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  #101  
Old August 22nd, 2005, 12:59 AM
anzac 15 anzac 15 is offline
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Hat's off to a great timeline!

Just a couple questions though?What's happening in regards to Australia and New Zealand in this timeline?If you've got the Dutch and English east india companies having free access to Tawantinsuya port's from early on (something the spanish were'nt amenable to)then there's a very good chance either the Dutch or English will make some sort of meaningfull landfall in Australia or New Zealand at a much earlier date.

If either of these countries were to map australia's east coast first(rather than the west coast,as done by abel tasman in the 1640's)then there's a very good chance that one of these power's will lay claim to what we all know as Sydney harbor today.This is commonly known as one of the best sheltered deep water bays in the southern hemisphere and would make an ideal jumping off point to trade with asia.

I'm quite intrigued by what might happen later on with an earlier settlement in New Zealand or Australia(I love the idea of the dutch arriving early enough to save the moa birds from extinction from maori hunter's.A potential cash cow as dutch herders make a killing by cornering the feather mattress market.Sorry a bit overboard there!)But this is probally diverging a little too much from what you had in mind.


All the best and keep up the good work.
Anzac 15
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  #102  
Old August 22nd, 2005, 02:40 AM
robertp6165 robertp6165 is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by anzac 15
Hat's off to a great timeline!
Thanks!

Quote:
Originally Posted by anzac 15
Just a couple questions though?What's happening in regards to Australia and New Zealand in this timeline?If you've got the Dutch and English east india companies having free access to Tawantinsuya port's from early on (something the spanish were'nt amenable to)then there's a very good chance either the Dutch or English will make some sort of meaningfull landfall in Australia or New Zealand at a much earlier date.

If either of these countries were to map australia's east coast first(rather than the west coast,as done by abel tasman in the 1640's)then there's a very good chance that one of these power's will lay claim to what we all know as Sydney harbor today.This is commonly known as one of the best sheltered deep water bays in the southern hemisphere and would make an ideal jumping off point to trade with asia.

I'm quite intrigued by what might happen later on with an earlier settlement in New Zealand or Australia(I love the idea of the dutch arriving early enough to save the moa birds from extinction from maori hunter's.A potential cash cow as dutch herders make a killing by cornering the feather mattress market.Sorry a bit overboard there!)But this is probally diverging a little too much from what you had in mind.
I have been thinking about this, and will probably be doing a "Addition to Earlier Segments of the Timeline" about it prior to posting the next installment. I am thinking that Australia and New Zealand do get discovered earlier, but whether that translates into earlier settlement, I am not yet sure. Stay tuned.
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  #103  
Old August 22nd, 2005, 02:41 AM
robertp6165 robertp6165 is offline
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Originally Posted by Tom_B
Voltaire was capable of some zigzagging esp. if his ego was being stroked. What I think would be working here is what we often see in the modern Left--exotic form of repression are found more charming than the local variety. It could be that Voltaire does not present the Incans are Utopia but merely a step better--a crude form of meritocracy. Also their history of opposing the Catholic Church will appeal to him.

Furthermore if you were to have an Inca express even a limited interest in Voltaire's ideas he would be bedazzled even if this interest is half hearted at best and opposed by much of the court. Inca as Enlightened Despot.

The other side of the coin is likely to be occultism. The Rosiicrucian, Cagliostro, Count de St. Germain, Illuminati, Elpiphas Levi crowd is probably looting the spiritual gold of the Incas. This interaction with Freemasonry would be two way as certain supposed secrets of Incan esotericism get mixed into Speculative Masonic rites.

Which could have an impact on Mozart and Goethe.
All interesting ideas. Definitely gives me something to chew on. Thanks very much!
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  #104  
Old August 22nd, 2005, 04:15 AM
anzac 15 anzac 15 is offline
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Sorry if this is a bit messy I've had to repost this as my last reply seems to have disappeared somewhere into the ether.Here goes...

I was wondering where mexico stands on the ladder of powerplayers in this world?I'd imagine they'd be in a stronger position in this timeline.Even though spanish immigration was'nt the greatest or largest,if it stays at the same level as OTL but more centralised around mexico/central america as opposed to being dispersed over the entire south american continent,then you'll probaly end up with a mexico more able to effectively project it's power.Though this would be over a much smaller sphere of influence and not necessarily a bad thing.

Could we end up with a mexico that stretches from say panama to california and texas perhaps?

Does a stronger mexico make a break from spain earlier?A democratic united states of mexico that gains it's freedom in a revolution with an imperialistic spain would be a blast!

Does a stronger more centralised mexican power pose a threat to the u.s.a.?There's an argument that can be forwarded that the american revolution only occurred after the other american power player ie;the french,were swept from the board.Without any other nation or power in the americas able to project it's power once the brittish our removed from the scene the u.s.a. is free to expand without threat from any real rival.Is this as likely to happen if you have a strong mexican,french,tawantinsuya or even quilombo presence?

Would the u.s.a. still be as eager to cut it's ties with england?I can still see an independant u.s.a. but more along the lines of a semi independant dominion of a greater brittish empire.A equal member that achieves more independance for itself but probaly a little later in it's development than OTL.

Not that I have anything against a strong and independant u.s.a. I'd love to see how things develop as this u.s.a. has to compete on a changed playing field.Still I do get a chuckle out of the thought of a primeminister bush saluting the queen before he opens the american parliament.Sorry but every now and then the closet royalist in me assumes control

all the best...
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  #105  
Old August 22nd, 2005, 04:37 AM
robertp6165 robertp6165 is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by anzac 15
Sorry if this is a bit messy I've had to repost this as my last reply seems to have disappeared somewhere into the ether.Here goes...

I was wondering where mexico stands on the ladder of powerplayers in this world?I'd imagine they'd be in a stronger position in this timeline.Even though spanish immigration was'nt the greatest or largest,if it stays at the same level as OTL but more centralised around mexico/central america as opposed to being dispersed over the entire south american continent,then you'll probaly end up with a mexico more able to effectively project it's power.
That is very possible. The question is whether or not Spanish immigration to the New World would, in fact, stay at OTL levels if Mexico was the only major destination point for that immigration. If it does, then Mexico undoubtedly becomes a lot more Spanish and less native in culture, and probably a good deal stronger later on, as you say.

Quote:
Originally Posted by anzac 15
Could we end up with a mexico that stretches from say panama to california and texas perhaps?
In essence that is what the Spanish colony of New Spain now is, in the ATL. If Mexico keeps control of all that territory upon gaining independence, that might be interesting.

Quote:
Originally Posted by anzac 15
Does a stronger mexico make a break from spain earlier?A democratic united states of mexico that gains it's freedom in a revolution with an imperialistic spain would be a blast!
It seems to me that a larger immigration of Spaniards would make the colony more loyal to the homeland, not less. And in OTL, the Mexican revolution was inspired in part by the success American and French revolutions. So having Mexico get independence earlier is not going to be easy.

Quote:
Originally Posted by anzac 15
Does a stronger more centralised mexican power pose a threat to the u.s.a.?There's an argument that can be forwarded that the american revolution only occurred after the other american power player ie;the french,were swept from the board.
That's certainly true.

Quote:
Originally Posted by anzac 15
Without any other nation or power in the americas able to project it's power once the brittish are removed from the scene the u.s.a. is free to expand without threat from any real rival.Is this as likely to happen if you have a strong mexican,french,tawantinsuya or even quilombo presence?
Probably not. But then, the expansion of the United States beyond the Mississippi was kind of a fluke of history anyway. Napoleon needed money, so he sold us the Louisiana Territory at a bargain basement price, and Thomas Jefferson bought it despite his own belief that he was not authorized by the Constitution to do any such thing. If France had held onto that territory, U.S. expansion might very well have been stymied at the Mississippi. St. Louis and New Orleans would be French border outposts, likely with American "sister cities" on the opposite shore. At any rate, it would not be implausible at all for the Louisiana purchase not to happen, which would have very dramatic impacts on future history.

Quote:
Originally Posted by anzac 15
Would the u.s.a. still be as eager to cut it's ties with england?I can still see an independant u.s.a. but more along the lines of a semi independant dominion of a greater brittish empire.A equal member that achieves more independance for itself but probaly a little later in it's development than OTL.
Once the French are "swept from the board," as you put it, I think the chain of events that lead to the Revolution was pretty much inevitable. New Spain (Mexico), even if it is more heavily settled by Spaniards in the ATL and thus more militarily powerful, is too far away to have posed a real threat to the British colonies in the 1760s and 1770s. Even Louisiana, which was turned over the Spain after the 7 Years War by France, is far away and no immediate threat. The British government is going to need to tax the colonies in order to pay it's war debt from the 7 Years War, as well as to pay for the future defense of the American colonies. And, lacking an immediate military threat on their border, the colonists are going to react the same way to those taxes. I really don't see a way around that.

Quote:
Originally Posted by anzac 15
Not that I have anything against a strong and independant u.s.a. I'd love to see how things develop as this u.s.a. has to compete on a changed playing field.Still I do get a chuckle out of the thought of a primeminister bush saluting the queen before he opens the american parliament.Sorry but every now and then the closet royalist in me assumes control
That would be interesting, but I just don't think it likely.
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  #106  
Old August 23rd, 2005, 01:43 AM
anzac 15 anzac 15 is offline
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Thanks for the feedback on earlier questions.

