga River. Their combined armies lay waste to Khazar lands. When the Vikings reach the coast and set sail with their fleet, the Romans are unable to do anything to stop them. They have at this point a modest navy that is constantly entangled with Arab fleets, and this assault came out of left field.
The Vikings used siege craft, and after a few months Constantinople was sacked by the Vikings. (The Emperor himself was not present during this time, he was away on campaign in the east.) Ragnar was so impressed by Miklagard, however, that he ordered the city not be burned. Rurik followed suit. The Hagia Sophia apparently suffered little pillaging as well.
868 AD - Death of Michael II. Ascension of his son Belisarios (named after the famous general).
The Aghlabid dynasty of Tunisia takes the isle of Malta.
870 AD - Malta is taken from the Aghlabids by Sicilian Arabs.
872 AD - Death of Vlastislav of Galie Zahod. Suceeded by Petar II.
Death of Stefan III of Galie Vzhod. Suceeded by Stefan IV.
Harald Fairhair becomes the first king of Norway.
874 AD - First settlers arrive in Iceland.
Death of Stefan III Holy Roman Emperor. Suceeded by Lukáš.
The Vikings of Traiectum are driven out, and Germanian rule is re-established in that area. Until succession is worked out, the area becomes a personal royal territory.
876 AD - Ragnar establishes his own Danelaw on the Crimean Peninsula. He dies later that year, succeeded by his son Halfdan.
878 AD - The Aghlabids take control of Syracuse.
Death of Rurik of Garðaríke.
880 AD - Establishment of Kievan Rus’ with the movement of the capital of Rurik’s kingdom from Novgorod to Kiev.
881 AD - Norman pirates begin raiding the northern coast of Gaul.
The Western Bulgars form a loose coalition, after being raided constantly by the Saracens along the Dalmatian coast, and as a counter-tactic against the militarization of Lukáš’ Italija.
It was also in this year that the REX GERMANORVM was married to Lukáš’ daughter, Mária.
The CONFEDERATIO ROMANORVM fights a sporadic war with the Kingdom of Bohemia, which was made up primarily of Bulgarian exiles from when the Bulgars were forced from most of Italy, which had been “slavicized” by the Slavs that had already occupied the region. While the Kingdom of Bohemia had existed for a long time by now, this is their first mention of any significance to the rest of the world.
Death of Lothaire III. Ascension of Louis II. Louis II privately announces his intentions to bring Scotland under control, but the powers-that-be at his court are too concerned with the Vikings to care. Louis II does however begin a pattern for more French rulers to come.
882 AD - Lukáš launches sporadic raids into the Western Bulgarians’ territories. This move was sanctioned by the Pope, who saw the Western Bulgars being increasingly drawn into an Orthodox-style of Christianity thanks to the influence of its Slavic neighbors. This year marks the beginning of the West Bulgarian War.
885 AD - Lukáš, having tested the defenses of the Bulgars and saw them to be lacking, sends a mighty army into West Bulgaria. This proved to be a trap. The clever king Ormut recognized these forces as simply probe forces, and intentionally made his armies to appear weak. Lukáš was taken by surprise at the Battle of Trst (Trieste), and his army was routed. They were able to regroup, however Lukáš’ stubbornness made him wait only a few months before invading again, and with many of the same weary forces that comprised his last army.
Again Lutetsija is besieged by Vikings.
Death of Marek II. Ascension of Teodor II.
886 AD - Lukáš invades again, and is presses far into Pannonia, only to be encircled and killed at the Battle of Aquincum. Lukáš’ head was sent back to the court at Milan, and this date amrks the beginning of a chaotic time in Italy, and Europe at large.
Lukáš had no heir, and the king of Germania laid claim to all of Italija, including the title of Holy Roman Emperor. This move was backed by Stefan IV of Galie Vzhod, because such a move would place the title of Emperor in his line as well. But the rest of the Slavs did not like that the title would be going to a Roman (technically, a Germanian) rather than a Slav.
Petar II of Galie Zahod backed, rather, a Duke by the name of Ioan to take the crown of Italija. He was a Slav, and had a (very) small amount of royal blood in him.
However, Petar was ill-equipped to deal with this, as he was currently being ravaged by Viking invaders along the north coast. Germania at this time experienced relative peace when it came to Viking raids, and as such was able to shell out for a war.
Yet a third element came in to play here. The Duke of Padova, Angelo, who had long pacified the simmering Italian ethnicity (who were angered by the disproportionate representation of Italians in the court) within the court of Italija, now wanted the Slavs out. He reportedly marched into the town square of Padova on horseback waving a banner saying “Italia, non Italija”. He rallied the fighting men of Padova, and withing months had trained a modest army.
Support for Angelo spread rapidly, and the war was on.
Also in this year, Rollo of Normandy is granted land in exchange for lifting the siege of Lutetsija. He is granted land at the mouth of the Seine river. The peace does not, however, apply to Galie Zahod, and he immediately begins raiding the lands of that region.
887 AD - The war in Italy rages on, and Ioan is losing ground steadily. His only supporters are Rona and Massilia, but they themselves refuse to work together, and Petar of Galie Zahod is too busy with the Normans to help.
Germania makes steady advances, and by the end of 887, are poised to strike at the heart of Italija.
Angelo rallies enough support to proclaim the Republics of Padova and Pisa, and Firenze. The combined Italian army pushes for Milan.
889 AD - By this time, Ioan is dead, and Italy is being bitterly fought over by Angelo and Germania. Milan is held by Germania, but by Angelo it is seen as the ultimate prize for his efforts.
Rollo and Petar finally sign a peace agreement, in which Petar is granted more land along Gaul’s north coast.
Death of Petar II. Succeeded by Petar III.
Death of Stefan IV. Succeeded by Pavol II.
890 AD - When Milan falls to the Italians, the king of Germania meets Angelo and discusses terms. It came as a surprise to the Rex that Angelo wanted no part in the “Slavic title” of Holy Roman Emperor. Germania was granted the area around Torino, and the Alpine lands he had conquered, and Ioannes of Germania was coronated Holy Roman Emperor. The coronation would not be recognized by all parties until ten years later.
891 AD - The Eastern Roman Emperor, seeking peace with the Vikings, sends an emissary to the court of Crimea and Kiev, bringing wealth from the Muslim lands. This incites the Vikings to begin raiding Muslim territories. The Emperor would only grant the Vikings the right of passage if they were Christians, however, and the seductive wealth of the East was enough to convince the Vikings.
892 AD - Alexandria is sacked by the Vikings, whom had been granted a right of passage through the Aegean by the Emperor. This was an opportune time, as the independent Tulunid dynasty of Egypt
895 AD - The Magyars invade the Carpathian Basin, otherwise known as Pannonia Magna. The assaults on the Roman Confederation failed, due to the fact that the R.C. has been in a state of relative peace for quite some time. The H.C. can’t leave its southern border for a moment without risking Bulgarian incursion. As such, the H.C.’s eastern half was overrun.
896 AD - Vikings sack major towns all along the Nile. A Danelaw is established in Cyrenacia by a Christian Viking from Kiev. The Danelaw was small, however, and only served as a base for raids on the Islamic African coast.
897 AD - All of the Hunnic Confederation is overrun. Attentions of the Magyars turn to the Roman Confederation, who receives help from the new West Bulgarian Kingdom.
898 AD - Many Normans choose to leave their newfound kingdom in the north of Gaul in favor of plundering Iberia. The Umayyad rulers of Al-Ispanya, always ruling over an unstable kingdom, are now having to beat back Vikings. While the Arab navies are effective, they can’t stop the Vikings from landing. Much is plundered from Al-Ispanya.
899 AD - The Magyars sign a peace treaty with both the West Bulgars and the Roman Confederates.
900 AD - The Rex of Germania is recognized as the Holy Roman Emperor, and Germania is considered a part of the Holy Roman Empire.
901 AD - Raids on Egypt by the Vikings intensify, as thousands upon thousands of Northmen pour from out of Scandinavia upon hearing of the Muslims’ wealth. Vikings virtually have free reign of the Nile Delta and the coast.
902 AD - Death of Louis II. Succeeded by Raoul.
903 AD - Vikings come to Iberia to stay. The inefficient Caliph of Al-Ispanya, Abdallah ibn Muhammad, who had little control of his realms beyond Cordoba itself, couldn’t stop the Vikings from establishing a Danelaw at the mouth of the Tagus.
905 AD - The Abbasid Caliphate re-establishes control over Egypt, but inherits an Egypt infested with Vikings in its Delta. The Abbasids begin their campaign to retake the north African coast.
908 AD - The Vikings are largely purged from Egypt, although at great cost: The region was stripped bare of most wealth, and the Vikings along Libya’s coast were still entrenched in the region. The coffers of Kiev and Crimea fatten, and they quickly become among the richest nations in Europe.
911 AD - The Vikings are purged from Libya, and the Vikings turn their attention to expansion within Russia itself. The plunder of Africa by the Vikings is estimated by historians to be one of the largest shifts in wealth in history. The once-poor Viking kingdoms of Kiev and Crimea are now very rich, and the Abbasid Caliphate has to deal with reconstruction of vast areas of land.
912 AD - The Magyars resume their raids on the Roman Confederation. This will over the course of a few years esacalate into a full-blown war.
914 AD - With the death of the Rex of Germania, Pavol II pressed his claim to the title of Holy Roman Emperor, but Rex Flavius of Germania wouldn’t have it. Pavol II declared war on Germania.
915 AD - Pavol II fails to breach the Rhine, and after a brave offensive, has little choice but to draw inward.
The raids on the Roman Confederation intensify, and with the slaughtering of a premier Confederate lord, the Roman Confederation has little choice but to declare war on the Magyars.
916 AD - The Rex of Germania is able to break through, and his armies lay waste to many important towns. The destruction encourages the Normans to once again besiege Lutetsija. This time, the king is in the city itself.
917 AD - Lutetsija is sacked by the Vikings, and king Pavol II had his hand cut off. He is sent into exile in the Frankish kingdom. This year marks the dissolution of the Vzhod kingdom, into petty kingdoms: Belgija, Aurelijan, and Trevorija.
The Rex of Germania signs a peace agreement with these petty lords, who themselves were unable to put up a fight against him.
In this year, the last king of Rona Teodor II died. He divided his kingdom in Septimanija, Avernija, and Galie Jug.
918 AD - The Roman Confederation is overrun. The Magyars have control of all Pannonia Magna. The West Bulgars agree to pay tribute to the Magyars in order to keep them quelled. The Magyars quickly turn their attentions northward.
920 AD - The Magyars begin subduing Slavic tribes in the Poland region. There is nothing to stop them. However, the Kievan Rus’ gain many new loyal subjects seeking sanctuary from the onrushing Magyars.
921 AD - The Kings of Krimean and Kievan Rus’ officially convert to Christianity (although it had been de facto Christian for a long time)
922 AD - Conquest of the Tagus Danelaw.
925 AD - The Kingdom of Bohemia is overrun by the Magyars. While the kingdom was strong, its lack of dependable allies (Germania refused to assist it, and so did the Western Bulgars) and its strength in relation to the newly-arrived Magyars proved to be too much. The Germanian king fortifies his borders.
927 AD - The Germanian king refuses Slavic entreaties to protect them from the Magyars, citing that they [Germania] must look to their own defenses. They then turn to the Danes, who aren’t much help either. The Slavs of Poland are helpless against the Magyars.
929 AD - Akvitan, Septimanija, Galisija-Luzitanija, and Taragonija begin a renewed assault on Al-Ispanya, and they make major gains. For the past half-century, mediocre leadership has left it a paper tiger, and major cities throughout Al-Ispanya are regained.
930 - 935 AD - The campaign in Al-Ispanya. Slow advance through the Iberian peninsula, and eventually the Christian forces are stopped, but at great price to the Muslims in land and resources. A peace is signed on March 16th, 935 AD, in which the new conquests are recognized by the Caliphate of Al-Ispanya.
930 - 933 AD - Poland is subdued by the Magyars. While direct control is not established, the Magyars do establish puppet rulers within this region. The Slavs are largely dominated by Magyar nobility, and they are a series of small statelets, paying lip-service to the Magyars.
930 AD - Foundation of the Icelandic Commonwealth.
King Harald of Norway divides his kingdom.
933 AD - Magyar expansion into Germania is checked with the defeat of the Magyars trying to cross into Germanian lands. The Magyars and the Germanians reach a peace agreement.
935 AD - This year marks the beginning of Krimean Rus’ expansion along the Black Sea, declaring war on the Khazarian tribes that were still lodged in those regions. This move was backed by the Byzantine Emperor, whom had abandoned the Khazars as their allies.
939 - 941 AD - Death of the last Lotharingian king of France. There is a power struggle that lasts for three years, battles were fought sporadically and the French court in London was not a safe place to be. In the end a man by the name of Louis establishes the Ludovingian dynasty. (To date, the Franks have been ruled by Merovingians, Lotharingians, and now Ludovingians)
940 AD - The Vikings re-establish themselves in France (England) in the midst of the succession crisis that beleaguered the kingdom. The interregnum rulers of the French kingdom have little choice but to accept the cession of parts f Northumbria to the Vikings, unconditionally.
942 - 946 AD - The Vikings of Russia are rented out to re-establish Christian control over Cyprus and Crete. In return the Byzantines would surrender these islands to full Viking control (which suited the Emperor just fine). After many battles, the Vikings, mainly from Kievan Rus’ (the Krimean Rus’ were exploring opportunities elsewhere) managed to recapture Crete, and not Cyprus. This would serve as an important hub for raids which would begin again on the
943 - 947 AD - The Vikings, now with land access to the Byzantines, begin to explore interesting possibilities concerning the raids on the Abbasid Caliphate. For one thing, a few days overland would give the Vikings river access to Mesopotamia.
An expedition would be mounted by a large Krimean Rus’ army, the ultimate goal being Baghdad. The Abbasids had no idea that the Vikings would have the ability, let alone the audacity to sail down the Tigris and Euphrates, but they did.
The expedition resulted in the unfettered plunder of much of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The reason the Vikings were able to sack Baghdad was because the Caliph refused to take the threat seriously. He refused to believe the reports that a large Viking army would actually make its way to and sack Baghdad. Not to mention that by this point in time, the Caliph was only a figurehead. The Buyid emirs were the true power in the region.
But in 947 AD, that’s exactly what happened. The Krimean Rus’ were able to retreat swiftly back into Anatolia, and the spoils were sent to Constantinople and Krimea.
948 - 950 AD - The results of the sacking of Baghdad were felt immediately. The Abbasid Caliphate immediately sought revenge, and large armies were drafted up to invade Anatolia. The Krimean Rus’ were always fair-weather friends of the Emperor, and so provided little help in the ensuing war. Over the next two years the Caliphate, inefficient and dying a beast it was, still managed to conquer most of interior Anatolia.
960 AD - The Vikings are beaten back from France once again.
962 - 972 AD - The Polanes and Pomeranians fight hard to overthrow their Magyar masters. After ten years of fighting, they succeed, and Magyar dominance over Poland is all but eliminated.
963 - 965 AD - Germania conquers BVLGARIA RHAETIANA, or Alpine Bulgaria.
969 AD - The Fatimids move the seat of their Caliphate to Egypt, despite the recent economic downturn in the region, seeing it as an opportunity. They leave their former lands under the control of the Zirids.
972 AD - The Zirids are unable to maintain control over Sicily, and surrender it to the Kalbids.
973 - 976 AD - Galie Zahod moves to reunify the divided kingdoms, by invading and conquering Avernija and Galie Jug, citing that the rulers of these regions have no legitimate claim to the region (which was patently untrue, but this was seen as a minor detail)
979 AD - Germania looks to expand its borders to the Vistula, and begins forcing the Slavs in the region to pay tribute.
Last great wave of Vikings arrive in the Baltic states region and sets up various petty kingdoms in that area.
980 AD - Henri of France invades the kingdom of Alba and Strathclyde, seeking to add more land to the realms of France.
981 - 983 AD - The French war on the Scots does not go well, but for neither side. The war ends up getting nowhere, essentially, although the French come out on top, and for their hard-fought victories they received money, and that was all. The Ludovingians begin to fall into disfavor among the nobility.
981 AD - The Union of Bulgarian Pannonia and Bulgarian Dalmatia, in response to the Magyar and Germanian threat.
982 AD - Greenland colonies are founded by Erik the Red
983 - 993 AD - The Kievans, Swedes and Danes subjugate the Estonians, Lithuanians, and Latvians. They are met with much resistance, but over time they accept their new masters, albeit begrudgingly.
984 AD - At just nineteen years old Leon I ascends the throne of Galie Zahod.
986 AD - Sweyn Forkbeard becomes the King of the Danes. He stirs up trouble for Germania by sanctioning raids on its coastline.
989 - 996 AD - Leon of Galie Zahod, acting on the pretense that he is the rightful ruler of all Galie, launches a massive campaign against the eastern kingdoms (Belgija, Aurelijana, Trevoria) By 994 he added all of these kingdoms to his realm, but he felt he needed the former capital of Galie Vzhod to proclaim himself the “Rege Galiei”. He declared war on Normandy.
The Normans proved no match for Leon’s forces, and on June 8th, 996, the Normans surrendered, and swore allegiance to Leon.
989 - 990 AD - Otto of Burgundy begins to expand his realm, by quickly conquering an unprepared Massilia.
997 AD - Leon proclaimed himself the “REX GALLIAE”, the King of Gaul (Rege Galiei) in Lutetsija. Galie is reborn.
999 AD - Leon commissions a grand Cathedral in Lutetsija.
1000 AD - The Kingdom of Germania begins to experience a degree of unrest within its kingdoms. Slowly but surely over the centuries the old Roman concept of state sovereignty has meant less and less to the Germanian Domini, and now it has begun to show. Torino constantly rebels, as do the Alpine provinces, and even in the Rex’s own court is there pressure. The raids by the Danes doesn’t help, and now Leon is demanding the title of Holy Roman Emperor. The ailing Rex tries to hold his kingdom together.
1001 AD - Stephen I baptized as a Christian and crowned Hungary’s first king.
1003 AD - The ailing king of Germania dies. Although he has an heir, the kingdom is unable to stay together. 1003 AD marks the beginning of the 12-year interregnum in the Kingdom of Germania.
1006 AD - Taking the SN 1006 (brightest supernova ever recorded) as a bad omen, Leon chooses to abandon his plans of invading Germania. He does not, however, give up on his dreams of being crowned the Holy Roman Emperor.
1007 AD - The tensions in Germania boil over. With the death of the heir to the throne, the kingdom flies apart into many nations, each one vying for control of all of Germania.
1008 AD - Leon decides to assist Marius of Germania Inferior in his quest to unite all of Germania and proclaim himself the “REX GERMANIAE ET PRIMVS DOMVS GERMANORVM” (King of Germania and First Lord of the Germans) The only catch is that he renounce all claim to the title of Holy Roman Emperor.
1009 - 1013 AD - Batavia, Germania Superior, and Alamannia are conquered.
In this same time period, a civil war erupts in Al-Ispanya, and slowly but surely the Caliphate falls into disarray.
1014 - 1015 AD - Boihimaeum is conquered, and a peace is brokered with Torino, Rhaetia, and Helvetia. Germania is reconquered, and Leon crowned Holy Roman Emperor.
The Pope in Rome has taken notice (finally) of all the infighting of Christians over the title of Holy Roman Emperor, and he attributes the hard fight to reconquer Iberia to this infighting. The Pope issues a decree that the title of Holy Roman Emperor from that point on ought be elected, and that the most powerful “Duces” (Dukes) of the territory comprised of the Holy Roman Empire have the right to elect the Emperor.
The practice of electing a monarch was an old German one, and as such only caught on in Burgundy. The Slavs and the Latins of Europe never considered an election, but the Pope, who had the official authority over who gets coronated, was as previously mentioned, tired of the infighting.
All throughout the Holy Roman Empire agreed, and Leon would become the last Holy Roman Emperor to which the title was passed hereditarily.
1016 AD - Crete is used as a base of operations for Viking raids throughout the Muslim Mediterranean world.
The Church of Danubius (See 537 AD of the TL), which had long ago fallen into disrepair, is repaired by Stephen I of Hungary.
1017 AD - Raids take place on the Zirids of Tunisia by the Vikings, and once again the Vikings sack mountains of gold and jewels from the Caliphate.
