FIRST DRAW: Benjamin Franklin as the 1st US President
September 15, 1784
“This is madness!”
Jared Ingersoll yelled at the people who were sitting in the conference room. His blood veins in pumped from the forehead and the skin was red of anger. “ The guns and cannons have finally been silenced in our new country days ago, and now this assembly wont even allow the widows and orphans to mourn the dead?”
“Honored Ingersoll, this country is by now nothing more than a loose a federation of settlements, we need to create the foundation of this democracy. Cornwallis and the british are defeated, but the blood of those who died for our freedom must not be in vain. We need to create the constitution of this god-blessed country, and we need to show our enemies that we will not make the same mistakes.” The word came from the earlier governor of Massachusetts, John Hancock.
He was also the man responsible for the meeting right now. After the war against the British was finally over, he gathered delegates from all over the country. The objective was simple. They would create the country's constitution.
But for Hancock, it was personal. His daughter Lydia died only ten months old. The tragedy was complete when his son George died. He fell over a British bayonet when he was out in the woods. The knife went right through his heart. Hancock hated the British from that day.
The convention lasted several days, but soon the constitution of the United States started to shape. The minor details was easily agreed upon, but there was several difficult question the delegates had to agree upon. The most difficult one, was the power of the executive branch. After living under the power of an distant tyrant, they feared being ruled by an near living dictator.
The last day of the convention, the most important decision was made in the halls of the Pennsylvania State House. It was not made in the Independence Hall between the 45 delegates, but in the bar where five important people sat and enjoyed their whisky and cigars.
They were the leaders of the revolution, the Founding Fathers of the United States. In the chair in the middle, Alexander Hamilton sat. ” The most important questions remain gentlemen’s, who are going to be the President of this nation.” The question had been avoided in the assembly. They did not wanted to risk a heated debate between the delegates of the colonies. Rhode Island had already refused to send delegates.
“ There are two men that the people identify as the face of America, the one is George Washington, the second one is..Benjamin Franklin.” Samuel Adams had a stone face when the word came out his mouth.
“ I agree, there are different views on how this union should be, but we can not risk this debate on the birth of the nation. We need men that can unite the colonies and give them an American identity.” Jefferson had already served as the Governor of Virginia, and was known to have strong views on how the union should be. But he was also an educated and smart man, and realized that an up heated political strife between the ever-growing federalists and democrats would mean the end of the union.
John Jay, who was sitting near the fireplace, tried to end the discussion abruptly. “Then we must decide between Washington and Franklin.” The voice from the fifth man flew into the air as he walked out from the dark corner of the room. “May I come with a suggestion?”
“Of course Mr Washington” said Jefferson with a smile on his face.
October 15, 1784
He hated to sail over the Atlantic Ocean. The job of being ambassador to France was a job he did with honor. But the long distance home was really a pain. But as Benjamin Franklin putted his leg on American soil, he finally felt that he was home. The notice to get home was urgent and he had appointed his secretary to lead the embassy while he was away. He promised that he would soon return to Paris. But Franklin never put his foot on European soil again.
When he entered the State House the convention was gathered one last time to ratify the constitution, a moment of history Franklin would not miss. The surprise was big when a young man guided him into the office of the governor. There, 12 people were standing, all watching him.
Washington was the one to greet him, but he said only one sentence. “Mr Franklin, this country needs you.” The world stopped.
“ I can not be the President of this union, I am 78 years old. I have, with the lord blessings, ten years left at top.”
“ It is therefore we need you, this country does not need a politician right now, they need a visionary, a man who gives this land their rightful place in history. They need you to shape the things of the future.” The glow in Washington eyes was intense.
“And what about you?” Franklin asked. “What about me, I am a general, I can not be the President, not yet, I have like the rest of the people in the room ideas. But before ideas can grow, we need to stabilize the earth, to create nutrition for the fruit of ideas. You are the man to do it.”
“If I say yes, what will now happen?” Franklin asked, still not convinced.
“First we need to ratify the constitutions, then we must have the electoral vote. I don’t think that is going to be a problem. But we need you to make a decision Mr Franklin.