The only real question I have relates to the whole issue of slavery.I don't doubt that a successful quilombo uprising would impact the development of slavery in the new brittish colonies,I just don't think it would be affected to the extent you described.I think there's a very real chance that a modified form of indentured servitude could arise.Slavery no doubt but under a differant name/shape.The unwholesome truth is that many pre industrial societies found the economic benefits of slavery to profitable to resist.

I don't think you'll see much change in the form slavery takes throughout the carabean islands though,haiti and jamaica especially come to mind.Don't take this as gospel as I'm relying on half remembered facts from a James Mitchener history of the carabean,but I remember him saying how survival rates for slaves were around the seven year mark.They worked the majority of slaves to death recouping their costs within a couple of years.Living standards were'nt a real concern as they had a ready supply of new slaves easily accessible.I can quite easily see the european slaveowners waving a 7 or 10 year 'indenture' in front of their ''servants''as a prevention against rebellion knowing full well that most won't survive to see their freedom.

If you keep slavery going in haiti up to the eighteenth century maybe we can see some sort of war of liberation with Toussaint l'Ouverture and the Quilombo setting up lots of little independant island republics ala haiti & jamaica etc.....

It might be interesting to see england's southern colonies heading in a different direction altogether.Something along the lines of Brazil's history in OTL where you still have a plantation culture but a very small white population in proportion to black,indian and mixed bloods(re;mulato's,quadroons,mestizo etc.).I can see a south with a lot of absentee northern landlord's where a tiered social strata exists.On the bottom of the ladder you find your 10 year men.The indentured servants that work the plantations and other menial jobs.The more mobile free black/mixed people who fill the middle tier ie trades,sharecroppers,landlord agents for absentee northerner's etc.On the top you have your white plantation owners and proffessional and military/enforcement tiers you might even have a small number of black owned plantations(I do recall reading about some that existed in the south and other countries but don't hold me to it).It might seem a bit farfetched but I think theres a few example's of such things happening in OTL so why not!

Just a few ideas I thought you might find interesting.All the best and keep up the good work!

Anzac 15
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  #107  
Old August 23rd, 2005, 09:08 PM
ShawnEndresen ShawnEndresen is offline
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Probably not. But then, the expansion of the United States beyond the Mississippi was kind of a fluke of history anyway. Napoleon needed money, so he sold us the Louisiana Territory at a bargain basement price, and Thomas Jefferson bought it despite his own belief that he was not authorized by the Constitution to do any such thing. If France had held onto that territory, U.S. expansion might very well have been stymied at the Mississippi. St. Louis and New Orleans would be French border outposts, likely with American "sister cities" on the opposite shore. At any rate, it would not be implausible at all for the Louisiana purchase not to happen, which would have very dramatic impacts on future history.
The peaceful purchase was a fluke and a lucky break, yes. Jefferson and his Cabinet had agreed that New Orleans must be American, however, and planned to take it by force if Boney wouldn't sell before negotiations even opened.

In general...I like this timeline a great deal, although I think it overestimates both the Inca's abilities and the good natures of the English.

On the Spanish...you have three types of Spanish emigrants to the New World, the conquistadores, settlers and Jesuits. The conquistadore first wave, having taken New Spain but been thwarted in the South, probably would have turned its attention up the Mississippi to Cahokia. It's easy enough to say they fail, but there should have been at least a brief Spanish attempt to colonize around modern-day St. Louis. (San Luis? ) Next you have the colonists, who formed OTL Chile and Argentina. These will go to northern New Spain, especially along the Gulf Coast up to Texas, but perhaps also to California. The Jesuits are the trailing wave, but go the farthest, and will presumably set up in California (more thoroughly than OTL) and perhaps the rest of what is now the Southwestern USA. In sum, yes, we have a much more Spanish and somewhat more populous New Spain (a good rule of thumb would be add Chile and Argentina to Mexico for population).

Might not make them more loyal, though. Mexico city burned in the 1680s when the peasantry rose against the viceroyalty; even a few disgruntled but somewhat educated small farmers or parish priests to lead the mob would have made it the first New World Republic.
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  #108  
Old November 11th, 2005, 10:28 PM
robertp6165 robertp6165 is offline
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The Guns of the Tawantinsuya, Part Four: 1750-1799

ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS TO EARLIER SEGMENTS OF THE TIMELINE

A.D. 1700 onward--Since the middle of the last century, Spanish emigration to the New
World has been, due to the loss of Spain’s territories in South America to the
Tawantinsuya, diverted to the Caribbean and North America. This has had some
important impacts. Large areas of the American west are receiving a much larger
settlement of Spanish immigrants than in OTL, and as a result, by 1700, the Spanish
colonies in the regions which in OTL became New Mexico, Nevada, Texas, and
California are much stronger and more robust than in OTL. In addition, Spain has reaped
an additional benefit...the larger concentration of Spanish manpower in North America
has allowed a much more thorough and complete exploration of the western region of
said continent to be conducted, and by 1700 major gold and silver reserves have been
discovered in northern California and Nevada especially, with other, smaller discoveries
in New Mexico and what would, in OTL, become Arizona. This infusion of cash...which
happens to coincide with the more dynamic leadership provided by the new Bourbon
Dynasty, which replaced the old Habsburg Dynasty in 1700...has partially revitalized the
power of Spain. This is, of course, a worrisome development for Spain’s old enemy, the
Tawantinsuyu Empire.

THE GUNS OF THE TAWANTINSUYA, A.D. 1750-1800

A.D. 1750--Ohio River Region explored by American frontiersman Christopher Gist. The
Conestoga Wagon is developed in Pennsylvania. The neoclassical art movement begins in
Europe. The Waltz becomes a popular dance form in Europe. It later becomes popular as
well in the Tawantinsuya Empire.

A.D. 1750 onward--Sinchi Roca Inca II, who was intrigued by news of the recent
discovery of the Hawaiian Islands, authorizes voyages of exploration in the south and
Central Pacific. Tawantinsuya ships soon begin venturing out into the unknown, and
many new discoveries are made. The best known Tawantinsuya explorer will be Captain
Huallpa Rimachi, whose vessel, the I.T.S. Cuntur (“Condor”), will be the first to make
landfall in Australia, New Zealand, the Solomon and Marshall Islands, and many other
places.

A.D. 1751--Robert Clive, leading a mixed English, Tawantinsuya, and Indian force, takes
Arcot in India, thus driving France out of Southern India. The first geological map of
France is created by Jean Etienne Guettard. The Worcestor Royal Porcelain Company is
founded in England. Diderots' first volume of the “Encyclopedie” is published. The
Lightening Conductor is invented by Benjamin Franklin.

A.D. 1752--Over the past three decades, great progress has been made in the Quilombo
toward the establishment of a stable regime. By 1752, intertribal violence has virtually
ceased, there have been many orderly transfers of power between incoming and outgoing
Great Chiefs, and a standing army (made up of men from all the tribes represented within
the Quilombo, this has been a great force toward the reduction of intertribal animosity
and infighting) has been created, trained, and equipped. As conditions in the Quilombo
have improved, the Tawantinsuya peacekeeping force has been gradually reduced.
Finally, in this year, Sinchi Roca Inca II orders the withdrawal of the last Tawantinsuya
troops from the Quilombo. Security within the Quilombo is fully assumed by the armed
forces of the Quilombo government. Also in this year, Benjamin Franklin invents the
Lightning Rod, George Rogers Clark is born in Virginia, and Elizabeth Griscom (the
future Betsy Ross) is born in Pennsylvania.

A.D. 1753--Swedish biologist Carolus Linnaeus publishes his system of plant
classification. The British Museum is founded.

A.D. 1754--The Seven Years (French and Indian) War unofficially begins. The Albany
Congress begins. A cartoon in Benjamin Franklin's PENNSYLVANIA GAZETTE shows a
snake cut into sections, each part representing an American colony; with a caption that
reads, ''Join or die.'' Benjamin Franklin writes the Albany Plan of Union. Also in this
year, Italian architect Rastrelli designs the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg, Russia, and
Captain Huallpa Rimachi of the I.T.S. Cuntur discovers the Solomon Islands.

A.D. 1755--The French and Indian War officially begins in America. The Lisbon
Earthquake kills 30,000. The independent state of Corsica is founded by Pasquale Paoli.
The DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE is published by Samuel Johnson.
Captain Huallpa Rimachi of the I.T.S. Cuntur discovers New Zealand, which he claims
for the Tawantinsuyu Empire. However, no immediate effort to colonize the islands is
made.

A.D. 1756--The Black Hole of Calcutta, 130 British and Tawantinsuya soldiers are
alleged to have died there. The Seven Years War (French and Indian) officially begins in
Europe. Treaty of Westminster; alliance between Britain and Prussia. The British attempt
to entice the Tawantinsuya to join the Anglo Prussian alliance, but Sinchi Roca Inca II
decides, for the present, to demur...the traditional enemy of the Tawantinsuya, Spain, is
not currently involved in the war, and the Tawantinsuya have nothing major to gain by
joining the alliance at this time. Treaty of Versailles; alliance between France and
Austria. William Pitt (the Elder) becomes Prime Minister of Britain.