When the Kalbids use Sicily as a base to attack southern Italy, the Southern Italians call upon the Vikings of Crete to assist them. In 1017 AD the Kretan Vikings arrive in Sicily and begin to fight the Kalbids for control of the island.
1018 AD - The East Bulgarian king begins demanding more land from the Byzantines, for recognition of Bulgaria’s “faithful service” to the Empire. The Emperor of the time, Romanus II, told the Bulgarian king Ivan where he could take his demands, and this causes the Bulgars to invade. The Eastern Slavs, ever-the-opportunists, join in. West Bulgaria sends men and materiel as well.
Beset on all sides, the Byzantine Emperor has few places toward which to turn. The Kievan Rus’ are able to send a large army, but it isn’t enough. Romanus II has little choice but to call in the Kingdom of Hungary. The Emperor promises that whatever lands outside Bulgaria that Hungarian armies conquer he can keep, and Stephen I can’t refuse the offer to get his kingdom in good standing with Christian Europe.
1018 - 1023 AD - For five years the war in the Balkans raged on, and slowly but surely were the Bulgarians and the Slavs overwhelmed by the combined Byzantine, Hungarian, and Kievan forces. (They were later joined by the Krimean Rus’ in the war’s end-game)
By war’s end, Illirik and Dunav were conquered entirely by the Hungarian kingdom, and more than half of Rascia was assimilated into the Kingdom of Hungary. Epir was forced to pay a huge ransom, and Bulgaria itself was assimilated into the Byzantine Empire.
1020 AD - Norway united under Saint Olav, ruler of Norway.
1021 AD - Valencia breaks away from Al-Ispanya.
1023 AD - Sevilla breaks away from Al-Ispanya.
1024 - 1026 AD - The Poles begin savage attacks on the Magyar-ruled Slavic clients, and on Pomerania. The Poles succeed in both their endeavors, and Andrezej I is crowned the first King of Poland.
1025 - 1027 AD - The French campaign to conquer the Welsh, or rather, bring the rather autonomous Welsh princes under the influence of the French crown. The end result of the war was the subjugation of the Welsh princes, if not their outright conquest.
1027 - 1030 AD - The Kievan Rus’ extend their influence all the way to the White Sea (Kvitsjøen).
In this same time period, the King of Germania (for real this time) expands beyond the Elbe river, and begins to subjugate the Polabians along the Elbe.
1031 AD - This year marks the end of Al-Ispanya, and beginning the First Taifa period. While most of the Sucessor States are Islamic, one state is formed by the disgruntled Latins that lived within Al-Ispanya, and this was termed “España”, using the local language that had arisen over the centuries.
1033 AD - Death of Leon King of Gaul and Holy Roman Emperor. While the title “King of Gaul” passes to his son Iakob, the title of Holy Roman Emperor was given to Ioan of Septimanija.
1036 AD - The Kievan Rus’ begin to expand down the Volga River, although not by much. For the most part these “settlements” are forts (which remain unoccupied during winter) and trading posts, but it is important in the spread of Viking culture eastward.
1037 AD - The establishment of the rule of Togrul I over the Seljuk Turks.
1038 - 1040 AD - The Bulgarian Slavic majority within Rhaetia throws off their Latin overlords, and establishes the state of Raetija.
1040 - 1044 AD - Seljuk conquest of Iran.
1041 AD - Galisija-Luzitanja attack the Taifa state of Badajoz, seeing the division of Al-Ispanya as the perfect time to strike.
1043 AD - Galisija-Lusitanja successfully conquers all of Badajoz to the Tagus river, and the rest falls to Sevilla, taking the opportunity to expand its borders.
1044 - 1047 AD - The Byzantines reconquer much of what was lost in Anatolia. It was nothing short of a miracle that the Abbasids were able to take land from the Byzantines in the first place, and appropriately the Byzantines were able to take back what was rightfully theirs.
1053 AD - Henri III of France agrees to assist Malcom III of Scotland regain the throne from MacBeth.
In this same year the Almoravids of Morocco begin to impose their orthodox view of Islam on the various factions and tribes of Morocco, especially on the various Berber tribes of the region.
In 1053 the Kalbid dynasty of Muslim rulers of Sicily ended. There being no Normans as IOTL, the whole island falls into disarray, with no power elsewhere in Europe or Africa or the East in a strong enough position to take it.
1053 - 1058 AD - Malcom slowly regains control over Scotland, and in 1058 he is successful in retaking the throne for himself.
1054 AD - Cardinal Humbertus and Michael Cerularius both decree each other’s excommunication. This date is considered the beginning of the Great Schism, which divides Christendom into Catholic and Orthodox Christianity.
1055 AD - Seljuk capture of Baghdad.
1056 AD - The first real duchies in western Europe begin to emerge, as Iakob of Galie grants many “duxes” (dukes) of various regions semi-independent yet subordinate to himself status. These emerged in order to more efficiently govern the (at that time) vast Kingdom of Gaul.
The Germanians had since its inception had a similar system (the “Domini” system), and rather than being called duchies they were called “dominions”.
1060 AD - Death of Iakob. Suceeded by Iakob II.
1062 AD - The Poles support a Slav who wishes to reclaim his country Bohemia from the clutches of the Hungarians. While it doesn’t succeed, it does incite other Slavs, and even Latins within the Magyar state to rise up in resistance.
1063 AD - Iakob II proclaims that all books shall be written in a single style script, a script which allows for even spacing and easy reading. This is supported by the church, whose priests often had a difficult time getting their hands on a neatly-printed version of the Bible.
1065 - 1069 AD - A Latin Dux by the name of Petrus rebels against the Hungarians. Many Domini join him in his uprising, and the Byzantine Empire has little choice but to help them put down this revolt.
1068 AD - The Turks invade Asia Minor under their leader, Alp Arslan. The Yurks invade at the worst possible time for the Byzantines. The Krimean Rus’ send some help, but given that the center of their kingdom is on the other side of the Black Sea, they are not in so great a position to help.
1071 AD - The meager Byzantine/Krimean army that was sent to repel the Turkish invaders was absolutely destroyed. The Byzantines simply couldn’t hold on to Asia Minor, and in that same year Ankara falls to the Seljuk Turks.
1074 AD - Nicaea falls to the Seljuks.
1076 AD - The Sultanate of Rum is established in Anatolia, ruled by Suleyman I.
1077 - 1078 AD - The Krimeans begin to retaliate, seeing it as their duty to assist Byzantium keep Anatolia. A large army was sent along the north coast of Anatolia, and while it was strong, it suffered many defeats, and ultimately doesn’t accomplish much except get some meager holdings for the Krimeans. On May 31, 1078, the Seljuks of Rum signed a separate peace with the Krimean Rus’.
1079 - 1081 AD - The Latin kingdom in Hispania pre-empted Taragonijan expansion by invading and then conquering the kingdom of Valencia.
1086 AD - The Almoravids of Morocco, having been called upon by Abbad III of Sevilla to assist him with the “Christian Problem”, defeats the Christians in a major battle. This year has been called “Christendom’s Darkest Year” by various Slavic historians.
1088 -1091 AD - The Almoravids and the Christians slug it out in Spain, and the end result is that Valencia is recaptured by the Muslims, and not much else. The Christians proved that they could go toe-to-toe with the Almoravids, but they couldn’t quite keep them from retaking what they saw was theirs.
1092 AD - The Byzantines regain control of the Bosporus straits. The Krimeans and the Byzantines embark on a massive militarization plan, this being assisted by the Hungarians and the Kievans.
1093 AD - The Kievans, realizing that they are unable to rule their lands with a great degree of efficiency, reluctantly adopt the more western custom of granting princes rule over lands. With the death of king Olaf of Kiev, his sons Inge and Magnus divide the kingdom between them. While still officially a unified kingdom with two princes, they are now the Principality of Holmgard and the Principality of Kiev.
1095 AD - Pope Urban II proclaims “Deus Volt!” With these words, the Crusades to retake the Holy Land begin. The Crusades were precipitated mostly by the Byzantine Emperor’s plea for assistance with the Turkish problem.
(Note: The Pope Urban II of OTL was a Frenchman. As such the Pope Urban II ITTL is not the same, however I believe that regardless of who was in charge at the time, the Crusades were a historical inevitability.)
1096 AD - Thousands upon thousands of Europe’s young (and old) men trek Eastward. While the official Church-sanctioned First Crusade was not scheduled to depart until late in the year in 1096, three Crusades had already been independently launched. These were the Gallic Crusade, the Germanian Crusade (in part sparked by the Gallic Crusade), and the Varangian Crusade (the Crusading ideal had been spread via Byzantium to the Varangians).
Late in the year the First Crusade, beginning in Rome, was officially launched.
1097 AD - The Varangian Crusade moved in two parts: One over land, the other over water. Trapezus was besieged by thousands in this year, and retaken for Christendom by a Kievan/Holmgardian/Polish/Krimean army, and the surrounding land was recaptured, with the assistance of the Byzantine navy. Coastal Anatolia was retaken quickly, and the Crusaders pressed westward, as far as Antioch.
1098 AD - The city of Antioch falls to the Crusaders.
Meanwhile, the Saracens have been expelled from Anatolia’s north shore, mostly by Poles and Varangians.
1099 AD - A group of Sicilian lords, working with the assistance of the few Kretan Vikings, overthrows Islamic rule over Sicily, and revives Sicily as a kingdom.
Jerusalem, the ultimate goal of the Crusaders, is taken. There is celebration throughout all the lands of Christendom when the news is heard, and it gives hope to a Europe ever-fearing the encroachment of the Saracens.
1100 AD - The Crusader states are established.
1101 AD - The Kingdom of Jerusalem, ruled by Jaroslav the Holy, makes advances against the Saracens once more.
Meanwhile, in Anatolia, the Krimeans continue to advance, but are defeated after retaking Ankara. The Crusade in Anatolia is ground to a halt. Already however plans are being drafted to follow-up the Varangian Crusade with a Crusade to retake Cappadocia and the southern regions.
1102 - 1121 AD - Jaroslav the Holy continues to fight the Saracens, taking much land for the Kingdom of Jerusalem (and, by extension, the other Crusader States), until his death by a Saracen arrow in battle in 1121.
1109 AD - Tripoli is captured by the Crusaders.
1110 AD - Sicilians, alive with religious fervor (they recently liberated themselves from the Muslims) launch a Crusade of their own, into Tunisia.
1110 - 1116 AD - The Tunisian Crusade is largely unsuccessful, due to the fact that the newborn kingdom of Sicily had trouble even getting her troops to shore, much less besiege cities. However, that the Sicilians could in a short period of time to being ruled by Muslims to conquering Muslims (theoretically) was almost Homeric, and it was made into a drama, entitled “Il Conquista”, The Conquest.
1111 AD - The ruler of the Crusader State of Edessa begins to press westward, ultimately wishing to retake Mesopotamia, “lands belonging to the Roman Empire”. A deluded goal, but somehow he gains support for it. In 1111 he crosses the Euphrates.
1112 AD - Sidon is taken by Jaroslav the Holy. Rather than administer it, he gives it over to a Frank, by the name of Aaron.
1113 AD - The bid to take Mesopotamia, as expected, fails. Alfonso of España, the ruler of Edessa, takes over for the previous ruler, and decides that he best turn his attentions to Cappadocia, rather than the east.
1115 AD - The Crusaders fail to establish permanent control over Cappadocia, but do upset the Seljuk’s position in the area.
1118 AD - In Hispania (or España, or Hispanija, or Al-Ispanya, depending on who you are), the Kingdom of España finally loses all territory south of the Tagus, after a fierce Almoravid offensive.
In this same year, Galisija and Luzitanja divide once again, a decision by the king’s two sons, both wishing to have a piece of the kingdom to themselves. One would think this would weaken the Christian front, but rather, the two parties remained on very friendly terms, and the Slavs of Hispanija were none the weaker for it.
1121 AD - Jaroslav the Holy of Jerusalem dies in battle, trying to take Tyre for the Crusades. The city was taken, but Jaroslav was killed, and he was sent home to Tulusa, in Septimanija, where he would be buried.
In this same year, the Slavs and Latins in Spain renew their offensive, Luzitanja leading the charge by crossing the Tagus River.
1123 AD - The Taragonijans follow suit, by invading Almoravid territory. They meet with mixed success, but this does provide enough distraction for España to regain some of its lost territory.
1125 AD - The heir apparent of the Byzantine Empire, Isaac II, weds a princess of King Magnus of Krimea.
1128 AD - The lords of Bohemia refuse to pay their taxes to the King of Hungary, and effectively declare their independence. This move is backed by Germania, Bulgaria, and Poland. Germania supports it only to serve as a buffer-state between itself and Hungary. But the Bulgars and the Poles support it seeing it as a Slavic nation overthrowing the oppression of the Magyar.
1128 - 1132 AD - The war for Bohemian independence. It ends successfully, and a peace treaty is signed on June 2, 1128 AD proclaiming the Bohemian nation free of all obligation to the Hungarian crown, effectively granting the lords of Bohemia independence.
1130 AD - Edouard, a French historian, completes his voluminous “Historia Franciae”, the History of France.
1131 AD - The County of Edessa is slowly but surely conquered. By 1141 it would be completely conquered by the Muslims.
1132 - 1135 AD - The Baltic Kingdoms, through a mixture of war and diplomacy, unite under a single ruler. The Kingdom of Østersjøen (“East Sea”) is formed. This is a very decentralized kingdom, with a form of parliament to top it off, although it holds only advisory status.
1137 - 1142 AD - Disastrous war against the Scots by the French. This would eventually lead to the downfall of the Ludovingian dynasty.
1141 AD - The County of Edessa is completely conquered by the Muslims.
1145 AD - Pope Eugene III calls a Second Crusade, in response to the fall of the County of Edessa to the Muslims in 1141.
1146 AD - The Kingdom of Østersjøen begins to persecute its largely pagan underlings who continue to dwell within their lands. The Principality of Holmgard quickly follows suit. This move was backed by Eugene, comparing this persecution to the Crusades in Spain and the East.
1147 AD - The faltering power of the Almoravids is wiped out by the Almohads, who swept down from the Atlas Mountains and systematically destroyed Almoravid power.
1148 AD - Initially the Second Crusade is bogged-down in Anatolia. But with the arrival of reinforcements, the Turks are defeated in Anatolia, and the Crusaders of the Second Crusade press onward to the Holy Land.
They arrived in this year all the way to Syria, but they failed to take Damascus, and had little choice but to turn around.
1150 AD - Jean IV of the Ludovingian dynasty dies of natural causes. The heir is swiftly assassinated, and France is plunged into a period of anarchy.
1153 AD - Ascalon is captured by the Crusaders, but this will have disastrous long-term consequences for the Crusaders, as up until now the Fatimids of Egypt had been rather ho-hum about the Christians’ Crusade.
1154 AD - Konrad II of Burgundy launches a “naval crusade” against the Muslims, and begins a great naval militarization campaign.
1155 AD - The first fruit of the naval buildup of Burgundy is the raid on Almohad North Africa, which was quite successful, and helped Burgundy to further build its navy. Pisa joins Burgundy in the naval buildup, and together the two nations systematically hamper the Arabs in the west on the sea.
1156 AD - A Prince by the name of Sverre is granted a backwater plot of land. Called by the few local inhabitants “Moskva”, Sverre reshapes the city the way he sees fit, and renames it Rikragard. The foundation of the Principality of Rikragard.
1158 AD - The Union of Byzantium and Krimea. The two join together, as Alexios VI is crowned both Emperor of the Romans and King of the Krimeans. The land area gained in this union brings the land area of the Byzantine Empire almost to pre-Islamic proportions.
Of course, this union annoyed the other Varangians to the north. The Kievans, Holmgardians, and Rikragardians all were infuriated with the powers-that-be in Krimea for allowing this union to go through.
1160 AD - Germania once again falls into disarray, in a manner almost identical to France. The Rex dies, his heir is assassinated, and very quickly, local lords rise up. Frankly the lords were sick and tired of the Rex levying extra taxes from the Domini to finance the Crusading expeditions, not to mention the strain put on the Domini and the Rex to hold on to the rather fractious and disagreeable Polabians beyond the Elbe river.
1162 AD - All fighting in Germania ceases, as borders are worked out among the infighting Domini.
1163 AD - Poland takes advantage of the situation in Germania, by invading Polabia. The Pope can only mourn as the united Christian front against the Muslims rapidly disintegrates. With the Germanians, the Poles, and the Franks fighting at home, and the Varangians exchanging harsh words with the Byzantines, the Galieski become the dominant power in the Holy Land, along with the Italians.
1167 AD - Polabia is successfully conquered by the Poles, the Domini being unable to present a united front. Germania was also drained of more fighting men, having contributed many more to the Crusades than Poland.
1169 AD - Nur ad-Din invades Egypt. His nephew Saladin is given the title of sultan over the lands he conquers.
1170 AD - The infighting in France ends. It is unified under the Cornouailles dynasty. These rulers were Dukes of Cornouailles (Cornwall). The first king was Charles “the Triumphant”.
1171 AD - Holmgard leads the charge in the verbal fight against Byzantium, when the Prince threw off the Church in Constantinople, and renewed its allegiance to Rome. Later that year, Rikragard would do the same thing.
In this same year, Saladin abolishes the Fatimid Caliphate, and restores Sunni control over Egypt.
1172 AD - Ostersjoen and Kiev follow Holmgard’s example, and pledge allegiance to Rome.
1174 AD - Damascus falls to Saladin’s Muslim forces.
1175 AD - Burgundy inherits the lands of Reggio, as per a royal marriage agreement. The new Italian faction within the Burgundian court drastically changes the court’s politics.
1176 AD - Charles the Triumphant, looking to cement his and his line’s reputation in the history books, undertakes the task of bringing Ireland back into the fold. During this time many bishops and parishes in Ireland held beliefs considered by Rome to be heretical, and this was all Charles needed to land his forces on Ireland in 1176. The Viking kingdom of Dubh Linn was entirely unprepared, much like the rest of the island, for such an invasion, Dublin would become the staging ground for the invasion of the rest of Ireland.
1176 - 1185 AD - The French conquest of Ireland. Most of the island would for many years would be in French control.
1180 AD - The Suljuks of Rum ally themselves with Saladin, presenting what is effectively a united Muslim front against the Crusaders in the East.
1181 - 1182 AD - The Byzantines begin to lose ground in Anatolia, and is effectively pushed out of the center of Asia Minor.
1187 AD - The first reported use of the compass in Europe, undoubtedly brought eastward by Chinese merchants.
1189 AD - In this year, Saladin scores a major victory over the Crusaders, and as a result the city of Jerusalem, after many years, finally falls once again into Muslim hands. This creates an uproar throughout Europe, and the Pope has little choice but to call for a Third Crusade. It would be two years before the gears actually started to turn.
1191 AD - The forces raised for the Third Crusade was pitiful in contrast to the previous two Crusades. The Varangians were too stubborn to cooperate with the Byzantines, and many local lords in Krimea actually levied a tax on the few Varangians that did go to help out with the Crusade. The Germanians were fractured, and while a sizable force did make it to Asia Minor in 1191, it wasn’t enough to actually accomplish anything, and hunkered down as it waited for the Hungarians, the only other who would both contribute and agree to travel overland into Asia Minor.
1192 AD - Philip, the king of France, meets with Frederik III of Galie, along with Otto II of Burgundy in Arvernija, beginning the Second Crusade. They would travel over water, so they could directly assist the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
They arrive in the middle of the year, and initially the Crusaders seem to be on the rise, with a few victories below their belts. But then the bulk of Saladin’s army meets them, and this would begin a slew of defeats leading to the end of the Third Crusade.
Meanwhile, in Asia Minor, the Crusade ends in disaster. While the Crusaders pressed deep into enemy territory, they found themselves cut-off from any source of food. With the winter approaching, the army dispersed. Most ended-up dying, and the few who escaped mostly went home rather than attaching themselves to the other Crusade.
1193 AD - The Crusaders suffer more defeats at the hands of Saladin, and are simply unable to gain any ground.
1195 AD - The Third Crusade ends as a complete failure, with the capture of Frederik II king of Galie, and the death of Otto II of Burgundy. Philip king of France has little choice but to return home, as domestic matters call his attention. What remains of the Crusading army hunkers down in the Crusaders’ fortresses.
