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Old February 22nd, 2010, 05:55 PM
Glen Glen is offline
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Cool Dominion of Southern America

POD: 1766 - Josiah Martin becomes Governor of Quebec instead of Carleton, who instead becomes Governor of North Carolina in 1771. Much frivolity ensues....If you have just stumbled upon this thread, you may want to read the compiled timeline then come back to comment.
Dominion of Southern America Timeline Part I
Dominion of Southern America Timeline Part II
Dominion of Southern America Timeline Part III
Dominion of Southern America Timeline Part IV

If you would like to add your name to the pool of names that will crop up in the timeline, read here.


It should surprise no one that Quebec, recently taken into the British fold as a result of the British victory in the French and Indian War, would be a hotbed of sedition and join the list of colonies rebelling against the British Crown in the 1770s. The only surprise was how long it took for the French of Quebec to do so. Many have attributed this to the lenient policies of the first British Governor of the Province of Quebec, James Murray.


James Murray

So concilliatory were his actions towards the French there, that he alienated many of the British merchants who came to the area, leading to his recall from the office in 1766. His replacement, Josiah Martin, while much more palatable to British merchants, was much less so to the French of this province. Despite his best efforts, and the largesse of the Quebec Act which increased the territory of the Province by including Labrador and all land north to meet the holdings of the Hudson Bay Company (though not including any accomodations for the Catholics of the province) he was unable to hold down the predominantly French and Catholic population, and was forced to flee the province for New York.
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Old February 22nd, 2010, 09:22 PM
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It should surprise no one that Quebec, recently taken into the British fold as a result of the British victory in the French and Indian War, would be a hotbed of sedition and join the list of colonies rebelling against the British Crown in the 1770s. The only surprise was how long it took for the French of Quebec to do so. Many have attributed this to the lenient policies of the first British Governor of the Province of Quebec, James Murray.


James Murray

So concilliatory were his actions towards the French there, that he alienated many of the British merchants who came to the area, leading to his recall from the office in 1766. His replacement, Josiah Martin, while much more palatable to British merchants, was much less so to the French of this province. Despite his best efforts, and the largesse of the Quebec Act which increased the territory of the Province by including Labrador and all land north to meet the holdings of the Hudson Bay Company (though not including any accomodations for the Catholics of the province) he was unable to hold down the predominantly French and Catholic population, and was forced to flee the province for New York.
Quite in contrary to the general spirit of rebellion in the North, the Southern colonies (with the noteable exception of South Carolina) were more loyal to the British Crown. The Southern colonies were blessed with able governors such as James Wright of Georgia and Guy Carleton of North Carolina.


Sir Guy Carleton

Upon his appointment in 1771, Sir Guy (later Baron Dorchester) was particularly effective at calming tensions in North Carolina after the previous governor, William Tryon had been forced to suppress the Regulator Movement. Not only did Sir Guy bring a steadying influence to the North Carolina Colony, but his observations, and entreaties to Parliament to provide favorable treatment to the Southern colonies in order to engender their loyalty to the crown are directly credited with the formulation of the Southern America Act of 1774, which shielded the Southern colonies from many of the punitive actions taken against rebellious Massachussetts and her neighbors, as well as rescinding the Proclamation Line from the Gulf Coast all the way to the Ohio, allowing for commerce and settlement to the West. This is credited with limiting the South's participation in the American Revolutionary War to more of a failed civil war as rebel factions fought loyalists but the governments of these states in general remained in control and loyal to the crown.
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Old February 23rd, 2010, 01:20 AM
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Quite in contrary to the general spirit of rebellion in the North, the Southern colonies (with the notable exception of South Carolina) were more loyal to the British Crown. The Southern colonies were blessed with able governors such as James Wright of Georgia and Guy Carleton of North Carolina.


Sir Guy Carleton

Upon his appointment in 1771, Sir Guy (later Baron Dorchester) was particularly effective at calming tensions in North Carolina after the previous governor, William Tryon had been forced to suppress the Regulator Movement. Not only did Sir Guy bring a steadying influence to the North Carolina Colony, but his observations, and entreaties to Parliament to provide favorable treatment to the Southern colonies in order to engender their loyalty to the crown are directly credited with the formulation of the Southern America Act of 1774, which shielded the Southern colonies from many of the punitive actions taken against rebellious Massachusetts and her neighbors, as well as rescinding the Proclamation Line from the Gulf Coast all the way to the Ohio, allowing for commerce and settlement to the West. This is credited with limiting the South's participation in the American Revolutionary War to more of a failed civil war as rebel factions fought loyalists but the governments of these states in general remained in control and loyal to the crown.
Though Virginia had gained with the Southern America Act access all the way to the Juncture of the Ohio and Mississippi, it was not enough for the ironically named 'Old Dominion'. Virginians also wanted access to the Ohio Country. The Crown, however, had designated the lands south of the Great Lakes between the Ohio and Mississippi as a refuge for the indigenous tribes.