A.D. 1757--Frederick II “the Great” of Prussia defeats the Franco-Austrian army at
Rossbach. British and Tawantinsuya East India Company forces lead by British General
Robert Clive and Tawantinsuya General Pahuac Cocohuay defeat the nawab of Bengal at
the Battle of Plassey in India. John Campbell invents the sextant.

A.D. 1758--The Burmese overthrow the Mons; Rangoon becomes the new capital of
Burma. Captain Huallpa Rimachi of the I.T.S. Cuntur discovers the east coast of Australia
and the Great Barrier Reef. As in New Zealand, he claims the land in the name of his
sovereign, Sinchi Roca Inca II, but no immediate attempt at colonization will result.

A.D. 1759--Battle of the Plains of Abraham. The British capture Quebec, death of
generals Montcalm and Wolfe. “Candide” written by Voltaire. The Botanical Gardens
founded at Kew in London. The Russians defeat Prussian King Frederick II at
Kunersdorf. King Ferdinand VI of Spain dies, and is succeeded by his brother, who
reigns as King Charles III. Charles will be, although not brilliant, at least a very
dedicated monarch for Spain, and on the whole, the country will prosper during his reign.
However, he is not very interested in the military, and although he continues to funnel
gold and silver from the New World into the higher levels of military spending begun by
his predecessor, it is not always spent wisely (a good number of fine warships are added
to the Spanish fleet, for example, but little money is spent on crew training; likewise, the
army is expanded, but training and supply are neglected). As a result Spanish military
power will not increase as much as it otherwise might have given the increased levels of
expenditure being made on the military.

A.D. 1760--Death of King George II of England. His son, George III, assumes the throne.
Rousseau publishes “The Social Contract.” Catherine II “The Great” becomes ruler of
Russia. “Tristram Shandy” by Sterne is published. Berlin is burned by the Russians

A.D. 1761--James Otis gives a four hour speech against the Writs of Assistance. Franz
Josef Haydn becomes court composer to Prince Esterhazy. John Harrison invents the
marine chronometer, a navigational clock for measuring longitude. Spain enters the Seven
Year’s War on the side of France. The Tawantinsuyu Empire enters the war on the side
of Britain.

A.D. 1762--A combined British and Tawantinsuya expeditionary force seizes Cuba, and
the British sieze the Philippines, from Spain. Louisiana ceded to Spain by France in an
attempt to avert British control of the region. “Emile” is published by Rousseau.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart performs at the Imperial court in Vienna at age 6.

A.D. 1763--The Seven Years War ends with the Treaties of Paris and Hubertusburg.
Britain returns the Philippines to Spain in exchange for Florida. Spain also wanted to get
Cuba back as well, but the Tawantinsuya claim this for their own. An agreement is
worked out whereby the Tawantinsuya will pay a portion of Britain’s war debt in
exchange for Britain relinquishing any claims to Cuba. Canada and the territory east of
the Mississippi River is ceded to Britain by France. France recognizes British and
Tawantinsuya dominance in India. Also in this year, Pontiac's Rebellion flares up in the
Ohio country and western Pennsylvania, where it will continue for the next three years.
King George III issues a Proclamation prohibiting American settlement west of the
Appalachian Mountains. This is bitterly resented in the American colonies. King
Augustus III of Poland dies and is succeeded by Stanislaw II. Stanislaw will prove to be
the last king of Poland.

A.D. 1764--German historian Johann Winckelmann publishes his “History of the Art of
Antiquity.” Thomas Chatterton writes the Rowley poems at the age of 12. James
Hargreaves invents the spinning jenny. Sugar Act passed by Parliament to offset expenses
of the French and Indian War and to maintain England’s newly aquired territories. The
Currency Act is passed by Parliament, which prevents the colonies from issuing their own
form of legal tender. James Otis raises the issue of taxation without representation in a
Boston town meeting, and later publishes "The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted
and Proved." Boston merchants begin to boycott British luxury goods. The War of the
Regulation, a local rebellion against corrupt taxation, begins in North Carolina. This is
the first armed rebellion against British rule in America, and will last for seven years.

A.D. 1765--Joseph II becomes the Holy Roman Emperor. Robert Clive is appointed
governor of Bengal in India. Sir William Blackstone begins his “Commentaries on the
Laws of England.” The Quartering Act, which required the colonies to provided barracks
and supplies to British troops, and the Stamp Act, are passed by the British Parliament,
once again stirring resentment in the American colonies. In June, the Massachussetts
House of Representatives resolves to propose an intercolonial meeting to resist the Stamp
Act, and in October, the Stamp Act Congress meets in New York Also in this year, in an
attempt to normalize relations and end the ongoing state of hostility between his kingdom
and the Tawantinsuya, King Charles III of Spain dispatches the first official embassy to
the Tawantinsuyu Empire. This is received with some caution by the Tawantinsuya, but
gradually, over time, normal relations will be established. This will have major impacts
later on this century.

A.D. 1766--English chemist Henry Cavendish isolates hydrogen gas for the first time.
“The Nautical Almanac” provides the first practical method for determining longitude. 18
Parliament repeals the Stamp Act, but then later passes the Declaratory Act, by which
Parliament asserted its right to make any laws it sees fit binding on the Colonies.
Resistance to the Quartering Act breaks out in New York

A.D. 1767--The Townshend Duties go into effect. The colonists protest the new taxes by
agreeing to stop importing British goods. The Mason-Dixon Line established between
Maryland and Pennsylvania. Joseph Priestley invents carbonated, or “soda,” water.

A.D. 1768--The first modern Circus is formed in England by Philip Astley. British
explorer James Cook, who left port before news of the explorations of Captain Huallpa
Rimachi reached England, explores the east coast of Australia. He establishes a
competing claim to that continent on behalf of Britain. The Ottoman Turks declare war
on Russia. Genoa sells its rights in Corsica to France. Joshua Reynolds becomes the first
president of the Royal Academy in London. Bougainville claims the Pacific island of
Tahiti for France. The first weekly numbers of the “Encyclopaedia Britannica” are issued.
Richard Arkwright patents the spinning frame. British troops arrive in Boston to enforce
the customs laws.

A.D. 1769--British explorer James Cook lands in New Zealand, as in Australia,
establishing a competing British claim for the islands. The first working automobile in
history was a steam tractor used to pull artillery for the French Army. Daniel Boone
explores a route through the Cumberland Gap. James Watt patents a condenser to
improve the performance of steam engines. Richard Arkwright invents a spinning frame
to mechanize cotton weaving.

A.D. 1770--Captain James Cook encounters the Great Barrier Reef off Australia by
running his ship the Endeavor on it, by accident. Later, he discovers Botany Bay. Prince
Louis, the future king of France, marries Austrian princess Marie Antoinette. Lord North
becomes Prime Minister of England. British explorer James Bruce discovers the source of
the Blue Nile. Townshend Acts repealed except for the tax on tea. New York Riot over
the Quartering Act. British troops fire on a crowd of American civilians in an incident
which goes down in history as the Boston Massacre. Also in this year, King Charles III of
Spain offers to buy Cuba from the Tawantinsuyu Empire. In exchange, he offers a large
payment of gold and silver, and offers to open several key Spanish ports, both in the New
World and in Spain itself, to Tawantinsuya trade vessels. Sinchi Roca Inca II, who has
been somewhat dismayed by the expenses associated with holding Cuba...which has a
large and resistant Spanish population...accepts the offer. Cuba is officially transferred
back into Spanish hands on September 21, 1770.

A.D. 1770-1773--The Bengal Famine kills an estimated 10 million people in Bengal, the
British and Tawantinsuya East India Company’s prime holding in India. With this loss
of one sixth of the population, military and administrative costs mount beyond control in
British administered regions in Bengal due to the ensuing drop in labour productivity, and
with it, the tax base. This, combined with a stagnant trade market for company goods
caused by an economic recession throughout Europe following the end of the Seven
Years War, threatens to drive the company into bankruptcy.

A.D. 1771--Gustav III succeeds his father as king of Sweden. The Battle of Alamance, in
which the forces of the Regulators (rebels against corrupt British taxation in western
North Carolina) are decisively defeated by the forces of North Carolina Governor Lord
William Tryon. End of the War of the Regulation.

A.D. 1772--British explorer James Cook crosses the Antarctic Circle and circumnavigates
Antarctica. The First Partition of Poland. American artist Benjamin West paints “The
Death of Wolfe.” Attack on the "Gaspee,” a British customs schooner that was burned by
Rhode Island colonists off Namquit Point. Sam Adams pressures the Boston Town
Meeting to set up the "Committee of Correspondence" to state the colonies’ rights and
grievances. John Sevier organizes independent republic of Watauga in Tennessee

A.D. 1773--Pope Clement XIV suppresses the Jesuits. Calcutta becomes the capital of
British India. Don Cossack Yemelian Pugachev leads the Peasant's Revolt in Russia. To
save the bankrupt British East India Company, Parliament passes the Tea Act. In
response, the Boston Town Meeting passes resolutions against the Tea Act. In
December, the Boston Tea Party takes place. 342 chests of tea are dumped into Boston
Harbor by colonists disguised as Indians. Parliament also passes the India Act of 1773,
which transfers unprecedented control over British and Tawantinsuya East India
Company holdings and operations in India to the British Government. The Tawantinsuya
are not consulted during or after the passage of this bill, and are incensed by this
“high-handed” treatment at the hands of their erst-while ally.