April 30, 1784
New York City. Federal Hall
The sun shinned over the city on this historical day. Two months earlier Franklin had received all 65 electoral votes of the states. He run unopposed and the real issue to be decided was who would be chosen as vice president. Washington got 45 ballots and became the country’s Vice President. Franklin sat in a wooden chair. According to the ratified constitution he had to publicly take the oath of office as the first President under the Constitution for the United States of America.
Fifteen minutes later, it was over. Benjamin Franklin was the First President of the United States of America.
End of Prologue
Many people will say that President Franklin was a mediocre leader, but what people must remember is that when he took the office; there were non-guidelines or rules at all. He had to create the identity of the presidency all alone. His constant rivalry with Washington also hindered the efficiency of his work.
As the celebration of independence was over, the union had to be created, rules had to made. Franklin loved the idea of a strong state, and hoped that someday USA would be an influential superpower. His most important decision was arguably the creation of the National Bank. Even though many of the federalists objected to this action. It made it possible to create a growing economy in the Union.
=== An brief introduction of our Presidents, by Prof. Sarah Pahlin of Harvard University ===
Even though they were friends for a long time, the job of being President separated Franklin and Washington. Already some months into his period, Franklin felt that it was Washington who made the decision. It was probably true though. Franklin was a scapegoat, a man who would make all the unpopular decision that had to be made. And when Franklin’s four-year term was over, Washington would come in like a knight on a white horse and take over the presidency.
There are recording of a confrontation between Franklin and Washington at some point between the end of November 1786 and January 1787. Franklin was furious at that time. He accused Washington for treating him like a puppy and that he had tricked him to accept the presidency under false circumstances. He then called Washington a coward and said that he should have taken the job when it was his duty to do so. Washington of course denied the accusations, but said that Franklin was only a figurehead, and that politics was not why Frankin was elected.
=== Article on History Weekly 25 January 1967 ===
Franklin made several important decision as President. He recognized the importance of academica and supported the funding of several universities around the country. The merchant marine expanded and trade flourished. His love for France made the diplomatic relationship between the countries reached an all time high. But his most important decision was a private one. In 1788, right before the electoral congress voted Washington as his succesor, he freed his slaves. This was the directe cause to the creation of the abolitionists movment. This was against the strongly advices from Washington, who would be the President to actually handle the issue.
The question of an national capital was also raised by the future President Monroe. He argued heavily to create a new capital, with no ties to the former colonies. Franklin argued against this and wanted Philadelphia as the capital. The compromise in 1789, one of the last major decision that Franklin approved, made the city federal territory.
In March 1788 Franklin got the Polio disease. It took lot of his powers to combat it, and the last year, Washington was the President in everything but the name. Even though they had a stormfull relationship, Washington and Franklin settled their difference around the new year of 1789.
Franklin died as an happy man. His son, who sweared loyality to the crown, fleed to England in 1782. They had not spoken to each other since the war, and it took a heavy toll on the President. The 16 of august 1786 he received a letter from William, who tried to reconnect with his father. The 12 of November the same year, William arrived with his wife, Mary Johnson d’Evelin, and their newborn daughter to Philadelphia. They settled down in a house twenty miles outside the city. The last year of the President life, his grandchild was the cornerstone of his life.
=== A man of the history, Biography of Benjamin Franklin ===
It was easy to see that Franklin was dying under Washington inguration. He was covered in several blankets, even though it was a hot april day. When Washington was ingurated, he thanked Franklin for creating and protecting the union. The whole crowd, maybe 5000, stand up and applauded Franklin for maybe ten minutes. Some witness could swear they saw a their of joy in Franklin’s eyes.
When his heart stopped the eight of may the same year, there was a national mourning. His funeral was attended by the whole political elite in Philadelpia. He was then carried over to Boston where he lay in wake. Washington announced the same day that the new presidential office in Philadelphia would be called The Franklin House.
=== An brief introduction of our Presidents ===
KING GEORGE IS DEAD!
King George III died peacefully in his sleep tonight. Porphyria is probably the cause of his death. The death of the British monarch is bad new for the current Prime Minister William Pitt the younger. His chances to stay in power are certainly weakened by the death of King George, as it was a know fact that the king supported Pitt as the regent against Charles James Fox. The parliament is unanimously agreed upon that HRH The Prince George, Prince of Wales is the best-suited candidate for the throne.