Richard Henry Lee

But instead of gratitude for the extension of settlement South of the Ohio, the Virginians not only sided with the rebellious colonies to the north, but it was Virginian Richard Henry Lee who made the motion to declare independence from Britain, another Virginian who penned the Declaration of Independence, and a third, George Washington, who would lead the Rebel army.

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Old February 23rd, 2010, 02:30 AM
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Though Virginia had gained with the Southern America Act access all the way to the Juncture of the Ohio and Mississippi, it was not enough for the ironically named 'Old Dominion'. Virginians also wanted access to the Ohio Country. The Crown, however, had designated the lands south of the Great Lakes between the Ohio and Mississippi as a refuge for the indigenous tribes.

Richard Henry Lee

But instead of gratitude for the extension of settlement South of the Ohio, the Virginians not only sided with the rebellious colonies to the north, but it was Virginian Richard Henry Lee who made the motion to declare independence from Britain, another Virginian who penned the Declaration of Independence, and a third, George Washington, who would lead the Rebel army.

Early in the course of the American Revolutionary War, the Siege of Boston had the war stalled in the North. Looking for a victory, Washington sent a relief mission up to Quebec. Under the command of Schuyler and Montgomery, the American force made contact with local forces which were constituted into the Canadian Regiment. The Canadian Regiment would serve side by side with the forces sent by Washington in securing Montreal and Quebec City.


Flag of the Congress' Own Canadian Regiment.

With the major cities of Quebec, at least for the time being, in the hands of the rebels, Quebec sent its first delegation to the Second Continental Congress, already in progress. A relief force of British and Hessian soldiers attempted to land in Quebec City in May 1776, but were repulsed by the rebel defenders.
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Old February 23rd, 2010, 03:00 AM
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Early in the course of the American Revolutionary War, the Siege of Boston had the war stalled in the North. Looking for a victory, Washington sent a relief mission up to Quebec. Under the command of Schuyler and Montgomery, the American force made contact with local forces which were constituted into the Canadian Regiment. The Canadian Regiment would serve side by side with the forces sent by Washington in securing Montreal and Quebec City.


Flag of the Congress' Own Canadian Regiment.

With the major cities of Quebec, at least for the time being, in the hands of the rebels, Quebec sent its first delegation to the Second Continental Congress, already in progress. A relief force of British and Hessian soldiers attempted to land in Quebec City in May 1776, but were repulsed by the rebel defenders.

Benedict Arnold

Ambitious rebel officer Benedict Arnold convinced General Washington to send him at the head of a supporting force to supplement to relief of Quebec. Arnold joined Ethan Allen and his forces. While they had significant successes, news soon reached them that Quebec City was in rebel hands and their mission superfluous. At that point, Arnold convinced Allen and his men to join him on a raid into Nova Scotia to inspire rebellious forces in the region.

Nova Scotia had developed a large Yankee population, but politics were still mostly ruled by the merchant oligarchs of Halifax. Somehow, Governor Frances Legge managed to alienate both with his staunch pro-British stance and attempt to audit the oligarchs. He was to be recalled to London in 1776, which may have resolved the situation except that at that same time Arnold and Allen launched raids into Nova Scotia proper, inspiring Yankees in the region to join their forces. The oligarchs took the opportunity to throw out Legge and declare for the rebellion. Admiral Arbuthnot, on station at Halifax, was able to take command of the port and hold it for the crown, but not to suppress the new rebel legislature. Nova Scotia thus became the last colony to send representatives to the Continental Congress.
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Old February 23rd, 2010, 03:51 AM
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The Flag of the United States of America was set in its essential pattern by 1777, though many variations would occur throughout the American Revolutionary War and even after. Initially George Washington preferred the use of six pointed stars, but in the end the five pointed star won out. The twelve stripes on the flag alternating red, white, and blue stand for the twelve founding colonies of the United States of America. There had also been red and white alternating stripes early on, but the tricolor stripe pattern won out in the end. Also featured was a blue field with a star for each new state, replacing the Union Jack that had been displayed in the original flag.
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Old February 23rd, 2010, 04:50 AM
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Interesting but I'm a little confused. I don't know anything about American history really, so I can't tell whether this is going in the direction of an Ameriwank or the opposite of that. Or neither..