A.D. 1774--King Louis XV dies. His son, Louis XVI, becomes King of France. Treaty of
Kutchuk-Kainardji ends the Russo-Turkish War. British clergyman and scientist Joseph
Priestley identifies a gas which he called "dephlogisticated air," later known as oxygen.
The British government appoints Warren Hastings to be Governor-General of India. The
Tawantinsuya are not consulted on this choice, and relations between the two
powers...already strained because of what the Tawantinsuya perceive as “high-handed”
British behavior with regard to their joint Indian venture, are further damaged. The
Coercive Acts are passed by Parliament. Boston Port is closed by Parliamement until the
tea destroyed in the Boston Tea Party is paid for by those responsible. The Quebec Act
grants the French Catholics of Quebec the right to freedom of Religion among other
assurances, and is seen as an attempt by the British government to pit the French
Canadians against the rest of the American colonists. The First Continental Congress
opens for business. “Declaration and Resolves” by the First Continental Congress.

A.D. 1775--War between the British and Tawantinsuya East India Company and
Marathas in India. Alexander Cummings invents the flush toilet. Jacques Perrier invents
a steam ship. New England Restraining Act: Parliament passed an act banning trade
between the New England colonies and any other country besides Great Britain.

A.D. 1775-1780--The American Revolution. A year by year summary of major events of
the Revolution follows.

--1775: In April, the British commander at Boston, General Thomas Gage, receives
intelligence that the colonists are massing arms and ammunition at Concord,
Massachusetts. An expedition is sent out to destroy these stores, but meets with
resistence. Battles of Lexington, Concord, and Bunker Hill—beginning of American
Revolution. Later that year, Boston is placed under siege by a colonial army. This army,
however, lacking artillery, has no means to force the British to abandon the town, and an
uneasy stalemate results. The Continental Congress, when it meets in May 1775, selects
Artemas Ward to be the commander-in-chief of the newly christened Continental Army.
Later that same month, Colonels Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold, leading colonial
militia, capture Fort Ticonderoga, on Lake Champlain in upper New York, and with it,
over 70 pieces of heavy artillery. Artemas Ward sends Henry Knox to Ticonderoga, with
orders to bring this artillery to Boston. In June, another American army, under the
command of Brigadier General Richard Montgomery, is ordered to invade Canada and
capture Montreal, which is accomplished in early November. Benedict Arnold attempts
to convince General Artemas Ward to allow him to lead a supporting expedition which
will approach Quebec through the Maine wilderness, but is refused. Instead, in what
turns out to be one of the few good decisions Ward will make while commander-in-chief,
Arnold is sent with more troops to support Montgomery’s drive up the St. Lawrence.
Arnold’s force of 1,500 men arrives at Montreal in fairly good condition (in OTL, the trek
through the Maine wilderness cost Arnold almost half of his force, and the remainder
were almost dead when they arrived outside of Quebec), and unites with that of
Montgomery shortly after the latter captures said city. The combined force then marches
up the St. Lawrence and arrives before Quebec in early December. Under cover of a
snowstorm, the Americans assault the British works protecting the city on December 31,
and with their extra manpower, manage to defeat the British garrison and capture the city.
Both Montgomery and Arnold are severely wounded...Montgomery will succumb to his
wounds a week later, and Arnold will walk with a limp for the rest of his life. But
Canada, with the exception of the British bases in Nova Scotia...is now under American
control.

--1776: In January, Henry Knox arrives in Boston with fifty cannon, which had been
dragged by sled in the dead of winter over 300 miles from Fort Ticonderoga. Also in this
month, Brigadier General David Wooster is sent to take command at Quebec, relieving
the wounded Benedict Arnold. Arnold is promoted to Brigadier General and ordered to
take command at Montreal while he recuperates from his wounds.

In March, the cannon from Ticonderoga are positioned atop Dorchester Heights,
overlooking Boston. The Americans now have cannon...but no powder for them. The
British don’t know this, however, and they evacuate Boston. General Gage sails with his
army to Halifax, Nova Scotia, where they await reinforcements. Those reinforcements,
when they arrive, will be accompanied by Gage’s replacement as commander...Lord
William Howe.

In May, General John Burgoyne arrives from England with 4,000 troops outside Quebec.
American General Wooster, although heavily outnumbered, enjoys the advantages of
Quebec’s strong fortifications, and Burgoyne does not launch an immediate assault, but
instead, begins siege operations. In late June, Brigadier General Benedict Arnold, having
been reinforced at Montreal and now in command of over 2,000 men, launches a surprise
attack on Burgoyne’s army outside Quebec. General Wooster sallies forth with a
supporting attack, and the overconfident Burgoyne is decisively defeated and driven away
from his lines of supply on the St. Lawrence, with American forces and French Canadian
militia in pursuit. Among those killed in the engagement are two British Colonels,
Horatio Gates and Charles Lee, who are killed while trying to rally their broken regiments
for a counterattack.

In June 1776, a British force under Sir Henry Clinton and Sir Peter Parker attempts to
sieze Charleston, South Carolina. Patriot forces fighting in a fort made of sand and
palmetto logs on Sullivan’s Island, commanded by Brigadier General William Moultrie,
withstand the bombardment of the British fleet, which withdraws. Also in this month,
incited by royal agents, the Cherokee attack all along the Southern frontier. These
attacks, and Patriot counterattacks against the Cherokee, will continue for the next ten
months.

In July, the American Declaration of Independence is signed at Philadelphia. This
document is authored primarily by John Adams and edited by Benjamin Franklin and
several others. Adams, being a lawyer, cites English law and custom...particularly the
Magna Carta, the Bill of Rights, and similar legislation passed during the English Civil
War and the Glorious Revolution in the previous century, as well as Blackstone’s
“Commentaries on the Laws of England,” to make a case that Parliament
and the King are violating the rights of the citizens of the colonies, who therefore have no
choice but to sever their political bonds with Britain and declare independence, just as
Parliament itself rose up against the King during the English Civil War. There is no
mention of “inalienable rights,” and the concept that “all men are created equal” (with
which Adams personally disagrees) is not expressed in the document. Meanwhile, later
that month, Burgoyne’s army is brought to battle in the wilderness about 40 miles west of
Quebec. After a very sanguine struggle, his force is once again defeated. Burgoyne, his
supplies running low and his army being driven ever further away from his base,
surrenders his army on July 31.

In mid-August, the main British Army, heavily reinforced with British troops and Hessian
mercenaries, sails from Halifax, Nova Scotia, under Lord Howe and arrives outside New
York City. The British occupy Long Island and New York City virtually unopposed, as
Continental commander-in-chief General Artemas Ward, having failed to recognize the
vital strategic importance of the place, had not moved his army from the Boston area to
defend it.

In early September, the British strike inland from their new base at New York City, and
moving rapidly across central New Jersey in a lightning campaign, they cross the
Delaware River and by the end of that month are at the gates of Philadelphia. The
Continental Congress hastily evacuates to York, Pennsylvania (where, shortly after their
arrival, they learn of the great victory won by Arnold in Canada, and promote him to
Major General).

On October 2, the British march into Philadelphia. The Continental Army, belatedly
brought south by General Ward, arrives in the vicinity a few days later, and is severely
mauled by the greatly superior British force (which numbers over 30,000 against less than
20,000 for the Americans) at the Battle of Norristown, Pennsylvania on October 12.
More by luck than anything else, Ward manages to get away with the bulk of his mangled
army and retreat toward York, Pennsylvania, arriving there before the end of October.
The British, with winter rapidly approaching, decide the campaigning season is over and
go into winter quarters in various hamlets surrounding Philadelphia. The American
rebels, Lord Howe reasons, are beaten. He can mop up the remains...later.

In early November, the Continental Congress removes Artemas Ward as
commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, replacing him with the hero of the
Canadian campaign...Benedict Arnold. Arnold is, however, still in Canada, and it will be
a while before he can get to Pennsylvania to assume command. In the interim, command
of the Continental Army is given to an officer who had been one of few bright spots in
the army’s recent debacle outside Philadelphia...Brigadier General Nathaniel Greene.
Greene is promoted to Major General. He will spend the next month reorganizing and
refitting his shattered army outside York.

In December, Benjamin Franklin is appointed as America’s ambassador to the court of
King Louis XVI of France. On December 25, newly promoted Major General Nathaniel
Greene leads the Continental Army...now consisting of less than 5,000 men, the rest
having deserted in the interim following the defeat at Norristown...on a daring raid
against the winter camp of a brigade of Hessian mercenaries who are encamped near
Chester, Pennsylvania. The Hessians are completely surprised, and after a brisk fight,
surrender to the Americans. General Howe sends out a force in pursuit of the Americans.
However, Greene mauls their advance guard near Lancaster, Pennsylvania on December
31, and the British retreat back to their camps near Philadelphia.

--1777: On January 2, Major General Greene returns triumphantly to York with this
prisoners and captured stores. On January 5, Major General Benedict Arnold arrives in
Philadelphia, where he accepts his promotion to Lieutenant General and assumes
command of the Continental Army. Arnold inherits a very desperate situation. Despite
the morale boost given by the recent victories under Greene, which has finally slowed the
rate of desertion in the army, the army is still melting away as cold, hunger, and sickness
kill off the remaining loyal troops in their miserable camps outside York. The only hope
the army has is that some of it will be left when the Spring thaws come.