1197 AD - Otto III of Burgundy inherits the rest of southern Italy. (Napoli and Taranto).
1198 AD - Frederik II returns home.
1200 AD - A Fourth Crusade was called, and this time there was very little interest. Galie and France even couldn’t bring themselves to commit to another Crusade, at least not officially (that is to say, Philip and Frederik didn’t go. Thousands of lords and peasants who missed the Third, however, went).
The Crusade needed a new goal. Rather than try to take Jerusalem outright, they decide to work their way from Egypt to Jerusalem, a very tactical move.
There was dispute, however, over which state would transport the Crusading army.
1201 AD - It was decided that Burgundy, Pisa, and Tuscany would jointly transport the Crusading armies to Egypt.
1202 - 1207 AD - A period of change in Burgundy. Otto IV had held the power of monarch, but his claims were challenged. Otto IV was a traditionalist, a true believer in the absolute power of the monarch. His attempt to reel-in the nobility’s powers simply were unsuccessful, and caused huge backlash in the court. The nobility in 1202 present a list of demands to Otto IV, demanding that their rights as men of noble birth be recognized. This didn’t suit the king much at all, and so he began a campaign to exterminate the nobility.
The nobility were able to stir up the peasantry to revolt against the king. Otto IV had no choice but to flee to Galie. He was able to receive aid there, and in 1204 the king of Galie scrounged up an army, combined with Otto‘s supporters. The Royalists were coming.
But Otto didn’t have the support of his Italian neighbors and subjects, many of whom had a Republican form of government. When the Burgundian navy unilaterally threw in their lot with the Rebels, Pisa shortly followed, partly because they didn’t like Otto IV, and partly because they didn’t want to have to go toe-to-toe with the Burgundian navy.
The ensuing war was long and bloody. At the height of the Royalists’ bid to retake the throne, the entire northern half of Burgundy was under Royalist control. But when Genoan and Milanese reinforcements arrived, the scales were tipped in the Rebels’ favor.
In 1207, after a slew of military defeats, the Royalists were finally beaten out of Burgundy. Otto IV is granted sanctuary in Galie, and his descendants would become important members of Galie’s military and court. But Otto IV himself was a broken man, a king with no throne, no crown, no people, and no land.
1203 AD - The Crusaders land en masse at Alexandria (they stopped in Sicily and Greece to recruit along the way). They successfully take the city, and establish the Principality of Alexandria.
1204 AD - Ad-Adil is swift to counter the threat. He understands that he was taken off-guard, and had little chance of launching an aggressive offensive into Egypt and retaking it. But he also realized the Crusaders were there for one thing and one thing only: Jerusalem. He bars the way to Jerusalem by having his army take position in the Sinai.
1205 AD - The Fourth Crusade, seeing the way blocked, attempt to “force Ad-Adil’s hand” by absolutely ravaging Egypt, pressuring him into attacking, where the odds were in the Crusaders’ favor.
In this year Cairo was taken, and so was much of the Delta. The Principality of Alexandria grew, and was proclaimed “The Kingdom of Egypt”.
Ad-Adil met much flak, and there was even an assassination attempt, which he successfully lived through. He was however able to rally the Muslims to his banner, and they waited it out.
1206 AD - The Crusaders were getting impatient. The plunder of Egypt was fun and all, but most in the Crusade wanted to hurry up and get to Jerusalem. After much arguing among the Crusade’s leadership, they decided they had little choice but to try and make their way to Jerusalem.
In that year, the Crusaders were defeated in a major battle. The Arabs had feigned a retreat, and then used a reinforcing army sailing up the Red Sea from Arabia to trap the Crusading army on the hot Sinai peninsula. Food and water grew scarce, and the Crusaders had little choice but to engage Ad-Adil’s army.
They were crushed, utterly beaten. Few made it out of the Sinai alive, and those that did abandoned the Crusade. Ad-Adil immediately began reconquering Egypt.
Meanwhile, thousands of miles away, a man by the name of Temujin is proclaimed the Genghis Khan of the Mongol people…
1207 - 1209 AD - Interregnum period in Burgundy.
1208 AD - The Kingdom of Egypt is conquered by the Ayyubids.
1209 AD - Genghis Khan conquers Turkestan. Word trickles slowly westward of a great storm arising in the East…
1210 AD - The Burgundian nobility agreed on the form of government they would establish, after negotiating with influential Italians within the court. There would be a king, who would be elected and serve until death, or until removed from power by the Council of Nobles.
The Council of Nobles would be the main legislative body of Burgundy, although the king did still have say in lawmaking. There is an “Administrative Ministry” which carries out the laws made by the King and the Council.
The position of Councilmen was also a lifelong one. When you were elected, you served for life, or until the rest of the council though it in your best interest to be removed from office (although such a vote required two-thirds of the Council’s vote). The council was composed of three hundred men. Half were Burgundians, the other half were from Burgundy’s southern Italian holdings. This equal representation helped to keep the Italians pacified.
There were two other ministries, the sort of precursor to “interest groups”. There was a Council of Naval Officers, and a Council of Merchants. These two groups existed to make sure that the interests of the Navy and the Merchants were never compromised. In the future, the Republic of Burgundy would be reorganized many times, and the various groups would butt heads, but the Republic was a most sustainable form of government.
In that year, to represent the new government an the almost miraculous union of the Burgundian and south Italian peoples, a mixed noble by the name of Friedrich (part Neopolitan part Burgundian) was elected to be King. At just thirty years of age, his reign would be a long one.
In that same year, the Delhi Sultanate was founded.
1211 AD - The Mongols invade Jin China.
1213 AD - All of Jin China was overrun by the Mongols, the only free place remaining being Beijing itself.
1215 AD - Beijing falls to the Mongols. Beginning of the Yuan dynasty.
1217 AD - A Fifth Crusade was called for. It was pitiful, and its first attack (also on Egypt) failed to produce any results.
In that same year, Kara-Khitai is destroyed by the Mongols.
1218 AD - The Fifth Crusade’s attack on Damietta fails. The Crusade isn’t called-off, but surely enough men begin going home.
1219 AD - The Fifth Crusade ends when the Crusaders were defeated a final time, and were forced from the shores of Egypt.
1220 AD - The rebellion in Burgundy has helped to spark tensions between the nobility and king in Galie. While it never gets anywhere beyond a few harsh words, the effects will be felt down the road.
Meanwhile, the Abbasid Caliphate begins to feel the strain as it is invaded by the Mongols. Bukhara and Samarkand are taken by the Mongols.
1221 AD - The first of many incidents between the Mongols and the Byzantines/Krimeans. The Mongols launch raids around the area of Tblisi.
1222 AD - The Byzantine Emperor declares war on the Mongols. The emissary sent to relay the message to the Mongols had his head cut off, and it was dispatched back to Constantinople.
1223 AD - The Mongol invasion of the Byzantine Empire begins in earnest. Originally the Mongols wished only to punish Byzantium for her ignorance and audacity, but when the wealth of this empire was experienced first-hand, the Mongols refocused their attention to Byzantium.
1224 AD - Realizing that the Byzantines were quite an organized force, Genghis Khan decides to temporarily cease hostilities with the Byzantine Empire, so they can regroup and begin a fresh attack on the Byzantines at a later date.
1227 AD - The death of Genghis Khan.
1234 AD - Slavs under Hungarian rule rebel, under the leadership of Kvetoslav. This revolt is backed by Epir and the surviving rump-state of Rascia, and some historians debate whether or not there was some channeling of Byzantine funds into the rebels’ coffers as well.
1235 AD - The leaders of Galisija, Luzitanja, España, and Taragonija all gather in Madrid. The result of this conference was the Blood Oath and the Demand for Crusade. The Blood Oath was a document proclaiming that the Christians of Iberia shall work together to expel the Muslims, and shall not stop until that task is complete. The Demand for Crusade was a letter to the Pope demanding that he call a Crusade on the Muslims of the Iberian Peninsula.
It was agreed, although heatedly, that all Islamic lands would be administered directly by España. Taragonija threatened to retract support when this was known, however cooler heads prevailed.
1236 AD - Volga Bulgaria is conquered by the great Batu Khan.
The demand for a Crusade in the west is successful. The Crusaders gather for the Sixth Crusade in Burgalija, the capital of Akvitan. This Crusade is composed of mainly Germanians and Italians, along with a good sized amount of others.
In this same year, the largely pagan Lithuanians in Ostersjoen and Kiev start rebelling. The Papacy didn’t take its usual course of action, and declare a Crusade on them. Lacking a Crusade, many throughout Germania, Poland, and Russia felt it was their sacred duty as Christians to keep the pagans in Lithuania under their thumb.
In the Germanian town of Cheruscurba (Germanian Language for “Cherusci City”, after the ancient tribe that once dwelled there), a man by the name of Cornelio Paesentio began preaching of a dream he had, in which God in the form of a sword, told him to, with the blessing of the Papacy, found an order of Knights to help rid the East of paganism.
The message spread across Germania and Poland, and even into Northern Italy.
1237 AD - Cornelio Paesentio, along with the first forty members of the “Knights of Magna Germania” (Later named the Knights of St. Cornelius), pays a visit to the Pope. The Pope, seeing this as an opportunity to increase the power of the church in the faraway corners of Europe, accepts.
In this year, hostilities between the Mongols and the Byzantines resume. The Mongols choose a northerly route, and take Crimea by storm. The Byzantines are able to create an army, but they are rebuffed by the Mongols, who came in far greater numbers than they did 14 years previously, and with much better troops.
The Sixth Crusade begins in earnest, when they crossed the Tagus River.
1238 AD - The Battle of Tyras River. The Byzantines’ second army is wiped-out by the Mongols of Batu Khan. Much of Byzantium lay open. The Russians do nothing to stop the Mongols, seeing them as “God’s Punishment” to the Krimeans. Crimea is now under the control of the Mongols.
The Byzantines respond by taking more and more troops out of Asia Minor, but this in-turn leads to intensifying Seljuk raids on the area. The Byzantines find themselves caught between a rock and a hard place.
Either way, the Byzantine Emperor, at great cost, erects fortifications along the narrow part of the Danube that he owns. This delays the Mongols briefly.
During this time the Hungarians were busy putting down the revolts of the Slavs, and as such were unable to assist Byzantium.
The Sixth Crusade arrives at Cordoba, and after a relatively short siege, the city falls to the Crusaders.
1239 AD - All chapters of the Knights of Magna Germania convene in Poland. They declare their mission to establish Christian rule in Lithuania, and Kiev gives them the go-ahead to enter their territory.
The Mongols, using Krimean ships that they were able to seize, under the cover of night transported a small contingent of cavalry behind the Danube fortifications. When morning came, this caused enough confusion for the Mongols to breach the forts. East Bulgaria is now open to the Mongols.
Sevilla is retaken for Christendom by the Knights of the Sixth Crusade.
1240 AD - The Mongols storm across the Balkans, defeating the meager Byzantine armies that stood in their way. The Emperor takes a defensive strategy to the Mongol problem.
In Lithuania, thousands are massacred by the Knights of Magna Germania. Paganism is dealt a serious blow.
1241 AD - Rascia and Epir are overrun by the Mongols, who now stretch all the way from the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea, and the Adriatic Sea. In this same year, The Bosnian Slavs win their independence from Hungary. Hungary has little choice but to draw inward, as its subjects beyond the Carpathians, the most Latin of its subjects, has begun to rebel as well.
Batu Khan invades Greece. They are, however, stopped with the Third Battle of Thermopylae being won by the Byzantines. Although to refer to them as Byzantines is a bit of a misnomer, since the army which stopped the Mongols was comprised mainly of local Greeks who had been mustered up by local despots.
1242 AD - The Knights of God’s Sword proclaims their mission to be complete. The ruler of Kiev, Magnus VII gives them large tracts of land, and this date begins the start of the Monastic State of Magna Germania.
In this year, Subudei is sent by Batu Khan to invade the Seljuks of Rum. The conquest was swift.
The Knights of the Sixth Crusade face stiff opposition, however they are able to take much territory.
1243 AD - After a filed siege to take Constantinople, Batu Khan realizes that Constantinople will fall to no army. Batu Khan agrees to peace with the Byzantines.
In this year, the Seljuks of Rum become Mongol vassals.
1246 AD - All except Granada and its surrounding lands are conquered by the Sixth Crusade. The Crusaders agreed to a peace with Granada. For all intents and purposes, the Muslims were expelled from Spain.
Batu Khan declared a continuation war on Bosnia, and the newborn kingdom was not ready for a powerful army to invade.
1248 AD - Bosnia falls to the Mongols of the Golden Horde. Batu Khan, however, is unable to stop himself. He wants all of Europe, and sees the weak Varangian states of Russia as the next logical target.
In 1248, Batu Khan invades Kievan Rus’. The Kievans are poorly prepared to face off against an army the strength of the Mongols, and as such melts before the Mongol armies.
1249 AD - Mojmir of Redon (OTL Rennes) publishes the first formula for black powder in Europe.
1252 AD - All of Kievan Rus’ has fallen to the Mongols. He presses onward to Novgorod and Rikragrad. He proclaims that only the “ultimate sea” would stop his route of conquest.
1255 AD - Most of Russia is under Golden Horde control. Novgorod and Ostersjoen are the only two who are able to prevent themselves being overrun by the great Mongol Horde. In this year, Batu Khan died, and the army that threatened to conquer Europe in its entirety almost mystically stopped. Kiev was made a vassal of the Golden Horde, and the Golden Horde immediately ceased expansion.
Many historians have theorized that had Batu Khan lived longer, his hordes would have gone on to conquer Europe. It is in this man’s death that Europe was spared. The method by which Batu Khan would have conquered Europe, however, remains debated. Some have theorized he would have taken a “traditional” approach, and invaded Hungary and Poland, so that he would have no enemies at his back. But still others contend that he could have invaded Europe via its “soft underbelly”, which is Italy.
1256 AD - Hulagu Khan establishes the Ilkhanate, one of the four main divisions of the Mongol Empire.
1257 AD - A Greek noble, independently of the Byzantine court, delivers an impassioned speech in Rome, begging all good Christian men to liberate Europe from the Mongols. All that was needed was the go-ahead of the Papacy.
The Pope was very hesitant to go ahead with this Crusade. He reasoned that already there have been six crusades, and all but the First and the Sixth Crusades succeeded in their goals. The Fifth Crusade was an outright disaster. And now a Greek asks that he liberate lands far from where Jesus himself walked.
The Pope ends up sanctioning the Seventh Crusade to deliver Europe from the Mongols.
He cautions against rushing into the Crusade, however. He calls for a summit at Tolosija of all nations that plan to participate. It was successful beyond his wildest dreams. There were delegations from all the Iberian nations, all Gallic nations, Burgundy, France, most Germanian nations, Bulgaria, all North Italian states, Poland, and Hungary.
The Summit at Avennio resulted in a massive Crusade, the likes of which haven’t been seen since Crusade number two. Some contributed more than others, but in the end everyone contributed to some degree. The Pope warned that the Crusade should not be launched for a few years, and during that time plans should be drawn up.
The Golden Horde released much of the Balkans, and carved it up into tributary and vassal states. The Seventh Crusade would still go on, however, as they reasoned that these states were being ruled by false rulers who bend over backwards for the heathen Mongols.
1258 AD - Hulagu Khan sacks Baghdad, bringing to an end the great learning center established in the early days of the Abbasid Caliphate.
The Pope condemned all those who paid tribute to the Mongols, and this helped to alienate those in the Balkans who could have been allies in the upcoming Crusade.
But the Pope was stuck between a rock and a hard place. He could either not condemn them, and anger the Byzantine Emperor, who himself was watching the planning of the Crusade (although he would play little part in it) and fully expecting the return of these land to the Empire, or he could have made the Crusade a little easier on himself
1259 AD - The Latin lords within Hungary agree to a peace settlement, in which they are basically bribed, and the taxes they have to pay to the king are greatly reduced. Most historians would agree however that they ended their rebellion because they would be a buffer state between Hungary and the Golden Horde, a status they would rather not enjoy.
In this year, Nogai Khan leads an army against the Knights of St. Cornelius. They sack the great cities in the area, but their real aim is Poland. They ransack the lands of the Knights and press onward to Poland.
1260 AD - The Mamluks of Egypt, who had recently seized power there, begin to harass the last of the Crusader states.
In this year the Seventh Crusade was officially launched. The nations of Europe agreed to a three-pronged strategy, whereby the Poles and Hungarians would strike across the Danube and make their way to Thesallonika, the Bulgarians and Germanians and North Italians would move their way into Bosnia and eventually link-up with the Poles/Hungarians, and the rest would be transported using Burgundy’s navy across the Strait of Otranto and land in Epirus.
The Crusaders initially had an easy time, and everything went off without a hitch. The unpopular rulers installed by the Golden Horde were systematically killed and destroyed by the peasantry, and many proclaimed their allegiance to the Church in Rome. However, the Golden Horde learned of this, and immediately recalled Nogai Khan to deal with the problem.
Nogai swiftly concluded a truce with the Poles and the Knights (both eager just to have the Mongols out of their lands), and made his way to the Danube, where he would await further instruction.
1261 AD - The armies of the Poles/Hungarians and the Gallics/Burgundians/Iberians/French rendezvous in Thessalonika, but the reunion is not a happy one. They catch news that the main Mongol army marches to reclaim the Balkans, and this causes a panic in the army. The Crusaders tell the Bulgarian/Germanian/North Italian army to stay where they are and await further instruction.
The Mongols and the Crusaders meet. Both have huge armies, but the Crusaders are met with defeat in the first battle. The Crusaders fall back into Thessaly, in Greece, where they know they will have the advantage. They send word to the Bulgarians/Germanians/North Italians to advance. Their strategy is to trap the main Mongol army in Greece.
1262 AD - The strategy to trap the main Mongol army in Greece fails. Nogai knew it better to not underestimate the Christians, who were fanatical about retaking that which they believed to be rightfully theirs. The Mongols, although they got a bloody nose, would live to fight another day.
1263 AD - The Crusaders press onward, liberating city after city from the Mongols. It seems with each step the Crusaders are closer to victory. But come summertime, the Mongols adopt a new strategy. The Crusaders were becoming spread rather thin, and they couldn’t defend the vast amounts of territory that they conquered. Nogai devised a strategy to lure the Crusaders inland, and then cut them off. He did this by spreading false information that the Mongols were retreating from the Balkans. This made the Crusaders bold.
The Crusaders had more or less been hugging the coastline on their way to Constantinople, knowing that further inland the Mongols reside. When the Mongols were reportedly gone, the Crusaders decided to split up. The Bulgarians/North Italians/Burgundians/Poles would march northward to liberate East Bulgaria from the Mongols, and the rest would trudge onward to Constantinople.
In late summer, Nogai sprung his trap. The Crusader army was surrounded, deep in enemy territory. On August 6th, the Crusaders, having been surrounded for three days, needed to break out. But they failed. It was the fifth crusade all over again. The army was almost destroyed in its entirety.
By fall, despite the losses, the Crusaders did succeed in linking up with the Byzantines, who reinforced the Crusaders. There would be one final battle between the Crusaders and the Mongols, and this one would determine the Crusade’s outcome.
1264 AD - The Crusaders were wintering near Adrianople, and come spring the Mongols, brimming with confidence, went to end the Crusade once and for all. However when the two sides met, the Mongols were unable to dislodge the Crusaders from their position, and through a brilliant strategy of feigning a retreat was able to attack the rear of the Mongol army.
Nogai officially surrendered on July 7th, 1264. The Mongols would retreat back into the Balkans.
1265 AD - The Golden Horde secures a peace settlement with the Crusaders. The lands along the Aegean Sea and all of the Greek holding would be given to the Crusaders, and a twenty-year truce was signed.
Sadly, the attention to the Balkans has left the Levant unnoticed, and with the Mamluks rising in the East, it seems as though no amount of Crusaders in the world could stop them now.
1266 AD - The newly-conquered lands are divided up. Initially, everything was given to the Byzantine Empire, however, the Slavs of Epir demanded that they be granted their ancestral lands. Not wishing to fight a continuation war, the Byzantines and Crusaders agreed.
The Basileos Romanoi decided to express his eternal gratitude to the Crusaders by granting them use of the Peloponnese. The Principality of Achaea was established. And while the Byzantine Emperor still reserved the right to levy taxes from the region, internal governance and matters concerning the military were left to the autocrat. The first autocrat was a South Italian by the name of Pietro, giving Burgundy de facto control of the waterways in the area.