=== Pennsylvania Gazette 3 March 1788 ===
UPRISING IN FRANCE. KING LOUIS ASSEMBLES ESTATES-GENERAL.
The ongoing financial crisis in France is worsening. Today King Louis XVI announced that he is summoning the different classes of France to the Estates-General. This is the first meeting of the classes since 1614, and it is hoped to quell the ongoing uprising in the country.
===Pennsylvania Gazette January 19, 1789 ===
Last edited by Gilliankrueger; December 2nd, 2010 at 12:04 AM.. Reason: Bad headline
Benjamin Franklin, The first US President
If Franklin was a coward, Washington was a f***ing tiger. There was a ocean of difference between those two men, and it was therefore Washington waited until Franklins death and mourning was over before he really started his work as President. He watched over the 2nd United States Congress almost like a tyrant. He rejected the salary the Congress gave to the office of the President and he literally treatened some of the members of the congress that wanted to organize themself into a political party. This of course did not go home of some of the members, but Washington was to powerful for anyone to object to loudly. The slavery of course was a different subject.
=== History monthly article ===
French Third estate declares themself as the National Assembly.
King Louis XVI has problem to quell the uprising in his own country. With high unemployment and anger the people of France is taking to the street. The situation is followed by the world who sees an unstable France as an game changer in the political world.
=== Pennsylvania Gazette June the 17th 1789 ===
President Washington establish the first army of the United States.
Not long after his inguration Washington told the congress about the need the country has to defend themself. The Department of War will be established soon and the goal is to have a army consisting of 3000 men at the end of the year.
=== Pennsylvania Gazette June the 21th 1789. ===
France in civil war!!
It's unknown what triggered King Louis XVI response, but it will go down in the history as the most unprovoked bloodbath done to civilians. The "scarlet Friday" as it called shows how willing tyrant is to keep their power. 500 riflemens shooting into an unarmed crowd who only came to listen to Camille Desmoulins speech. The numbers of deaths is unconfirmed but its was over 200. This again set the country into a inferno. Some of the nobles supported the commoners who quickly established an army, but the Kings soldiers was much better equipped and trained. This was also thanks to the most generous agrement the king made with President Franklin, who we all know was a big French supporter.
=== Marcus Rotenberg, Author of French-US relationships throughout the years. ===
Vice President Hamiltons bill rejected!
With a narrow margin was the proposal that would have the federal government assume state debts incurred during the Revolution voted down. Hamilton have fought Secretary of Treasure Samuel Livermore about this bill all the way to the congress but did ultimately loose. As a further personal insult to the Vice-President, The congress has approved Livermore proposal of establishing a National Bank, a proposal that hopefully will end the segregated economy of the states.
=== Pennsylvania Gazette 4th of August 1789 ===
Last edited by Gilliankrueger; August 25th, 2012 at 12:44 AM..
Hmmm, a newspaper headlines from the 18th Century, I like it.
Your English is also pretty good, no major mistakes I can see.
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Washington is to give the 2nd State of the Union adress.
The congress assembled i Philadelphia will hear the President first speech ever. Even though this is the second adress given, The former President Franklin made his speech in written context to the congress. The key issues will be about the foreign diplomacy, especially according to France and England, and of course the running debt. It is believed that Washington will follow his predesecor wish to establish the permanent capital i Philadelphia and therefore also use money to build up a new executive area to govern the country from.
=== New York Gazette 1st issue March 12 1790 ===
The first cencus of the american Population to be done
President Washington ordered a issue to cencus the american population. The results is expected within a year. In another news Washington has appointed James Madison as the secretary of state. This is bad news for the abolishnist movement since Madison self is a big owner of slaves.
=== Pennsylvania Gazette June 23 1790 ===
A french nation in distress!
In a suprise move Washington cut funds to the French crown and therefore major cripled the royalist of the french civil war. The cause of this is belived to be the strengthen relationship between the US and Great Britain. The french Republican forces has also organised a leader structure with the Poet and advocate Maximillian Robespierre as the Commander in Charge. With the republicans now backed up by the Prussia and Fredrick William II the war sees no end in the near future.