March 1777: With the approach of Spring, Patriot recruits begin trickling into the
Continental Army’s encampments outside York. The British, too, begin making ready
for the new campaigning season. Parliament was shocked by the loss of Canada and the
surrender of Burgoyne’s army the previous year, and has made the recapture of Canada a
major priority. General Sir Henry Clinton has been given command of an army of
10,000 men...mostly German mercenaries...which is being readied in English ports for a
new attack on the province. This will deprive Sir William Howe of much needed
reinforcements for his campaign in Pennsylvania.

In May 1777, the Cherokee sue for peace with the Patriots. A treaty is signed in which
the Cherokee give up all of their lands east of the Apalachian Mountains. The British
Army of General Sir Henry Clinton arrives outside Quebec. The local American
commander, Major General David Wooster, despite being greatly outnumbered, once
again puts up a stout defense, and a major British assault on Quebec’s fortifications is
beaten back with heavy losses. Clinton orders siege operations to begin. Meanwhile in
Pennsylvania, General Howe, who has learned that he will not be getting the
reinforcements he feels he needs for the upcoming campaign, decides to proceed anyway.
However, he does so in a half-hearted fashion, and this gives the American
commander-in-chief, Benedict Arnold, time to prepare to meet him. Arnold, by this
time, has an army of 12,000 men ready to meet the British attack. He orders all bridges
across the Susquehanna River burned, with the exception of one which is located in
highly favorable defensive terrain between the towns of Lancaster and York, and has his
men build strong earthwork fortifications defending the approaches to this bridge. If
Howe attacks, Arnold will have all the advantage.

June 1777: In Canada, the siege of Quebec continues. Meanwhile, on June 5, General Sir
William Howe’s British Army, almost 20,000 strong (Howe’s original 30,000 man force
has been not only whittled down by losses in battle, but also by disease, and the need to
leave garrisons at New York, Philadelphia, and throughout New Jersey), approaches the
fortifications held by the Continental Army west of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Surveying
the strong defensive positions, Howe might have been given pause, but, remembering the
poor performance of the American army at Norristown the previous year, he holds the
fighting qualities of these “colonial rabble,” as he calls them, in contempt, and he orders
an assault for the next day. On the morning of June 6, the British march out in perfect
formation, drums and fifes mockingly playing “Yankee Doodle,” and are met with
withering fire from the American fortifications. Thus begins the fight that will become
known as the Battle of Arnold’s Bridge. The British make no less than five assaults that
day, all of them beaten back with horrendous losses. When the smoke clears, almost
6,000 British and Hessian soldiers lie dead or wounded on the fields in front of the
American lines, while less than 1,000 Americans have been killed or wounded in the
fight. Lord Howe orders a retreat back toward Philadelphia for the next morning.
Benedict Arnold, however, has his own plans, and orders a night assault on the British
camp. While the American assault is disorganized, as any night assault by inexperienced
troops must be, the very fact that they would try such a thing, combined with the shock of
the huge losses suffered earlier that day, causes panic to break out in the British ranks.
Thousands of seasoned redcoats and professional German mercenaries, many men casting
away their muskets to lighten their load, are soon fleeing, as fast as their legs can carry
them, east toward Philadelphia and safety. It is, quite possibly, the worst military defeat
in British history. Arnold orders pursuit, but his jubilant but hungry and ragged troops
stop to pillage the British camp, and Arnold cannot restore order in his own ranks until
mid-morning the next day. By this time, his scouts report that Lord Howe has restored
order to his own army, which is now retreating in good order toward Philadelphia.
Arnold orders his army to follow. Another battle is fought near Chester, Pennsylvania on
June 12, when Arnold’s advance guard catches up with Howe’s rear guard, but the
Americans are repulsed, and Howe makes it back to Philadelphia with the bulk of his
army still intact. Arnold retires to Lancaster, where he gives his army a desperately
needed reorganization and gathers more recruits. The two armies sit out the rest of the
month in relative inactivity.

July 1777: In Canada, the siege of Quebec continues. Meanwhile, in Pennsylvania,
Benedict Arnold’s army has received a flood of recruits since news of the victory at
Arnold’s Bridge got out. By mid July, he is in command of a force almost 30,000 strong,
and growing daily. Most of these are inexperienced militia, of course, but when Lord
Howe learns, via his spies, that Arnold is possessed of such a force, he makes the
decision to abandon Philadelphia. The British Army crosses the Delaware River into
New Jersey on July 28.

In August 1777, British and Loyalist agents stir up an uprising among the Iroquois which
causes much damage in upstate New York. It also prevents a Patriot relief column,
which had been gathering at Fort Ticonderoga, from moving north into Canada to the
relief of Major General Wooster’s besieged force at Quebec. As a result, Wooster is
forced to surrender Quebec later that month. However, the Americans still control
Montreal. On August 3, Benedict Arnold rides, at the head of the Continental Army, into
Philadelphia. The Continental Congress returns to Philadelphia to York on August 20.
By that time Lord Howe, having abandoned New Jersey except for a few outposts
guarding the approaches to New York, has returned to his base at New York City, where
he sends a message to London desperately requesting reinforcement.

In September 1777, General Sir Henry Clinton advances south from Quebec toward
Montreal with 6,000 men (leaving a garrison of 2,000 at Quebec...the remainder of his
original 10,000 men force were lost during the siege of Quebec). The American
commander at Montreal, Philip Schuyler, finding himself heavily outnumbered, abandons
the city and retreats to Fort Ticonderoga. Clinton goes into winter quarters at Montreal
and Quebec by the end of September, ending this year’s fighting in the far north. The
American occupation of Canada is at an end. Meanwhile, General Benedict Arnold leads
his army into New Jersey. He approaches New York, but decides an assault on the
British defenses would be impractical. Instead, he contents himself with attacking the
British outposts in New Jersey, which he captures before the end of September. All of
New Jersey is back in American hands.

In October 1777, the Continental Army, which is not strong enough to attack the British
base at New York, goes into winter quarters at Morristown, New Jersey. The British
Army at New York, not capable of attacking the Americans, does the same. In upper
New York, the combined American forces at Fort Ticonderoga (Schuyler’s force from
Montreal and the remains of the Quebec relief column) go out on a devastating raid
against the villages of the Iroquois. Under the command of Schuyler, the Americans
burn every village, destroy all stored crops and livestock, and kill every warrior they can
find. By the time this raid ends in early December, the power of the Iroquois is forever
broken, and the pitiful remnants are fleeing to the safety of British Canada.

In November 1777, King Louis XVI of France signs a treaty of alliance with the United
States of America. French arms, uniforms, gunpowder, and other supplies are soon
pouring into the colonies, and a French expeditionary force is being readied. General Sir
Henry Clinton is named British Governor of Canada. Also in this month, the Continental
Congress passes the Articles of Confederation, and submits it to the States for ratification.

--1778: In early January, General Howe is removed as commander of the British forces at
New York, and replaced by General Charles Cornwallis. Cornwallis is an aggressive
commander, and his promotion will mark a change in British strategy. Arriving with the
orders promoting him to command at New York are reinforcements of 15,000 men,
giving him an effective force of almost 30,000. Cornwallis plans to take the bulk of this
army to attack and secure the Southern colonies, which are seen as an easy target due to
their smaller populations and perceived loyalist leanings. He also asks Governor Clinton
of Canada to support his operations by recapturing Fort Ticonderoga and threatening
upstate New York. Clinton agrees. Meanwhile, at Morristown, the coming of winter has
seen the militia go home, and the American Continental army dwindles to less than
10,000 men.

On February 23, Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben arrives at the American winter
encampment at Morristown, New Jersey. Von Steuben is an experienced Prussian
military officer, and has been recruited by Benjamin Franklin to provide professional
training to the Continental Army...something which, up to now, it has lacked. As the
Prussian Army is widely regarded as the best in the world, his services are gratefully
accepted by General Arnold, and over the next several months, under Von Steuben’s
tutelage, the Continental Army is transformed into a professional, disciplined fighting
force.

In March, Lord Cornwallis takes ship with 20,000 men and sails for Savannah, Georgia.
The British fleet arrives there on March 20, and the British army disembarks. The city
surrenders with little resistance. Lord Cornwallis orders his army to march overland to
Charleston, South Carolina, which he plans to invest by land while the fleet bombards it
by sea.

With the arrival of spring, recruits begin to fill up the ranks of the Continental Army at
Morristown. By the end of April, General Arnold has almost 15,000 men. However, they
still have to be trained and equipped, so Arnold is in no position to immediately
commence operations. On April 5, the British army arrives outside Charleston, South
Carolina, the fleet having arrived off the harbor on April 1. The town is placed under
siege. Also in April, Governor Henry Clinton leads a force of 4,000 men south from
Montreal. The force lays siege to Fort Ticonderoga, which falls by the end of the month.
The local American commander in the region, Philip Schuyler, sends messages to General
Arnold desperately pleading for units of the Continental Army to be sent north to face
Clinton, but Arnold recognizes Clinton’s move for the diversion it is, and sends only a
token force, instructing Schuyler to raise as much militia as he can and to harass Clinton’s
force in the forests if the British advance south from Ticonderoga.