I will read on to find out
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And then we'll move onto more civilized weapons, like crossbows and claymores.
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Old February 23rd, 2010, 10:18 AM
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Interesting but I'm a little confused. I don't know anything about American history really, so I can't tell whether this is going in the direction of an Ameriwank or the opposite of that. Or neither..

I will read on to find out
Thanks. Read on and find out, indeed!
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Old February 23rd, 2010, 11:03 AM
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Benedict Arnold

Ambitious rebel officer Benedict Arnold convinced General Washington to send him at the head of a supporting force to supplement to relief of Quebec. Arnold joined Ethan Allen and his forces. While they had significant successes, news soon reached them that Quebec City was in rebel hands and their mission superfluous. At that point, Arnold convinced Allen and his men to join him on a raid into Nova Scotia to inspire rebellious forces in the region.

Nova Scotia had developed a large Yankee population, but politics were still mostly ruled by the merchant oligarchs of Halifax. Somehow, Governor Frances Legge managed to alienate both with his staunch pro-British stance and attempt to audit the oligarchs. He was to be recalled to London in 1776, which may have resolved the situation except that at that same time Arnold and Allen launched raids into Nova Scotia proper, inspiring Yankees in the region to join their forces. The oligarchs took the opportunity to throw out Legge and declare for the rebellion. Admiral Arbuthnot, on station at Halifax, was able to take command of the port and hold it for the crown, but not to suppress the new rebel legislature. Nova Scotia thus became the last colony to send representatives to the Continental Congress.
The British force (actually mixed British and Hessian forces) sent to Quebec had been met by the unwelcome vision of rebels in command of Quebec City. Rather than offer siege to the city, the commanding general John Burgoyne decided to continue with his original plan that he had concocted before ever leaving London. He landed his forces on the southern bank of the Saint Lawrence River and started his army moving south towards Albany, New York, where he expected to be met by British forces marching up from New York City and thus cut off New England from the rest of the colonies.


John Burgoyne

However, without a friendly port to disembark and revictual, Burgoyne's forces were forced to forage in force on their route. This effort slowed their initial advance to a crawl, and did much to alienate further Canadians who otherwise might have remained neutral or even loyal to the crown. The march south was hard on his men, with little in the way of forage available once they penetrated to Lake Champlain. Despite this deficiency, his forces were able to drive the small garrison force out of Fort Ticonderoga and continue south towards Albany. However, in the summer of 1777 his men were in worse shape and no relief was coming from the south when he was forced to battle and subsequent surrender at Saratoga. He had to surrender his entire army and admit abject defeat. This victory proved the tipping point to France's entry into the war.
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Old February 23rd, 2010, 01:44 PM
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The British force (actually mixed British and Hessian forces) sent to Quebec had been met by the unwelcome vision of rebels in command of Quebec City. Rather than offer siege to the city, the commanding general John Burgoyne decided to continue with his original plan that he had concocted before ever leaving London. He landed his forces on the southern bank of the Saint Lawrence River and started his army moving south towards Albany, New York, where he expected to be met by British forces marching up from New York City and thus cut off New England from the rest of the colonies.


John Burgoyne

However, without a friendly port to disembark and revictual, Burgoyne's forces were forced to forage in force on their route. This effort slowed their initial advance to a crawl, and did much to alienate further Canadians who otherwise might have remained neutral or even loyal to the crown. The march south was hard on his men, with little in the way of forage available once they penetrated to Lake Champlain. Despite this deficiency, his forces were able to drive the small garrison force out of Fort Ticonderoga and continue south towards Albany. However, in the summer of 1777 his men were in worse shape and no relief was coming from the south when he was forced to battle and subsequent surrender at Saratoga. He had to surrender his entire army and admit abject defeat. This victory proved the tipping point to France's entry into the war.
While British fortunes fared ill to the north, to the south events were more in favor of the British and their Loyalist allies. While the mid-Atlantic colony of Virginia was in play, of the Southern colonies only South Carolina was seriously in danger of falling into the rebel camp. Indeed, South Carolina had sent delegates to the Continental Congress before the Battle of Sullivan's Island in 1776. While the rebels fought ferociously under William Moultrie, doing significant damage to the British flotilla, the forces led by Virginian Charles Lee were overwhelmed by an attack to the rear by the forces of Henry Clinton, who had received reinforcements of Loyalists from North Carolina sent by Governor Carleton. Though at a heavy cost, Charleston fell and the rebels of South Carolina were forced to flee to the hinterlands.