1268 AD - The Principality of Antioch falls to the Muslims. The destruction of the city was so great that its importance was permanently negated.
1269 AD - The Pope launches the Eighth Crusade, in response to the fall of Antioch to the Mamluk sultan Baibars.
In this year, the last Almohad caliph is killed in Marrakesh.
1271 AD - A small army arrives in Acre, a force which was to be the first of many waves of Crusaders, but upon being defeated in battle within days of landing, a peace is quickly negotiated.
1272 AD - A Burgundian by the name of Ottokar sets out in search of better fortunes in the east. He takes his family and establishes himself in Mongol-occupied Krimea. While at first he was received in a less-than-friendly manner by the Mongols of the area, his natural diplomatic ability and charm wins over the local rulers, and his position is secure.
1274 AD - The first Mongol invasion of Japan is repelled.
Ottokar decides to seek better fortunes in Tabriz, which was recently made the capital of the new Il-Khanate. Not to mention that he simply felt safer away from the lands of the Golden Horde.
1279 AD - Ottokar joins a caravan of traders seeking trade in Kublai Khan’s China.
1280 AD - The Great Canal is begun in China.
Ottokar arrives in Kublai Khan’s China, and he is received warmly by the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, much to the surprise of Ottokar, who expected his behavior to be similar to that of the Mongols of the Golden Horde.
Kublai Khan and Ottokar discuss many things, about the political situation in both their parts of the world, about religion, and many other things. In the end, Kublai Khan wished to send an ambassador to the Pope, and wished to have the Pope send scholars to teach him and his people of Christianity.
1282 AD - The ambassador to the Pope arrives, and the Pope fulfills Kublai Khan’s wish of sending scholars to his court to teach him of Christianity and western ways.
1284 AD - The King of Galie, Vladislav VI, looking to expand his kingdom, invades Akvitan. He cites a historical (and legitimate) claim to the throne.
1285 AD - Akvitan is conquered by Galie by the end of 1285.
1289 AD - Ottokar completes a book detailing his long journey to the Great Khan.
1291 AD - The last of the Crusader strongholds, Acre, was taken by the Muslims.
1294 AD - The French and Scottish thrones unify on a personal level (royal marriage). This marriage will years in the future create problems for both countries, and eventually lead to the wars between France and Scotland.
The death of Kublai Khan. The four khanates of the Mongol Empire (Chagatai, Ilkhanate, Golden Horde, Yuan Dynasty) officially become independent.
1296 AD - In an effort to counter aggression by Galie, France and the Germanian state of Batavia (OTL Netherlands) enter into a military alliance. This alliance was proposed by Batavia, and France only accepted because it wanted a political toehold on the continent.
1298 AD - The Burgundians and the Septimanija enter into a military alliance, in an effort to curb Galie agression.
1299 AD - Osman I proclaims the Ottoman Principality’s independence from the Mamluk sultans of Egypt.
1300 AD - Seeing the Ottomans as a way of counterbalancing the rising power of the Mamluks, the Byzantine Emperor throws diplomatic support behind Osman I and his newfound kingdom.
1301 AD - The western end of Sicily is inherited by the King of Burgundy. This causes some problems in regards to the governmental organization of Burgundy. Because there are still monarchs, there is still royal marriage, and because there is still royal marriage, there is still royal inheritance.
That in and of itself wouldn’t cause any problems, however the debate was whether the inherited land should be subject to the direct rule of the king, given that it is his property, or whether it should be ruled by the council. In the end, a compromise was reached. The monarch will be able to retain complete control over his own inherited property (which includes various lands and crowns), but unless his appointed heir is elected king, the control of that land goes to the council.
This was only a temporary solution to the problem, however, because it still caused problems. What would happen to the crowns of the various nations once the Burgundian king died, if it’s not inherited? But for now, everyone is content.
1302 AD - The King of West Bulgaria, citing a very shaky claim, claims the crown of East Bulgaria for himself. While his legal right to the crown is quite debatable, he cites that the Bulgars there have only been repressed for centuries, first by Byzantines, then by Mongols.
This was simply the powder keg. It would take a spark to light it.
1305 AD - Krakow, the capital of Poland at the time, suffers a severe fire. Most of the city is burned entirely, and the current king, Jan II, realizes that it will take some time to recover. He decides to move the capital to Poznan. Jan gives the task of rebuilding Krakow and administering southeast Poland in general to his son, prince Boleslav.
Boleslav is a great administrator, and quickly impresses himself upon the local nobility, who see him as a young prince with great promises in store for him.
1307 AD - The spark to light the powder keg that is the Balkans has been struck. Mongol troops, there to assist the local ruler Ivan put down some minor riots and to make sure taxes are collected end up going on a killing spree, sparked by a riot that was a little more intense than usual.
The Massacre at Plovdiv proved to be the catalyst for what historians today refer to as the “Rise of the Slavic Empire”.
1308 AD - The King of West Bulgaria, Georgi IV, plots to overthrow Ivan the “king” of East Bulgaria. Georgi does realize, however, that much land separates the two Bulgarias, and as such he is not in much position to do anything.
For now Georgi can do nothing but exchange harsh words with Ivan. But next year would arise an opportunity to make good on his promise to dethrone Ivan of East Bulgaria.
1309 AD - The claimant to the Bosnian throne, who managed to escape to West Bulgaria during the Mongol invasion, is on his death bed. King Georgi has many conversations with him, one being the fate of Bosnia.
Understandably, Kyetoslav II wants to give the crown to his own son, Kyetoslav III. However, in Georgi he sees greater potential, and the hope of actually reclaiming Bosnia for Slavs. Kyetoslav II leaves his entire kingdom to Georgi IV.
Kyetoslav III is understandably infuriated, however he is in little position to do anything, being a refugee in the court of King Georgi IV.
1310 AD - King Georgi gambles on his one shot to do everything he promised to do. He almost empties the coffers of West Bulgaria to hire mercenaries to bolster his numbers, and he secures alliances with Bohemia, Raetija, and the North Italian states. In this year, Georgi invades Mongol-occupied Bosnia. The Mongols were taken by surprise, and as such were not in a position to help Bosnia right away.
The delay proved crucial, and in the first year alone most of Bosnia was retaken. There was not much fighting, as peasant after peasant pledged allegiance to the new Christian king here to claim Bosnia.
1311 AD - The Mongols send their first major army. The whereabouts of the clash are sketchy, but we do know it was along the Bosnian border somewhere. The end result of the battle was that the Bulgarians were victorious and the way to East Bulgaria was open.
1312 AD - Prince Boleslav sees his father, Jan II, as an ineffective ruler, who constantly pawns work off onto nobles and local rulers rather than undertake the work himself. Why, the king refused to rebuild his former capital, pawning it off on his own son! This was unacceptable in Boleslav’s eyes.
In the Balkans, further advances are made against the Mongols. Georgi is poised to strike at East Bulgaria. The Mongol army, while powerful, was divided and it had to be garrisoned over a vast area full of disagreeable subjects.
1314 AD - The invasion of East Bulgaria begins in earnest. Plovidiv is retaken.
1315 AD - Prince Bolseslav proclaims himself to be King of Poland, and leads an armed rebellion against his father. The first battles are largely inconclusive.
1316 AD - Ivan, the puppet-ruler of East Bulgaria, is killed in battle against Georgi IV of West Bulgaria. Later that same year, Sofia falls to Georgi’s forces, where Georgi proclaims himself king. The fall of Sofia, the death of Ivan, and the proclamation of Georgi’s kingship has the effect of basically breaking Mongol power in the Balkans. However, for three more years the Mongols would try to destroy Georgi.
1317 AD - Krakow burns for a second time, and it basically becomes a money pit for Boleslav, who can’t very well abandon it. He can’t raise enough funds to support his army, and he himself is losing ground among the nobility.
The Mongols send a large army into Dobrudja to try and establish a foothold there, but they are beaten back.
1318 AD - Again, the Mongols are sent back, having failed to break through in Dobrudja.
1319 AD - After being defeated a final time in Dobrudja, the Mongols sign a peace agreement with Georgi IV of Bulgaria and Bosnia. The short-lived Bulgarian Empire was born.
1320 AD - Understanding that Kyetoslav III could potentially rally the Bosnians to rebel against him, Georgi grants Kyetoslav III the title “Grand Duke of Bosnia”. It appeases Kyetoslav, and assures the Bulgarian Empire shall live for some time.
1321 AD - King Jan II of Poland finally defeats his son, and has Boleslav, his only son, executed. The King immediately sees problems concerning the succession to the throne of Poland.
Initially King Jan was considering passing the throne to one of his many daughters, however the nobility was entirely opposed to this notion. It was decided then that the successor would be chosen by the King himself and that he would be Jan’s adopted son.
Nobles begin to compete for the throne and for King Jan’s attention. They do so by showing who is the most competent ruler, and this in and of itself forms the basis for a meritocratic state.
1324 AD - Mansa Musa of the Mali arrives in Cairo, famously lowering the price of gold there so much that the price didn’t recover for twenty years.
1325 AD - An ocean away, the city of Tenochtitlan is founded.
1326 AD - Death of Osman I. Succeeded by Orhan I.
1328 AD - Germania Inferior joins the alliance of France and Batavia. This is generally regarded as the beginning of the “Second Rise of Germania”.
1329 AD - Akvitan, previously land administered directly by the king of Galie, is divided up into two duchies. This was done so as to more easily administer the region, which was very far from the capital itself, and by doing so the border with the Iberijan nations would be more secure.
1331 AD - Georgi IV noticed that many of the nobility of his newfound Slavic empire were growing discontented with one another, being a very mixed court from different Slavic sub-ethnicities and from different cultures. Prominent people within the court were at each other’s throats.
Realizing that when they were fighting the Mongols all the Slavs of his realm were quite united against the Mongol force, he realized that his people didn’t need a more appealing king, but rather they needed a common enemy far greater than each other. In this way could the Slavic empire be preserved.
In 1330 Orhan I, son of Osman I and reigning bey of the Ottomans, had launched serious raids into Byzantine territory, despite the fact that his father Osman had pursued peaceful relations with the Basileos Romanoi. Remembering this, Georgi knew he could utilize this to his advantage.
In 1331 Georgi sent an emissary to the Byzantine court, not even suggesting that they attack the Ottomans (yet), but suggesting a military alliance. The alliance was accepted, and for the first time in a long time the borders of the Byzantine Empire were more or less secure.
But there were storm clouds on the horizon, and they would not part for a long, long time.
1333 AD - When the raids on the Byzantine Empire continued, the Emperor and the King sent a joint-ultimatum to Orhan I, demanding that the raids stop. Orhan essentially told the two where they could go with their advice, and this helped to bring about the invasion of Anatolia by the Slavic Empire.
1335 AD - A massive army was assembled, and they crossed the Hellespont in 1335, with hopes of destroying the Ottomans once and for all, and reclaiming the land that belonged rightfully to the Byzantine Empire. This would kick-off a war, lasting twelve years, that would, for the moment at least, destroy Ottoman power.
1336 AD - Birth of Timur the Lame, who would later be known as Tamerlane.
1337 AD - The Ottomans were caught entirely off-guard by the size of the army that the Slavic and Byzantine Empires put together, and had little choice but to withdraw from most of the coastline of Anatolia, and retreat into the mountains, where they would theoretically have an advantage.
In this year two more Germanian states join the Franco-Germanian alliance.
Slowly but surely, a sort of “super feudalism” was emerging from the Franco-Germanian alliance. In that, as the new states were joining, the Germanian Domini were seen as less partners in an alliance, but subordinates, who had to pledge service to the King of France. In a way, France “owned” these small states, effectively making the King of France the “Rex” of Germania.
1338 AD - Most of coastal Anatolia is retaken by the Slavs/Byzantines. The Ottomans prepare their inland strongholds for long sieges.
The rest of Sicily is absorbed by Burgundy.
1339 AD - The first attempt to push inland by the Slavs and Byzantines was met with fierce resistance.
The Burgundian Inheritance Crisis was finally resolved. The various succession for crowns that are not Burgundy’s (currently applying to the Sicilian claims) would be determined by a council of local nobility. The Burgundians would vote for the king of Burgundy/South Italy, while the group of Sicilians would vote for who would succeed as king of Sicily. In the event that the Burgundian king is not voted for, then those territories would be relinquished (theoretically) from Burgundian control.
1340 AD - The Slavs and Byzantines push through onward into Anatolia, and thousands of casualties later, were able to secure a decisive victory in the various mountain passes, which allowed them to use a two-pronged attack on the capital of the Ottomans, Ankara. This would prove decisive. This year begins the two-year siege of Ankara.
1341 AD - The Franco-Germanian alliance is seen by the Upper Germanian states as a way of taking-over Germania. As such the alliance was countered by the “League of Alemannia”. The remaining German states join this League.
1342 AD - The siege of Ankara ends in a victory for the Slavs and Byzantines. The city is plundered. The army stays in the city for five days, and then marches northward to end the Ottomans once and for all.
1344 AD - Georgi IV is killed in battle. While the succession within his empire was smooth (it went to Georgi V), this successor was not viewed favorably by the military commanders, and this would show upon their return from the war.
1345 - 1347 AD - The war in Anatolia is fought to a stalemate. The Slavs and Byzantines agree to a peace, whereupon the Ottomans agree to cease all hostilities to the Emperor, and pay a yearly tribute. In return, the Byzantines would agree to allow the Ottomans free reign of Anatolia, and even assist the Ottomans in their endeavors against other tribes and nations.
1346 AD - The Vladislavljevic dynasty that had ruled Galie in some form or another, descended from Stefan the Great, finally dies out. The successor was not right mentally, and a new leader was chosen. This was seen by many as a sign that rough times were ahead.
While the new ruler, Przemysl Janovic, was accepted by much of the nobility, others, particularly those in the western end.
1347 AD - A strange illness is reported in the Slavic and Byzantine armies, shortly after one of the last engagements with the Ottoman army. The Ottomans seemed to be suffering a similar problem.
Major trading cities across the Mediterranean, and particularly the lands of the Burgundians, who held major hubs of trade, notably Massilia, Sicily, and Taranto. They also held de facto control of Achaea, and the disease was introduced there as well.
Also in this year, four dukes got together to address what they called a “problem of succession”, and concluded that the only solution was to break from Galie entirely. King Przemysl was unable to quell the rebellion, and so allowed them to break away, for fear that if he kept up with the military defeats he would be deposed. Bretanja was granted independence.
The House of Janovic was off to a bad start, but in the future, the dynasty of Janovic rulers of Galie would bring Galie onto the world stage. But for now, Przemysl struggled to hold on to his fledgling kinghood.
The Polish king, on his deathbed, determines a noble by the name of Adamczyk to be the “Successor of most merit”, and thus names him the heir. The Bishop of Poznan concurs with Jan II, and as such proclaims that Adamczyk had the Divine Right to rule over all Poland.
1348 AD - The Slavic and Byzantine armies finally return home, however greatly reduced in number, due to the mysterious plague that had broken out in the army. Those who were sick were left behind in Anatolia until they recovered, but this proved an ineffective measure of keeping the disease out of Bulgaria and Byzantium.
The Slavs returned home to see that the disease had already arrived home before them.
Many military commanders took advantage of this, claiming that it was Georgi V’s reign that brought on the disease. Georgi V was not well-liked by the nobility for the simple fact that Georgi V was not an effective ruler, and made many enemies in the court. The generals of the Slavic army felt that there were far more capable rulers who could handle the job.
By this time the disease had spread far into Europe, and most all of southern Europe was affected.
1349 AD - The Black Death, as the plague came to be known, was making its rounds through the rest of Europe. Notably, Poland was very affected by it, and it is theorized that the constant interaction of Polish and Germanian merchants resulted in its spread into Poland.
France was also affected by the Black Death. Thousands within Londres itself were killed.
1350 AD - A civil war breaks out in the Slavic Empire, caused when Bosnia broke away from Bulgaria. With East Bulgaria cut off from West Bulgaria, local lords rose up in revolt against the West Bulgarian crown. The East Bulgarians crowned their own king.
1352 AD - The civil war went quickly, and when Georgi V was killed in battle it ended within months. The Slavic Empire was dead, but its memory was not, and its very existence would be a cause for a large confrontation centuries to come.
Also in this year, the Black Death was making its final rounds through Europe, almost 34 million bodies later. The Black Death would ultimately help to pull Europe out of the Dark Ages, by hurrying the end of feudalism and absolutism, but for now both feudalism and absolutism are safe.
1355 AD - Burgundy, who suffered dearly during the Black Death, emerged a victor when she proved she still had military mettle, by seizing control of the Iberian side of the straits of Gibraltar.
The reasons for this seizure are shadowy at best. But most historians would agree that it was purely for economic reasons.
1360 AD - The Dominus of Alemannia, Marco Romano, begins calling for unification of the Germanian states, proclaiming it the only way to counter the threat of French expansion into the region.
While this was met only with a strengthening of the League of Alemannia, it did help to unify the various Domini, and began causing grumbles in those states dominated by the French.
1363 - 1370 AD - Economic revival of Burgundy. Their control of entrance into the Mediterranean allowed for them to tax all ships coming in and out of the Mediterranean. While they only controlled one side of the straits, their superior navy made controlling the other side unnecessary.
From this revival the city of Massilia flourished, and no less than three new universities were founded in Burgundy itself. Burgundy was an example to Europe as to how one should greet this new age, after the Black Death.
1374 AD - Many in France were displeased with the King getting the nation involved in continental politics, and how it began costing the nobles, who felt that at any moment’s notice they would be sent to some swamp in Batavia to fight off Galieski or Upper Germanians.
In this year, many nobles got together and formed “L’Assemblée”, a political body that would play a major in the political future of France. It was a most democratic body, allowing even representatives from local villages, towns, and cities to speak. While the King was displeased with this assembly, which he saw as an affront to his divine right to rule, he couldn’t very well purge THAT many people and not expect backlash.
The first session of L’Assemblée would be at Eborique (OTL York), and last five months. During these five months a decision was reached: they must confront the king. This was an unprecedented move in history.
Quite basically, they did not mind the king as a domestic administrator. But the nobility and much of the peasantry that was aware of the matter, felt that they were putting into Germania more than they were getting out. They referred to the Germanian domini as “leeches,” and that they must be brought under heel.
The King was swayed. Next year would be a momentous one indeed.
1375 AD - First, the king granted L’Assemblée the right to exist, quite basically, and soon legislative powers were granted it. They would be able to create laws, (with the King’s consent, of course) and govern in a manner similar to a very weak Burgundian Council of Nobles.
Absolutism was still in effect, however. The King had the right to dissolve L’Assemblée whenever he felt like it.
Next, the King of France, Charles IX, sent the first tax collectors to Batavia (OTL Netherlands). This was an unforgivable act in the eyes of the Germanian nobility. The Domini collected the taxes, not some foreign king. Charles said that it was for “long and faithful service to Germania,” but the Germanian nobles wouldn’t have it. Charles also claimed that he was rightful Dominus of Batavia, citing that his mother was the daughter of Batavia’s previous dominus.
For the first fifteen years, this would be an internal conflict. However, the League of Alemannia was simply looking for a reason to declare war on the French, and they would eventually get it.
1378 AD - The sporadic revolts in Batavia spread to Germania Inferior. Charles could no longer take it. He wanted to use a minimum of military force, and wanted to avoid a hostile takeover. But he couldn’t, and so sent a large army to Batavia itself, and the rebellions there were put down.
But Batavia was easy. Most of the peasants liked King Charles IX, knowing only that he has helped to protect Batavia, and that otherwise their tax money would go to the Dominus. In other states, the Domini have had time to stir up rumors and propaganda concerning Charles IX, and had much more support of the peasantry.
1379 AD - Batavia is fully taken over by France. The Dominus of Batavia is captured and executed for “treason,” a rather unusual charge.
1380 - 1383 AD - French troops pour into Batavia and coastal Germania Inferior, and quell the rebellions there. The Germanian states that were a part of the alliance were simply ill equipped to handle the French invasion, having basically let their forces become lax after leaving it to the French.
These years really mark the birth of the mighty French navy, which had to transport these thousands of troops to Batavia and other regions.
1387 - 1390 AD - The French move down the Rhine and Elbe, and seize control of riverside settlements, effectively cutting off the rebels from outside help, at least from Poland, Denmark, and Galie.