=== Pennsylvania Gazette August 9 1790 ===
Washington, the opponent of the Republic
Its no secret that Washington hated the idea of his country being a republic, but the politics was starting to be organized in political parties, and Washington could do little about it. On one side you had people like Jefferson, Burr and Samuel Adams who hated the idea of a big goverment and they hated Vice-President Hamilton. It was said that Washington had cabinetmeeting where one of those two never was invited, because nothing would be done then. Then you had the federalist, like The UK ambassador John Adams, John Jay and of course Hamilton. They supported Washington in many cases and was The President favorite for the upcoming presidential election since Washington himself refused another term. The election was coming and it was clear that it would be between Jefferson and Hamilton. The vice-president was Burr and John Jay, bot two persons that would influence the presidency and the nation in the future also.
=== "About the Presidents" Book from Senator Rush Limbaugh, published 1992 ===
The republican forces wins battle of La Rochelle
With the french Royal forces defeated the war is basically over. The Republican forces have captured the royal navy and is now marching towards Paris and Versailles. The French Royal familiy has escaped from the country.
=== News Bulletin 1791 ===
The nine amendments Ratified
After many years of negotioation between the states the nine amendments were ratified. It was a special situation, but after the declaration of independence was done it was discovered that the individual rights was not taken into consideration. The nine amendments was to secure those right for everyone.
Last edited by Gilliankrueger; August 29th, 2012 at 11:36 PM..
Looking good--and western land claims
With the Federal Government not assuming the states' debts, many of the states' western land claims might not get turned over to the federal government--leading to massive complications down the road...
Postal service act signed
President Washington signed the Postal act in to action today and thereby creating the US Postal Service.
In France the Republic is starting to take shape, already there is drafting a new constitution that will forever change the country from an monarchy into a Republic. It is believed that Ropespierre will be instated as a President of an Republic build up on the same concept as the United States. Great Britian has cut all diplomatic ties and have their navy in full alert until the nation of France is stable enough.
King Louis XVI is granted immunity from prosecution by the revolution board on the terms of never returing to France and abolish all future claims to the throne of France. The former King accepts the demand.
== News summary 1792 ==
The Presidential election of 1792
The election was though, no doubt about it. Washington had already given up fighting against the republic parties that were being established, and stood at the sidelines when Hamilton and Jefferson literally fought a war without weapons against eachother. It was clear that this election would be the first one where the results were not foregone. Jefferson was quickly out and accused Hamilton of wanting to have the same system that were being overthrown in France, while Hamilton said that with Jefferson the country would be a confederacy, not a union. Even though there were no issue that were to important to be discussed about it was clear that this election would be Hamilton and the federalist that were victorius. 72 vs 67 in favor of Hamilton. John Jay was also elected Vice-President in an election that was impressive co-ordinated between the legislators in that era. But the historicans are agreed upon that it was Washingtons support of Hamilton that gave him the office. In a funny side-note, the building of the goverment district in Philadelphia starting their work at the same date. The cornerstone of the Blair House was laid down by Washington three days later.
==== History of the US Presidency ===
Hamilton sworn in as the US 3rd President in Philadelphia.
With the fundament of the Blair house as background Hamilton was sworn into the command of the United States. Not long he started his Presidency by approving Jefferson as the ambassador to France. Not long after he approved severel modest "Luxury" tax that would improve the weak economy of the state. This resulted in what was called "The August Riots where workers in Pennsylvania rioted. Hamilton envoked the millita that stopped the protest. This again lead too Hamilton increased the millita spending and started the first Army of the United States.
The French Problem
Hamilton was also pushed by the French lovers of the goverment who would not forget the French help at the revolution war. Hamilton wanted to keep a netrual line between France and Britian since the civil war was over. He sent Jefferson to France as an ambassador but gave clear orders not too start real diplomatic connection until a legitimzed goverment was in place.
The tides of the Future.
Canada pass anti-slavery act!
As the first country of the British Empire, The province of Canada abolish slavery in a passing act pushed by the first Baron of Dorchester.