On May 15, General Benjamin Lincoln, commander of the American forces at
Charleston, South Carolina, surrenders the town to the British. Meanwhile, the French
are making themselves felt, indirectly...French naval and army forces have been attacking
British possessions in the West Indies and India, causing much concern among the British
leadership in London. Therefore, to General Cornwallis’s consternation, shortly after the
surrender of Charleston he receives orders from London to detach a force of 7,000 men,
which will go, along with most of the British naval vessels supporting Cornwallis’s
campaign, to the West Indies. Combined with losses suffered in the recent campaign
from both disease and battle, Cornwallis is left with less than 10,000 men. By the end of
May, however, Arnold’s force in New Jersey has increased to over 20,000 trained men.
The balance of power is beginning to shift in favor of the Americans.

In June, British General Cornwallis, leaving a small garrison at Charleston, moves inland
with the aim of taking South and North Carolina completely out of the war. He advances
rapidly, finding almost no opposition (the main American Army in the south having been
surrendered at Charleston) except for that of various guerilla bands, and by the end of the
month has occupied most of the South Carolina back-country. Meanwhile, American
General Benedict Arnold decides on a bold plan. Leaving a token force to keep watch on
the 8,000 British soldiers at New York, Arnold leads the main Continental Army south to
confront Cornwallis.

In July, Cornwallis leads his army...now further reduced by casualties and the need to
leave garrisons in the South Carolina back-country...into North Carolina. It is there that
he collides with Benedict Arnold and the main Continental Army. In a battle fought on
July 17, 1778 just south of Raleigh, North Carolina, Cornwallis’s heavily outnumbered
force is severely mauled and forced to retreat. Benedict Arnold pursues his beaten
enemy, and on July 29 catches Cornwallis again as his army is waiting to cross the
rain-swollen Broad River at Cherokee Ford, near a place called The Cowpens (because
cattle are corraled here during annual round-ups by local farmers). Cornwallis is forced
into fighting with his back to the Broad River, and his army puts up a stout fight, causing
many American casualties. But Arnold’s larger army pulls off a double envelopment of
Cornwallis’s force, which is virtually destroyed. Only a few British and Hessian troops
who have the presence of mind to take off their heavy coats, throw away their muskets
and other equipment, and swim across the river, escape. Among the dead is a dashing
British dragoon officer named Banastre Tarleton, and General Cornwallis himself is
captured. Also in this month, Colonel George Rogers Clark leads an expedition from
Virginia into the Illinois Country (the region north of the Ohio River and south of the
Great Lakes, which is claimed by Virginia but had been assigned to Canada in one of the
Acts of Parliament which sparked the Revolution). He captures the town of Kaskaskia on
July 4, and the important post at Vincennes shortly afterward. Also in this month, Spain
declares war on Britain and signs an alliance with the United States.

In August, General Arnold detaches a force of 5,000 men from the main Continental
Army and places it under the command of General Nathaniel Greene, and then takes the
bulk of the Continental Army back to New Jersey. Greene is charged with retaking the
South Carolina back-country, as well as the cities of Charleston and Savannah, and
restoring the South to Patriot control. Greene’s operations will consume the next year, as
Savannah and Charleston are placed under siege and several British forts in the
back-country are reduced. But by late 1779, the South is back under complete Patriot
control.

In September, after learning of the disaster of the Battle of Cherokee Ford, the British
government calls in Apichu Cusi, the Tawantinsuya ambassador, in an attempt to use the
traditional Tawantinsuya animosity toward Spain to persuade that power to enter the war
on their side. From the British standpoint, this makes a great deal of sense, because if the
Tawantinsuya can take over most of the burden of defending the Caribbean, Britain can
redeploy most of it’s troops and ships back to the North American colonies to restore the
situation there. But, unbeknownst to the British, the efforts of Spanish King Charles III
have borne fruit, and relations between Spain and the Tawantinsuya have grown
decidedly less unfriendly over the past decade. So, to the dismay of the British
government, Apichu Cusi reiterates his government’s determination to remain neutral in
the conflict, and the British are left to their own devices. Also in September, British
forces lead by Henry Hamilton recapture Vincennes while George Rogers Clark is back in
Virginia.

In October, George Rogers Clark learns of the fall of Vincennes, and begins gathering
troops and supplies for a new expedition to recover the Ohio Country. Due to a variety of
factors, this will not be ready for some time, however. Henry Clinton, learning of
Cornwallis’s defeat at Cherokee Ford, withdraws with most of his force from Fort
Ticonderoga and returns to Montreal, leaving only a token garrison at the Fort. Philip
Schuyler, reinforced by additional Continental units sent by General Arnold, soon lays
siege to the fort. General Arnold and the Continental Army go into winter quarters at
Morristown, New Jersey.

In November, Fort Ticonderoga surrenders to American forces under Philip Schuyler.
For all intents and purposes, the war in the north is over. The British, fully consumed
with fighting French and Spanish forces in the Caribbean and India, are not able to
significantly reinforce the garrisons in New York and Canada, and these garrisons are not
strong enough to do more than hold onto the territory they now hold. The Americans,
who, without naval support, lack the capability to cut off New York from supply, cannot
take that city, and cannot launch an attack into Canada without possibly allowing the
British in New York the ability to break out toward Philadelphia once more. So an uneasy
stalemate results.

And so the war in North America gradually winds down. In the aftermath of the disaster
at Cherokee Ford, the government of Lord North lost a lack of confidence vote in the
British Parliament, and North was succeeded by Charles Watson-Wentworth, Marquess
of Rockingham. Rockingham was an opponent of the war in America, and immediately
opened negotiations with the Americans aimed at ending the war. The main sticking
point is the status of the Ohio country and Michigan. But with the recapture of the Ohio
country by George Rogers Clark in early 1779, the British negotiating position becomes
much less tenable. The entry of the Netherlands into the war in mid-1779 made the
British even more desperate to disengage from America, and a peace agreement is finally
signed in January 1780. The independence of the United States is recognized, and all
territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes is ceded to Americans,
except for Florida. The American Revolution is over.

A.D. 1777--Christianity introduced in Korea.

A.D. 1778-1779-War of Bavarian Succession.

A.D. 1778--Sinchi Roca Inca II dies, and is succeeded by his son, who reigns as Auqui
Amaru Inca.

A.D. 1779--Samuel Crompton invents the spinning mule.

A.D. 1779-1781--The Quilombo Conquest of the Guianas. The declarations of war on
Britain by France, Spain, and the Netherlands have been watched with great interest by
the government of the Quilombo. French and Dutch slaveholding colonies lie on the
northern frontier of the Quilombo, and the people of the Quilombo have warm feelings
toward the British, who are the only major European power to have abolished slavery in
their colonies, and also, since the foundation of the South Sea Company, have been the
only European country to do any major trading with the Quilombo. Accordingly, in late
1779, the government of the Quilombo...against the advice of the Tawantinsuya...declare
war on France and the Netherlands. Quilombo armies invade the French and Dutch
Guianas, where they meet unexpectedly stiff resistance...the white population of these
colonies remembers, all too well, the massacres in Brazil which are, even now, less than a
century old. But neither France or the Netherlands, both of whom are now involved in a
struggle with Britain, have resources to spare for the defense of what are considered
relatively valueless colonies. Despite their best efforts, the French and Dutch colonists
are gradually defeated over the course of the next year and a half. By March 1781, both
colonies are under full Quilombo control. In the aftermath, many Europeans are
massacred, despite protests by the Tawantinsuya and Britain...the Quilombo has little
sympathy for slave owners, and cares little for it’s international reputation. Those lucky
enough to escape board ship and return to France and the Netherlands.

A.D. 1780-1783--The American Civil War. In the aftermath of the victorious conclusion
of it’s war of Independence, the newly independent “United States of America” is in
serious trouble. The Articles of Confederation...which cannot go into force until ratified
by all 13 States...have still not been ratified. And since the war has now ended...and with
it, the immediate threat which bound the colonies together...it looks like the Articles may
never be ratified. The Continental Congress lacks even the limited authority which the
Articles would have given it, and there is a major problem...the Continental Army. None
of the army has been paid in over a year, and some soldiers have not received pay in as
many as six years, but soldiers have been kept fighting by patriotism...and by promises of
backpay and pensions to be paid after the war. But the Continental Congress has no
authority to levy taxes, and the States are balking on their earlier agreements to fund the
promises of the Congress to Continental troops. Dark threats of mutiny have rumbled
among the army since major fighting ended over a year ago, and these have spread from
the rank and file to the officer corps itself. And, unlike in OTL, these have found a
receptive ear in the Commander-in-Chief, Benedict Arnold. Arnold has his own reasons
to despise the Continental Congress. He has been dogged for years by unproven
accusations of imbezzlement of funds used for his early campaigns in Canada, and has
had an ogoing dispute with Congress over reimbursement of his wartime expenses. He
also feels that his contributions to the achievement of American independence are not
appreciated (he petitioned Congress for promotion from Lt. General to full General
following the decisive victory at Cherokee Ford, and was rebuffed). And so, when he is
approached by a group of officers who urge him to “step forward as the savior of a
disorganized civil society and accept the crown from the hand of his faithful soldiers,”
Arnold accepts. He leads the Continental Army to Philadephia, arrests those members of
the Continental Congress who have not alread fled the city, and in a ceremony held on
June 1, 1780, is crowned as Benedict, King of the Americans.