1390 AD - The rebels finally agree to sit down and work out a peace plan, while the Alemannian League sent a delegate to mediate the talks. However, peace was not to be. During the talks, the French delegation grew more and more outraged by the Germanian Rebels’ demands, and eventually the French delegation attacked the Rebel delegation. In the ensuing massacre, one of the League’s representatives was killed.
This was the only cassus belli needed for the League.
1391 AD - The League unanimously declared war on the Kingdom of France. This was a whole new ballgame for the French, but it would not be a walk in the park for the League either. The war would go on intermittently until the year 1430.
1392 AD - The Ottoman sultan Beyazid renounces all obligation to the Byzantine Emperor, and begins raiding Western Anatolia. This time, the Ottomans were here to stay.
1392 - 1396 AD - In 1392, the League assembled its army and began to retaliate along the Rhine. Slowly but surely they were able to push the French out of Germania Inferior along the Rhine, however they didn’t have the capability to push into Batavia. Not to mention that the French troops along the Elbe began to march inland to destroy Germania Inferior, now regarded as the heart of the rebellion.
In 1394 the French scored a major victory, allowing them to reoccupy almost all of Germania Inferior. Charles IX was hailed in France and in Batavia as a hero.
In 1396 the League suffered another major defeat, and were brought to the bargaining table. The French agreed to a twenty-year peace treaty, and would retain control of three of her four states, but had to let go of Cerusca. The French agreed.
1397 - 1400 AD - Brief peacetime. Cerusca joins the League in 1400, now renamed the Germanian League.
1401 AD - The peace which as intended to last a very long time fails. The two sides engage once again, and the first battles are inconclusive.
1402 AD - The Polish king is on his deathbed, and his reign had been tumultuous. He was contested on all counts, claiming that Satan had chosen him to reign, not God, and that the bishop of Poznan had been paid off. He had needed support. But from where? Who could assist him externally with internal problems?
He saw in the King of Bohemia a capable ruler, and was not about to waste the new meritocratic values upon which Poland was based. In 1380 he approached the King of Denmark. Basically, he stated that if he supported him in his reign, he would give the kingdom directly to him, NOT his son (like in a royal marriage). The Bishop of Poznan agreed to this, establishing the succession of Divine Right.
So, in 1402 the king of Bohemia, Miroslav III, toured Poland, on the pretense that he would be discussing a treaty with the king of Poland. (Which, technically, was the truth.) In reality, he was hammering out the details of his own succession.
In November of 1402 the King is dead. During the funeral, the Bishop of Poznan announces the successor, Miroslav III of Bohemia. The nobility is outraged. This is even worse than before. But the nobility was willing to give him a chance, after he promised that he would reduce taxes.
Also, in this year, the Mongols invade and defeat Beyazid of the Ottomans. He is succeeded by Mehmed.
1403 - 1406 AD - The French and the Germanians continue to slug it out. The French strategy is to try and run up the middle of Germania, seizing Cerusca, and then branching off, taking Alemannia’s capital and Germania Superior’s capital. The last ones would fall.
But the French were being constantly harassed in Germania Inferior by renegade domini and disgruntled peasants. This prevented the French from bringing the full force of their army on the unready Germanians, and ultimately will help the Germanians succeed.
1403 AD - Miroslav is cornonated King of Poland and Lord of Bohemia. The Polish nobility learn to love their new leader, and the taxes are lower than they’ve been in years. But in response, Miroslav has had to hike taxes up in Bohemia. His own people were feeling betrayed. This would have consequences.
Miroslav begins deliberating with various legislators about a new way of supporting and maintaining an army, and that is to have the nobles send money directly to the king, and this money would be used to raise a sort of “Royal Army”, responsible for the defense of the entire nation. This was a radical idea, and the Polish nobility would not be too keen on surrendering their own personal armies.
1404 AD - A compromise is reached. The nobles will be allowed to keep their armies, but half of their taxes would be paid in currency directly to the crown, and using these reduced funds, the king could raise a royal army. This new system would help to centralize states all over Europe, and would usher in the end of feudalism.
But Miroslav has other problems. The Bohemian nobility have rebelled. But the Polish nobility helped to put down the rebellion quickly. While quick, the rebellion was one of the most bloody in the history of Eastern Europe.
1406 AD - In order to ensure that future succession is according to the new meritocratic system, the Laws of Succession are codified. Key points are that the successor must be publicly known, and that the successor must be Polish, or half-Polish. For this Miroslav is remembered as ‘Miroslav the Good’.
1407 - 1410 AD - Germanian counterattack. The Germanians began raising a huge army, and the forces the French were fighting against were only the armies of select Germanian nobility, designed to deceive the French into underestimating them.
The French are beaten back. They agree to a truce on the condition that Cerusca is theirs. The Germanians would allow it only if the domini of Cerusca were allowed out of the country. The French agreed, and a ten-year truce was agreed to.
1411 AD - Death of Charles IX. Succeeded by Phillip V.
1412 AD - West Bulgaria divides into Illirija and Panonija.
1414 AD - Helvetia joins the League of Germania.
In this year, the crowns of Norway and Sweden unify. The constant intermarriage of Scandinavian monarchs finally resulted in Union. Denmark was left out to be incorporated at a later date.
1415 AD - The League of Germania realizes that if only had been more united, it would have forced the French from Germania itself. In this vein, the last Dominus of Germania Inferior, Romano Teuto, delivers an impassioned speech, saying that it is time for Germania to have a Rex once more.
The League moved to crown Romano Teuto as REX GERMANIA, but not PRIMVS DOMINVS, for that title now belonged to a collection of local Domini.
One half of the League remained unconvinced, however. One Dominus, Marco Venetio, proposed a challenge to the man who would be king:
The title of Rex is not given lightly. One is never
given it out of pity, and nor will it ever. That you expected
it to be so would to one who did not know you personally to
question your character, motives, and intelligence. The
covetous title is given to those who prove that they can truly
lift the Germanian people, and elevate them as a whole. If you
can do that, then you will be Rex.
His opportunity wouldn’t be too far away.
1416 AD - The French learned of the attempted unification of Germania, and this news coming soon after the incorporation of Helvetia into the League worried both Phillip V and L’Assemblée even more. The French spent most of the year sending more men into Germania. Phillip V was going to finish what his father started, and put down the Germanian threat once and for all.
1417 - 1421 AD - The French try their more successful strategy of moving down the rivers, with emphasis put on the Rhine, so that Alemannia, arguably the heart of the League, could be captured.
They advanced up the river, and the capital was under siege, when the French king realized, he forgot about the Helvetians.
The threat of the French army being outflanked and destroyed by the small yet powerful Helvetian army proved too much. The French went retreating down the Rhine with their tail between their legs.
1421 AD - Murad II succeeds Mehmed I.
1422 - 1423 AD - Lull in the fighting. The French plan a final strategy, designed to destroy the Germanians once and for all. It would involve a two pronged strategy, where they would advance down the Elbe, meanwhile applying pressure in Cerusca. When Boihimaeum and Germania Superior are captured, Cerusca would fall, and then the two would gang-up on Alemannia and Helvetia.
1424 AD - The French plan is put into action. A huge French army begins to attack on two fronts.
1425 AD - The French successfully take most of Boihimaeum, and the stress on Germanian forces began to show, as advances in Cerusca are made.
1426 AD - Romano Teuto snuck through French territory and went into Poland. He won an audience with Miroslav the Good, and beseeched him that he send an army to cut off the French in Boihimaeum, now advancing against Germania Superior.
Against his better judgement, Miroslav granted a portion of the new Royal Army to Romano Teuto, mostly to see how the Royal Army would fare against the French army. He also agreed that Poland would support Germania in this war.
1427 AD - The Polish army under Romano Teuto breached the Elbe, taking the French by surprise. When news reached Londres, Phillip V had some idea that the game was up. Most of the French army in Germania was now cut off, and amid a very angered Germanian populace.
Later that year, the French army in Boihimaeum had little choice but to surrender. This turned the war around.
1428 - 1430 AD - The Germanians fought back, now that they had Polish support. By the spring of 1430, both armies emerged from winter to realize that all but a few coastal strongholds of the French had been abandoned. The war was won, the French were gone.
1432 AD - Sporadic fighting continued until 1432, when Phillip V agreed to acknowledge the sovereignty of the Germanian states. The French returned to their island, and Phillip V had quite the domestic situation to deal with.
1434 AD - The League of Germania once again considered the proposal to make Romano Teuto the Rex of Germania. The measure passed unanimously. For all intents and purposes, Germania was reunited.
1436 - 1438 AD - The Knights of St. Cornelius begin raiding the Mongols’ Kievan holdings. While the gains are meager, the Golden Horde, already pursuing a policy of indifference to the Kievan subjects, allow the Knights to take some territory. Not to mention that the Golden Horde is in upheaval during this time.
1437 AD - Establishment of the Kazan Khanate. The Golden Horde begins to disintegrate.
1439 AD - With the death of Phillip V, L’Assemblée began to move to install their own king. They refused to acknowledge Phillip VI, and instead pressed on the throne a capable military commander and lord from France’s Scottish border. Himself being half or quarter Scottish, (sources conflict) L’Assemblée felt that they would be able to warm relations with Scotland by doing this.
1440 AD - As a sort of tour-de-force to his fractious lords, the king attacks and annexes Septimanija. This finally proves that the lords that the House of Janovic is nothing to mess with. The lords of Galie can do little as their power is diminished. The people love Przemysl II Janovic, for his almost populist policies.
Also in this year, Phillip VI and his supporters withdraw to Wales and Ireland.
1442 AD - The Krimean Varangians break away from the fast-dissolving Golden Horde.
Shortly thereafter, Holmgard makes a power play, and invades down the Dnieper, taking Kiev. Kiev is liberated, and is made a dependency of Holmgard.
1443 AD - The Burgundian king inherits Pisa. Now there is no contestto Burgundy’s naval dominance. The rest of the Italian city-states grow nervous, worried about potential power-plays for the rest of the peninsula.
1444 AD - A major heresy begins in Bretanja, known as the Diegans. It was started by a Spanish priest named Diego, and it had many heretical ideas. First of all, it believed strongly in Jewish traditions such as not eating certain foods, and blamed many terrible events on the Papacy. It also preached that there was no free will, and that those who would go to heaven were chosen at the beginning of time.
It was at this time too small to be bothered with, and they were allowed to fester.
Also in this year, Galisi merchants seeking to chart a course to the gold-rich west African kingdoms and potentially India reach Senegal. They are forced to turn back due to storms and low food supply, having underestimated the time it would take to reach the Ghana region.
Murad II Sultan of the Ottomans begins to foray into Byzantine territory across the Hellespont. The Byzantine Empire is at this point a shell of its former self, having weathered the Mongol storm and the Black Plague. The Ottomans don’t have the strength to take Constantinople, but striking so far from Greece, the main recruitment center for the Ottomans, they have free range.
1445 AD - The Formation of the Baltic Union, a Union of Denmark and Ostersjoen to counter the power of the Kalmar Union. The court at Ostersjoen was always very pro-Danish whenever Denmark came into conflict with other Scandinavian nations. Now Denmark had a stranglehold on the Scandinavian nations’ trade with the East.
In this year, The French Assembly’s king and commander, Robert I, successfully takes control of Wales. The only possession Phillip VI retains on the isle of Britain is his family’s homeland, Cornouailles. (OTL Cornwall. Remember, the Cornouailles dynasty was named after the area.)
In this same year, the kingdoms of Galisija and Luzitanja reunited.
The Ottomans continue in their route of conquest. They press all the way to the Macedon region before they are halted. The Ottomans agree to a peace with the Byzantine Empire. Peace would not last long, however. The Ottomans wait only months before declaring a continuation war on the East Bulgarians.
Bulgaria was at this time very fractured, despite the fact that it was a single kingdom. Internal troubles, and the fact that it was still reeling from the effects of their war on the Ottomans and the Black Death all in quick succession made it so that they were vulnerable.
1446 AD - The first major use of arquebusiers, as a major battle is fought outside the family estate of the Cornouailles dynasty. The defeat of traditional troops by L’Assemblée’s arquebusiers helps spread the popularity of the weapon throughout Europe.
The Ottomans, seeing the war on the Bulgarians as a war of revenge, ravage Bulgaria absolutely. The Bulgarians, even while being invaded, did little more than bicker and squabble. Lords would refuse to send their own troops to battles, and there were even turncoats.
1447 AD - Further advancements are made against the Bulgarians. The Bulgarians are simply unable to deal with the Ottoman horde that has made its way into Europe.
1448 AD - East Bulgaria is conquered in full by the Ottomans. The Ottomans settle down for a while, but they shall return in earnest.
The fall of much territory to the Ottomans has created noise in the west. A very select few call for a Ninth Crusade, but even the Pope poo-poos them. Burgundians suggest that the Principality of Achaea (which is Burgundian-dominated) seize control of Greece, citing that the Byzantine Emperor is incapable of protecting it.
In the end, a whole lot of noise was made, but nothing was done, at least, not yet.
King Robert lands his army in Ireland, at Dublin. The end is near for Phillip VI’s forces.
1449 AD - Phillip VI is killed in battle. His supporters surrender shortly afterward. The Cornouailles dynasty comes to an end, and the House of Eborique begins its reign over France.
1450 AD - The Ottomans begin their conquest of Greece.
Seeing this as the final red flag, the Principality of Achaea invades Byzantine Greece. The Byzantine Empire is now without any ally, it is officially alone.
Burgundy follows suit, and takes Crete after a very short invasion.
1451 AD - Cyprus strikes out on its own, knowing full-well that the Emperor in Constantinople is unable to protect them.
Death of Murad II. Succeeded by Mehmed II.
1453 AD - The Ottoman conquest of Greece is complete, excepting of course Achaean holdings.
1454 AD - The Diegan Heresy has grown to a level where it can not be ignored. The king of Galie sees this as a failure on the part of the Bretan kings to maintain their own kingdom. Galie invades Bretanja.
1457 AD - The Galie conquest of Bretanja is complete, and so is the extermination of the Diegan heresy. For the first time in a long time, all of Galie is reunited under a single banner, for there is no more Akvitan nor Septimanja. The King of Galie, Petar II, is hailed as a hero.
The printing press is invented by Krzystof Lewandowski, a Pole in Pomerania. The invention marks the beginning of a sort of Age of Thinking in Poland. Free thinkers all over Europe are attracted to Burgundy/Italy and Poland. It is a slow process, but these locations will eventually become the cultural hearts of Europe.
1458 AD - Mehmed II refuses to acknowledge the claims of Achaea north of the Peloponnese, and as such declares war on them.
1459 AD - The Lewandowski Bible is published. It is the first book off the printing press.
The advance of the Ottomans into Achaean territory is halted at the Isthmus. The Peloponnese is for all intents and purposes off-limits to the Ottomans. At least for now. Achaea is almost under siege, in a way. The Ottomans have no way of invading by sea, for the Achaeans have the support of the Burgundian navy, the strongest navy in the world.
1460 AD - The Ottomans are able to get a hold of a few cannons, and the fortifications protecting the Peloponnese are knocked-down. The Ottomans pour into Achaea.
1461 AD - Burgundian naval vessels reach the area of Sierra Leone.
Achaea is conquered in whole. The Principality relocates itself to Euboea, where they shal for the time being enjoy the safety provided by the sea.
This date marks the “exodus” of Byzantium’s best and brightest. A very few are able to escape to Cyprus, but most flee to Italy and Krimea/Poland.
1463 AD - The Ottoman Turks under the cover of night are able to get their army across into Euboea. Euboea falls shortly thereafter. The Principality’s leadership takes refuge in Crete. They will never return to Euboea or Achaea.
1466 AD - The Ottomans begin their invasion of Epir.
Far away, the Chimu people are conquered by the Incan Empire…
1468 AD - Epir is conquered, and a puppet regime is installed.
1470 AD - Both Rikragard and Holmgard make advances against the Mongol khanates.
1471 AD - The Ottomans once more declare war on the Byzantine Empire. This time, the Byzantines have nowhere else to turn. They can only hunker down, and wait for the inevitable. They are assisted by the Burgundian navy. The Byzantines reviled the Burgundians for the capture of Crete, however they had little choice but to accept their help. The Burgundians were powerful, but they only delayed the inevitable.
1474 AD - The city of Constantinple, the last stronghold of the once-great Byzantine Empire, and by extension the Roman Empire, falls. While Cyprus is still a successor to the Byzantine Empire, and its ruler lays claim to the title, the end of the Byzantine Empire has come.
The King of Krimea also claims to be the Byzantine Emperor. (So does the Ottoman Sultan)
In this year, a Galisi-Luzitani vessel sails south of the Earth’s equator, the first European ship to do so. The Galisi-Luzitani begin a slave trade in the region of Cameroon. So do the Burgundians.
1475 AD - Krimea begins to expand eastward, to the Caspian Sea. The ultimate aim is to take Sarai, a very influential trade city.
1477 AD - Holmgard and Rikragard unify after a short war. They are unified under Holmgard leadership.
1480 AD - A former Byzantine admiral by the name of Kallistos Theodoros agrees to head a Burgundian-funded proposition to discover a western route to China and India, for trade reasons.
1481 AD - Kallistos Theodoros and his three ships make landfall on what would come to be called “New Burgundy” (OTL Hispaniola). 1481 marks the discovery of the New World.
1482 AD - Olav III, Grand Prince of Holmgard, renounces all Mongol rule over Russia.
1483 AD - Kallistos embarks on a second expedition. This time he explores the entire region.
[b]1486 AD - Galisija-Luzitanja inherits Taragonija. The three nations are one, and are proclaimed “Ispanija”. The Ispanian state was the cultural antithesis of Espana, the former representing the Slavs of Iberia, the latter representing the Latins of Iberia.
1490 AD - Following a succession of wars, the Krimeans reach the Caspian Sea. It was during this time that Krimean cavalry gained its fame as the finest in Eastern Europe, perhaps all of Europe.
A third expedition is made by Kallistos. This time he intends to write about his findings in a book.
1492 AD - Angelo da Brindisi, a south Italian who moved to Cracow in Poland, gains fame as a painting, and finishes his grand painting of Jesus’ Ascension Into Heaven.
1494 AD - The Hungarian king commissions Angelo da Brindisi to paint the ceilings of the Church of Danubius, having recently been restored.
1495 AD - Not one to be outdone, the French launch their own expedition. They eventually make landfall in the New World, albeit far north of Kallistos’ landings. (OTL Nova Scotia)
1498 AD - Galie funds an expedition to find a route around Africa to India.
1500 AD - Vladimir of Galie arrives in Goa, in India. The route was found.
As Befits a King
The Gripping Conclusion
The gripping conclusion!!!
1501 AD - Kallistos, the last of the Byzantines, the great discoverer of the New World, dies.
The Safavid State is established in this year, with the capture of Tabriz.
1502 AD - The Burgundians officially establish their first town on the Isle of New Burgundy. (Nieuw Bourgond) This was to become a sort of forward base for further colonization.
1503 AD - Major growth in colonies on Canary Isles (Ispanija)
1505 AD - Germania launches an expedition to the New World, building on the knowledge it already has gained through Kallistos’ accounts of his voyages, which he long ago made public.
The southern continent of the New World is discovered.
1507 AD - Ispanija decides to challenge Burgundy’s authority over the Straits of Gibraltar, by seizing the other side of the Straits. The Muslim rulers of the area weren’t particularly prepared to do anything to stop the rather powerful Ispani, and as such the Muslim control of the Straits was lost.
1508 AD - Not one to miss out on a land-grab, and fearing growing Ispani and Burgundian power in the area, Spain declares war on the last Muslim state, Granada. The seige begins in 1508.
In this year, the Germanian king decides that the relatively new nation needs to flex its muscle. What better way to do that than to outdo everyone in feats of navigation? That is, after all, the trend these days. The voyage wouldn’t take place for a few more years, but it was the most ambitious yet.
The Burgundians accidentally discover the Yucatan Peninsula. They take slaves and don’t make too much of the discovery, not for a few years.
1509 AD - The French attempt to settle Newfoundland, however they were ill-prepared, and within three years the colony was abandoned.
1510 AD - The fall of Granada. The last Muslims in Spain were destroyed.
The King of Germania had assembled a small fleet together of seven ships. The goal of these ships? To do what Kallistos could not: find a western route to the Indies. They set sail on June 29th, 1510.