President Hamilton has not taken a position of the US position on slavery and have made it clear to the congress and his cabinet that he will not start a debate that can split the country in its birth.
21 February 1793.
The yellow fever of Philadelphia claims Former Ambassdor Adams life!
What would US be like if Adams had survived? The question have been asked by many historians throughout the times. Even though over 2000 people died from the fever in Philadelphia that summer, it will be remebered as the fever that took Adams. For many a contender to the Presidency in the near future. Jeffereson took it also very hard to loose maybe his biggest ally. President Hamilton and most of the important people of the goverment survived, thanks to quick evacuation and because most work were being done from Boston while Philadelphia was building it goverment district. The function that worked from Philly still hold open. In the later years it was known that it was because of the mosqitos that arrived from slaves in the south that were passing through US on their way to Canada. Hamiltons neutrality position made it possible for them to dock and resupply without being arrested.
Robespierre wins the french election!
The similarity to the US was many. Robespierre was standing out as the sole candidate for the French Presidency, and no one ran against him. But of course there were some changes. The french did not use the same system as the US, but instead let the senate choose their President. The senate again was elected by their district. And then there were 45 honorary members that was elected for life, people like Robespierre.
Wind of war
France abolish slavery:
Inspired by the Canadian act, France with no votes against passed the act that abolish slavery throughout all of the french colonies in the National convention.
France adopts conscription:
1 and half year of relative peace did good for the 1st French Republic. So good that Robespierre and the french senate (National convention) started building up a new Republic french army that were so terrifying that the alarmbells in London, Vienna, Rome and Moscow started ringing. There were no doubts in anyone minds that France were building an army to start a war with.
"The young men shall go and reclaim whats rightfully France and the married men shall forge arms to their brother in arms.. The women shall make tents and clothes and shall serve in the hospitals; children shall tear rags into lint. The old men will be guided to the public places of the cities to kindle the courage of the young warriors and to preach the unity of the Republic and the hatred of kings."
"Robespierre Proclamation of Conscription"
It was because of the damn french pride! They had been fighting against eachother to the delight of the rest of the Europe. But the king and dukedoms did not expect that the Republicans would win over the Royalists. Robespierre and the national convention wanted to make sure that nobody never again would take France for granted. Robespierre first goal was Spain.
=== Prof. Nicholas Royale. Uni.Paris History ===
The French war of survival (The war of Pyrenees.):
Hamilton was early noticed about the tension in Europe, and said in a cabinet meeting following quote:
"The affairs of Europe has be solved by the Europeans. If we intervere in any way we take up the tradition and culture of our oppressors and become all that we fought against."
At the 3rd of October in 1793, the tension reached the boiling point in the South. King Charles IV was getting lots of pressure from Paris to substain from their claims in the Pyrenees, something Charles IV never could accept. He appointed Antonio Richardos as the commander for the northern forces, that consisted of 50.000 spaniards in bad equipment but excellent training in mountain warfare. That was also the x-factor in this war, the thousands of spanish forces that knew the mountains like it was their own backyard. The other genius tactics was their suprise attack of french bastions on the border. The war that started i 1793 would forever change Europe.
At the 3rd of October that year Four spanish division attacked Rossilion, Cerdagne, Saint-Laurent-de-Cerdans and Cèret and it took four days before the French was retreating back. This came as a big suprise for Robespierre that was guaranted by his generals and advisers that Spain would be nothing than a small obstacle for the french forces. The french main force was still gathering in Tolon for a major campaign, but this setback demanded half a year of extra preparation for the french. Many french officers went to the guilotine because of this.
The year passed 1794 when the war continued into full scale, but then the world was on fire.
===Outline "A history of Europe"===
The war of the Kingdoms
The war against Spain was the last straw for the British and Prussian kingdoms, four days after the war, they declared war against France who in response declared war against the Holy Roman Empire and basically all kingdoms in Europe, therefore the name The war of the Kingdoms. Hamilton sent the French ambassador out of the US to ensure the neutrality of the nation. Great Britain fought France in the Channel to ensure the safety of the troop transports that were gathering in Amsterdam.