But Arnold’s action does not go unchallenged. Most of Congress fled at the approach of
the army to Philadelphia, and headed south, where the army of Nathaniel Greene was
encamped near Charleston, South Carolina. Greene agrees that Arnold’s action is
“beyond the pale,” and agrees to “fight for American liberty” against “the usurper.”
Furthermore, most of the individual State governments denounce Arnold’s action, and
many of Arnold’s own troops are shocked by Arnold’s action and desert. But several
States pledge loyalty to the new King Benedict, and enough of his troops remain with him
that he still has a powerful military force. The result is three years of civil war.

In the end, Arnold is defeated, captured, and hanged. But the Civil War, as it comes to be
called, has some important effects. The party within the Continental Congress which
wishes for a more centralized government is given a major boost...after all, they argue, if
the Congress had been allowed to levy taxes and, in general, act like a central government
in the first place, Arnold’s rebellion might never have occurred. In late 1783, the
Continental Congress removes the Articles of Confederation from consideration by the
States, and instead, submits a much stronger document for ratification. Only a majority
of the States are required to ratify this document in order for it to become law. The
Constitution, as it is called, provides for a strong central government...much stronger than
the OTL document of the same name. The independence, rights, and powers of the States
are severely curtailed, and the powers of the federal government are increased greatly.
With the State Legislatures frightened by the spectre of more rebellions like Arnold’s, the
document is ratified by the required number of States by the end of the next year.

A.D. 1780--Gordon Riots in London. Benjamin Franklin invents bi-focal eyeglasses.

A.D. 1781--William Herschel discovers the Planet Uranus. Spain...whose military forces
are, despite the faults of King Charles III’s administration, much better than in OTL at
this period...captures Gibraltar.

A.D. 1782--Treaty of Salbai ends the war between the Marathas and the British and
Tawantinsuya East India Company in India. Treaty of Versailles ends fighting between
the French, Spanish, Dutch, and British. Freed of the need to maintain forces in America,
the British have more than held their own against the powers allied against it, and the
treaty generally makes few territorial revisions. Spain does somewhat better than in OTL,
and gains the most of all the warring powers...it regains Florida, as well as the island of
Minorca, and perhaps most significantly, it keeps Gibraltar.

A.D. 1783--A new India Act is passed by the British Parliament. This act gives even
greater control over the holdings of the British and Tawantinsuya East India Company in
India to the British government. Once again, the Tawantinsuya are not consulted, and
this will be the final straw which fnally breaks the long-standing British and
Tawantinsuya alliance in India. Also in this year, Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier
demonstrate the first successful hot-air balloon flight. Louis Sebastien demonstrates the
first parachute. Henry Cort of England invents the steel roller for steel production.

A.D. 1784--Enraged by the British India Act of 1783, Auqui Amaru Inca declares the
dissolution of the British and Tawantinsuya East India Company. Having just ended a
very costly and expensive conflict, Britain is anxious to avoid war, and negotiations
between Britain and Tawantinsuyu soon result in the division of India into separate
spheres of influence. The British retain control of Bengal and Bombay, and an exclusive
sphere of influence which includes all of northern India north of the Narmada and
Mahanadi Rivers. The Tawantinsuya receive Madras and an exclusive sphere of
influence over the region south of the Krishna River. The region between these two
lines...exclusive of Bombay...will be considered a region of overlapping spheres of
influence, and not assigned to either power. Also in this year, Andrew Meikle patents the
first threshing machine, and the new U.S. Constitution is ratified and becomes law.

A.D. 1785--"Daily Universal Register" (Times of London) publishes 1st issue. Edmund
Cartwright invents the power loom. The first Presidential Election under the new U.S.
Constitution is held. Nathaniel Greene is elected as the first President of the United
States, with Alexander Hamilton as his Vice President. Greene and Hamilton will
establish the early origins of the Federal Bureaucracy, the governmental organizations
which will proliferate to regulate nearly every aspect of American life over the next few
decades.

A.D. 1786--Mozart's opera "The Marriage of Figaro" premiered in Vienna. Prussian King
Friedrich II (The Great) dies. John Fitch invents a steamboat.

A.D. 1787--Assembly of Notables dismissed. Britain acquires Sierra Leone. The
planetary satellites of Uranus, Oberon and Titan, were discovered by Herschel.

A.D. 1788--London's Daily Universal Register becomes the Times. First convicts
transported from Britain to Botany Bay, Australia. The Tawantinsuya, who also have a
claim to Australia, protest. In order to solidify Tawantinsuya claims to these lands,
Auqui Amaru Inca orders the preparation of colonization expeditions to both Australia
and New Zealand.

A.D. 1789--The French Revolution begins. The Third Estate in France declared itself a
national assembly, and undertook to frame a constitution. “The Declaration of the Rights
of Man” is approved by the French National Assembly. The planetary satellites of Saturn,
Enceladus and Mimas were discovered by Herschel. Also in this year, Tawantinsuya
colonization expeditions arrive in Australia and New Zealand. The Australian expedition
lands at the mouth of what in OTL would be known as the Brisbane River. A settlement,
guarded by a fort, is constructed. This settlement will be named New Cuzco. The New
Zealand expedition lands on the north island of the archipelago, and a settlement is
constructed there as well. Additional yearly expeditions will reinforce and expand both
colonies.

A.D. 1791--Following a dinner celebrating the second anniversary of the Fall of the
Bastille, an angry mob riots in Birmingham, England. The main target of their wrath is
the home, church, and laboratory of English chemist and theologian Joseph Priestly, who
openly supported the American and French revolutions. Priestly and his family narrowly
escape with their lives. John Barber invents the gas turbine. Early bicycles are invented
in Scotland. Nathaniel Greene and Alexander Hamilton are elected to a second term as
President and Vice President of the United States.

A.D. 1792--The “Old Farmer’s Almanac” is published for the first time. Paul Revere
opens a foundry to cast cannon and bells. The New York Stock Exchange was founded by
brokers meeting under a tree located on what is now Wall Street. William Murdock
invents gas lighting.

A.D. 1793--The Second Partition of Poland. Reign of Terror begins in France. First
Republican constitution in France adopted.

A.D. 1794--Antoine Lavoisier, the father of modern chemistry, is executed on the
guillotine during France's Reign of Terror. Maximilien Robespierre guillotined in Paris
without a trial. With his death, the Reign of Terror gradually peters out. Eli Whitney
patents the cotton gin.

A.D. 1795--Directory rules France (to 1799). Louis XVII, the Dauphin of France
allegedly dies at the age of 10, of tuberculosis. The Third Partition of Poland. Poland
ceases to exist as an independent nation. Francois Appert invents the preserving jar for
food, the forerunner of modern canned food. Death of Auqui Amaru Inca. He is
succeeded by his brother, who reigns as Ninan Cuyuchi Inca.

A.D. 1796--British conquer Ceylon from Dutch. English physician Edward Jenner
administered the first vaccination against smallpox to an 8-year-old boy.

A.D. 1797--Treaty of Campo Formio signed by France and Austria after Napoleon's first
campaign in Italy. Nathaniel Greene and Alexander Hamilton are re-elected for a third
term as President and Vice President of the United States. Passage of the Sedition
Acts...laws intended to quell dissent against the increasing power of the central
government in America...by the U.S. Congress. Among those arrested and jailed is the
old revolutionary firebrand, Samuel Adams, who has been very vocal in denouncing the
surrender of the “rights and liberties” of the “States and the People” to the central
government. Adams dies in suspicious circumstances while in custody later that same
year. Also arrested is General Henry “Light Horse Harry” Lee of Virginia, who also has
been vocal against the growing power of the government. Lee is tried for sedition and
sentenced to 10 years at hard labor. He will die of overwork and abuse three years later.

A.D. 1798--The Pope was dethroned from political power. Napoleon Bonaparte lands in
Egypt, defeats the Mamelukes at the Battle of the Pyramids. The French fleet supporting
Napoleon’s army, however, is destroyed the British fleet at the Battle of the Nile, leaving
Napoleon virtually cut off from supply and reinforcement from France.

A.D. 1799--Napoleon Bonaparte invades Syria Five nations unite against France.
Napoleon returns to France from the middle east, leads a coup against the Directory.
Consulate rules France (to 1804), with Napoleon as First Consul. Alessandro Volta
invents the electric battery.

Maps will follow shortly.
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  #109  
Old November 12th, 2005, 06:11 AM
Tetsu Tetsu is offline
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Very cool.
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  #110  
Old November 12th, 2005, 03:31 PM
MerryPrankster MerryPrankster is online now
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Cool update.

It looks like the United States is sliding towards dictatorship. Already we have the Sedition Act, heroes of the American Revolution being murdered by the State, and a bureaucracy which will regulate every aspect of people's lives (considering how slow communication was back then, that might be tricky to pull off).

When will there be a Second Revolution?
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  #111  
Old November 12th, 2005, 03:35 PM
Wendell Wendell is offline
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This is interesting...
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  #112  
Old November 12th, 2005, 06:11 PM
G.Bone G.Bone is online now
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Glad to see this TL still running.

How's China doing?
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  #113  
Old November 12th, 2005, 09:07 PM
Unknown Unknown is offline
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If the Napoleonic War occurs, it looks like Britain may have a harder time of it than OTL.