1511 AD - The Germanian expedition finds a path through beyond the southern Continent. It is named the Teutonic Straits.
1514 AD - The Germanian expedition arrives home in Batavia. The few survivors are hailed as heroes, and their feat launches Germania into a prestigious place in Europe. Merchants begin to trust their shipping in Germania’s capable hands.
1515 AD - The Burgundians make contact with the Aztecs. Initially, there is just trade between the two nations, but there were two parties within the Burgundian leadership. One side wished to be at peace with this faraway and mysterious civilization. The other side felt it their holy Christian duty to convert the heathens. The debate would last many years, and it would take a papal bull to settle it.
1517 AD - The Leader is published in Poland, by an Italian philosopher. Basically, it was a radical new book, saying that the means DO justify the ends. It also expounds upon the meritocratic system adopted by Poland, and claims that all of Europe and Christendom at large would benefit from the adoption of this system.
In this year, the Ottomans conquered Cairo, and the Ottoman Emperor proclaimed himself the Caliph.
The Burgundians claimed the entire isle of Kibonland (OTL Cuba), although at this point in time they only control the eastern end of the island.
1519 AD - The French and the Papacy were debating heatedly. The Pope claimed that the Eborique dynasty had no right to rule over France, citing that the Assembly placed Robert on the throne, and he was not coronated properly. The French told the Pope where he could take his problems, and this debate proved to be a catalyst for the Reformation. Although, the Reformation was still many, many years away.
Germania establishes colonies on the Southern Continent, named Terrano by the Germanians, a shortened version of “Terra Nova”.
1520 AD - The Pope decided to settle the issue once and for all. He stated that it was a Christian’s basic duty to convert heathens wherever they may roam. The pro-war party gained an advantage in Burgundy, and as such the Aztec Empire was seeing its final days.
1522 AD - A Burgundian general by the name of Friedrich von Leyd arrives in the Yucatan. His goal is to convert the Aztecs by any means necessary. von Leyd had been studying the scant reports of the political situation in Mexico. von Leyd understood that the Aztec Empire functioned primarily because of the tribute of its many vassal states. He would use this against the Aztecs.
The missionaries sent to Tenochtitlan failed to convert the Aztec Emperor Montezuma to Christianity, mainly because the missionaries were revered as Gods returned from beyond the sea. That is, until they spat upon the altar of the Aztec gods, and the Emperor himself. They were slaughtered, and their heads sent to the nearest Burgundian mission, where von Leyd was waiting. This was all he needed to bring the Aztec Empire crashing down.
von Leyd was quick to ally himself to the Tlaxcala, who deeply hated the Aztecs. Out of spite for the Aztecs, a large percentage of the Tlaxcala converted to Christianity, and as such they would for generations to come not be taxed by the Burgundians.
1523 AD - Tenochtitlan is captured by von Leyd. Much of the city burns, and for all intents and purposes the Aztec Empire and all her tributary states were absorbed into the Republic of Burgundy.
Many Italians migrate to the Mexican colonies of Burgundy, the Burgundian population preferring to integrate themselves into the mostly-Burgundian Caribbean colonies.
von Leyd would spend the next ten years of his career tracking down rebels and claimants to the Aztec throne.
1524 AD - Suleyman the Magnificent invades Bosnia. Bosnia stood little chance, and in two years it was conquered in whole. It would be the Ottoman Empire’s last major gain in Europe.
1527 AD - The Prince of Holmgard, Magnus XI, claims to rule over all of Russia (Varangia). Magnus begins exacting tribute from the Krimeans. The Krimeans were none too happy about this, and as such they refused to pay. This would prove to be Krimea’s fatal mistake.
1530 AD - After securing control of Panama, Germania sends an expedition south along the Pacific coast. What they find astounds them: an entire empire, the Incans. While they have yet to see the wealth of Cuzco itself, they know they have run into a VERY organized, almost EUROPEAN entity, when they see a grand road system uniting these people. This was only reconnaissance however, and the Germanians were unable to conquer the Incans in whole. The expedition went back to Panama (ITTL Banabo). He spent two years there getting approval for an expedition.
1531 AD - Holmgard attack Krimea. The Krimeans were strong, but simply ruled by incompetent leadership. They were able to hold out for a few years.
1532 - 1537 AD - The Germanians launch an expedition to conquer the Incans. There was little over 200 men in the expedition, but there were 5 cannons, and this proved to have a psychological advantage. One by one cities fell. The Germanians couldn’t have arrived at a better time, seeing as the Incans were being wiped out by the smallpox virus, and they were in the midst of a civil war.
By 1534, Cuzco itself had fallen. The Incan resistance continued under Huascar and Manco, however they were killed one by one, and by 1537 all of the Incan Empire and its tremendous wealth had been conquered by Germania. Germania was the RICHEST state in all of Europe, followed by Burgundy.
1532 AD - von Leyd, now aged and having taken the Aztec Empire, spent the rest of his life securing Central Kallista for Burgundy.
1535 AD - Krimea was conquered. The Krimeans had a well-trained cavalry corps, and they were numerous. However, due to the incompetent leadership of the Krimeans, the Holmgardians scored victory after victory. When Krimeapol, the capital of Krimea, fell in 1535, Magnus XI had grounds to take all the titles of the Krimean king.
1536 AD - Magnus XI was proclaimed Magnus I, Kejsare of all Vjarings. (Caesar of all Varangians). Russia (or, Varangia) was for all intents and purposes, united under a single ruler.
Magnus I was surprisingly kind to the mostly-Orthodox population of Krimea, and didn’t press his own Catholic beliefs on the Krimeans too much. He did however forbid the construction of new Orthodox churches without his own permission, and as such Orthodoxy stagnated for a very long time.
1539 AD - The ruler of Bulgarian Pannonia laid claim to the throne of Hungary, but so did two others, one a Hungarian, the nephew of the late king, and the other a Latin lord, who over the years had exacted great power over the Latins of Hungary.
The Latin lord was supported by Suleyman, and when he did not get the throne, Suleyman had little choice but to invade Bulgarian Pannonia, and Hungary itself.
1540 AD - The Baltic Union, their population overflowing and their own inhabitants not particularly thrilled about going to Finland, begins to colonize the New World as well. The Danes arrive in Newfoundland, and build on the site of the abandoned French colony. This is considered Kallista’s first true colony.
Basically, the Danes opened up a Pandora’s Box of sorts by colonizing Newfoundland. The reason for this was because France, who so far had been missing out on the colonial game, began to step-up their game. Within twenty years, France would be establishing colonies in the New World as well, and this would be the undoing of the Baltic monopoly of the New World.
1543 AD - The Ottoman-backed king gained power in Hungary, and most of Bulgarian Pannonia had been taken over by the Ottomans, the rest was surrendered to Raetija. The result of this conquest was that Hungary was secure on all sides (except within), and it could flourish. Although many in Europe and the Church felt betrayed by this Ottoman-backed king.
1547 AD - A Polish scietist by the name of Vlastimil presented a heliocentric theory of the universe, which went against the Church’s geocentric theory. Vlastimil was threatened with excommunication, and as such could do little but bury his works. They would be revived though, quite soon. Although it would be after his death in 1555.
1550 AD - The French claim Quebec. They lay claim to the area, although officially exercise no power over the region. The Danes continue to have their monopoly over the Kallista continent.
1554 AD - Galie finally gets involved in the New World, by establishing a colony in Terrano.
1556 AD - The French send a meager force to take Newfoundland from the Danes. The Danes felt that the distance of Newfoundland protected it, and thus garrisoned it poorly. They were wrong, and by the year’s end, Newfoundland had been taken for the French crown. This was seen as a triumph for the Eborique dynasty.
1559 AD - The Danes cut their losses, and begin settling the Bahamas and Blomstenland (OTL Florida).
1561 AD - A Pole by the name of Ludwik Jankowski, a professor of theology, published a pamphlet concerning fifty problems he saw with the church, and distributed them in Poznan. It was received well by the myriad free-thinkers in the city, and this date marks the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.
1565 AD - Ludwik gains many followers, but the King of Poland, under pressure from the Archbishop of Poznan, expels them from the city. He and his followers flee to Krakow.
1566 AD - Ludwik is excommunicated from the Catholic Church. This begins the Ludwigian Church. Poland being so far from Rome, the Polish king indifferent to this “upstart heresy”, and the other nations of Europe caring more about the New World, there was little that could be done.
In this year, Suleyman the Magnificent dies. He left to his heir one single task: to conquer Cyprus and destroy the last “Emperor” of the Byzantines.
1567-1568 AD - Cyprus is conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The Greek population of the island flees, making their way to Crete. This triggers the “Greek Exodus”, in which about 20% of all Greeks in Greece itself leave for the New World. They settle the region which they call “New Hellas”, and accept subordinate status to the Republic of Burgundy, so long as 10% of the tax money goes to the “Byzantine Emperor”.
1568 - 1600 AD - Period of the “Greek Exodus”.
1570 AD - Quebec is settled by the French. First true colony of the French in Kallista (Newfoundland was taken by the French from the Danes).
1575 AD - The tobacco trade surges, as traders from all nations move up and down the coast of Kallista trading with natives. While there is no settlement of the area as of yet, this will precipitate the settlement of the region.
1577 AD - Expansion of the Ludwigian Church in Hungary and in Poland. The Ludwigian Church is very similar to the Catholic Church, and so conversion is easier than expected.
1580 AD - The French take over the eastern half of New Burgundy in a brief war between the two nations. The Burgundians are able to cut their losses, and focus on retaining control of Kibonland. The fall of East New Burgundy to the French marks the militarization of colonies in the New World. This militarization will help to put a strain on the economy of Burgundy.
1583 AD - Sweden becomes to first nation to overthrow the Roman Catholic Church and adopt Ludwigian theology. This results in the rather violent dissolution of the Kalmar Union. Iceland also adopts the Protestant theology. Norway will remain true to Catholicism for quite some time.
1585 AD - The Church, not wishing to lose France to the Reformation, finally recognizes the legitimacy of the Eborique dynasty and the right of the Assembly to govern France alongside the Eborique kings.
1590 AD - Following the bickering as to who gets the land in the New World, the Pope calls together the major colonizing nations for a Council in Milan. The ensuing treaty is called “The Treaty of Milan”, and it effectively divides the largely-uncharted New World among the nations. Although there will be many times in history that this Treaty is ignored.
1595 AD - Padova begins to exact its power in the Adriatic sea by invading and conquering Bulgarian Illyria.
1597 AD - Ottoman-occupied Pannonia converts largely to Protestantism, seeing their conquest by the Ottomans as a failure of Orthodoxy.
1600 AD - The French establish a colony on the Chesapeake Bay.
1601 AD - Many Krimeans were dissatisfied with the Catholic dominance that was clear and present in the new Varangia and chose to move eastward, into Sibir. While they would still be under the control of the Kejsare in Holmgard, the control over their religion would be greatly relaxed.
The Kejsare allowed them to leave, postulating that the fewer Orthodox Christians in Krimea, the more Catholics there would be.
In this year, Germania claimed the islands of Marconia (OTL Philippines) for Germania.
1602 AD - The French, who were seeking a Passage du Nord-Ouest to the Orient, accidentally stumble upon the Baie du Etienne, named after the navigator who found it.
1603 AD - Another problem concerning governance has arisen in Burgundy. The question was what exactly was the status of the colonies? Are they to be considered on par with possessions like Sicily? Only problem here would be that the people of say, Mexico, could vote for their own king after the death of the Burgundian king. This was a very real possibility, since Mexico was populated mostly by Italians, and further to the south were Greeks, who not only had their own “Emperor”, but unlike the Italians were not at all represented in the Council.
1605 AD - The Burgundian council decided that the colonies were to be granted along with the title of “King of Burgundy”, which in effect makes these lands perpetual royal possessions. While this seemed less than republican to the colonists, they were more concerned with surviving in the New World rather than who was governing them, and as such this raised very little ire.
1609 AD - The Spaniards finally get in on the colonial game, themselves having little interest on the continent (for the time being). They establish themselves in Terrano, far south of Germanian holdings. And while technically as per the Treaty of Milan the entire southern continent excepting Galie’s holdings belonged to Germania, the Germanians take little notice.
1611 AD - The Catholic Church has had enough. The Ludovite Church has spread quite far, with followers in Galie and Germania, some even trickling in to northern Italy. Based in Krakow, the Church places sole responsibility for the success of this Church on the Polish monarchy, and demands that they be purged immediately.
The Polish king didn’t wish to alienate a huge swath of his population (about1/3). And yet he had the Papal lapdogs, the Knights of St. Cornelius, breathing down his neck as well.
This is a conflict that is about ready to spill over. Peace would continue in Europe, but only for a few years more.
1613 AD - The Burgundians, always the equal opportunists, make a decision similar to the Poles, and allow the practice of the heretical religion. This creates serious tensions within the Italian possessions, and the Lords of Sicily threaten to not renew the title of “King of Sicily” to a Burgundian king.
In this year, the Papacy proclaims a “Great Inquisition”, which basically allows the monarchs of Europe to convert their own population to Christianity “by any means necessary”. It is immediately put into effect officially in Italy and Iberia, and unofficially in Burgundy and some parts of Hungary, Germania, and Poland.
1615 AD - The heir-apparent to the king of Hungary officially adopts Ludovism as his denomination. This causes a serious uproar in Hungary, as he is the king’s only son. The king was infuriated, and took him out of the succession. This was the beginning of the Vicennial, or Twenty Years’, War.
The Knights of St. Cornelius COULD have chosen to keep the conflict contained, but also decided to declare war upon Poland, seeing this civil war as ultimately stemming from the Polish monarchy’s religious tolerance.
The Knights called upon all the nations of Europe to destroy Poland. However, Germania, who geographically was in an excellent position to invade Poland geographically, was unable to under the circumstances invade with good conscience.
For one thing, Germania was involved with the New World colonies, which were spread far and wide across Terrano. Secondly, the House of Teuto, which still reigned over Germania, didn’t forget that Germania owes her independence to the Polish army of Miroslav the Good. As such, Germania chose to remain out of the conflict, but it would suffer greatly in proxy conflicts in the New World.
1615 - 1623 AD - The Catholic faction in Hungary was simply overrun by the Protestant faction. In the end thousands of Hungarians died, and Hungary became the second nation to officially convert to Protestantism. Poland continues to remain neutral (while nominally Catholic). Meanwhile, the Cornelian/Polish part of the Twenty Years’ War continues to rage on. It has been a stalemate for these many years, however they will get help from two unlikely allies.
1617 AD - The French establish a colony on Barbados.
1618 - 1619 AD - The Burgundians continue to expand northward.
1620 - 1625 AD - Galie establishes three ports in India over the next five years.
1622 AD - The Burgundians finally adopt a policy. They put the Inquisition into effect officially, not wishing to part with Sicily and Southern Italy.
1624 AD - Sweden and the Baltic Union join the Poles in their fight against the Knights of St. Cornelius. The Swedes assisted because they themselves were Protestant, but the Danes assisted for two reasons: one was that they had a policy similar to those of the Poles by remaining neutral while nominally Catholic.
Their reasoning for this was that while Denmark proper was greatly Protestant (as was much of northern Germania), the Ostersjoen region is staunchly Catholic.
The other reason they joined is because they wanted to add Cornelian land to the Baltic Union. And while Rome was quite upset by this, the Pope didn’t go so far as to excommunicate the Danish leadership.
1625 AD - Jacques du Laigues (OTL Waterford), a French physicist, (now remembered as the “father of modern science”) successfully proves Vlastimil’s heliocentric theory. While he is imprisoned by Church officials in France, he wins a series of audiences with the king of France himself to prove the heliocentric theory. The king of France releases him and formally apologizes. He is untouchable by both Rome, due to geographical distance, and the church officials in France.
1624 - 1630 AD - The conflict is fought on and off. But the Danes and Poles press onward. Before the Knights’ final surrender in 1630, they persuade their allies in northern Italy to join the fight. The Knights surrendered all claims to land, but were allowed to exist, ,mainly because their dissolution would turn even staunchly neutral Germania against them.
1630 - 1635 AD - The Italians make many forays into Polish territory, but with the absence of a second front, and only a very narrow way into Poland, the Italians ultimately fail to secure victory. The Poles come out on top in the Twenty Years’ War.
Ultimately, the conflict can be seen in two lights: the first is the religious conflict. There were essentially two sides, the Protestants and the Catholics, and of course those who advocated religious neutrality and freedom. But then there was tension with Poland that had been mounting ever since its adoption of the meritocratic system. Many throughout Europe and the Church at large had been skeptical, and Poland was treated with ill-regard throughout many courts.
1631 AD - Jacques du Laigues establishes a University in Londres.
1632 AD - Galie is the first one to establish a colony in South Africa, primarily as a sort of way station for ships journeying to India.
1638 AD - The Danes, realizing that many, many slaves depart from the Gambia region of Africa, sends a small contingent of troops to take the region from Ispanija. The Ispani garrison of the region had grown lax, and was ill-prepared for a small Danish army, led by battle-hardened veterans from the recent war.
This move was possibly the smartest move of all. The Danes prospered greatly, albeit it was from the institution of slavery.
1639 AD - In his old age, Jacques du Laigues dies in 1639. Between the time he was released to the time of his death he made various advances in the fields of mathematics. His body is interred in his home town of Laigues, in Ireland.
1640 - 1649 AD - This time is a relatively prosperous time for the European powers. Their colonies grow up and down the coasts of the New World, and Denmark, France, and Burgundy establish trading ports in India during this time. To rival the prosperous Galie way station of South Africa, the Danes establish their own colony in Mozambique. However, tensions simmered in Ireland.
When French rule was established, the French quickly installed French “governors” to administer the various counties of France. A law was quickly passed that an Irishman can not hold this office, which was appointed by the crown and ratified by the Assembly. The one clause to that was that the various Kings of Ireland could retain their estates and titles, and even have certain powers of governance. Yet these were slowly taken away. The Irish couldn’t do a thing about their unfortunate situation, since while technically they were “represented” in the Assembly, they were represented by a Frenchman who really cared for nothing more than tax money. There was no true Irishman in the Assembly.
The Irish had been pushed too far. They had little choice but to rebel, and in 1650, they did just that.
1650 AD - The Irish in Belfast rebelled against the crown. This activated other rebels in other regions of Ireland to follow suit. By Christmas, almost all of Ireland had risen up in arms, and the heads of French governors were being sent to the King. The Irish reveled in their newfound kingdom, and yet they would not have much time. 1651 would bring with it a new year, and a French retaliation.
1651 - 1653 AD - The Irish Rebellion was not taken as seriously as it should have been, and the first French force to arrive there was, while powerful, unable to deal with the hordes of rebels, who used uncommon tactics on Ireland’s uncommon terrain. After two years of campaigning the French have little choice but to retreat to its coastal holdings.
1655 - 1659 AD - The second French force was larger, and used multi-pronged strategies to overwhelm the Irish rebels. By 1659 most of the island had been recovered for France, however the southwestern end of the island could not be dislodged.
1660 - 1661 AD - The third and final French force to arrive in Ireland was a supplementary force, and within a year of its arrival Ireland was subdued. The rebellion failed mainly because of its own lack of unity. Rather than fighting for a unified Ireland, they wanted to return Ireland to a status quo before France took over. The Rebels themselves squabbled over who got what land even in the midst of fighting.
1661 AD - Norway finally gives in and converts to Protestantism.
1663 AD - Worried over the burgeoning Spanish colony in Terrano, Germania gives to Spain an ultimatium: cease expansion of your colony in Terrano and you shall be allowed to keep it at its present size. If you do not, you are in violation of the Treaty of Milan and it will be well within our bounds to declare war on you, as this is an aggressive act.
Spain wouldn’t have it, and accused Germania of hypocrisy (the Germanians themselves had violated the Treaty by making the colony of Nova Batavia.) Germania quickly declared war on Spain.
1663 - 1666 AD - The conflict for the first three years remained contained within Spain and the Spanish Terrano colony. That is, until Ispanija got involved.
It had long since been a dream of the reigning dynasty of Ispanija to unify what they saw as rightfully theirs, the Iberian peninsula. Now, if Ispanija were to join Germania, that dream was attainable.
It was in July of 1666 that Ispanija joined the war, citing that it had rightful claim to the Spanish throne, and that it was interested in “maintaining peace in the New World”. The reasoning was ludicrous, however nobody really seemed to take notice, and as such the war was allowed to continue.