Prussia tried to take over Verdun in a foolish attempt of storming it, the first big battle ended in defeat and 5.000 prussian soldiers lost. It was after that they accepted british help for commanding their troops. France who saw the british as their only serious treath, the only Carthage too their Rome sent forces to occupy The Netherlands and Amsterdam to ensure no British army gathering in the city. The results was...devastating.
=== OBE Dennis Haybert narrating the tv-series "A history of Europe"===
The burning of Amsterdam
Amsterdam was a city of history, a city with such magnificent tales that could fill an eternity of books. Yeah, it had a decline the last year thanks the ever decreasing Empire. French occupied the outskirts of the city, while the british fortified the city. The french artillery created a damage to city never seen before, it was the birth of the modern bombardment.
So many lives were lost, and the british understood early that within such a limited space could not organize an effective counter attack. They withdraw back to Britain through the sea where they still had supremacy, but then it was too late. The french commander Jaques Lecroi ordered the city burned to ensure that the british would not come back.
From the Ship captain Russel Carow on the HMS "Raven" saw the fire rise to the sky, creating another pitfull chapter in the human kind history with ashes. In his diary it stood:
" I have never seen and with God willing, never see again such a horrendus fate to a city that was the triumph of the human race. Such violence against its people and its building is not justified on any reason. I pray to God that one day man will be blessed with the gift to understand and protect beauty."
1st: Benjamin Franklin 1785-1789
2nd: George Washington 1789-1793
3rd: Alexander Hamilton 1793 -
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The policies of Alexander Hamilton
Hamilton was no idiot. He saw the wars in Europe as an opportunity to establish The US as recognised state. He knew from his ambassador that most european countries saw the former colonies as a rude, backwards country, and now he had the opportunity too radically change that. But there were two problems in that scenario.
1. The us had no effective millitary,
2. The US had no effective navy.
Since Washington established the first full-time contigent three years earlier, not much had been done. Hamilton ordered the foundation of what would become the patriot corps. His vision were that within a year a new army of 10.000 men would be ready. However this was not the biggest concern of his. The navy was a embarrassment. Only two full equipped Barracks were operative in Boston. The rest were cogs and fishboat with canons attached with rope on them.
To declare supremacy of the sea-board the US needed to be seen. He ordered the building of six caravels based on the english kind. Even though it was not official british policy too lend the US the teqnicue, some gold would always change rouge british naval officers mind. It was estimated that over 150 british officers fled too serve the new us navy.
When it came to revenue, he was a staunt protectionism, and with europe in war there was always a demand for resources coming from the colonies. He increased the state treasury by sigining trade deals with both Great Britain and France.
=== Summary of the first political acts, given generously by prof.Vin Carahan. Duke University ===
The war of the Kingdoms (1793 -1796)
The burning of Amsterdam had made sure that the Great Britain lost their biggest advantage point on the european continent. They went back to their island to start with the strategy. On the other hand, France was fighting a war on two fronts. In south they had problems with conquering the mountains of the Pyrenees. They easily had pushed back the spanish invaders that had surprised them at Rossillion, but the damage and reputation was hard to handle. On the other hand, Prussia had foolishly started an invasion before even austrian or Hanoverian forces could join them. Now they were disorganised and on the run. The french commander Jean-Baptiste Jourdan took advantage of this. The Presidential decrete for Robespierre gave the field commanders almost unrestricted powers to what they could do. He moved his 80.000 big army against Trier where prussian forces had established some sort of retreat point. However, the Hanoveran troops also had started arriving. Without an orderly structure the battle of Trier was a massacre.
Battle of Trier.
The 3rd of May Joachim vin Môllendorf arrived with about a quarter of his 50.000 big army. He soon ordered the establishment of a defence line, but Jean-Baptiste was only 4 or 5 days away with an organized fully equipped top-trained army. The Hanover army had assembled in Verden and had just crossed the rhine river. Lead by Friedrich von Reiper, the 16.000 men strong conscription army was there too support and reinforce a pushed Prussian army. The mistake was that Möllendorf had placed himself in an area that gave great tactical advantage, but also was cannon food for french artillery. Jourdan gave orders not to advance to the Prussian army and establised the cannon very effectively against the unorganized prussian army. From 6th to 9th of May the city of Trier was constantly bombed. At that time it was estimated that around 35.000 of Möllendorfs men had arrived. The rest either dead, going awol or being captured. He had to withdraw his forces into the crampt city, with no chance to do anything than garrison his men. His only hope was Reipers reinforcments. (That doubtly was either way in any position to do anything. Lacking materials, expertice and manpower.)