A couple of questions, Robert:

1. What is the population of the empire?

2. Will there be a Napoleonic Wars (at least, one similar to OTL)?

3. How much does the empire control? I see a war with the Quilmbo in the empire's future.

Keep it up, Robert!!!!
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  #114  
Old November 13th, 2005, 03:34 AM
robertp6165 robertp6165 is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by MerryPrankster
Cool update.

It looks like the United States is sliding towards dictatorship. Already we have the Sedition Act, heroes of the American Revolution being murdered by the State, and a bureaucracy which will regulate every aspect of people's lives (considering how slow communication was back then, that might be tricky to pull off).
I think that a United States without the benefit of people like George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, could have been a much, much darker place. Especially if there had been an army revolt in the immediate aftermath of the Revolution (as almost happened in OTL, but it was defused by Washington).

Quote:
Originally Posted by MerryPrankster
When will there be a Second Revolution?
I don't know if there will be another "Revolution," but there may very well be another civil war sometime in the next century. As you point out, the slowness of communication and other technological barriers will likely prevent the bureaucratic dictatorship from being as efficient as it might be, thereby allowing underground dissent to survive and eventually rise up.
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  #115  
Old November 13th, 2005, 03:36 AM
robertp6165 robertp6165 is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by G.Bone
Glad to see this TL still running.

How's China doing?
About the same as OTL. The main difference is that there has been some trade with the Tawantinsuya as well as with the British, since the Tawantinsuya were partners in the East India Company.
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  #116  
Old November 13th, 2005, 04:13 AM
robertp6165 robertp6165 is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Unknown
If the Napoleonic War occurs, it looks like Britain may have a harder time of it than OTL.
That is quite possible, especially if the Tawantinsuya decide to come in on Napoleon's side for some reason. Although they would probably view Napoleon with some distaste, being the end product of a regime which overthrew and then executed their rightful king. The Tawantinsuya are still quite conservative when it comes to ideas of government and kingship. But then, the British have really been pissing them off lately with their high-handedness in India, and then "claim-jumping" in Australia. Who knows how they might sway...

Quote:
Originally Posted by Unknown
A couple of questions, Robert:

1. What is the population of the empire?
Hmmm, that's a good question. In part one, I stated that as a result of the Spanish-introduced epidemics it had fallen to 3 million in 1561, but had rebounded to somewhere around 5 million by 1600. There have continued to be epidemics, although not as severe as in the early years, and much less since innoculation against smallpox was introduced in the early 1700s.

Looking at Britain as an example, it had about 4 million people in 1600. This had increased to 5 million by 1700, and by 1800 had nearly doubled (figures I have seen disagree whether it was closer to 8 million or 10 million).

We can assume that a roughly similar pattern played out in
Tawantinsuyu, although due to the epidemics, growth in Tawantinsuyu has been somewhat slower. I would therefore surmise that as of 1800, Tawantinsuyu has a population of somewhere in the neighborhood of 8-9 million people.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Unknown
2. Will there be a Napoleonic Wars (at least, one similar to OTL)?
There will definitely be a Napoleonic Wars, but as to whether they will be similar to OTL, I don't know yet. A lot will depend, of course, on what the Tawantinsuya do...join one side or the other, or stay neutral.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Unknown
3. How much does the empire control? I see a war with the Quilmbo in the empire's future.
The empire's boundaries, with the exception of the addition of the islands of Trinidad and Margarita in the Caribbean, and the new colonies in Australia and New Zealand, have not changed since 1700, so see the last map of South America I did. Basically it rules all of Peru, Venezuela, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, and parts of Brazil. The Quilombo rules most of Brazil, and now the Guianas as well.

I don't see a war with the Quilombo coming in the near-term future, at least. The Quilombo recognizes that the Tawantinsuya are the big dogs in this situation, and they are still very much a protectorate of the Tawantinsuya. Their population is still quite small, and militarily they are quite weak compared to any of the major powers. The only reason they were able to take the Guianas is that France and Holland were both too pre-occupied with fighting Britain to prevent it. And once it was done, the outstanding warning from the Tawantinsuya against European intervention in South America kept them from attempting to retake them after the war with Britain ended.
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  #117  
Old November 13th, 2005, 02:19 PM
robertp6165 robertp6165 is offline
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The U.S. Constitution in the ATL

I thought it might be good to lay out some of the key points of the U.S. Constitution as it came out in the ATL.

1) There is a unicameral Congress. Seats in the Congress are apportioned by population. Representatives serve for 4-year terms, and there is no limit to the number of terms they can serve. Representatives are elected by a dual system...half of each state's representatives are directly elected by the people, and half are selected by the state legislature.

2) The President and Vice President are not elected by the people. Instead, they are elected by Congress. They serve for a six-year term, and there is no limit on the number of terms they can serve.

3) The United States has a permanent standing army. The President is the Commander-in-Chief of said army. States are not allowed to maintain their own militias.

4) There is a bill of rights in the Constitution, but the OTL 9th and 10th Amendments are missing. Sovereignty of the national government over that of the States in all matters is supreme. Only the very limited powers specifically given to the States by the Constitution remain...there are no "reserved" or "unenumerated" powers. Everything else is the prerogative of the national government.
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  #118  
Old November 16th, 2005, 10:34 PM
Tom_B Tom_B is offline
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I don't know how I missed this one. What an accomplishment is this one. A complete alternate ARW which at least one first reading strikes me as very plausible. Poor KIng Benedict. I would imagine there would be a cottage industry of revisionist historians telling us how misunderstood he is. And a perennial favorite on AH.COM would be WI King Benedict prevailed.

Good that you see through Hamilton's disingenuousness in the Federalist Papers. The man actually favored a very strong central government BUT the OTL Constitution was merely all he could see realistically getting.

Ah yes Bork's wet dream, no pesky 9th Amendment. Did the Constitution take effect in the states that did not ratify? Are there holdouts? Is the 1st and 2nd Amendments the same as OTL.

If the President and VP are elected by Congress are they subject to votes of no confidence?

Surprised Burke's name didn't pop up once.

How is the Vatican responding to Spain's realpolitik with the Incans? Is there any religious shift in either Tawantinsuya or Quilombo?

Maybe more ideas will come to me later.

Once again my thanks for such an excellent product.

Tom
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  #119  
Old November 17th, 2005, 02:50 AM
robertp6165 robertp6165 is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Tom_B
I don't know how I missed this one. What an accomplishment is this one. A complete alternate ARW which at least one first reading strikes me as very plausible.
Thank you. I was rather pleased with how the alternate ARW came out myself.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Tom_B
Poor KIng Benedict. I would imagine there would be a cottage industry of revisionist historians telling us how misunderstood he is. And a perennial favorite on AH.COM would be WI King Benedict prevailed.
LOL You are no doubt right.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Tom_B
Good that you see through Hamilton's disingenuousness in the Federalist Papers. The man actually favored a very strong central government BUT the OTL Constitution was merely all he could see realistically getting.
Agreed.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Tom_B
Ah yes Bork's wet dream, no pesky 9th Amendment. Did the Constitution take effect in the states that did not ratify? Are there holdouts? Is the 1st and 2nd Amendments the same as OTL.
The Constitution did take effect in the States which did not ratify. Several States which had been loyal to King Benedict had been defeated and subjugated in the recent civil war. And in the aftermath of the civil war, Congress did not immediately disband Greene's army. The obvious threat that army posed prevented any holdouts from attempting to secede or refuse to recognize the Constitution as binding.

As for the 1st and 2nd Amendments, I have not decided yet. My feeling is that the 2nd Amendment probably, like the 9th and 10th Amendments, did not make it into the final document...since the States are not allowed to maintain militias, the central government has no reason to guarantee ordinary citizens the right to keep and bear arms. The first amendment probably did make it into the document, but in a watered down version...perhaps guaranteeing freedom of religion, but not absolutely guaranteeing the rights of free speech and assembly. I might sit down this weekend and write up a ATL version of the Bill of Rights as it transpired in this timeline.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Tom_B
If the President and VP are elected by Congress are they subject to votes of no confidence?
No, but there is a provision for impeachment.


Quote:
Originally Posted by Tom_B
How is the Vatican responding to Spain's realpolitik with the Incans?
I don't imagine the Vatican is too happy. But King Charles III of Spain was kind of anti-church/anti-papacy in OTL, so it is unlikely that he cares too much what the Pope thinks about it.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Tom_B
Is there any religious shift in either Tawantinsuya or Quilombo?
Religious shift in what way?

Quote:
Originally Posted by Tom_B
Maybe more ideas will come to me later.

Once again my thanks for such an excellent product.

Tom
Again, thank you for your kind words.
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  #120  
Old November 17th, 2005, 03:08 AM
Tom_B Tom_B is offline
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Religious Shift

It would seem the South American societies are being exposed to modern influences. Is this undermining their faith? Is literacy rapidly rising? Might their be a push by the priest for their own set of Scriptures? Likewise I would see some really weird Europeans falling in love with them. Imagine something like the Theosophical Society arising early but with a firm belief that the Hidden Masters are in the Andes not the Himalayas.

Or maybe both--because the Incan involvement in East India Company would lead to exposure to Indian ideas and I would see the merchants bringing a little bit home. The results would slowly accumulate.

Tom
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