1666 - 1670 AD - Over four years battles were fought around the world. Yet after four years of fighting, constant pressure from the Ispani army and the Germanian navy had taken its toll. Spain was unable to fight any longer.
As per the terms of the peace agreement, the Spanish were to adopt the Ispani line of succession, and they were to surrender their New World colony. It would only be a matter of time before the death of the Spanish king would effectively erase the borders between the two nations.
1672 AD - The religious policies of the Kejsares of Varnagians had grown more and more draconian. Over the past years, the Orthodox faith had been repressed at many turns, and finally the Krimeans couldn’t take it any more. The rebellions began in the fall of 1672.
1672 - 1677 AD - Over five years the rebellions would spread to encompass all of Krimea’s former territories. The Krimeans in Sibir decided to stay out of the rebellion, reasoning that their ancestors went to the harsh lands of Sibir to escape trouble, and didn’t want it on their doorstep. And besides, the laws that repressed Orthodoxy in Krimea proper were oftentimes unenforced in the far-flung lands of Sibir.
The Kejsare had tried over these past five years to negotiate a peace agreement with the Rebels, however the Krimeans seemed hell-bent on the establishment of their own Orthodox Krimean state.
This would have dire consequences for the Krimean people.
1677 - 1681 AD - The Kejsare retaliated with his own forces. Initially the Krimeans scored victory after victory. But the Krimeans were unable to sustain a long resistance, because over the past 80 years they had been greatly depopulated as their population went out to seek their fortunes in harsh Sibir. Surrounded by unfriendly nations (Hungary, Varangia, Ottomans), they had no one to go to for support. By 1681 Sarai had fallen, and the lands up to the Caucasus had been lost.
1681 AD - A French physicist by the name of Jeane du Anglais (OTL East Anglia) postulates his “theory of gravity”. While it does explain how the planets stay in orbit around the sun, it fails to explain exactly how it works. Either way, over the course of Jeane’s life the scientific world would come to adopt the Theory of Gravity.
1682 - 1685 AD - These were the last three years of the Krimean Rebellion. When the capital of Krimea fell once more to the hands of Varangia, it was burned to the ground, and the Orthodox priests had been beheaded, their heads mounted on pikes and paraded through the streets of the burning city. The laws on the Orthodox religion and the Krimean people in general were tightened. Absolutism may have been faltering in other nations, but it was alive and well in Varangia.
And yet this had unforeseen consequences. The Krimean people’s population began to rebound. And this was no longer about Catholicism vs. Orthodoxy, this was now about the Varangian/Krimean cultural split. The Krimeans were not done yet.
1682 AD - Personal Union of Ispanija and Spain. Full union would have to wait for now.
1691 AD - A French merchantman was fired upon in the Caribbean by a Burgundian war ship. The reasons are unknown, however it was enough for France to declare war on Burgundy once more. Tensions had been escalating between the two naval powers. France had diplomatically supported Spain in the war between Germania/Ispanija and Spain, and Burgundy had supported Germania/Ispanija.
On top of that, the two nations were highly competitive in trading, and vied for dominance of the sugar trade. With access to Kibonland, the Burgundians had dominated the trade, and they were looking to change this situation.
1692 - 1693 AD - The French began the assault by wresting control of the island of Jamaica from the Burgundians within a few months. The Burgundians were sure that the French would attempt to land on the isle of Kibonland, or press over the mountains and invade the western side of New Burgundy. They were wrong on both counts.
1693 - 1700 AD - The war between Burgundy and France continued, and the climax came in 1599 when Gibraltar had fallen to the French. The Burgundians were now effectively cut off from their New World colonies, and had little choice but to give in to French demands. The French knew that if the terms were too harsh they risk not only a rejection by the Burgundians and dragging out the war, but should the Burgundians accept they risk the Burgundians seeking to reclaim lost territory in future conflicts. The Burgundians accept the offer of surrendering the isle of Jamaica, along with more ports on the northern coast of New Burgundy.
1701 AD - This year marks the full political union of Spain and Ispanija, and the Proclamation of Iberija (Iberia in Spanish). But absolute monarchy was simply not going to work, because two VERY different cultures were being brought together. Each one was reluctant to claim supremacy, fearing the other side would be angered.
1703 - 1706 AD - The newly-formed Iberijan state kicks-off its existence by seizing control of the Angolan coast. This kicked-off a sort of revival on the Peninsula, now that there was a viable overseas colony. Admittedly, it wasn’t the richest part of the Dark Continent, however it was a start.
1706 - 1707 AD - The Latin Rebellion. Many Latin nobles were frustrated by the apparent supremacy of the Slavic half of this new union. And their grievances were far from unfounded. Records of the time show a serious prejudice when it comes to appointment of administrative jobs to the Spaniards, and taxes tended to be higher in Latin-dominated areas.
The rebellion was violent, but short-lived. After one year a settlement was reached. It would have been a problem for some monarchs to put a reign on their own power, but the good king of Iberija, Dragomir I, made concessions for the sake of peace and continued stability. A major point in these laws was a flat tax rate, at least for the nobility, all across the board be they Spanish or Ispani.
1711 AD - This year marks the establishment of the first colonies by the Varangians in Alaska. The exotic furs of the animals that live there prove to be a boon to the Varangian state, and the furs are distributed all around Europe. Bearskin hats become all the rage in Lutetsija.
1715 AD - Germanian merchants, whilst on a tour of the whole of Java, hear rumors of a vast southern island, virtually uninhabited except by primitive peoples. These rumors eventually reach the Germanian Impero of Marconia, who for the next few years will seek funding for an expedition.
1717 AD - The Greeks on Crete rebel. But the rebellion points out a major problem in the Burgundian state: the Italian side felt that Crete was a liability, and it was best to let it go. But the Burgundians felt that Crete was a key strategic possession, and some felt it even to be their Christian duty to retain it. The rebellion is crushed, however the Ottomans saw this rebellion as a sign of weakness, and as such stepped-up its own naval raids. This would have far-reaching consequences for Burgundy, stretching out across an ocean…
1720 AD - Australia is discovered in this year by a Germanian explorer named Luizzo. Germania lays claim to the entire continent, however it would only come to effectively control the eastern coast.
The full union of both Scotland and France.
1723 AD - The establishment of the Polish East India Company. The stated goal of the company is to help the Polish kingdom establish colonies in the Far East, in order to tap into the wealth there.
Realizing that basically all of India had already been staked out, the Poles set their sights on a land further west: Indonesia. Almost as rich as India, and an important stop when traveling from the New World to India, this would help launch Poland on to the world stage.
1725 AD - “Of Country and Citizenship” is published by a Galie philosopher, who comes to the conclusion that the state has the ultimate responsibility to protect the well-being of its citizens.
1726 AD - After brief and localized conflict between the two nations, Iberija and Burgundy draw the borders of their spheres of influence in West Africa. (OTL Guinea/Liberia going to Burgundy and OTL Nigeria/Ivory Coast going to Iberija)
1729 - 1735 AD - A war is fought between Padova and Raetija. Raetija claims Bulgarian Dalmatia for itself, and Padova wouldn’t have it. Ultimately Padova was unable to sustain a war for as long as Raetija, and as such Dalmatia passed on to Raetija.
1736 AD - “On the State of Europe” is published by Vratislav, another Galie philosopher. Basically, it criticizes the institutions of the day, from the Holy Roman Empire, to the Catholic Church (which almost got him killed), to the near-absolutism of the Galie state. Vratislav was an advocate for social reform, and put the idea into the heads of many Europeans that their citizenship of whatever state they live in is a contract. Should the state violate any part of that contract, one was well within their bounds to void that contract entirely.
Vratislav was hunted down more than once by State and Church officials, however he was always able to make himself less conspicuous until the heat was off. Eventually he was smuggled into Poland, where he would live the rest of his days writing follow-ups to “On the State of Europe”.
1737 - 1742 AD - This was a time of relative peace for Europe. But tensions were rising. Germania and Burgundy argue over the region known as Kaddoland (OTL Texas). The “Byzantine Emperor” was becoming increasingly autonomous, and attempts to shorten his leash were met with backlash. The Italians of Mexico continued to feel that they were being misrepresented by the often Burgundian Viceroys of Mexico. And the Italians of Italy, including the Pope, were up in arms concerning the questionable Burgundian “inheritance” of Milan. Europe seemed geared-up for another war, and this one would radically change Europe and the world forever.
1743 AD - Negotiations as to where exactly the border ought be drawn in Kaddoland break down, and Germania declares war on Burgundy. The ensuing war would last eleven years, and it would result ultimately in the fall of both of these empires’ holdings in the Kallistas.
1743 - 1754 AD - The Germanio-Burgundian War. Initially it was a conflict between the two powers. It was mainly a land war, fought in the Alps and along the Rhine. This phase of the war, which lasted only two years, proved to be very inconclusive, although Helvetia had been effectively subdued by Burgundy, and many were beginning to fear a Burgundian victory.
But the rest of Europe would be greatly affected by the outcome, and as such they joined in. The Italian states threw in their lot with Germania, and so did France, Burgundy’s long-time naval rival. (It also helped Germania in winning France over by promising land to the French and to cease expansion in North Kallista). This tipped the balance of power in Germania’s favor. Germania could continue fighting it out on the home front, the Italians could provide pressure along a southern front, and the French could keep the pressure on elsewhere in the world, mainly in the seas. This phase of the war lasted six years. It was also during these years that the defense of Crete finally came back to bite Burgundy in the butt, when the Ottomans finally took Crete.
But still, this was not enough to defeat Burgundy. It wouldn’t be until Iberija joined that Burgundy would fall once and for all. Iberija offered her support for Burgundy, on the one condition that Gibraltar was given to Iberija. But Burgundy wouldn’t have it, and Iberija then began contemplating joining the other side. It was in 1751 that Iberija threw in their lot with the “Anti-Burgundian League”. Gibraltar was besieged, and the Iberijan troops added to the Italian front helped to vanquish Burgundy once and for all.
Gibraltar was to be ceded to Iberija, and Kaddoland up to the Great River (OTL Rio Grande) was to be given to Germania. Burgundy was also to recognize that The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Pisa, and Milan were no longer a part of the Republic of Burgundy. And while on the surface it seemed as though the Burgundian Empire had only suffered a few bumps and bruises, and that its colonies would remain in the Republic, the seeds of revolution were already sown.
The results of this war were far-reaching indeed. Poland took advantage of the fighting and colonized the West Australian coast, referred to as “New Poland”.* France emerged as the world’s premier naval power, and from this point onward would have full dominance of the seas. Germania, while on the surface was victorious, was arguably a loser as well. The expense of this war drove the state to bankruptcy, and quite simply the Kallistan colonies were becoming unmanageable.
1757 - 1762 AD - The Indonesian Rebellion. Many Indonesians rose up in rebellion against Poland, due to increasing Polish dominance over the locals. The Rebellion would ultimately fail, however, and Poland tightens its grip on the Indonesian states.
1762 AD - This year marks the beginning of the Mexican Revolution. The largely-Italian populace of the region had finally had enough. The fact that Mexico was treated not as a member of the Republic, but a “perpetual estate” of the crown and the exorbitantly-high taxes in an effort to pay off war debts didn’t help. Over the previous decade the Mexicans had appealed to the Burgundian Council to grant them representation, however they were denied time after time. In the year 1762, a unanimous declaration was made by the Mexican people. This was a Declaration of Independence.
Mexico was divided. About 1/3 of the population remained loyal to the Burgundian Crown and Its Council, and about another 20% remained devoutly neutral. So what you have is about half the population not willing to fight for you, and about 60% of those would be willing to fight AGAINST you.
1763 - 1770 AD - The Mexican Revolution (Guerra di Indipendenza Messicana) is fought for a period of eight years. In the first four years the war was not going well for the Mexican forces. The cobbled-together army of Mexico was simply suffering from the fact that it was a non-professional army, and simply couldn’t fight in an open-style of combat. What kept the Revolution alive was the fact that the Mexican forces proved to be dominant in battle when in mountainous or thickly-vegetated terrain. So while the Burgundians dominated in the deserts of Northern Mexico, they suffered when attempting to infiltrate the mountains of southern or western Mexico, or the wilds of the lands beyond the Great River.
After four years the Mexicans found a supporter for their Revolution, that supporter being the very well-to-do island nation of France. The French simply couldn’t pass-up an opportunity to kick the Burgundians while they were down. The French navy starved the Burgundian army of reinforcements, and over the next three years the combined French and Mexican forces whittled-away at the ailing Burgundian army.
By 1770 the Burgundians were utterly vanquished. As a contemporary writer put it, the armies of Burgundy were “swallowed up by the mountains and hills of Mexico”. In 1770 the king of Burgundy died. The Council elected a king who would pursue peace with the rebels, realizing that the Burgundian coffers were emptied, its prospects in shambles.
1771 AD - Peace between Mexico/France and Burgundy. Mexico (Italiano: Province Unite di’Messico) The government was a Constitutional Monarchy, based on the French and Polish systems (although it was less socially stratified than those systems). The ruling King would be Alessandro Valerio, crowned as Alessandro I. Alessandro had been a Revolutionary hero.
1780 AD - The north Kallistan colonies of Germania are spurred-on by the successful Mexican Revolution. They revolt with the full support of Mexico, although France is hesitant to support this one. They feel that a violent revolutionary state on its own borders is something to be feared. Not to mention that France had thrown support behind Germania in her own colonial struggle not forty years earlier. And the fact that Denmark and her own formidable army had decided to back Germania on this one.
Yet when the Republic of Missizzo promised to cede all land north of the 39th Parallel to France should France decide to back up the revolution, it was simply an offer that could not be refused.
1781 - 1784 AD - The major fighting of the Revolution took place along the Gulf Coast (Danish and French navies clashed, primarily), and in the Danish colonies between the French and Danish armies. In fact, this was primarily a war whereupon Denmark and France jockeyed for position along the Gulf Coast, and the revolution itself was almost secondary.
Germania had only recently rebuilt (partially) its economy after the disastrous Germanio-Burgundian War, and as such could do little to stop the revolt. By 1784 Germania accepted peace with the Rebels. France and Denmark agreed to a peace whereupon all of the colonial holdings outside Blomstenland proper (OTL Georgia/Mississippi area) were to be ceded to France.
The establishment of the Missizzo state actually had a good effect on the French colonials. They saw this as a triumph of the French state, and saw no reason to part with it. It also helped that the French colonies were among the most fairly-treated in the New World.
1786 AD - Missizzo makes good on its promise to cede all land north of the 39th Parallel to France.
1788 AD - Vratislav, the man who wrote “On the State of Europe,” writes a final treatise on his deathbed, “On the State of the Kallistas”. It praises the liberation of the Germanian and Burgundian colonies, but laments that these nations are not radical enough.
1790 - 1799 AD - A relative period of peace for the world at large. But once again, storms do brew. In Terrano (South Kallista), the failure of Germania to put down its Missizzo colony is cited as proof that the king of Germania has no right to govern them any longer.
1800 - Wars of Liberation. (Germani: Belli de Liberatti) In 1800 a liberal writer and former Germanian soldier named Achille Cornelio incites a riot in the capital of the Viceroyalty of Argeneo. He proclaims the “Res Publica Maior” the Greater Republic of South Kallistan states. By the year’s end, much of the Viceroyalty is up in arms.
1801 AD - The message of Achille Cornelio spreads. By year’s end most all of Terrano/South Kallista besides some crucial and major ports is engulfed in rebellion. It is simply too much to handle for Germanian authorities. Germania was a paper tiger at this point, and the fall of its own empire, in an act of poetic justice, parallels that of the Roman Empire’s fall in 712.
1803 AD - Due to royal succession and an ever-widening cultural gap between the two, the Baltic Union officially ends in 1803.
1804 AD - The first practical steam ship was sailed for the first time down the Great River by a Messican inventor by the name of Giuli di Veracroce. This is one of the great moments in the Industrial Revolution, and the triumph of man over nature.
1805 AD - For all intents and purposes, Egypt is free from Ottoman rule.
1801 - 1808 AD - On and off fighting for seven years ensues. The fighting itself was less between the Rebels and Germania so much as it was between loyalists to the crown and Rebels. But by 1808 the last vestiges of Germanian rule were torn asunder when the Viceroyal Capital, Fiu de San Matteo. (OTL Rio de Janeiro). The “Greater Republic” was proclaimed. This was a union of all the colonies of Germania. But it would be short-lived.
The first President of the Greater Republic was none other than Achille Cornelio himself.
1812 AD - Achille Cornelio, the founding father of the Greater Republic, was found dead on the steps of the Senate building in the capital. Who killed him to this day remains a mystery, but it was obviously one of his myriad political rivals. The government of the Greater Republic was at this point still quite provisional, and over the past four years people argued over how it was to be organized. The Greater Republic dissolved within months of Achille’s death, and after a decade of on and off skirmishing, the borders were finally decided.
1815 AD - Starved of her tax money in South Kallista, Germania has no choice but to hike taxes and internal tariffs even further. This was an awful situation to be in for any sovereign state, and it wouldn’t last for long. Rebellion was brewing.
1818 - 1826 AD - The Germanian Revolution. The peasantry had had enough of the high taxation and authoritarianism of the Germanian government. Germania had consistently declined in power over the last century, and the people wanted to do something about it, before they felt it was too late.
The Rebellion began in the South, in Alemannia and Boihimaeum, far enough away from the center of Germanian power and close enough to the very liberal-minded Polish meritocratic state. The Rebellion began small. A few tax collectors were lynched by angry, poor mobs. The odd sack of manure was thrown on some member of the upper class. The occasional government building was burned down. But the Rebellions spread, and the attacks grew more severe.
It was on May 5th 1819 that they crossed a point of no return. The Rebels raided the family estate of the Teuto family, or they at least tried to. The guards proved to be both numerous and skilled, and in a few hours the attack by the hodgepodge force of peasants had been beaten back. But this the king could not stand for. The king ordered that anyone so much as accused of possibly being a rebel be rounded up and killed.
From there, the situation quickly deteriorated. The fighting was constant, and brutal. The King of Germania fled to, ironically enough, France, fearing that his enemies would follow him if he stayed on the continent. It was in 1826 that the Revolution ended. The flag of the Revolution was raised over The Imperial Palace. The House of Teuto would be banished from Germania for 74 more years.
Post-Revolutionary Germania was a dangerous place to be in. To criticize the government or any action taken by the Rebels during the Revolution itself was enough to get one hanged. The Church, which was a major power in the old regime, was stripped bare of all property except the church building and items necessary for the service itself. Anything superfluous was taken and sold. In November of 1826, the National Assembly stated that Germania was no longer part of the Holy Roman Empire. (Although, various Domini-in-exile were elected after this date.)
1826 - 1836 AD - Slowly but surely the Revolutionary fervor in Germania cools down. Eventually the church is given back rights to own more property, and by 1836 a (highly-moderated) conservative paper is regularly published. The Republic of Germania was able to stabilize itself.
1827 AD - The French officially abolish slavery in its realms. This has very little backlash, except in the southernmost North Kallistan colonies, whom had grown accustomed to using slave labor to man its tobacco and cotton plantations.
Galie, which never really used slavery that much in its own realms, soon follows suit.
1828 - 1829 AD - The southern colonies rebel against French rule. The rebellion is quickly subdued, and in just over a year order is restored.
During these years, the Greeks in the Ottoman Empire also begin rebelling against Ottoman rule.
1834 AD - Whisperings of independence throughout the French North Kallistan colonies. Some members of L’Assemblee suggest granting the Provinces of North Kallista Dominion, or Satellite status. But for now, these are mere whisperings.
1835 AD - Greek self-rule within the Ottoman Empire is formalized in the year 1835.
1840 AD - The Greeks in Burgundy’s remaining Kallistan colonies are becoming violent, claiming that they recognize only one king, and that king is not the king of Burgundy. Burgundy attempts to send troops to calm the situation, but they are met with outright hostility.
1841 - 1844 AD - Burgundian-Greek independence. The rebellion is headed by the King, the “Byzantine Emperor”. And while there were numerous attempts on the Emperor’s life, none were successful. In the year 1844 Burgundy is forced to recognize the independence of “Keutrika Kallista,” after diplomatic pressure from Germania, France, and Mexico.
1847 AD - The King of Mexico drafts up the “Alexandrian Doctrine”, which says that no European power has the right to interfere in the self-determination of a people living in the New World. This is agreed to by once again, France and Germania.