Sir Henry Clinton
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Old February 23rd, 2010, 02:07 PM
othyrsyde othyrsyde is offline
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When I first saw the title I was thinking of a South America TL, and was rather confused about a POD being in Canada, but now I get it, we'll see a Southern Dominion and a more northernly centered US. This will prove interesting when slavery is ended. Can't wait to read more.



Sir Henry Clinton, I killed this guy in my TL; and of all the people I had die differant deaths, he sticks out the most in my mind, for some reason.
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Old February 23rd, 2010, 02:28 PM
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It seems that the US may be more Canada like in TTL with the Francapphones and northerly centre of power. Interesting.
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Old February 23rd, 2010, 05:20 PM
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When I first saw the title I was thinking of a South America TL, and was rather confused about a POD being in Canada, but now I get it, we'll see a Southern Dominion and a more northernly centered US.
Got it in one (or rather two since you were confused aforehand). Darn our ancestors for including America in the name of both continents....so confusing!

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This will prove interesting when slavery is ended.
Yes, yes it will.

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Can't wait to read more.
Glad to hear!

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Sir Henry Clinton, I killed this guy in my TL; and of all the people I had die differant deaths, he sticks out the most in my mind, for some reason.
Interesting....I wonder why....any insights?
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Old February 23rd, 2010, 05:21 PM
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It seems that the US may be more Canada like in TTL with the Francapphones and northerly centre of power. Interesting.
Yes, in some ways. I am glad you find it interesting.
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Old February 23rd, 2010, 06:19 PM
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Well you've got me interested. I'll be following this one; would love to know where this is going but I guess I'll have to wait
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Old February 23rd, 2010, 07:56 PM
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Well you've got me interested. I'll be following this one; would love to know where this is going but I guess I'll have to wait
Seems like the best way to build up suspense and interest, so yes, you'll have to wait.
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Old February 23rd, 2010, 08:58 PM
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While British fortunes fared ill to the north, to the south events were more in favor of the British and their Loyalist allies. While the mid-Atlantic colony of Virginia was in play, of the Southern colonies only South Carolina was seriously in danger of falling into the rebel camp. Indeed, South Carolina had sent delegates to the Continental Congress before the Battle of Sullivan's Island in 1776. While the rebels fought ferociously under William Moultrie, doing significant damage to the British flotilla, the forces led by Virginian Charles Lee were overwhelmed by an attack to the rear by the forces of Henry Clinton, who had received reinforcements of Loyalists from North Carolina sent by Governor Carleton. Though at a heavy cost, Charleston fell and the rebels of South Carolina were forced to flee to the hinterlands.


Sir Henry Clinton
While 1777 officially marked the widening of the war into an international one with the enlistment of the French to the American cause, the French were slow to commit to the conflict, as were other European powers. Attempts to liberate Rhode Island in 1778 and Charleston in 1779 by joint Franco-American forces failed.

Another attempt to break the British hold on the South occured when the Spanish honored the Bourbon Family Compact and entered the war in 1779. Word of Spain's declaration of war sent Louisiana Governor Bernando de Galvez off to attack British West Florida. His attempted Siege of Baton Rouge failed, as much due to illness as to enemy gunfire, but the British force there bolstered by Loyalists was too much to break, and thus Galvez had to return to New Orleans, where the tables were turned as British forces from Pensacola under John Campbell laid siege to New Orleans. This time too the defenders were the victors, but Galvez was forced to remain on the defensive for the remainder of the war. While the British did not secure the vital port of New Orleans, they did manage to preserve West Florida for the British Empire.


Bernardo de Galvez
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Old February 24th, 2010, 02:33 AM
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While 1777 officially marked the widening of the war into an international one with the enlistment of the French to the American cause, the French were slow to commit to the conflict, as were other European powers. Attempts to liberate Rhode Island in 1778 and Charleston in 1779 by joint Franco-American forces failed.