At the 10th of May he withdraw his forces out of the city. But Baptiste Jourdan had already split his army into two divisions. He anticipated that Möllendorf would try to withdraw his army further against the rinhe, and commanded one of the division to go around the city and flank the open road. The Prussian fell straight into a trap and lost 20.000 man, either as fallen or as prisoners of war. Möllendorf himself managed to somehow escape. The urban legend tells that he dressed up as a one of the local womens and he was so female looking that the french guard cold not see the difference. Either way the Prussian campaign was over and the French had a total victory. Von Reipers army on the other hand was approximatly 2 days away when they got the news of the French victory. They turned around and joined the Austrian forces that were gathered in Kassel. France were now controlling all the way too the Rhine.
War of the Kingdoms.
So the war continued. The were some minor battles and skirmishes along the Rhine. But the man battle would now be in Osnabrück. With the Northern french forces lead by René Chapuis, controlled all the way to Amsterdam, the forces of the Kingdoms started to prepare themselves for the most deciding battle of the war. It is important to remeber that the Rhine was that ages equalient of a wall. French forces had many places difficulty to cross it, and on the other hand it was difficult to spread an invading army throughout a so large area. But from the north, the only thing that could stand in the way of french booth marching trough Berlin (and then Dresden, and then Vienna.) Some speculated that Chapuis would lead his soldiers north trough Hamburg and Lübeck. But it would give the enemy extra weeks to reorganize themself, and it also could provoke the kingdom of Denmark.
However there were a year before that battle, where the french had enough with fighting in the Pyrenees.
=== Knowpedia entry on War of the Kingdoms. ===
Catherine the great dies at the age of 61.
Some would call her time at the russian throne as the russian golden age. And they were probably right. But the sudden death was indeed black news for the alliance of the Kingdoms. It tells that she died of a heart attack at the 15th of june that morning. Not 5 days later after the british envoy had proposed an alliance of the Kingdoms that included Russia. Her reaction too this is not known, but the following fight of the throne excluded all hope of seeing russian troops marching in west Europa.
=== Vladimir Putin. Famous russian feminist and history professor at the university of Moscow. ===
The war of the pencils. (1794-1795)
To be honest, in russian standard, the war of the throne was not brutal. It was widely known that the nearest sibling was her son Peter, but in the later years she started to take liking too Pauls son Alexander. The former was afraid that she would jump to Alexander as her chosen predecessor. It is said when the news of Catherinas dead spread Paul raced with his horses to the palace looking for the testament. Not long after rumors spread that Alexander was the right heir to the throne. But the final straw was at the coronation itself when Alexander contested the throne with the supposedly testament and the support of de La Harpe that was a witness to Catherinas last wish of letting Alexander ascende to the throne. It ended with a brawl in the throne-room! The next year the battles was consisting of street brawls in St Petersburg while both Alexander and Paul wrote letters too the rest of the Europe, asking for support and legitimacy of the throne. It ended merely after seven months when Alexander Suvorov had to withdraw from Warsaw and manage to get the the two emperors to agree upon a succession order where Paul would take the throne and Alexander be the first in the line.
Many historians has claimed that this political stalemate had enormous impact on european history. First of all the polish uprising continued until 1809, when the threaty of Imielin gave the Polish people a vassal status. Second of all, Russian troops did not help stop the French Republic and the War of the Kingdoms.
===Summary of the war of the pencils ===
Royalists riots in Paris.
A coup de'etat was averted the 22th of october in Paris. A long planned attack on President Robespierre and the national convention was put in motion by Royalists that surprised the convention. They were gathered too give Robespierre support in increasing the numbers of soldiers of the war. About 15.000 heavily armed soldiers occupied the area around the convention hall. Robespierre soon ordered the 5th guard (that was the the basis of the newly formed republican guard) to put out a perimeter around the convention hall around the area of Le Peletier, but the only barracks within the area had only 3000 men. Robespierre refused to evacuate the premises of the area quoting "if this convention fall, so does the democracy. And it's my duty and my honor as president to defend it."