1848 - 1849 AD - Iberijan conquest of Morocco and Algeria. This would help Iberija come to dominate North Africa for over 100 years.
1850 AD - Slavery is abolished in Mexico.
1854 AD - The Krimeans under Varangian rule finally rebel once again. This time, the Rebellion is more widespread, and even Siberian colonies rebel against Varangian rule. This is disastrous for the Kejsare, but he is willing to fight it out.
1855 - 1862 AD - The Krimean War. The Krimean people wish for autonomy or independence from Varangia, but the Kejsare won’t have it. Over the next seven years a bloody war is fought, which will ultimately drag in Europe’s major players. Poland and the Ottoman Empire both back the Krimean Rebels, and eventually France is called into play as well.
Eventually, the Rebels came to an agreement with the Kejsare. All laws limiting the freedom of Krimeans and followers of Christian Orthodoxy within the Varangian Empire were to be repealed. The Krimeans were to be allowed their own separate Assembly, or Parliament. And the Krimeans would be able to raise and maintain their own military forces, and in return the Kejsare would have their full cooperation.
This was a sort of “second triumph” for democratic government in Europe.
1864 AD - The measure granting independence to the North Kallistan Colonies passes The Assembly. By 1874 the Provinces-Unies d’Calliste will be granted the status of “Dominion of the French Empire”.
1867 AD - The Poles and the Germanians finally agree as to where the border should be drawn in Australia.
1870 AD - A Frenchman by the name of Charles Lambert publishes his “Manifeste du Parti Communiste”. It postulates a new system of government, henceforth referred to as “Communism”. The system is not taken seriously at first, but before the 21st century there will be various states who claim to operate under Charles’ Manifesto.
1872 - 1873 AD - The Second Irish Rebellion. The Irish rebel once again against French rule. This rebellion is very short-lived, however the reigning King of France had finally had enough of the “Irish Situation”. He began pushing an agenda through L’Assemblee where the Irish would finally be ranted full and equal representation within the French government.
1874 AD - The flag of the Provinces-Unies d’Calliste flies in place of the French flag. 1874 marks the year of Provinces-Unies d’Calliste’s independence from France. There are celebrations across the Kallistas, as the last vestiges of European rule are slowly being stripped away.
1876 - 1884 AD - The Balkans Rebellions. The waning Ottoman Empire could not stand up to the large amount of Slavic rebels, and in the end the Ottomans are forced to recognize the independence of the Albanians, Montenegrins, and East Bulgarians.
1877 AD - In Poland, a new “Nationalist” philosophy is given rise. It basically states that all people have a right to be ruled by their own countryman. The same man advocated independence for the Lithuanians, Bohemians, Hungarian Latins, Bulgarians, Spaniards, et al. This new philosophy is met with the same enthusiasm as Communism, but like Communism, Nationalism will play a major role in the future.
1878 AD - The Ottoman Sultan, in an act of blatant imperialism, attempts to assert the Sultan’s authority over the Khedive of Egypt.
1878 - 1881 AD - The Ottoman-Egyptian War. In an attempt to jockey for position on the African continent and in an attempt to stop any rise in Ottoman power, the French offer the faltering Egyptian state status as “Protectorate” in the French Empire. The Khedive would still retain much power, however for all intents and purposes it would be a French colony. The Khedive, seeing the end in sight if he were to continue the disastrous war with the Ottomans, agrees. 1881 is generally regarded as the beginning of Modern Egypt.
1885 AD - Galie, under pressure from various nations in the Kallistas, finally lets go of its South Kallistan colony.
1886 - 1891 AD - Italian wars of Unification. It began as a localized conflict, in northern Italy. The king of Milan claimed the lands of Padova as his own, and Padova would not recognize his claims. But slowly more Italian states were dragged in, as the King of Milan began styling himself “King of Italy”.
Raetija backed the King of Milan, because Padova had been a long-time rival of Raetija and felt that a friendly Italian state on its borders, however large, is better than a non-friendly Italian state.
And so over the next five years wars are fought in succession, and ultimately Italy is unified, although under a pseudo-puppet regime of Raetija. The Pope, however, retains Rome and the surrounding coastal regions. The capital of this new Italy is to be none other than Milan itself.
1891 - 1896 AD - Due to increased piracy, and an unwillingness to do anything about it, France takes the southern Arabian coast (Yemen and Oman) by force. Not only does this stop piracy, but it gives France a stranglehold on the entrance to the Persian Gulf.
1900 AD - The Republic of Germania recognizes the right of the House of Teuto to reside in its home country, and even recognizes the right of the King of Germania to retain his title. On March 8, 1900, the King returns to Germania.
1901 AD - The island of Saint-Jean (OTL Vancouver) is handed over to Provinces-Unies d’Calliste.
1903 AD - Papal lands in Italy are reduced to a small part of the city of Rome, the Holy See itself.
1908 AD - The Slavs of the Balkans have had enough. In 1908 a Communist and Nationalist revolutionary by the name of Piotr Kuznetsov sparks a riot in the city of Sarajevo. The situation quickly escalates.
1909 - 1912 AD - The Great European Revolt. The “European” is in reference to the Ottoman European holdings. Piotr Kuznetsov’s rebellion is initially a Serbian one, however Piotr is able to unify all the Balkans nations under a single alliance (even Greece, who was spoiling to regain her northern territories).
The Ottomans receive no help from anyone during this rebellion, and most nations of Europe looked on with glee as the last vestiges of Ottoman dominion over Europeans was being destroyed.
It culminated in the capture of Istanbul late in the year of 1911. As a nod of appreciation, Istanbul was placed under Greek authority. The Ottomans were not, however, going to give up without a fight. In 1912 a truce was agreed to, but it would not last for long.
1913 - 1915 AD - The king of Siam had had enough of the Polish control over what he saw to be his sovereign territory (Malacca straits). In 1913 he invaded, and was successful. However, the Polish reprisal was swift and furious. The country was fully occupied in the year 1915, the king of Siam had no choice but to capitulate.
1912 AD - First manned flight.
In this year, the French government reforms. The Irish are finally granted full and equal representation, and there is no law restricting the Irish to government posts. Quite the opposite, in fact. Only Irishmen can represent Ireland in the Assembly.
1913 AD - The Byzantine Emperor accepts the Greek invitation to return to Constantinople. After 439 years the Byzantine Emperor once again sits in Byzantium. The reaction in the R.P.T (Greek acronym for “Rome Beyond the Sea”) was mixed, however they were mostly glad to see their emperor return to his rightful homeland.
1915 AD - The first aircraft are produced.
1916 AD - Assembly line manufacturing perfected by a PUC (Provinces-Unies d’Calliste) industrial mogul.
1917 - 1921 AD - The Ottoman Empire had been over the past five years been gathering an army, and would not take the loss of the Balkans lying down. The Ottomans invaded the Balkans in the Spring of 1917. The war dragged on for two years, with no clear end in sight, until France issued the “Balkans Doctrine”. It was basically a document stating that the Ottoman Empire had no right to interfere in the affairs of the Balkans people. The Ottomans refused to back down, and this would prove to be its undoing. In the fall of 1919 the French crossed the Sinai, and pressed up the Levant.
Over the course of 1919 - 1921, the French were able to overrun the Ottoman Empire. The strategy was not to take the heart of the Empire, Anatolia, itself. The strategy was, in one French corporal’s words, to “sever the limbs, so that the body can do nothing”. By 1921the two main French armées met in Baghdad. (One was pushing from the Sinai, then headed south down Mesopotamia; the other was pushing up from the Persian Gulf). It was on September 5th, 1921 that the French received a surrender from the Ottoman Sultan.
While technically still an Empire, the Ottoman Empire occupied no more than the Anatolian highlands. 1921 is the year when the Empire itself was destroyed.
Serbia, under the leadership of Premier Piotr Kuznetsov, was booming at this point. However Piotr was not done with war…
1920 AD - A Swedish physicist postulates his General Theory of Relativity.
1922 AD - Blomstenland (OTL Florida) is granted independence from Denmark.
1923 AD - Piotr Kuznetsov claims that Raetija is a “monarchist, feudalist state” that was no longer ruled by true Slavs. He cites the fact that Raetija did not assist her “fellow Slavs” when they were fighting “Saracen Oppression”. Piotr declared war on Raetija.
Raetija had been in no formal military engagement in over 100 years, and as such they were ill-prepared to face the well-tuned military machine that was Piotr Kuznetsov’s “Slavic Popular Republic”.
1923 - 1950s - The world economy is booming. With the widespread use of assembly line production, factories could now churn out more and more, which meant more profit and more profit for company stockholders.
1924 AD - The war against Raetija was quick, and by the end of 1924 Piotr’s Armies were standing in Vindob (OTL Vienna). The King of Raetija had fled to Italy, and now most Slavic-speaking countries in the region were unified under the banner of the “Slavic Popular Republic”.
East Bulgaria, however, wasn’t. To counter this, Piotr simply had spies within that country foment a “Unification” movement. This movement gained great popularity in Eastern Bulgaria.
1926 AD - In a bloodless coup, the king of East Bulgaria is forced to leave the country. The new Bulgarian government immediately surrenders all control to the “People’s Assembly” of the PSR. All Slavs in the region were unified. Piotr was content. He would die later that year. His elected successor was Mikhail Ivanov, a man who some would say was twisted by war. He had a further dream of unifying ALL Slavs, from Iberija to Poland.
Europe was on the brink of imploding. Many nations were now beginning to second-guess the decision of co-signing the Balkans Doctrine.
1929 AD - Strong nationalist movements in Bohemia, backed by the SPR. It would be in December that the Polish civil war begins. It was the sentiment among many in Poland that while the meritocratic system was good, it was outdated, and had taken away peoples’ right to self-determination.
1929 - 1932 AD - Polish civil war. The result of this civil war was the splitting of Poland into three: The Kingdom of Poland retained much land, however a Communist Bohemia was established, and so was an Anti-Monarchist state, the Polish Republic. It was not a Communist state, however it allied itself with both Bohemia and the SPR on a sort of “enemy of my enemy” basis.
1930 AD - A Frenchman from Dona (OTL Doncaster) discovers the cure for Polio.
1937 AD - The powder keg is lit. The relations between Italy and SPR were never good. The Italians were seen as monarchists, and it didn’t help Italy that they assisted Raetija. So when Italy attempted an ambitious coup to eliminate Mikhail Ivanov, SPR was understandably upset. In the Fall of 1937 the SPR declared war on Italy.
Galie was allied to Italy, and Galie was dragged in as well. Poland had a mutual protection pact with Galie, and Germania had guaranteed it would assist Poland in the event that its sovereignty was threatened. So you had Bohemia, Greece, SPR, and the Polish Republic on one side, and Italy, the Kingdom of Poland, Galie, and the Republic of Germania on another side. (Greece had joined the SPR’s side due to sheer diplomatic pressure).
1937 - 1939 AD - The SPR overran the Kingdom of Italy. Radicals within the Italian government were welcoming of their new Communist liberators. The King of Italy retreated to Sicily, where he was protected by the navy of Galie. Meanwhile, the Kingdom of Poland was not doing well. Most territory east of the Vistula had been taken by the Republic of Poland, and Bohemia was pressing onwards to the Baltic.
The type of warfare involved here was called “Trench warfare”. With great advances in firepower (invention of the machine gun, artillery) yet fewer advances in mobility, this was slow-moving warfare.
1940 AD - Burgundy joined the war on the same side as the SPR. The debate as to whether or not to join the war was heated, but ultimately it came down to “someone is going to win this war, we need to pick a side.” In early 1940 it seemed as though the SPR would come out on top.
Meanwhile, aviation in France is perfected. Airplanes are no longer made of wood and fabric as they were originally. Now they had powerful engines, and were made of riveted metal. They were able to carry a payload of bombs. It would be a few years, however, before the first of these “Avion Bombadiers” would see action.
1941 AD - This was the final straw for the hawks in L’Asemblee in France. They could no longer sit idly as the continent was slowly engulfed in a dangerous new order. The Burgundians had seized the Mediterranean coast of Galie, and was pressing onward to the Atlantic. Meanwhile Germania was beginning to feel the pressures of a three-front war with Bohemia and the Polish Republic and now Burgundy/SPR.
The French dragged-in the PUC and its boundless industrial might. The PUC applied diplomatic pressure to Mexico, who would assist in the war. By the end of 1942, the Burgundians would lose all of their Caribbean possessions, for Burgundy was not prepared for a naval battle across the Atlantic.
Meanwhile, the French formulate a new plan. An amphibious invasion of Greece, which would topple very quickly, and then a new Southern front would be opened. The new plan was codenamed l'Opération Thermopyles.
1942 AD - “Miracle on the Rhine.” A combined Franco-Gallo-Germanian force halts the SPR advance up into Germania. Meanwhile Bohemia was beginning to slow down, and the Northern front was in a deadlock at this point.
1943 AD - Iberija joins the war, knowing that it can not afford to be diplomatically isolated in the future.
l'Opération Thermopyles is underway. The French launch simultaneous amphibious landings after weeks of bombarding the Greek shore. The first Bombers bombed Athens, and within two weeks of landing, the Greek government capitulated. Ivanov’s nightmare had been realized: A southern front.
1944 AD - The French, Mexico, and the PUC poured troops into Greece and East Bulgaria, and the SPR could do little about it. The SPR was faltering on all fronts. Iberija had retaken the Mediterranean coast for Galie, and was invading Burgundy proper. Germania and Poland were beating back Germania and the SPR.
In 1944, the Iberijans and the Free Italians land in southern Italy, and quickly advance up. All lands up to the Po River are taken by Christmas of 1944.
1945 AD - The war was entering the endgame. Serbia proper was being invaded, Iberija had forced Burgundy to capitulate and was pressing into Northern Italy. Bohemia was now on the defensive, the Poles had breached the Vistula. and SPR generals were surrendering on all fronts.
1946 AD - Mikhail Ivanov is captured in an attempt to flee to Turkey, apparently making his way to Persia. With Ivanov captured, the SPR quickly agrees to an unconditional surrender, having lost the support of its own people. There were no more cries of “Unification”, only cries of “Truce”. The Republic of Poland quickly followed suit.
1947 - 1948 AD - The Allied Nations had to decide how to carve-up the Balkans. There was much debate, but a Polish general by the name of Grezegorz Kowalski had a proposition all could agree to. The land would be divided into, essentially, city-states. The idea was to make each political unit in the region so small as to be rendered insignificant.
Many were opposed to the idea, saying that it would not work. But revisions were added. For example, none of these political units was allowed to have a military, period. The nations were allowed to trade with each other, but only through the “Balkans Economic Development and Diplomatic Centre,” where trade and diplomatic discourse between the various city-states was heavily moderated. Control of all major port cities was handed over to various allied nations.
In this way, the Allies planned to ensure that this never happens ever again.
1949 AD - The Allies form the League of Nations, an international governing body designed to help nations resolve their problems peacefully and diplomatically. Indeed, the motto of the organization is, “By the Olive Branch Alone is the Sword Sheathed.”
1950s - Rebuilding of Europe. Most of Europe was absolutely devastated by the war, and the economies of the various nations were in shambles. However, many important economic centers (Lutetsija, Batavia, most of Iberija, northwestern Poland, France itself) had avoided the destruction of infrastructure that had wracked the rest of Europe.
In the mid to late 1950s, the booming economy that had reigned for almost thirty years came to a close. The world was experiencing a recession, as money had to be poured into rebuilding Europe. During this time many Europeans emigrated to the PUC, seeking better fortunes in the (Not-so) New World.
1953 AD - Purchase of Alaska by PUC.
1956 AD - Germania grants independence to Eastern Australia and Papua.
1958 AD - Poland grants independence to Indonesia and Western Australia.
1960s AD - For the first half of the 1960s the rebuilding of Europe continued, and the job was mostly finished by 1964. Many advances were made in these years, mostly in medicine and computing. Warfare hasn’t progressed all that much, however fighter-style planes never gained much popularity. The prevailing military thought was on firepower, and as such huge planes and zeppelins, designed to deliver very destructive payloads, ruled the skies more so than fast maneuverable yet small fighter planes (although no nation would be caught dead without a few wings of those).
Independence movements begin to gain steam in the Caribbean, India, Africa, and China (China was sovereign, but many felt that it was being exploited by the west). In fact in China there is a serious backlash against various Western companies, and over the 1960s China cuts several deals with the various western companies, restricting trade to certain zones, and limiting what can be done in said zones. In India, similar things happen. For the first time in recorded history, the various princes of India got together, and basically said that they wanted the Europeans out of their homeland.
In 1968, the first man-made satellite was put into orbit.
1965 was a big year. The doctrine of firepower ultimately led to the creation of the atomic bomb. All of the nations in the LON agreed to never use the atomic bomb without a 2/3 majority vote in the LON itself. The designs and manufacturing secrets were kept top-secret.
1970s AD - The efforts of the United Front of India succeed. By 1975, the last vestiges of colonial rule are destroyed. India was divided along lines similar to pre-colonial times, however all of them were under the jurisdiction of UNI, the United Nations of India. Why the Europeans were withdrawing all had to do with the fact that post-Great War there was a great feeling of pacifism and isolationism, not to mention that the press loved a good story of colonial oppression.
In Africa, however, it was a different story. Iberija was facing increasing opposition from its own colonies, and it was fighting tooth and nail to retain its empire. But eventually, the Iberijans began a plan to withdraw from Africa by 1985.
In 1976 the French pulled out of Egypt. Subsequently, in 1977 they withdrew from the Levant, excepting Israel. A dispute had emerged between the Jewish and Palestinian factions vying for dominance after the withdrawal of the French. The French would hold on to it until 1979, when they decided that the land be best left to the Palestinians. The Jews balked at this, however they were far too outnumbered by the Palestinians to matter all that much.
Galie and Denmark also slowly begin to pull out of Africa.
In 1973, France put the first man on the moon.
1980s AD - The 1980s proved to be the final nails in the coffin for the Empires of old. Poland’s empire ended when on July 9th 1980 Siam was granted full independence. The French pulled out of the Middle East (however retained the oil fields in the Persian Gulf as a “neutral zone” between the various nations), and in 1985 many new nations were born out of Iberija’s old empire. South Africa (Jug Afrika) was granted independence.
However, there were a few flashpoints. There was terrorism in the Middle East, from various Zionist groups seeking to reclaim the historic Jewish homeland. Not to mention the ‘88 Crisis, which was centered on a revolution which took place in Varangia. The various ethnicities that made up Varangia finally tore each other apart. The Caucasus exploded into sheer violence, with Georgians, Armenians, and various others seeking independence.
The Kazakhs and Uzbeks et al wished for their own dominion over their respective territories as well. For once, Krimea was not rebelling against Varangia, mainly because the Krimeans themselves were opposed to the idea of Georgian and Armenian independence.
In the end the Varangian military was unable to put down the rebels, and the Varangian Empire, while not destroyed, was dealt a serious blow from 1988-1989.
During the 1980s the field of communications technology was very hot. Cellular phones made communication effective and easy, not to mention a world-wide “Electronic Postal System” allowed anybody with a personal computer to keep in touch with just about anyone else.
1990s AD - The Japanese had occupied Korea for many years, and there were many calls during the early 1990s for Japan to end the occupation. This was backed up by the regional powers Manchuria and China. Finally, in 1993, the Japanese pulled out of Korea.
The 90s were characterized by slight tensions in India and Africa, the difference being that Africa’s tensions transcended borders (tribal warfare). Various Indian states skirmished with one another, but the issues were only over borders, and they were mostly resolved by the end of 1998.
The 90s were also characterized by continued advancements is computing and communications technology. Personal computers had become a sheer necessity in the European and North Kallistan home by 1994, and cell phones were getting ever-smaller.
One of the biggest highlights was the meeting of the Ottoman Sultan and the Byzantine Emperor, on a ship in the Sea of Marmara. The two nations finally reconciled for past crimes committed on both sides.
2000s AD - The present. It is a peaceful world for the most part. Tribal warfare continues in Africa, and the Indian states are in an uneasy alliance (the old north-south split again). In the Balkans the League of Nations continues to hold up the Kowalski plan, and now, forty years after the Great War there are rumblings in the Balkans again, various sections wish to unify, however this is mere saber-rattling, and the disorganized mish-mash of city-states dares not raise its fist in anger against the Allies.
The field of genetics and nanotechnology are becoming increasingly popular in recent years.
As Befits a King