Another attempt to break the British hold on the South occured when the Spanish honored the Bourbon Family Compact and entered the war in 1779. Word of Spain's declaration of war sent Louisiana Governor Bernando de Galvez off to attack British West Florida. His attempted Siege of Baton Rouge failed, as much due to illness as to enemy gunfire, but the British force there bolstered by Loyalists was too much to break, and thus Galvez had to return to New Orleans, where the tables were turned as British forces from Pensacola under John Campbell laid siege to New Orleans. This time too the defenders were the victors, but Galvez was forced to remain on the defensive for the remainder of the war. While the British did not secure the vital port of New Orleans, they did manage to preserve West Florida for the British Empire.


Bernardo de Galvez
The role of Africans in the American Revolutionary War was a small. Early on by Governor Carleton's recommendation the British refrained from recruiting slaves to join the British forces. Sir Guy had come to appreciate the deep anxiety that Southern Colonists had about the possibility of slave uprisings. This policy helped to sway to the Loyalist cause even more Southerners who otherwise might have remained neutral when in 1776, General Washington, desperate for manpower, rescinded his previous ban on recruitment of Africans into the Continental Army.


Africans in American Service
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Old February 24th, 2010, 11:44 AM
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The role of Africans in the American Revolutionary War was a small. Early on by Governor Carleton's recommendation the British refrained from recruiting slaves to join the British forces. Sir Guy had come to appreciate the deep anxiety that Southern Colonists had about the possibility of slave uprisings. This policy helped to sway to the Loyalist cause even more Southerners who otherwise might have remained neutral when in 1776, General Washington, desperate for manpower, rescinded his previous ban on recruitment of Africans into the Continental Army.


Africans in American Service
The decisive battle of the war was fought in 1781, when combined armies and navies of America and France converged on New York City in the Siege of New York. Clinton had been lulled into a false sense of security by false reports that the combined force was planning an assault further to the south. Indeed, there had been much discussion about landing the blow there, but Washington had won over the others for a New York attack.


Rochambeau

French forces under the command of General Rochambeau and the Continental Army under Washington met in White Plains, New York, then together engaged the British in Manhattan in siege.


Siege of New York

While the land forces pinned down Clinton and his command, at sea Rochambeau's fleet was joined by that of Admiral de Grasse where they were able to defeat the British fleet in the Battle of Long Island Sound.


Battle of Long Island Sound

With the successful conclusion of the siege, the Commander of British Forces was captured and the British army and navy in the North decisively defeated. Command of British forces devolved to General Cornwallis in the south. He received orders from Parliament to hold North Carolina and all points south, but for all intents and purposes fighting on the American continent was over and an unofficial cease fire went into effect for the next few years.


Lord Cornwallis
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Old February 24th, 2010, 01:50 PM
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The decisive battle of the war was fought in 1781, when combined armies and navies of America and France converged on New York City in the Siege of New York. Clinton had been lulled into a false sense of security by false reports that the combined force was planning an assault further to the south. Indeed, there had been much discussion about landing the blow there, but Washington had won over the others for a New York attack.


Rochambeau

French forces under the command of General Rochambeau and the Continental Army under Washington met in White Plains, New York, then together engaged the British in Manhattan in siege.


Siege of New York

While the land forces pinned down Clinton and his command, at sea Rochambeau's fleet was joined by that of Admiral de Grasse where they were able to defeat the British fleet in the Battle of Long Island Sound.


Battle of Long Island Sound

With the successful conclusion of the siege, the Commander of British Forces was captured and the British army and navy in the North decisively defeated. Command of British forces devolved to General Cornwallis in the south. He received orders from Parliament to hold North Carolina and all points south, but for all intents and purposes fighting on the American continent was over and an unofficial cease fire went into effect for the next few years.


Lord Cornwallis
While the war on the American mainland settled down into an uneasy, unofficial cessation of hostilities, other theatres offshore and around the world continued to be active.

Newfoundland had been only indirectly touched by the war, but it accelerated changes that had already been developing, most profoundly the shift in population from predominantly transient English fishermen to predominantly Irish permanent residents. English interests in the island shifted from fishing to a weystation for shipping, though even here, with the lack of success in the rest of the North, much shipping began to shift to Bermuda and thence to the Caribbean or Southern colonies. As the theatre of operations on the mainland wound down, French Canadian agitators slipped across to Newfoundland to inspire Catholic Irish residents to rebel. A small group of rebels eventually took over the understrength garrison. The change to the rebellion opened up Spanish markets for Newfoundland fish which had been closed since 1779, leading to a resurgence in fishing as an industry.
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