Scrambling everything they could find from the arsenals, the soldier under the leadership of Joachim Murat created a perimeter around the hall, with small grapeshot canons located on all access point. The next 8 hours the forces held back royalist intruders until a off duty light cavalary could assemble and sorround the royalist forces. At the end over 400 royalists died, while under 80 defenders of the 5th guard did the same. The most notable a young General with the name Napoleon Bonaparte, who was killed by a musket shot in the abdomen. It was said that if he was hit one centimeter lower he would survive. Some say that if he was one centimeter taller he would live.
Either way the coup de'etat was stopped and Joachim Murat became the national hero and it also lay the first bricks in his political establishment , that would end with him being President of the Republic.
The state of Tennessee and Franklin joins the union.
At the 4th of November 1795 , Tennessee joins the union as the 15th state of the union. From before the state of Vermont was adopted into the union in 1791. In a ceremony attended by President Hamilton the official papers into the union was signed by governor John Sevier.
Only 12 days later the state of Franklin was admitted into the union as the 16th state. The state of Franklin came into existence after the movement for Kentucky failed. Later the Franklin adopted the territorial area of Kentucky as agreed upon in the Friman-compromise. It was noted that President Hamilton was not in Jonesborough and attended the inguraral cermony of Governor William Cage. The official reason was that the he was needed in Philadelphia.
=== Newsletter 20th of November 1795 ===
French-Dutch talks breaks down.
The french occupation of the dutch would continue. It was assumed that the French Republic would allow the regions to become a vassal. It is widely believed that without the help of Dutch patriots the French could never reach Amsterdam so fast. But the burning of Amsterdam and the strong presence of french forces has made it impossible for the region to go another way than being annexed. This was however good news for William V, Prince of Orange, that had been in exile since 1794 in London and would again resume the throne after the war.
=== Sidenote, page 45 in a French history book for youth. ==
Battle of the San Sebastian
This battle is famous for two reasons. First of all it was the largest naval battle between the two countries in history, second is because its the first naval battle with modern strategy and tactics implanted. Admiral Brueys d'Aigalliers was ordered to collect the fleet in La Rochelle and take control over the northern spanish sea board. The reason for this was that the french would establish a beach head at the southern rots of the pyreenes and surround the spanish forces. Totally there were atleast 20 ships of the line and 6 frigates. They sat sail the 5th of january, hoping that the cold winds would make the trip in less than 2 days. However, they were meet with strong sidewinds and arrived San Sebastian the 9th of January. They soon fortified the city and layed siege. The plan was to attack and destroy the naval batteries within one day, then occupy the city before they would bring more troops trough the ships. Hovewer, what they did not know was that the Portugese and spanish navy already had been in dock in A Coruna. A little more than a day away. The 11th of January d'Agailliers meet spanish commander Q.C Serveza at the coast of San Sebastian.
Some historican claims the battle was decided after the first attack. The spanish-portugese float almost destroyed two of the frigates before the french could assemble themself for battle. d'Aigalliers ordered a retreat to reorganize his ships and the battle started again at the morning of the 12th. d'Aigalliers was facing a a stronger opponent, but the lack of communications between the portugese and Spanish ships, and the vaguely agreed hierarchy structure gave the french a fighting chance. They assembled their line of battle to put pressure on the spanish galleons that were "the pawns" of the battle. The spain answered with chain shots to bring down the mast. A highly successful tactic. It sank the biggest frigate "Royale Blue" and split the french order. When the night arrived atleast six french ships and three spanish-portugese ship had sunked. It was not before the 13th that d'Aigalliers ordered retreat and left the battle.
This battle had enourmus impact on the war. First of all, it was the first major defeat for the french republic. Second of all, it almost neutralised the french navy. However it was pure luck that the spain and portugese navy had anchored so close to San Sebastian.
=== A brief history of warfare. Discovery TV. ===